Sunteți pe pagina 1din 59

Facebook

Facebook (stylized as facebook) is an American online


social media and social networking service based in Facebook
Menlo Park, California and a flagship service of the
namesake company Facebook, Inc. It was founded by
Mark Zuckerberg, along with fellow Harvard College
students and roommates Eduardo Saverin, Andrew
McCollum, Dustin Moskovitz and Chris Hughes.

The founders initially limited Facebook membership to Screenshot


Harvard students. Membership was expanded to
Columbia, Stanford, and Yale before being expanded to
the rest of the Ivy League, MIT, and higher education
institutions in the Boston area, then various other
universities, and lastly high school students. Since 2006,
anyone who claims to be at least 13 years old has been
allowed to become a registered user of Facebook, though
this may vary depending on local laws. The name comes
from the face book directories often given to American
university students.

Facebook can be accessed from devices with Internet


connectivity, such as personal computers, tablets and
smartphones. After registering, users can create a profile
revealing information about themselves. They can post
text, photos and multimedia which is shared with any
other users that have agreed to be their "friend", or, with Mark Zuckerberg's profile (viewed from the login
a different privacy setting, with any reader. Users can page)
also use various embedded apps, join common-interest
groups, buy and sell items or services on Marketplace, Type of site Social networking service
and receive notifications of their Facebook friends' Publisher
activities and activities of Facebook pages they follow. Available in 111 languages[1]
Facebook claimed that it had more than 2.3 billion
List of languages
monthly active users as of December 2018,[9] and it was
the most downloaded mobile app of the 2010s Multilingual
globally.[10] Afrikaans, Albanian, Amharic, Arabic, Armenian,
Assamese, Azerbaijani, Basque, Belarusian,
Facebook has been subject to extensive media coverage Bengali, Bosnian, Breton, Bulgarian, Burmese,
and many controversies, often involving user privacy (as Catalan, Cebuano, Corsican, Croatian, Czech,
with the Cambridge Analytica data scandal), political Danish, Dutch, Dutch (België), English (UK),
manipulation (as with the 2016 U.S. elections),
English (US), English (upside down), Esperanto,
psychological effects such as addiction and low self-
Estonian, Faroese, Filipino, Finnish, French
esteem, and content such as fake news, conspiracy
(Canada), French (France), Frisian, Fula, Galician,
theories, copyright infringement, and hate speech.[11]
Commentators have accused Facebook of willingly Georgian, German, Greek, Guarani, Gujarati,
facilitating the spread of such content.[12][13][14][15] Haitian Creole, Hausa, Hebrew, Hindi, Hungarian,
Icelandic, Indonesian, Irish, Italian, Japanese,
Contents Japanese (Kansai), Javanese, Kannada, Kazakh,
Khmer, Kinyarwanda, Korean, Kurdish (Kurmanji),
History Kyrgyz, Lao, Latvian, Lithuanian, Macedonian,
2003–2006: Thefacebook, Thiel investment, Malagasy, Malay, Malayalam, Maltese, Marathi,
and name change Mongolian, Nepali, Norwegian (bokmal), Norwegian
2006–2012: Public access, Microsoft (nynorsk), Oriya, Pashto, Persian, Polish,
alliance, and rapid growth Portuguese (Brazil), Portuguese (Portugal), Punjabi,
2012–2013: IPO, lawsuits, and one-billionth Romanian, Russian, Sardinian, Serbian, Shona,
user
Silesian, Simplified Chinese (China), Sinhala,
2013–2014: Site developments, A4AI, and
Slovak, Slovenian, Somali, Sorani Kurdish,
10th anniversary
Spanish, Spanish (Spain), Swahili, Swedish,
2015–present: Improvement; fake news, and
Syriac, Tajik, Tamazight, Tamil, Tatar, Telugu, Thai,
other external misusage
Traditional Chinese (Hong Kong), Traditional
Website Chinese (Taiwan), Turkish, Ukrainian, Urdu, Uzbek,
Technical aspects Vietnamese, Welsh and Zaza
History
User profile/personal timeline Area served Worldwide, except blocking
countries
News Feed
Like button Parent Facebook, Inc.
Instant messaging URL www.facebook.com (https://ww
Following w.facebook.com/)
Privacy controls Alexa rank 4 (As of 23 April 2020)[2]
Facebook Bug Bounty Program Registration Required to do any activity
Reception Users 2.50 billion monthly active
User growth and decline users (As of
Demographics 31 December 2019[3]
Awards
Launched February 4, 2004
Censorship
Current status Active
Criticisms and controversies
Written in C++, PHP (as HHVM), D
Privacy
[4][5][6][7][8]
Content
Political manipulation
Company governance
Definers Public Affairs
Transcribing user audio
Impact
Scope
Economy
Society
Emotional health
Politics
Culture
Internet.org
See also
References
Further reading
External links

History

2003–2006: Thefacebook, Thiel investment, and name change

Zuckerberg built a website called "Facemash" in 2003 while


attending Harvard University. The site was comparable to Hot or Not
and used "photos compiled from the online face books of nine
Houses, placing two next to each other at a time and asking users to
choose the "hotter" person".[17] Facemash attracted 450 visitors and
22,000 photo-views in its first four hours.[18] The site was sent to
several campus group listservs, but was shut down a few days later by
Harvard administration. Zuckerberg faced expulsion and was charged
Original layout and name of
with breaching security, violating copyrights and violating individual Thefacebook in 2004, showing singer
privacy. Ultimately, the charges were dropped.[17] Zuckerberg Peter Wolf's face superimposed with
expanded on this project that semester by creating a social study tool binary numbers as Facebook's
ahead of an art history final exam. He uploaded all art images to a original logo, designed by co-founder
website, each of which was accompanied by a comments section, Andrew McCollum[16]
then shared the site with his classmates.[19]

A "face book" is a student directory featuring photos and personal information.[18] In 2003, Harvard had only
a paper version[20] along with private online directories.[17][21] Zuckerberg told the Harvard Crimson,
"Everyone's been talking a lot about a universal face book within Harvard. ... I think it's kind of silly that it
would take the University a couple of years to get around to it. I can do it better than they can, and I can do it
in a week."[21] In January 2004, Zuckerberg coded a new website, known as "TheFacebook", inspired by a
Crimson editorial about Facemash, stating, "It is clear that the technology needed to create a centralized
Website is readily available ... the benefits are many." Zuckerberg met with Harvard student Eduardo Saverin,
and each of them agreed to invest $1,000 in the site.[22] On February 4, 2004, Zuckerberg launched
"TheFacebook", originally located at thefacebook.com.[23]

Six days after the site launched, Harvard seniors Cameron


Winklevoss, Tyler Winklevoss, and Divya Narendra accused
Zuckerberg of intentionally misleading them into believing that he
would help them build a social network called
HarvardConnection.com. They claimed that he was instead using
their ideas to build a competing product.[24] The three complained to
the Crimson and the newspaper began an investigation. They later
sued Zuckerberg, settling in 2008[25] for 1.2 million shares (worth
$300 million at Facebook's IPO).[26]

Membership was initially restricted to students of Harvard College.


Mark Zuckerberg, co-creator of
Within a month, more than half the undergraduates had registered.[27]
Facebook, in his Harvard dorm room,
Dustin Moskovitz, Andrew McCollum, and Chris Hughes joined
2005
Zuckerberg to help manage the growth of the website.[28] In March
2004, Facebook expanded to Columbia, Stanford and Yale.[29] It then became available to all Ivy League
colleges, Boston University, New York University, MIT, and successively most universities in the United
States and Canada.[30][31]

In mid-2004, Napster co-founder and entrepreneur Sean Parker—an informal advisor to Zuckerberg—became
company president.[32] In June 2004, the company moved to Palo Alto, California.[33] It received its first
investment later that month from PayPal co-founder Peter Thiel.[34] In 2005, the company dropped "the" from
its name after purchasing the domain name Facebook.com for US$200,000.[35] The domain had belonged to
AboutFace Corporation.

In May 2005, Accel Partners invested $12.7 million in Facebook, and Jim Breyer[36] added $1 million of his
own money. A high-school version of the site launched in September 2005.[37] Eligibility expanded to include
employees of several companies, including Apple Inc. and Microsoft.[38]

2006–2012: Public access, Microsoft alliance, and rapid growth

In May 2006, Facebook hired its first intern, Julie Zhuo.[39] After a month, Zhuo was hired as a full-time
engineer.[39] On September 26, 2006, Facebook opened to everyone at least 13 years old with a valid email
address.[40][41][42] By late 2007, Facebook had 100,000 pages on which companies promoted themselves.[43]
Organization pages began rolling out in May 2009.[44] On October 24, 2007, Microsoft announced that it had
purchased a 1.6% share of Facebook for $240 million, giving Facebook a total implied value of around
$15 billion. Microsoft's purchase included rights to place international advertisements.[45][46]

In May 2007, at the first f8 developers conference, Facebook announced the launch of the Facebook
Developer Platform, providing a framework for software developers to create applications that interact with
core Facebook features. By the second annual f8 developers conference on July 23, 2008, the number of
applications on the platform had grown to 33,000, and the number of registered developers had exceeded
400,000.[47]

In October 2008, Facebook announced that its international headquarters would locate in Dublin, Ireland.[48]
In September 2009, Facebook said that it had achieved positive cash flow for the first time.[49] A January
2009 Compete.com study ranked Facebook the most used social networking service by worldwide monthly
active users.[50]

The company announced 500 million users in July 2010.[51] Half of the site's membership used Facebook
daily, for an average of 34 minutes, while 150 million users accessed the site from mobile devices. A company
representative called the milestone a "quiet revolution."[52] In November 2010, based on SecondMarket Inc.
(an exchange for privately held companies' shares), Facebook's value was $41 billion. The company had
slightly surpassed eBay to become the third largest American web company after Google and
Amazon.com.[53][54]

On November 15, 2010, Facebook announced it had acquired the domain name fb.com from the American
Farm Bureau Federation for an undisclosed amount. On January 11, 2011, the Farm Bureau disclosed
$8.5 million in "domain sales income", making the acquisition of FB.com one of the ten highest domain sales
in history.[55]

In February 2011, Facebook announced plans to move its headquarters to the former Sun Microsystems
campus in Menlo Park, California.[56][57] In March 2011, it was reported that Facebook was removing about
20,000 profiles daily for violations such as spam, graphic content and underage use, as part of its efforts to
boost cyber security.[58] Statistics showed that Facebook reached one trillion page views in the month of June
2011, making it the most visited website tracked by DoubleClick.[59][60] According to a Nielsen study,
Facebook had in 2011 become the second-most accessed website in the U.S. behind Google.[61][62]

China blocked Facebook in 2009.[63]

2012–2013: IPO, lawsuits, and one-billionth user

In March 2012, Facebook announced App Center, a store selling applications that operate via the website. The
store was to be available on iPhones, Android devices, and for mobile web users.[64]

Facebook's initial public offering came on May 17, 2012, at a share


price of US$38. The company was valued at $104 billion, the largest
valuation to that date.[65][66][67] The IPO raised $16 billion, the third-
largest in U.S. history, after Visa Inc. in 2008 and AT&T Wireless in
2000.[68][69] Based on its 2012 income of $5 billion, Facebook joined
the Fortune 500 list for the first time in May 2013, ranked 462.[70]
The shares set a first day record for trading volume of an IPO
(460 million shares).[71] The IPO was controversial given the
immediate price declines that followed,[72][73][74][75] and was the
subject of lawsuits,[76] while SEC and FINRA both launched
Billboard on the Thomson Reuters
investigations.[77]
building welcomes Facebook to
Zuckerberg announced at the start of October 2012 that Facebook had NASDAQ, May 2012
one billion monthly active users,[78] including 600 million mobile
users, 219 billion photo uploads and 140 billion friend
connections.[79]

2013–2014: Site developments, A4AI, and 10th anniversary

On January 15, 2013, Facebook announced Facebook Graph Search, which provides users with a "precise
answer", rather than a link to an answer by leveraging data present on its site.[80] Facebook emphasized that
the feature would be "privacy-aware", returning results only from content already shared with the user.[81] On
April 3, 2013, Facebook unveiled Facebook Home, a user-interface layer for Android devices offering greater
integration with the site. HTC announced HTC First, a phone with Home pre-loaded.[82]

On April 15, 2013, Facebook announced an alliance across 19 states with the National Association of
Attorneys General, to provide teenagers and parents with information on tools to manage social networking
profiles.[83] On April 19 Facebook modified its logo to remove the faint blue line at the bottom of the "F"
icon. The letter F moved closer to the edge of the box.[84]

Following a campaign by 100 advocacy groups, Facebook agreed to update its policy on hate speech. The
campaign highlighted content promoting domestic violence and sexual violence against women and led 15
advertisers to withdrawal, including Nissan UK, House of Burlesque and Nationwide UK. The company
initially stated, "while it may be vulgar and offensive, distasteful content on its own does not violate our
policies".[85] It took action on May 29.[86]

On June 12, Facebook announced that it was introducing clickable hashtags to help users follow trending
discussions, or search what others are talking about on a topic.[87] San Mateo County, California, became the
top wage-earning county in the country after the fourth quarter of 2012 because of Facebook. The Bureau of
Labor Statistics reported that the average salary was 107% higher than the previous year, at $168,000 a year,
more than 50% higher than the next-highest county, New York County (better known as Manhattan), at
roughly $110,000 a year.[88]

Facebook joined Alliance for Affordable Internet (A4AI) in October, as it launched. The A4AI is a coalition
of public and private organizations that includes Google, Intel and Microsoft. Led by Sir Tim Berners-Lee, the
A4AI seeks to make Internet access more affordable to ease access in the developing world.[89]

The company celebrated its 10th anniversary during the week of February 3, 2014.[90] In January 2014, over
one billion users connected via a mobile device.[91] As of June, mobile accounted for 62% of advertising
revenue, an increase of 21% from the previous year.[92] By September Facebook's market capitalization had
exceeded $200 billion.[93][94][95]

Zuckerberg participated in a Q&A session at Tsinghua University in Beijing, China, on October 23, where he
attempted to converse in Mandarin. Zuckerberg hosted visiting Chinese politician Lu Wei, known as the
"Internet czar" for his influence in China's online policy, on December 8.

2015–present: Improvement; fake news, and other external misusage

As of 2015, Facebook's algorithm was revised in an attempt to filter out false or misleading content, such as
fake news stories and hoaxes. It relied on users who flag a story accordingly. Facebook maintained that
satirical content should not be intercepted.[96] The algorithm was accused of maintaining a "filter bubble",
where material the user disagrees with[97] and posts with few likes would be deprioritized.[98] In November,
Facebook extended paternity leave from 4 weeks to 4 months.[99]

On April 12, 2016, Zuckerberg outlined his 10-year vision, which rested on three main pillars: artificial
intelligence, increased global connectivity, and virtual and augmented reality.[100] In July, a US$1 billion suit
was filed against the company alleging that it permitted Hamas to use it to perform assaults that cost the lives
of four people.[101] Facebook released its blueprints of Surround 360 camera on GitHub under an open-source
license.[102] In September, it won an Emmy for its animated short "Henry".[103] In October, Facebook
announced a fee-based communications tool called Workplace that aims to "connect everyone" at work. Users
can create profiles, see updates from co-workers on their news feed, stream live videos and participate in
secure group chats.[104]

Following the 2016 presidential election, Facebook announced that it would combat fake news by using fact-
checkers from sites like FactCheck.org and Associated Press (AP), making reporting hoaxes easier through
crowdsourcing, and disrupting financial incentives for abusers.[105]

On January 17, 2017, Facebook COO Sheryl Sandberg planned to


open Station F, a startup incubator campus in Paris, France.[107] On a
six-month cycle, Facebook committed to work with ten to 15 data-
driven startups there.[108] On April 18, Facebook announced the beta
launch of Facebook Spaces at its annual F8 developer
conference.[109] Facebook Spaces is a virtual reality version of
Facebook for Oculus VR goggles. In a virtual and shared space, users
can access a curated selection of 360-degree photos and videos using
their avatar, with the support of the controller. Users can access their
own photos and videos, along with media shared on their Oculus VR headset[106]
newsfeed.[110] In September, Facebook announced it would spend up
to US$1 billion on original shows for its Facebook Watch platform.[111] On October 16, it acquired the
anonymous compliment app tbh, announcing its intention to leave the app independent.[112][113][114][115]

In May 2018 at F8, the company announced it would offer its own dating service. Shares in competitor Match
Group fell by 22%.[116] Facebook Dating includes privacy features and friends are unable to view their
friends' dating profile.[117] In July, Facebook was charged £500,000 by UK watchdogs for failing to respond
to data erasure requests.[118] On July 18, Facebook established a subsidiary named Lianshu Science &
Technology in Hangzhou City, China, with $30 million of capital. All its shares are held by Facebook
Hong.[119] Approval of the registration of the subsidiary was then withdrawn, due to a disagreement between
officials in Zhejiang province and the Cyberspace Administration of China.[120] On July 26, Facebook
became the first company to lose over $100 billion worth of market capitalization in one day, dropping from
nearly $630 billion to $510 billion after disappointing sales reports.[121][122] On July 31, Facebook said that
the company had deleted 17 accounts related to the 2018 U.S. midterm elections. On September 19, Facebook
announced that, for news distribution outside the United States, it would work with U.S. funded democracy
promotion organizations, International Republican Institute and the National Democratic Institute, which are
loosely affiliated with the Republican and Democratic parties.[123] Through the Digital Forensic Research Lab
Facebook partners with the Atlantic Council, a NATO-affiliated think tank.[123] In November, Facebook
launched smart displays branded Portal and Portal Plus (Portal+). They support Amazon's Alexa (intelligent
personal assistant service). The devices include video chat function with Facebook Messenger.[124][125]

In January 2019, the 10 year challenge was started[126] asking users to post a photograph of themselves from
10 years ago (2009) and a more recent photo.[127]

Criticized for its role in vaccine hesitancy, Facebook announced in March 2019 that it would provide users
with "authoritative information" on the topic of vaccines.[128] A study in the journal Vaccine[129] of
advertisements posted in the three months prior to that found that 54% of the anti-vaccine advertisements on
Facebook were placed by just two organisations funded by well-known anti-vaccination activists.[130] The
Children's Health Defense / World Mercury Project chaired by Robert F. Kennedy Jr. and Stop Mandatory
Vaccination, run by campaigner Larry Cook, posted 54% of the advertisements. The ads often linked to
commercial products, such as natural remedies and books.

On March 14, the Huffington Post reported that Facebook's PR agency had paid someone to tweak Facebook
COO Sheryl Sandberg's Wikipedia page, as well as adding a page for the global head of PR, Caryn
Marooney.[131]

In March 2019, the perpetrator of the Christchurch mosque shootings in New Zealand used Facebook to
stream live footage of the attack as it unfolded. Facebook took 29 minutes to detect the livestreamed video,
which was eight minutes longer than it took police to arrest the gunman. About 1.3m copies of the video were
blocked from Facebook but 300,000 copies were published and shared. Facebook has promised changes to its
platform; spokesman Simon Dilner told Radio New Zealand that it could have done a better job. Several
companies, including the ANZ and ASB banks, have stopped advertising on Facebook after the company was
widely condemned by the public.[132] Following the attack, Facebook began blocking white nationalist, white
supremacist, and white separatist content, saying that they could not be meaningfully separated. Previously,
Facebook had only blocked overtly supremacist content. The older policy had been condemned by civil rights
groups, who described these movements as functionally indistinct.[133][134] Further bans were made in mid-
April 2019, banning several British far-right organizations and associated individuals from Facebook, and also
banning praise or support for them.[135][136]

NTJ's member Moulavi Zahran Hashim, a radical Islamist imam believed to be the mastermind behind the
2019 Sri Lanka Easter bombings, preached on a pro-ISIL Facebook account, known as "Al-Ghuraba"
media.[137][138]
On May 2, 2019 at F8, the company announced its new vision with the tagline "the future is private".[139] A
redesign of the website and mobile app was introduced, dubbed as "FB5".[140] The event also featured plans
for improving groups,[141] a dating platform,[142] end-to-end encryption on its platforms,[143] and allowing
users on Messenger to communicate directly with WhatsApp and Instagram users.[144][145]

On July 31, 2019, Facebook announced a partnership with University of California, San Francisco to build a
non-invasive, wearable device that lets people type by simply imagining themselves talking.[146]

On September 5, 2019, Facebook launched Facebook Dating in the United States. This new application
allows users to integrate their Instagram posts in their dating profile.[147]

Facebook News, which features selected stories from news organizations, was launched on October 25.[148]
Facebook's decision to include far-right website Breitbart News as a "trusted source" was negatively
received.[149][150]

On November 17, 2019, the banking data for 29,000 Facebook employees was stolen from a payroll worker's
car. The data was stored on unencrypted hard drives and included bank account numbers, employee names,
the last four digits of their social security numbers, salaries, bonuses, and equity details. The company didn't
realize the hard drives were missing until November 20. Facebook confirmed that the drives contained
employee information on November 29. Employees weren't notified of the break-in until December 13,
2019.[151]

On March 10, 2020, Facebook appointed two new directors Tracey Travis and Nancy Killefer to their board
of members.[152]

In June 2020, several major companies including Adidas, Aviva, Coca-Cola, Ford, HP, Intercontinental Hotels
Group, Mars, Starbucks, Target, and Unilever, announced they would pause adverts on Facebook for July in
support of the Stop Hate for Profit campaign which claimed the company was not doing enough to remove
hateful content.[153] The BBC noted that this was unlikely to affect the company as most of Facebook's
advertising revenue comes from small- to medium-sized businesses.[154]

On 14 August 2020, Facebook started integrating the direct messaging service of Instagram with its own
Messenger for both iOS and Android devices. After the update, an update screen is said to pop up on
Instagram’s mobile app with the following message, “There’s a New Way to Message on Instagram” with a list
of additional features. As part of the update, the regular DM icon on the top right corner of Instagram will be
replaced by the Facebook Messenger logo.[155]

Website

Technical aspects

The website's primary color is blue as Zuckerberg is red–green


colorblind, a realization that occurred after a test undertaken around
2007.[156][157] Facebook is built in PHP, compiled with HipHop for
PHP, a "source code transformer" built by Facebook engineers that
turns PHP into C++.[158] The deployment of HipHop reportedly
reduced average CPU consumption on Facebook servers by
Profile shown on Thefacebook in
50%.[159]
2005

2012 architecture
Facebook is developed as one monolithic application. According to
an interview in 2012 with Facebook build engineer Chuck Rossi,
Facebook compiles into a 1.5 GB binary blob which is then
distributed to the servers using a custom BitTorrent-based release
system. Rossi stated that it takes about 15 minutes to build and 15
minutes to release to the servers. The build and release process has Previous Facebook logo in use from
zero downtime. Changes to Facebook are rolled out daily.[159] August 23, 2005 until July 1, 2015

Facebook used a combination platform based on HBase to store data


across distributed machines. Using a tailing architecture, events are stored in log files, and the logs are tailed.
The system rolls these events up and writes them to storage. The user interface then pulls the data out and
displays it to users. Facebook handles requests as AJAX behavior. These requests are written to a log file
using Scribe (developed by Facebook).[160]

Data is read from these log files using Ptail, an internally built tool to aggregate data from multiple Scribe
stores. It tails the log files and pulls data out. Ptail data are separated into three streams and sent to clusters in
different data centers (Plugin impression, News feed impressions, Actions (plugin + news feed)). Puma is used
to manage periods of high data flow (Input/Output or IO). Data is processed in batches to lessen the number of
times needed to read and write under high demand periods (A hot article generates many impressions and
news feed impressions that cause huge data skews). Batches are taken every 1.5 seconds, limited by memory
used when creating a hash table.[160]

Data is then output in PHP format. The backend is written in Java. Thrift is used as the messaging format so
PHP programs can query Java services. Caching solutions display pages more quickly. The data is then sent to
MapReduce servers where it is queried via Hive. This serves as a backup as the data can be recovered from
Hive.[160]

Content delivery network (CDN)

Facebook uses a CDN or 'edge network' under the domain fbcdn.net for serving static data.[161][162] Until the
mid 2010s, Facebook also relied on akamai as the CDN service provider.[163][164][165]

Hack

On March 20, 2014, Facebook announced a new open-source programming language called Hack. Before
public release, a large portion of Facebook was already running and "battle tested" using the new
language.[166]

History

On July 20, 2008, Facebook introduced "Facebook Beta", a significant redesign of its user interface on
selected networks. The Mini-Feed and Wall were consolidated, profiles were separated into tabbed sections,
and an effort was made to create a cleaner look.[167] Facebook began migrating users to the new version in
September 2008.[168]

User profile/personal timeline

Each registered user on Facebook has a personal profile that shows their posts and content.[169] The format of
individual user pages was revamped in September 2011 and became known as "Timeline", a chronological
feed of a user's stories,[170][171] including status updates, photos, interactions with apps and events.[172] The
layout let users add a "cover photo".[172] Users were given more
privacy settings.[172] In 2007, Facebook launched Facebook Pages
for brands and celebrities to interact with their fanbase.[173][174]
100,000 Pages launched in November.[175] In June 2009, Facebook
introduced a "Usernames" feature, allowing users to choose a unique
nickname used in the URL for their personal profile, for easier
sharing.[176][177]

In February 2014, Facebook expanded the gender setting, adding a


Facebook login/signup screen
custom input field that allows users to choose from a wide range of
gender identities. Users can also set which set of gender-specific
pronoun should be used in reference to them throughout the
site.[178][179][180] In May 2014, Facebook introduced a feature to allow users to ask for information not
disclosed by other users on their profiles. If a user does not provide key information, such as location,
hometown, or relationship status, other users can use a new "ask" button to send a message asking about that
item to the user in a single click.[181][182]

News Feed

News Feed appears on every user's homepage and highlights information including profile changes, upcoming
events and friends' birthdays.[183] This enabled spammers and other users to manipulate these features by
creating illegitimate events or posting fake birthdays to attract attention to their profile or cause.[184] Initially,
the News Feed caused dissatisfaction among Facebook users; some complained it was too cluttered and full of
undesired information, others were concerned that it made it too easy for others to track individual activities
(such as relationship status changes, events, and conversations with other users).[185] Zuckerberg apologized
for the site's failure to include appropriate privacy features. Users then gained control over what types of
information are shared automatically with friends. Users are now able to prevent user-set categories of friends
from seeing updates about certain types of activities, including profile changes, Wall posts and newly added
friends.[186]

On February 23, 2010, Facebook was granted a patent[187] on certain aspects of its News Feed. The patent
covers News Feeds in which links are provided so that one user can participate in the activity of another
user.[188] The sorting and display of stories in a user's News Feed is governed by the EdgeRank
algorithm.[189]

The Photos application allows users to upload albums and photos.[190] Each album can contain
200 photos.[191] Privacy settings apply to individual albums. Users can "tag", or label, friends in a photo. The
friend receives a notification about the tag with a link to the photo.[192] This photo tagging feature was
developed by Aaron Sittig, now a Design Strategy Lead at Facebook, and former Facebook engineer Scott
Marlette back in 2006 and was only granted a patent in 2011.[193][194]

On June 7, 2012, Facebook launched its App Center to help users find games and other applications.[195]

On May 13, 2015, Facebook in association with major news portals launched "Instant Articles" to provide
news on the Facebook news feed without leaving the site.[196][197]

In January 2017, Facebook launched Facebook Stories for iOS and Android in Ireland. The feature, following
the format of Snapchat and Instagram stories, allows users to upload photos and videos that appear above
friends' and followers' News Feeds and disappear after 24 hours.[198]
On October 11, 2017, Facebook introduced the 3D Posts feature to allow for uploading interactive 3D
assets.[199] On January 11, 2018, Facebook announced that it would change News Feed to prioritize
friends/family content and de-emphasize content from media companies.[200]

Like button

The "like" button, stylized as a "thumbs up" icon, was first enabled
on February 9, 2009,[201] and enables users to easily interact with
status updates, comments, photos and videos, links shared by friends,
and advertisements. Once clicked by a user, the designated content is
more likely to appear in friends' News Feeds.[202][203] The button
displays the number of other users who have liked the content.[204]
The like button was extended to comments in June 2010.[205] In
February 2016, Facebook expanded Like into "Reactions", choosing
among five pre-defined emotions, including "Love", "Haha", "Wow",
"Sad", or "Angry".[206][207][208][209] In late April 2020, during the
coronavirus pandemic, a new "Care" reaction was added.[210]

Instant messaging

Facebook Messenger is an instant messaging service and software Human billboard advertising
application. It began as Facebook Chat in 2008,[211] was revamped in Facebook Canberra in the City page
2010[212] and eventually became a standalone mobile app in August at the National Multicultural Festival
2011, while remaining part of the user page on browsers.[213]

Complementing regular conversations, Messenger lets users make one-to-one[214] and group[215] voice[216]
and video calls.[217] Its Android app has integrated support for SMS[218] and "Chat Heads", which are round
profile photo icons appearing on-screen regardless of what app is open,[219] while both apps support multiple
accounts,[220] conversations with optional end-to-end encryption[221] and "Instant Games".[222] Some
features, including sending money[223] and requesting transportation,[224] are limited to the United States.[223]
In 2017, Facebook added "Messenger Day", a feature that lets users share photos and videos in a story-format
with all their friends with the content disappearing after 24 hours;[225] Reactions, which lets users tap and hold
a message to add a reaction through an emoji;[226] and Mentions, which lets users in group conversations type
@ to give a particular user a notification.[226]

Businesses and users can interact through Messenger with features such as tracking purchases and receiving
notifications, and interacting with customer service representatives. Third-party developers can integrate apps
into Messenger, letting users enter an app while inside Messenger and optionally share details from the app
into a chat.[227] Developers can build chatbots into Messenger, for uses such as news publishers building bots
to distribute news.[228] The M virtual assistant (U.S.) scans chats for keywords and suggests relevant actions,
such as its payments system for users mentioning money.[229][230] Group chatbots appear in Messenger as
"Chat Extensions". A "Discovery" tab allows finding bots, and enabling special, branded QR codes that,
when scanned, take the user to a specific bot.[231]

Following

Users can "Follow" content posted by other users without needing to friend them.[232] Accounts can be
"verified", confirming a user's identity.[233]
Privacy controls

Facebook enables users to control access to individual posts and their


profile[235] through privacy settings.[236] The user's name and profile
picture (if applicable) are public. Facebook's revenue depends on
targeted advertising, which involves analyzing user data (from the site
and the broader internet) to inform the targeting. These facilities have
changed repeatedly since the service's debut, amid a series of
controversies covering everything from how well it secures user data,
to what extent it allows users to control access, to the kinds of access
given to third parties, including businesses, political campaigns and
PRISM: a clandestine surveillance
governments. These facilities vary according to country, as some
program under which the NSA
nations require the company to make data available (and limit access
collects user data from companies
to services), while the European Union's GDPR regulation mandates
like Facebook and Yahoo![234]
additional privacy protections.[237]

Facebook Bug Bounty Program

On July 29, 2011, Facebook announced its Bug Bounty Program that
paid security researchers a minimum of $500 for reporting security
holes. The company promised not to pursue "white hat" hackers who
identified such problems.[238][239] This led researchers in many
countries to participate, particularly in India and Russia.[240]

Reception A Facebook "White Hat" debit card,


given to researchers who report
security bugs.
User growth and decline

Facebook's rapid growth began as soon as it became


available and continued through 2018, before beginning
to decline.

Facebook passed 100 million registered users in


2008,[241] and 500 million in July 2010.[51] According
to the company's data at the July 2010 announcement,
half of the site's membership used Facebook daily, for an
average of 34 minutes, while 150 million users accessed
the site by mobile.[52] Most popular social networking sites by country
in 2019
In October 2012 Facebook's monthly active users passed Facebook
one billion,[78][242] with 600 million mobile users, VKontakte
219 billion photo uploads, and 140 billion friend QZone
connections.[79] The 2 billion user mark was crossed in
Odnoklassniki
June 2017.[243][244]
Instagram
In November 2015, after skepticism about the accuracy No data
of its "monthly active users" measurement, Facebook
changed its definition to a logged-in member who visits
the Facebook site through the web browser or mobile app, or uses the Facebook Messenger app, in the 30 day
period prior to the measurement. This excluded the use of third-party services with Facebook integration,
which was previously counted.[245]

From 2017 to 2019, the percentage of the U.S. population over the age of 12 who use Facebook has declined,
from 67% to 61% (a decline of some 15 million U.S. users), with a higher drop-off among younger Americans
(a decrease in the percentage of U.S. 12- to 34-year-olds who are users from 58% in 2015 to 29% in
2019.[246][247] The decline coincided with an increase in the popularity of Instagram, which is also owned by
Facebook Inc.[246][247]

Historically, commentators have offered predictions of Facebook's decline or end, based on causes such as a
declining user base;[248] the legal difficulties of being a closed platform, inability to generate revenue, inability
to offer user privacy, inability to adapt to mobile platforms, or Facebook ending itself to present a next
generation replacement;[249] or Facebook's role in Russian interference in the 2016 United States
elections.[250]

Facebook popularity. Active users of Facebook increased from just a million


in 2004 to over 2.3 billion in 2018.[237]

Population pyramid of Facebook users by age As of


2010[251]
Demographics

The highest number of Facebook users as of October 2018 are from India and the United States, followed by
Indonesia, Brazil and Mexico.[252] Region-wise, the highest number of users are from Asia-Pacific
(947 million) followed by Europe (381 million) and US-Canada (242 million). The rest of the world has
750 million users.[253]

Over the 2008-2018 period, the percentage of users under 34 declined to less than half of the total.[237]

Awards

The website has won awards such as placement into the "Top 100 Classic Websites" by PC Magazine in
2007,[254] and winning the "People's Voice Award" from the Webby Awards in 2008.[255]

In 2010, Facebook won the Crunchie "Best Overall Startup Or Product" award[256] for the third year in a
row.[257]

Censorship

In many countries the social networking sites and mobile apps have been blocked temporarily or permanently,
including China,[258] Iran,[259] Syria,[260] and North Korea. In May 2018, the government of Papua New
Guinea announced that it would ban Facebook for a month while it considered the impact of the website on
the country, though no ban has since occurred.[261] In 2019, Facebook announced that influencers are no
longer able to promote any vape, tobacco products, or weapons on its platforms.[262]

Criticisms and controversies


Facebook's importance and scale has led to criticisms in many domains. Issues
include Internet privacy, excessive retention of user information,[263] its facial
recognition software,[264][265] its addictive quality[266] and its role in the
workplace, including employer access to employee accounts.[267]

Facebook is alleged to have psychological effects, including feelings of


jealousy[268][269] and stress,[270][271] a lack of attention[272] and social media
addiction.[273][274]

European antitrust regulator Margrethe Vestager stated that Facebook's terms


of service relating to private data were "unbalanced".[275]

Facebook has been criticized for electricity usage,[276] tax avoidance,[277] Graffiti in Berlin of Facebook
real-name user requirement policies,[278] censorship[279][280] and its founder Mark Zuckerberg.
involvement in the United States PRISM surveillance program.[281] The caption is a reference to
George Orwell's novel
Facebook has been criticized for allowing users to publish illegal and/or Nineteen Eighty-Four.
offensive material. Specifics include copyright and intellectual property
infringement,[282] hate speech,[283][284] incitement of rape[285] and
terrorism,[286][287] fake news,[288][289][290] and crimes, murders, and livestreaming violent
incidents.[291][292][293]
According to The Express Tribune, Facebook "avoided billions of dollars in tax using offshore
companies".[294]

Sri Lanka blocked both Facebook and WhatsApp in May 2019 after anti-Muslim riots, the worst in the
country since the Easter Sunday bombing in the same year as a temporary measure to maintain peace in Sri
Lanka.[295][296]

Facebook removed 3 billion fake accounts only during the last quarter of 2018 and the first quarter of
2019.[297] This is considered to be a wildly high number given that the social network reports only 2.39 billion
monthly active users.[297]

In late July 2019, the company announced it was under antitrust investigation by the Federal Trade
Commission.[298]

Privacy

Facebook has faced a steady stream of controversies over how it handles user privacy, repeatedly adjusting its
privacy settings and policies.[299]

In 2010, the US National Security Agency began taking publicly posted profile information from Facebook,
among other social media services.[300]

On November 29, 2011, Facebook settled Federal Trade Commission charges that it deceived consumers by
failing to keep privacy promises.[301] In August 2013 High-Tech Bridge published a study showing that links
included in Facebook messaging service messages were being accessed by Facebook.[302] In January 2014
two users filed a lawsuit against Facebook alleging that their privacy had been violated by this practice.[303]

On June 7, 2018, Facebook announced that a bug had resulted in about 14 million Facebook users having
their default sharing setting for all new posts set to "public".[304]

On April 4, 2019, half a billion records of Facebook users were found exposed on Amazon cloud servers,
containing information about users’ friends, likes, groups, and checked-in locations, as well as names,
passwords and email addresses.[305]

The phone numbers of at least 200 million Facebook users were found to be exposed on an open online
database in September 2019. They included 133 million US users, 18 million from the UK, and 50 million
from users in Vietnam. After removing duplicates, the 419 million records have been reduced to 219 million.
The database went offline after TechCrunch contacted the web host. It is thought the records were amassed
using a tool that Facebook disabled in April 2018 after the Cambridge Analytica controversy. A Facebook
spokeswoman said in a statement: "The dataset is old and appears to have information obtained before we
made changes last year...There is no evidence that Facebook accounts were compromised."[306]

Facebook's privacy problems resulted in companies like Viber Media and Mozilla discontinuing advertising on
Facebook's platforms.

Shadow profiles

A "shadow profile" refers to the data Facebook collects about individuals without their explicit permission. For
example, the "like" button that appears on third-party websites allows the company to collect information
about an individual's internet browsing habits, even if the individual is not a Facebook user.[307][308] Data can
also be collected by other users. For example, a Facebook user can link their email account to their Facebook
to find friends on the site, allowing the company to collect the email addresses of users and non-users
alike.[309] Over time, countless data points about an individual are collected; any single data point perhaps
cannot identify an individual, but together allows the company to form a unique "profile."

This practice has been criticized by those who believe people should be able to opt-out of involuntary data
collection. Additionally, while Facebook users have the ability to download and inspect the data they provide
to the site, data from the user's "shadow profile" is not included, and non-users of Facebook do not have
access to this tool regardless. The company has also been unclear whether or not it is possible for a person to
revoke Facebook's access to their "shadow profile."[307]

Cambridge Analytica

Facebook customer Global Science Research sold information on over 87 million Facebook users to
Cambridge Analytica, a political data analysis firm.[310] While approximately 270,000 people used the app,
Facebook's API permitted data collection from their friends without their knowledge.[311] At first Facebook
downplayed the significance of the breach, and suggested that Cambridge Analytica no longer had access.
Facebook then issued a statement expressing alarm and suspended Cambridge Analytica. Review of
documents and interviews with former Facebook employees suggested that Cambridge Analytica still
possessed the data.[312] This was a violation of Facebook's consent decree with the Federal Trade
Commission. This violation potentially carried a penalty of $40,000 per occurrence, totaling trillions of
dollars.[313]

According to The Guardian both Facebook and Cambridge Analytica threatened to sue the newspaper if it
published the story. After publication, Facebook claimed that it had been "lied to". On March 23, 2018, The
English High Court granted an application by the Information Commissioner's Office for a warrant to search
Cambridge Analytica's London offices, ending a standoff between Facebook and the Information
Commissioner over responsibility.[314]

On March 25, Facebook published a statement by Zuckerberg in major UK and US newspapers apologizing
over a "breach of trust".[315]

You may have heard about a quiz app built by a university researcher that leaked Facebook data
of millions of people in 2014. This was a breach of trust, and I'm sorry we didn't do more at the
time. We're now taking steps to make sure this doesn't happen again.

We've already stopped apps like this from getting so much information. Now we're limiting the
data apps get when you sign in using Facebook.

We're also investigating every single app that had access to large amounts of data before we fixed
this. We expect there are others. And when we find them, we will ban them and tell everyone
affected.

Finally, we'll remind you which apps you've given access to your information – so you can shut
off the ones you don't want anymore.

Thank you for believing in this community. I promise to do better for you.

On March 26, the Federal Trade Commission opened an investigation into the matter.[316] The controversy led
Facebook to end its partnerships with data brokers who aid advertisers in targeting users.[299]
On April 24, 2019, Facebook said it could face a fine between $3 billion to $5 billion as the result of an
investigation by the Federal Trade Commission. The agency has been investigating Facebook for possible
privacy violations, but has not announced any findings yet.[317]

Facebook also implemented additional privacy controls and settings[318] in part to comply with the European
Union's General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR), which took effect in May.[319] Facebook also ended its
active opposition to the California Consumer Privacy Act.[320]

Some, such as Meghan McCain have drawn an equivalence between the use of data by Cambridge Analytica
and the Barack Obama's 2012 campaign, which, according to Investor's Business Daily, "encouraged
supporters to download an Obama 2012 Facebook app that, when activated, let the campaign collect
Facebook data both on users and their friends."[321][322][323] Carol Davidsen, the Obama for America (OFA)
former director of integration and media analytics, wrote that "Facebook was surprised we were able to suck
out the whole social graph, but they didn't stop us once they realised that was what we were doing."[322][323]
PolitiFact has rated McCain's statements "Half-True", on the basis that "in Obama's case, direct users knew
they were handing over their data to a political campaign" whereas with Cambridge Analytica, users thought
they were only taking a personality quiz for academic purposes, and while the Obama campaign only used the
data "to have their supporters contact their most persuadable friends", Cambridge Analytica "targeted users,
friends and lookalikes directly with digital ads."[324]

Breaches

On September 28, 2018, Facebook experienced a major breach in its security, exposing the data of 50 million
users. The data breach started in July 2017 and was discovered on September 16.[325] Facebook notified users
affected by the exploit and logged them out of their accounts.[326][327]

In March 2019, Facebook confirmed a password compromise of millions of Facebook lite application users,
however in April the company further stated that it was not just limited to Facebook but had also affected
millions of Instagram users. The reason cited was the storage of password as plain text instead of encryption
which could be read by its employees.[328]

On December 19, 2019, security researcher Bob Diachenko discovered a database containing more than
267 million Facebook user IDs, phone numbers, and names that were left exposed on the web for anyone to
access without a password or any other authentication.[329]

In February 2020, Facebook encountered a major security breach in which its official Twitter account was
hacked by a Saudi Arabia-based group called "OurMine". The group has a history of actively exposing high-
profile social media profiles’ vulnerabilities.[330]

Phone data and activity

After acquiring Onavo in 2013, Facebook used its Onavo Protect


virtual private network (VPN) app to collect information on users'
web traffic and app usage. This allowed Facebook to monitor its Facebook acquired Onavo's virtual
competitors' performance, and motivated Facebook to acquire private network to harvest usage
WhatsApp in 2014.[331][332][333] Media outlets classified Onavo data on its competitors.
Protect as spyware.[334][335][336] In August 2018, Facebook removed
the app in response to pressure from Apple, who asserted that it
violated their guidelines.[337][338]
In 2016, Facebook Research launched Project Atlas, offering some users between the ages of 13 and 35 up to
$20 per month in exchange for their personal data, including their app usage, web browsing history, web
search history, location history, personal messages, photos, videos, emails and Amazon order history.[339][340]
In January 2019, TechCrunch reported on the project. This led Apple to temporarily revoke Facebook's
Enterprise Developer Program certificates for one day, preventing Facebook Research from operating on iOS
devices and disabling Facebook's internal iOS apps.[340][341][342]

Ars Technica reported in April 2018 that the Facebook Android app had been harvesting user data, including
phone calls and text messages, since 2015.[343][344][345] In May 2018, several Android users filed a class
action lawsuit against Facebook for invading their privacy.[346][347]

In January 2020, Facebook launched the Off-Facebook Activity page, which allows users to see information
collected by Facebook about their non-Facebook activities.[348] Washington Post columnist Geoffrey A.
Fowler found that this included what other apps he used on his phone, even while the Facebook app was
closed, what other web sites he visited on his phone, and what in-store purchases he made from affiliated
businesses, even while his phone was completely off.[349]

Public apologies

The company first apologized for its privacy abuses in 2009.[350]

Facebook apologies have appeared in newspapers, television, blog posts and on Facebook.[351] On March 25,
2018, leading US and UK newspapers published full-page ads with a personal apology from Zuckerberg.
Zuckerberg issued a verbal apology on CNN.[352] In May 2010, he apologized for discrepancies in privacy
settings.[351]

Previously, Facebook had its privacy settings spread out over 20 pages, and has now put all of its privacy
settings on one page, which makes it more difficult for third-party apps to access the user's personal
information.[299] In addition to publicly apologizing, Facebook has said that it will be reviewing and auditing
thousands of apps that display "suspicious activities" in an effort to ensure that this breach of privacy does not
happen again.[353] In a 2010 report regarding privacy, a research project stated that not a lot of information is
available regarding the consequences of what people disclose online so often what is available are just reports
made available through popular media.[354] In 2017, a former Facebook executive went on the record to
discuss how social media platforms have contributed to the unraveling of the "fabric of society".[355]

Content

Facebook relies on its users to generate the content that bonds its users to the service. The company has come
under criticism both for allowing objectionable content, including conspiracy theories and fringe
discourse,[356] and for prohibiting other content that it deems inappropriate.

Vaidhyanathan (2018) Antisocial Media[357] claims that there's no evidence that Cambridge Analytica and
similar companies have delivered anything of value to anyone who has paid them, but Facebook is "growing
on every continent. And it’s undermining democracy everywhere. Facebook is doing the data analysis
internally. Facebook is working directly with campaigns — many of which support authoritarian and
nationalist candidates. You don’t need Cambridge Analytica if you have Facebook. The impact of Facebook
on democracy is corrosive. ... A campaign like Trump’s can issue small, cheap advertisements via platforms
like Facebook and Instagram that disappear after a day or get locked forever in Facebook’s servers. That’s bad
for transparency. That’s exactly what happened. That story has not echoed as far as the one about Cambridge
Analytica and psychographics. But it’s the real story."[358] Facebook has tools that allow an advertiser to
profitably target ads "at groups as small as twenty, and then disappear, so they are never examined or debated."
These may have made a substantive contribution to Mr. Trump's victory in the 2016 United States presidential
election.[359]

It has been criticised as a vector for 'fake news', and has been accused of bearing responsibility for the
conspiracy theory that the United States created ISIS,[360] false anti-Rohingya posts being used by Myanmar's
military to fuel genocide and ethnic cleansing,[361][362] enabling climate change denial[363] and Sandy Hook
Elementary School shooting conspiracy theorists,[364] and anti-refugee attacks in Germany.[365][366][367] The
government of the Philippines has also used Facebook as a tool to attack its critics.[368]

In 2017, Facebook partnered with fact checkers from the Poynter Institute's International Fact-Checking
Network to identify and mark false content, though most ads from political candidates are exempt from this
program.[369][370] Critics of the program accuse Facebook of not doing enough to remove false information
from its website.[371]

Professor Ilya Somin reported that he had been the subject of death threats on Facebook in April 2018 from
Cesar Sayoc, who threatened to kill Somin and his family and "feed the bodies to Florida alligators". Somin's
Facebook friends reported the comments to Facebook, which did nothing except dispatch automated
messages.[372] Sayoc was later arrested for the October 2018 United States mail bombing attempts directed at
Democratic politicians.

Facebook has repeatedly amended its content policies. In July 2018, it stated that it would "downrank" articles
that its fact-checkers determined to be false, and remove misinformation that incited violence.[373] Zuckerberg
once stated that it was unclear whether Holocaust deniers on Facebook intended to deceive others,[374] for
which he later apologized.[375] Facebook stated that content that receives "false" ratings from its fact-checkers
can be demonetized and suffer dramatically reduced distribution. Specific posts and videos that violate
community standards can be removed on Facebook.[374]

In May 2019, Facebook banned a number of "dangerous" commentators from its platform, including Alex
Jones, Louis Farrakhan, Milo Yiannopoulos, Paul Joseph Watson, Paul Nehlen, David Duke, and Laura
Loomer, for allegedly engaging in "violence and hate".[376][377]

In May 2020, Facebook agreed to a preliminary settlement of $52 million to compensate U.S.-based Facebook
content moderators for their psychological trauma suffered on the job.[378][379] Other legal actions around the
world, including in Ireland, await settlement.[380]

InfoWars

Facebook was criticized for allowing InfoWars to publish falsehoods and conspiracy
theories.[374][375][381][382][383] Facebook defended its actions in regards to InfoWars, saying "we just don't
think banning Pages for sharing conspiracy theories or false news is the right way to go."[381] Facebook
provided only six cases in which it fact-checked content on the InfoWars page over the period September 2017
to July 2018.[374] In 2018 InfoWars falsely claimed that the survivors of the Parkland shooting were "actors".
Facebook pledged to remove InfoWars content making the claim, although InfoWars videos pushing the false
claims were left up, even though Facebook had been contacted about the videos.[374] Facebook stated that the
videos never explicitly called them actors.[374] Facebook also allowed InfoWars videos that shared the
Pizzagate conspiracy theory to survive, despite specific assertions that it would purge Pizzagate content.[374]
In late July 2018 Facebook suspended the personal profile of InfoWars head Alex Jones for 30 days.[384] In
early August 2018, Facebook banned the four most active InfoWars-related pages for hate speech.[385]

Political manipulation
In 2018, Facebook stated that during 2018 they had identified "coordinated inauthentic behavior" in "many
Pages, Groups and accounts created to stir up political debate, including in the US, the Middle East, Russia
and the UK."[386]

Campaigns operated by the British intelligence agency unit, called Joint Threat Research Intelligence Group,
have broadly fallen into two categories; cyber attacks and propaganda efforts. The propaganda efforts utilize
"mass messaging" and the "pushing [of] stories" via social media sites like Facebook.[387][388] Israel's Jewish
Internet Defense Force, China's 50 Cent Party and Turkey's AK Trolls also focus their attention on social
media platforms like Facebook.[389][390][391][392]

In July 2018, Samantha Bradshaw, co-author of the report from the Oxford Internet Institute (OII) at Oxford
University, said that "The number of countries where formally organised social media manipulation occurs has
greatly increased, from 28 to 48 countries globally. The majority of growth comes from political parties who
spread disinformation and junk news around election periods."[393]

In October 2018, The Daily Telegraph reported that Facebook "banned hundreds of pages and accounts that it
says were fraudulently flooding its site with partisan political content – although they came from the United
States instead of being associated with Russia."[394]

In December 2018, The Washington Post reported that "Facebook has suspended the account of Jonathon
Morgan, the chief executive of a top social media research firm" New Knowledge, "after reports that he and
others engaged in an operation to spread disinformation" on Facebook and Twitter during the 2017 United
States Senate special election in Alabama.[395][396]

In January 2019, Facebook said it has removed 783 Iran-linked accounts, pages and groups for engaging in
what it called "coordinated inauthentic behaviour".[397]

In May 2019, Tel Aviv-based private intelligence agency Archimedes Group was banned from Facebook for
“coordinated inauthentic behavior” after Facebook found fake users in countries in sub-Saharan Africa, Latin
America and Southeast Asia.[398] Facebook investigations revealed that Archimedes had spent some
$1.1 million on fake ads, paid for in Brazilian reais, Israeli shekels and US dollars.[399] Facebook gave
examples of Archimedes Group political interference in Nigeria, Senegal, Togo, Angola, Niger and
Tunisia.[400] The Atlantic Council's Digital Forensic Research Lab said in a report that "The tactics employed
by Archimedes Group, a private company, closely resemble the types of information warfare tactics often used
by governments, and the Kremlin in particular."[401][402]

On May 23, 2019, Facebook released its Community Standards Enforcement Report highlighting that it has
identified several fake accounts through artificial intelligence and human monitoring. In a period of six months,
October 2018-March 2019, the social media website removed a total of 3.39 billion fake accounts. The
number of fake accounts was reported to be more than 2.4 billion real people on the platform.[403]

In July 2019, Facebook advanced its measures to counter deceptive political propaganda and other abuse of its
services. The company removed more than 1,800 accounts and pages that were being operated from Russia,
Thailand, Ukraine and Honduras.[404]

On October 30, 2019, Facebook deleted several accounts of the employees working at the Israeli NSO Group,
stating that the accounts were “deleted for not following our terms”. The deletions came after WhatsApp sued
the Israeli surveillance firm for targeting 1,400 devices with spyware.[405]

In 2020, Facebook helped found American Edge, an anti-regulation lobbying firm to fight anti-trust
probes.[406]
The Thailand government is forcing Facebook to take down a Facebook group called Royalist Marketplace
with 1 million members following potentially illegal posts shared. The authority also threatened the Facebook
representative of facing criminal proceeding. In response, Facebook is planning to take legal action against the
Thai government for suppression of freedom of expression and violation of human rights.[407]

Russian interference

In 2018, Special Counsel Robert Mueller indicted 13 Russian nationals and three Russian organizations for
"engaging in operations to interfere with U.S. political and electoral processes, including the 2016 presidential
election."[408][409][410]

Mueller contacted Facebook subsequently to the company's disclosure that it had sold more than $100,000
worth of ads to a company (Internet Research Agency) with links to the Russian intelligence community
before the 2016 United States presidential election.[411][412] In September 2017, Facebook's chief security
officer Alex Stamos wrote the company "found approximately $100,000 in ad spending from June 2015 to
May 2017 — associated with roughly 3,000 ads — that was connected to about 470 inauthentic accounts and
Pages in violation of our policies. Our analysis suggests these accounts and Pages were affiliated with one
another and likely operated out of Russia."[413] Clinton and Trump campaigns spent $81 million on Facebook
ads.[414]

The company pledged full cooperation in Mueller's investigation, and provided all information about the
Russian advertisements.[415] Members of the House and Senate Intelligence Committees have claimed that
Facebook had withheld information that could illuminate the Russian propaganda campaign.[416] Russian
operatives have used Facebook to organize Black Lives Matter rallies[417][418] and anti-immigrant rallies on
U.S. soil,[419] as well as anti-Clinton rallies[420] and rallies both for and against Donald Trump.[421][422]
Facebook ads have also been used to exploit divisions over black political activism and Muslims by
simultaneously sending contrary messages to different users based on their political and demographic
characteristics in order to sow discord.[423][424][425] Zuckerberg has stated that he regrets having dismissed
concerns over Russian interference in the 2016 U.S. presidential election.[426]

Russian-American Billionaire Yuri Milner, who befriended Zuckerberg[427] between 2009 and 2011 had
Kremlin backing for his investments in Facebook and Twitter.[428]

In January 2019, Facebook removed 289 Pages and 75 coordinated accounts linked to the Russian state-
owned news agency Sputnik which had misrepresented themselves as independent news or general interest
Pages.[429][430] Facebook later identified and removed an additional 1,907 accounts linked to Russia found to
be engaging in "coordinated inauthentic behaviour".[431] In 2018, a UK DCMS select committee report had
criticised Facebook for its reluctance to investigate abuse of its platform by the Russian government, and for
downplaying the extent of the problem.[432][433]

In February 2019, Glenn Greenwald wrote that a cybersecurity company New Knowledge, which is behind
one of the Senate reports on Russian social media election interference, "was caught just six weeks ago
engaging in a massive scam to create fictitious Russian troll accounts on Facebook and Twitter in order to
claim that the Kremlin was working to defeat Democratic Senate nominee Doug Jones in Alabama. The New
York Times, when exposing the scam, quoted a New Knowledge report that boasted of its
fabrications..."[434][435]

Anti-Rohingya propaganda
In 2018, Facebook took down 536 Facebook pages, 17 Facebook groups, 175 Facebook accounts, and 16
Instagram accounts linked to the Myanmar military. Collectively these were followed by over 10 million
people.[436] The New York Times reported that:[437]

after months of reports about anti-Rohingya propaganda on Facebook, the company


acknowledged that it had been too slow to act in Myanmar. By then, more than 700,000
Rohingya had fled the country in a year, in what United Nations officials called “a textbook
example of ethnic cleansing.”

Modi's rise in India

A 2019 book titled The Real Face of Facebook in India,[438] co-authored by the journalists Paranjoy Guha
Thakurta and Cyril Sam, alleged that Facebook was both directly complicit in, and benefited from, the rise of
Narendra Modi's BJP in India.

In 2020, Facebook executives overrode their employees' recommendations that the BJP politician T. Raja
Singh should be banned from the site for hate speech and rhetoric that could lead to violence. Singh had said
on Facebook that Rohingya Muslim immigrants should be shot, and had threatened to destroy mosques.
Current and former Facebook employees told The Wall Street Journal that the decision was part of a pattern of
favoritism by Facebook toward the BJP as it seeks more business in India. Facebook also took no action after
BJP politicians made posts accusing Muslims of intentionally spreading COVID-19, an employee said.[439]

Company governance

Early Facebook investor and former Zuckerberg mentor Roger McNamee described Facebook as having "the
most centralized decision-making structure I have ever encountered in a large company."[440] Nathan
Schneider, a professor of media studies at the University of Colorado Boulder argued for transforming
Facebook into a platform cooperative owned and governed by the users.[441]

Facebook co-founder Chris Hughes states that CEO Mark Zuckerberg has too much power, that the company
is now a monopoly, and that, as a result, it should be split into multiple smaller companies. Hughes called for
the breakup of Facebook in an op-ed on The New York Times. Hughes says he's concerned that Zuckerberg
has surrounded himself with a team that doesn't challenge him and that as a result, it's the U.S. government's
job to hold him accountable and curb his "unchecked power."[442] Hughes also said that "Mark's power is
unprecedented and un-American."[443] Several U.S. politicians agree with Hughes.[444] EU Commissioner for
Competition Margrethe Vestager has stated that splitting Facebook should only be done as "a remedy of the
very last resort", and that splitting Facebook would not solve Facebook's underlying problems.[445]

Litigation

The company has been subject to repeated litigation.[446][447][448][449] Its most prominent case addressed
allegations that Zuckerberg broke an oral contract with Cameron Winklevoss, Tyler Winklevoss, and Divya
Narendra to build the then-named "HarvardConnection" social network in 2004.[450][451][452]

On March 6, 2018 BlackBerry sued Facebook and its Instagram and WhatsApp subdivision for ripping off
key features of its messaging app.[453]
In 2019 British solicitors representing a bullied Syrian schoolboy, sued Facebook over false claims. They
claimed that Facebook protected prominent figures from scrutiny instead of removing content that violates its
rules and that the special treatment was financially driven.[454][455]

In October 2018 a Texan woman sued Facebook, claiming she had been recruited into the sex trade at the age
of 15 by a man who "friended" her on the social media network. Facebook responded that it works both
internally and externally to ban sex traffickers.[456][457]

Definers Public Affairs

In October 2017, Facebook expanded its work with Definers Public Affairs, a PR firm that had originally been
hired to monitor press coverage of the company to address concerns primarily regarding Russian meddling,
then mishandling of user data by Cambridge Analytica, hate speech on Facebook, and calls for regulation.[458]
Company spokesman Tim Miller stated that a goal for tech firms should be to "have positive content pushed
out about your company and negative content that's being pushed out about your competitor". Definers
claimed that George Soros was the force behind what appeared to be a broad anti-Facebook movement, and
created other negative media, along with America Rising, that was picked up by larger media organisations
like Breitbart.[458][459] Facebook cut ties with the agency in late 2018, following public outcry over their
association.[460]

Transcribing user audio

On August 13, 2019, it was revealed that Facebook had enlisted hundreds of contractors to create and obtain
transcripts of the audio messages of users.[461][462][463] This was especially common of Facebook Messenger,
where the contractors frequently listened to and transcribed voice messages of users.[463] After this was first
reported on by Bloomberg News, Facebook released a statement confirming the report to be true,[462] but also
stated that the monitoring program was now suspended.[462]

Impact

Scope

A commentator in The Washington Post noted that Facebook


constitutes a "massive depository of information that documents both
our reactions to events and our evolving customs with a scope and
immediacy of which earlier historians could only dream".[464]
Especially for anthropologists, social researchers, and social historians
—and subject to proper preservation and curation—the website "will
preserve images of our lives that are vastly crisper and more nuanced Facebook on the ad:tech 2010
than any ancestry record in existence".[464]

Economy

Economists have noted that Facebook offers many non-rivalrous services that benefit as many users as are
interested without forcing users to compete with each other. By contrast, most goods are available to a limited
number of users. E.g., if one user buys a phone, no other user can buy that phone. Three areas add the most
economic impact: platform competition, the market place and user behavior data.[465]
Facebook began to reduce its carbon impact after Greenpeace attacked it for its long-term reliance on coal and
resulting carbon footprint.[466]

Facebook provides a development platform for many social gaming, communication, feedback, review, and
other applications related to online activities. This platform spawned many businesses and added thousands of
jobs to the global economy. Zynga Inc., a leader in social gaming, is an example of such a business. An
econometric analysis found that Facebook's app development platform added more than 182,000 jobs in the
U.S. economy in 2011. The total economic value of the added employment was about $12 billion.[467]

Society

Facebook was one of the first large-scale social networks. In The Facebook Effect, David Kirkpatrick stated
that Facebook's structure makes it difficult to replace, because of its "network effects". As of 2016, it is
estimated that 44 percent of the US population gets news through Facebook.[468]

Emotional health

A 2020 experimental study in the American Economic Review found that deactivating Facebook led to
increased subjective well-being.[469]

Studies have associated social networks with positive[470] and negative impacts[471][472][473][474][475] on
emotional health. Studies have associated Facebook with feelings of envy, often triggered by vacation and
holiday photos. Other triggers include posts by friends about family happiness and images of physical beauty
—such feelings leave people dissatisfied with their own lives. A joint study by two German universities
discovered that one out of three people were more dissatisfied with their lives after visiting Facebook,[476][477]
and another study by Utah Valley University found that college students felt worse about themselves following
an increase in time on Facebook.[477][478][479]

Professor Larry D. Rosen stated that teenagers on Facebook exhibit more narcissistic tendencies, while young
adults show signs of antisocial behavior, mania and aggressiveness. Positive effects included signs of "virtual
empathy" towards online friends and helping introverted persons learn social skills.[480]

In a blog post in December 2017, the company highlighted research that has shown "passively consuming" the
News Feed, as in reading but not interacting, left users with negative feelings afterwards, whereas interacting
with messages pointed to improvements in well-being.[481]

Politics

In February 2008, a Facebook group called "One Million Voices Against FARC" organized an event in which
hundreds of thousands of Colombians marched in protest against the Revolutionary Armed Forces of
Colombia (FARC).[482] In August 2010, one of North Korea's official government websites and the country's
official news agency, Uriminzokkiri, joined Facebook.[483]

During the Arab Spring many journalists claimed that Facebook played a major role in the 2011 Egyptian
revolution.[484][485] On January 14, the Facebook page of "We are all Khaled Said" was started by Wael
Ghoniem to invite the Egyptian people to "peaceful demonstrations" on January 25. According to Mashable,
in Tunisia and Egypt, Facebook became the primary tool for connecting protesters and led the Egyptian
government to ban Facebook, Twitter and other websites on January 26[486] then ban all mobile and Internet
connections for all of Egypt on January 28. After 18 days, the uprising forced President Hosni Mubarak to
resign.
In a Bahraini uprising that started on February 14, 2011, Facebook
was utilized by the Bahraini regime and regime loyalists to identify,
capture and prosecute citizens involved in the protests. A 20-year-old
woman named Ayat Al Qurmezi was identified as a protester using
Facebook and imprisoned.[487]

In 2011, Facebook filed paperwork with the Federal Election


Commission to form a political action committee under the name FB
PAC.[488] In an email to The Hill, a spokesman for Facebook said
"Facebook Political Action Committee will give our employees a way A man during the 2011 Egyptian
to make their voice heard in the political process by supporting protests carrying a card saying
candidates who share our goals of promoting the value of innovation "Facebook,#jan25, The Egyptian
to our economy while giving people the power to share and make the Social Network"
world more open and connected."[489]

During the Syrian civil war, the YPG, a libertarian army for Rojava recruited westerners through Facebook in
its fight against ISIL.[490] Dozens joined its ranks. The Facebook page's name "The Lions of Rojava" comes
from a Kurdish saying which translates as "A lion is a lion, whether it's a female or a male", reflecting the
organization's feminist ideology.[491]

In recent years, Facebook's News Feed algorithms have been identified as a cause of political polarization, for
which it has been criticized.[492][493] It has likewise been accused of amplifying the reach of 'fake news' and
extreme viewpoints, as when it may have enabled conditions which led to the 2015 Rohingya refugee
crisis.[494][495]

Facebook first played a role in the American political process in January 2008, shortly before the New
Hampshire primary. Facebook teamed up with ABC and Saint Anselm College to allow users to give live
feedback about the "back to back" January 5 Republican and Democratic debates.[496][497][498] Facebook
users took part in debate groups on specific topics, voter registration and message questions.[499]

Over a million people installed the Facebook application "US Politics on Facebook" in order to take part
which measured responses to specific comments made by the debating candidates.[500] A poll by CBS News,
UWIRE and The Chronicle of Higher Education claimed to illustrate how the "Facebook effect" had affected
youthful voters, increasing voting rates, support of political candidates, and general involvement.[501]

The new social media, such as Facebook and Twitter, connected hundreds of millions of people. By 2008,
politicians and interest groups were experimenting with systematic use of social media to spread their
message.[502][503] By the 2016 election, political advertising to specific groups had become normalized.
Facebook offered the most sophisticated targeting and analytics platform.[504] ProPublica noted that their
system enabled advertisers to direct their pitches to almost 2,300 people who expressed interest in the topics of
"Jew hater," "How to burn Jews," or, "History of 'why Jews ruin the world".[505]

The Cambridge Analytica data scandal offered another example of the perceived attempt to influence
elections.[506][507] The Guardian claimed that Facebook knew about the security breach for two years, but did
nothing to stop it until it became public.[508]

India

Ahead of the 2019 general elections in India, Facebook has removed 103 pages, groups and accounts on
Facebook and Instagram platforms originating from Pakistan. Facebook said its investigation found a Pakistani
military link, along with a mix of real accounts of ISPR employees, and a network of fake accounts created by
them that have been operating military fan pages, general interest pages but were posting content about Indian
politics while trying to conceal their identity.[509] Owing to the same reasons, Facebook also removed 687
pages and accounts of Congress because of coordinated inauthentic behavior on the platform.[510]

Culture

Facebook and Zuckerberg have been the subject of music, books, film
and television. The 2010 film The Social Network, directed by David
Fincher and written by Aaron Sorkin, stars Jesse Eisenberg as
Zuckerberg and went on to win three Academy Awards and four
Golden Globes.

In 2008, Collins English Dictionary declared "Facebook" as its new


Facebook parade float in San
Word of the Year.[511] In December 2009, the New Oxford American
Francisco Pride 2014
Dictionary declared its word of the year to be the verb "unfriend",
defined as "To remove someone as a 'friend' on a social networking
site such as Facebook".[512]

Internet.org

In August 2013, Facebook founded Internet.org in collaboration with six other technology companies to plan
and help build affordable Internet access for underdeveloped and developing countries.[513] The service,
called Free Basics, includes various low-bandwidth applications such as AccuWeather, BabyCenter, BBC
News, ESPN, and Bing.[514][515] There was severe opposition to Internet.org in India, where the service
started in partnership with Reliance Communications in 2015 was banned a year later by the Telecom
Regulatory Authority of India (TRAI). In 2018, Zuckerberg claimed that "Internet.org efforts have helped
almost 100 million people get access to the internet who may not have had it otherwise."[514]

See also
Ambient awareness
Corporation tax in the Republic of Ireland
Cyberstalking
DARPA LifeLog
Double Irish tax scheme
Facebook malware
List of social networking websites
Six degrees of separation
Social graph
Timeline of social media

References
1. "Facebook Interface Languages" (https://www.facebook.com/language.php). Facebook (Select
your language).
2. "facebook.com Competitive Analysis, Marketing Mix and Traffic" (https://www.alexa.com/siteinf
o/facebook.com). Alexa Internet. Retrieved April 23, 2020.
3. "Facebook Reports Fourth Quarter and Full Year 2019 Results" (https://s21.q4cdn.com/399680
738/files/doc_financials/2019/q4/FB-12.31.2019-Exhibit-99.1-r61_final.pdf) (PDF).
newsroom.fb.com.
4. "Our History" (https://newsroom.fb.com/company-info/). Facebook. Retrieved November 7,
2018.
5. "Facebook.com Traffic, Demographics and Competitors - Alexa" (https://www.alexa.com/siteinf
o/facebook.com). www.alexa.com. Retrieved February 4, 2019.
6. Clarke, Gavin (February 2, 2010). "Facebook re-write takes PHP to an enterprise past" (https://
www.theregister.co.uk/2010/02/02/facebook_hiphop_unveiled/). The Register. Situation
Publishing. Retrieved March 23, 2017.
7. Bridgwater, Adrian (October 16, 2013). "Facebook Adopts D Language" (http://www.drdobbs.co
m/mobile/facebook-adopts-d-language/240162694). Dr Dobb's. San Francisco.
8. Levin, Sam (July 3, 2018). "Is Facebook a publisher? In public it says no, but in court it says
yes" (https://www.theguardian.com/technology/2018/jul/02/facebook-mark-zuckerberg-platform-
publisher-lawsuit) – via www.theguardian.com.
9. Gebel, Meira. "In 15 years Facebook has amassed 2.3 billion users — more than followers of
Christianity" (https://www.businessinsider.com/facebook-has-2-billion-plus-users-after-15-years
-2019-2). Business Insider.
10. Miller, Chance (December 17, 2019). "These were the most-downloaded apps and games of
the decade" (https://9to5mac.com/2019/12/16/apps-and-games-of-the-decade/). 9to5Mac.
Retrieved December 17, 2019.
11. Mahdawi, Arwa (December 21, 2018). "Is 2019 the year you should finally quit Facebook? |
Arwa Mahdawi" (https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2018/dec/21/quit-facebook-priva
cy-scandal-private-messages). The Guardian – via www.theguardian.com.
12. Medrano, Kastalia. "Facebook Spreads Viral Fake News Story About Vaccines" (https://www.n
ewsweek.com/facebook-spreads-viral-fake-news-story-about-vaccines-791331). Newsweek.
13. Raphael, Rina. "A shockingly large majority of health news shared on Facebook is fake or
misleading" (https://www.fastcompany.com/90301427/a-shockingly-large-majority-of-health-ne
ws-shared-on-facebook-is-fake). Fast Company.
14. "Facebook will not remove fake news - but will 'demote' it" (https://www.bbc.com/news/technolo
gy-44809815). BBC.
15. Funke, Daniel. "Forget fake news stories. False text posts are getting massive engagement on
Facebook" (https://www.poynter.org/fact-checking/2019/forget-fake-news-stories-false-text-post
s-are-getting-massive-engagement-on-facebook/). Poynter.
16. Shontell, Alyson (May 16, 2011). "This Person Was The First Face of Facebook" (https://www.b
usinessinsider.com/this-person-was-the-first-face-of-facebook-2011-5). Business Insider.
Retrieved September 10, 2019.
17. Kaplan, Katharine A. (November 19, 2003). "Facemash Creator Survives Ad Board" (https://ww
w.thecrimson.com/article/2003/11/19/facemash-creator-survives-ad-board-the/). The Harvard
Crimson. Retrieved June 24, 2017.
18. McGirt, Ellen (May 1, 2007). "Facebook's Mark Zuckerberg: Hacker. Dropout. CEO" (https://ww
w.fastcompany.com/59441/facebooks-mark-zuckerberg-hacker-dropout-ceo). Fast Company.
Mansueto Ventures. Retrieved July 4, 2017.
19. Kincaid, Jason (October 24, 2009). "Startup School: An Interview With Mark Zuckerberg" (http
s://techcrunch.com/2009/10/24/startup-school-an-interview-with-mark-zuckerberg/).
TechCrunch. AOL. Retrieved June 24, 2017.
20. Phillips, Sarah (July 25, 2007). "A brief history of Facebook" (https://www.theguardian.com/tech
nology/2007/jul/25/media.newmedia). The Guardian. Guardian Media Group. Retrieved July 4,
2017.
21. Tabak, Alan T. (February 9, 2004). "Hundreds Register for New Facebook Website" (https://ww
w.thecrimson.com/article/2004/2/9/hundreds-register-for-new-facebook-website/). The Harvard
Crimson. Retrieved July 4, 2017.
22. Hoffman, Claire (September 15, 2010). "The Battle For Facebook" (https://www.rollingstone.co
m/culture/news/the-battle-for-facebook-20100915). Rolling Stone. Wenner Media. Retrieved
July 4, 2017.
23. Rothman, Lily (February 4, 2015). "Happy Birthday, Facebook" (http://time.com/3686124/happy
-birthday-facebook/). Time. Retrieved July 4, 2017.
24. Carlson, Nicholas (March 5, 2010). "In 2004, Mark Zuckerberg Broke Into A Facebook User's
Private Email Account" (http://www.businessinsider.com/how-mark-zuckerberg-hacked-into-the
-harvard-crimson-2010-3). Business Insider. Axel Springer SE. Retrieved March 23, 2017.
25. Stone, Brad (June 28, 2008). "Judge Ends Facebook's Feud With ConnectU" (http://bits.blogs.n
ytimes.com/2008/06/26/judge-ends-facebooks-feud-with-connectu/index.html). New York
Times blog.
26. Rushe, Dominic (February 2, 2012). "Facebook IPO sees Winklevoss twins heading for $300m
fortune" (https://www.theguardian.com/technology/2012/feb/02/facebook-ipo-winklevoss-300m-
fortune). The Guardian. Guardian Media Group. Retrieved March 23, 2017.
27. Phillips, Sarah (July 25, 2007). "A brief history of Facebook" (https://www.theguardian.com/tech
nology/2007/jul/25/media.newmedia). The Guardian. Guardian Media Group. Retrieved
March 23, 2017.
28. Weinberger, Matt (September 7, 2017). "33 photos of Facebook's rise from a Harvard dorm
room to world domination" (http://nordic.businessinsider.com/facebook-history-photos-2016-9).
Business Insider. Axel Springer SE. Retrieved December 13, 2017.
29. "Facebook: a timeline of the social network" (https://www.telegraph.co.uk/technology/facebook/
9052743/Facebook-a-timeline-of-the-social-network.html). The Daily Telegraph. Telegraph
Media Group. February 1, 2012. Retrieved December 13, 2017.
30. Rosmarin, Rachel (September 11, 2006). "Open Facebook" (https://www.forbes.com/2006/09/1
1/facebook-opens-up-cx_rr_0911facebook.html). Forbes. New York. Retrieved June 13, 2008.
31. Nguyen, Lananh (April 12, 2004). "Online network created by Harvard students flourishes" (http
s://tuftsdaily.com/archives/2004/04/12/online-network-created-by-harvard-students-flourishes/).
The Tufts Daily. Medford, MA. Retrieved November 30, 2018.
32. Rosen, Ellen (May 26, 2005). "Student's Start-Up Draws Attention and $13 Million" (https://ww
w.nytimes.com/2005/05/26/business/26sbiz.html). The New York Times. Retrieved May 18,
2009.
33. "Company Timeline" (https://www.facebook.com/press/info.php?timeline) (Press release).
Facebook. January 1, 2007. Retrieved March 5, 2008.
34. "Why you should beware of Facebook" (http://www.theage.com.au/news/general/beware-faceb
ook/2008/01/18/1200620184398.html?page=fullpage#contentSwap2). The Age. Melbourne.
January 20, 2008. Retrieved April 30, 2008.
35. Williams, Christopher (October 1, 2007). "Facebook wins Manx battle for face-book.com" (http
s://www.theregister.co.uk/2007/10/01/facebook_domain_dispute). The Register. Situation
Publishing. Retrieved March 23, 2017.
36. "Jim Breyer (via Accel Partners)" (https://web.archive.org/web/20141229120047/https://www.cn
bc.com/id/47387334/Jim_Breyer_via_Accel_Partners). CNBC. May 22, 2012. Archived from
the original (https://www.cnbc.com/id/47387334/Jim_Breyer_via_Accel_Partners) on
December 29, 2014.
37. Dempsey, Laura (August 3, 2006). "Facebook is the go-to Web site for students looking to hook
up". Dayton Daily News. Ohio.
38. Lacy, Sarah (September 12, 2006). "Facebook: Opening the Doors Wider" (http://www.business
week.com/stories/2006-09-11/facebook-opening-the-doors-wider). BusinessWeek. New York.
Retrieved March 9, 2008.
39. "Facebook's Julie Zhuo: She's not just pushing pixels" (https://fortune.com/2014/06/02/tech-star
-julie-zhuo/). Fortune. Retrieved October 15, 2019.
40. Abram, Carolyn (September 26, 2006). "Welcome to Facebook, everyone" (http://blog.faceboo
k.com/blog.php?post=2210227130). The Facebook Blog. Retrieved March 8, 2008.
41. "Terms of Use" (https://www.facebook.com/terms.php). Facebook. November 15, 2007.
Retrieved March 5, 2008.
42. "Facebook Expansion Enables More People to Connect with Friends in a Trusted
Environment" (https://newsroom.fb.com/news/2006/09/facebook-expansion-enables-more-peo
ple-to-connect-with-friends-in-a-trusted-environment/). Facebook Newsroom. September 26,
2006. Retrieved February 4, 2016.
43. Richmond, Riva (November 27, 2007). "Enterprise: Facebook, a Marketer's Friend; Site Offers
Platform To Tout Products, Interact With Users". Wall Street Journal. New York. p. B4.
44. Greenstein, Howard (May 27, 2009). "Facebook Pages vs Facebook Groups: What's the
Difference?" (http://mashable.com/2009/05/27/facebook-page-vs-group). Mashable.com.
Retrieved August 4, 2014.
45. "Microsoft gets a piece of Facebook" (https://money.cnn.com/2007/10/24/technology/msft_faceb
ook/). CNNMoney. CNN. October 24, 2007. Retrieved May 31, 2017.
46. Sherrets, Doug (October 24, 2007). "Microsoft invests $240M in Facebook, as Facebook
develops ad product" (https://venturebeat.com/2007/10/24/microsoft-funds-facebook-as-facebo
ok-develops-ad-product/). VentureBeat. Retrieved May 31, 2017.
47. "Facebook Expands Power of Platform Across the Web and Around the World" (https://about.fb.
com/news/2008/07/facebook-expands-power-of-platform-across-the-web-and-around-the-worl
d/). About Facebook. July 24, 2008. Retrieved May 26, 2020.
48. "Facebook to Establish International Headquarters in Dublin, Ireland" (https://www.facebook.co
m/press/releases.php?p=59042) (Press release). Facebook. October 2, 2008. Retrieved
November 30, 2008.
49. "Facebook 'cash flow positive,' signs 300M users" (http://www.cbc.ca/technology/story/2009/09/
16/tech-facebook-300-million-users.html). CBC News. Toronto. September 16, 2009. Retrieved
March 23, 2010.
50. Kazeniac, Andy (February 9, 2009). "Social Networks: Facebook Takes Over Top Spot, Twitter
Climbs" (https://web.archive.org/web/20110721111825/http://blog.compete.com/2009/02/09/fac
ebook-myspace-twitter-social-network/). Compete Pulse blog. Archived from the original (http://
blog.compete.com/2009/02/09/facebook-myspace-twitter-social-network/) on July 21, 2011.
Retrieved February 17, 2009.
51. Wauters, Robin (July 21, 2010). "Zuckerberg Makes It Official: Facebook Hits 500 Million
Members" (https://techcrunch.com/2010/07/21/facebook-500-million/). TechCrunch. AOL.
Retrieved June 4, 2017.
52. Arthur, Charles; Kiss, Jemima (July 21, 2010). "Facebook reaches 500 million users" (https://w
ww.theguardian.com/technology/2010/jul/21/facebook-500-million-users). The Guardian.
Guardian Media Group. Retrieved March 23, 2017.
53. Curtis, Sophie (February 3, 2014). "Facebook at 10: Zuckerberg hails 'incredible journey' " (http
s://www.telegraph.co.uk/technology/facebook/10614544/Facebook-at-10-Zuckerberg-hails-incr
edible-journey.html). The Telegraph. Retrieved May 31, 2017.
54. Womack, Brian (November 15, 2010). "Facebook Becomes Third Biggest US Web Company"
(https://web.archive.org/web/20101203081529/http://www.thejakartaglobe.com/technology/face
book-becomes-third-biggest-us-web-company/406751). Jakarta Globe. BeritaSatu Media
Holdings. Archived from the original (http://www.thejakartaglobe.com/technology/facebook-bec
omes-third-biggest-us-web-company/406751) on December 3, 2010. Retrieved May 31, 2017.
55. "FB.com acquired by Facebook" (https://web.archive.org/web/20110204210357/http://namemo
n.com/news/1-latest-news/115-fbcom-acquired-by-facebook). NameMon News. January 11,
2011. Archived from the original (http://namemon.com/news/1-latest-news/115-fbcom-acquired-
by-facebook) on February 4, 2011.
56. Parr, Ben. "These Are Facebook's New Offices [PHOTOS]" (https://mashable.com/2011/02/07/f
acebook-menlo-park-pics/). Mashable. Retrieved February 6, 2019.
57. Brundage, Sandy. "Facebook packs up for Menlo Park" (https://www.almanacnews.com/news/2
011/02/08/facebook-packs-up-for-menlo-park). www.almanacnews.com. Retrieved February 6,
2019.
58. "Facebook deletes 20,000 underage profiles daily" (http://ibnlive.in.com/news/facebook-deletes
-20000-underage-profiles-daily/146972-11.html). IBN Live. Noida, Uttar Pradesh. Press Trust of
India. March 24, 2011. Retrieved March 24, 2011.
59. Protalinski, Emil (August 24, 2011). "Facebook is first with 1 trillion page views, according to
Google" (https://www.zdnet.com/article/facebook-is-first-with-1-trillion-page-views-according-to-
google/). ZDNet. CBS Interactive. Retrieved July 13, 2017.
60. Solomon, Kate (August 25, 2011). "Facebook hit 1 trillion page views in June" (http://www.techr
adar.com/news/internet/facebook-hit-1-trillion-page-views-in-june-1000147). TechRadar.
Future plc. Retrieved July 13, 2017.
61. "Google and Facebook top 2011's most visited sites in US" (https://www.bbc.com/news/technol
ogy-16356066). BBC News. March 8, 2012. Retrieved July 13, 2017.
62. Fleming, Ryan (December 29, 2011). "Google and Facebook top the most visited websites of
2011" (https://www.digitaltrends.com/web/google-and-facebook-top-the-most-visited-websites-
of-2011/). Digital Trends. Retrieved July 13, 2017.
63. Wauters, Robin (July 7, 2009). "China Blocks Access To Twitter, Facebook After Riots" (https://t
echcrunch.com/2009/07/07/china-blocks-access-to-twitter-facebook-after-riots/). TechCrunch.
AOL. Retrieved June 15, 2017.
64. "Facebook app store launches amid mobile revenue worries" (https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/tech
nology-18017379). BBC News. May 10, 2012.
65. Mark Milian and Marcus Chan (May 18, 2012). "Facebook's Valuation: What $104 Billion Is
Worth" (https://www.bloomberg.com/slideshow/2012-05-17/facebook-s-valuation-what-104-billi
on-is-worth.html). Bloomberg Technology. Retrieved January 11, 2014.
66. Kerr, Dara. "Facebook stock hits a record high, since IPO" (http://news.cnet.com/8301-1023_3-
57600166-93/facebook-stock-hits-a-record-high-since-ipo/). C|Net News. C|Net. Retrieved
August 27, 2013.
67. Andrew Tangel; Walter Hamilton (May 17, 2012). "Stakes are high on Facebook's first day of
trading" (https://web.archive.org/web/20120518023059/http://www.latimes.com/business/la-fi-fa
cebook-pricing-20120518%2C0%2C3426310.story). The Los Angeles Times. Archived from
the original (https://www.latimes.com/business/la-fi-facebook-pricing-20120518,0,3426310.stor
y) on May 18, 2012. Retrieved May 17, 2012.
68. Evelyn M. Rusli; Peter Eavis (May 17, 2012). "Facebook Raises $16 Billion in I.P.O." (https://de
albook.nytimes.com/2012/05/17/facebook-raises-16-billion-in-i-p-o/?hp) The New York Times.
Retrieved May 17, 2012.
69. Bernard Condon (May 17, 2012). "Questions and answers on blockbuster Facebook IPO" (http
s://www.usnews.com/news/business/articles/2012/05/18/questions-and-answers-on-blockbust
er-facebook-ipo-3). U.S. News. Associated Press. Retrieved May 17, 2012.
70. Krantz, Matt (May 6, 2013). "Facebook squeaks onto the Fortune 500" (https://www.usatoday.co
m/story/money/business/2013/05/06/facebook-fortune-500-2013/2139223/). USA Today.
Retrieved May 19, 2013.
71. "Facebook Sets Record For IPO Trading Volume" (https://web.archive.org/web/201205240534
46/http://online.wsj.com/article/BT-CO-20120518-710783.html). The Wall Street Journal. May
18, 2012. Archived from the original (http://online.wsj.com/article/BT-CO-20120518-710783.htm
l) on May 24, 2012. Retrieved May 18, 2012.
72. Facebook shares fall valuation doubts (https://web.archive.org/web/20120528230445/https://fin
ance.yahoo.com/news/facebook-shares-fall-valuation-doubts-134021024.html). Yahoo!
Finance
73. Tepid honeymoon of Facebook and NASDAQ does not deliver the big bang (https://www.forbe
s.com/sites/billsinger/2012/05/20/tepid-honeymoon-of-facebook-and-nasdaq-does-not-deliver-t
he-big-bang/). forbes.com
74. Henry Blodget (May 22, 2012). "Facebook Bankers Secretly Cut Facebook's Revenue
Estimates In Middle Of IPO Roadshow" (https://finance.yahoo.com/blogs/daily-ticker/facebook-
bankers-secretly-cut-facebook-revenue-estimates-middle-133648905.html). Yahoo! Finance.
Retrieved December 14, 2014.
75. Facebook IPO underscores shutting out the masses (http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?f
=/c/a/2012/05/22/BU3K1OLCV5.DTL). sfgate.com
76. "Listing of Recent Securities Lawsuits Filed Against Facebook" (https://web.archive.org/web/20
131019163905/https://www.docketalarm.com/search/dockets/?q=facebook+morgan+stanley&f
=nos_exact-850+Securities%2FCommodities). Archived from the original (https://www.docketal
arm.com/search/dockets/?q=facebook+morgan+stanley&f=nos_exact-850+Securities%2FCom
modities) on October 19, 2013. Retrieved July 19, 2013.
77. Matt Nesto (May 23, 2012). "Fury Over Facebook IPO Grows, Lawsuits Mount" (https://finance.y
ahoo.com/blogs/breakout/fury-over-facebook-ipo-grows-lawsuits-mount-150039330.html).
Yahoo! Finance. Retrieved December 14, 2014.
78. Smith, Aaron; Segal, Laurie; Cowley, Stacy (October 4, 2012). "Facebook reaches one billion
users" (https://money.cnn.com/2012/10/04/technology/facebook-billion-users/). CNN. Retrieved
June 4, 2017.
79. Ionescu, Daniel (October 4, 2012). "Facebook rules the social networking world with 1 billion
users" (http://www.pcworld.com/article/2011123/facebook-rules-the-social-networking-world-wit
h-1-billion-users.html). PC World. International Data Group. Retrieved June 4, 2017.
80. Tsukayama, Hayley (January 15, 2013). "Facebook introduces social search feature" (https://w
ww.washingtonpost.com/business/technology/facebook-introduces-social-search-feature/2013/
01/15/599c6f7e-5f3d-11e2-9940-6fc488f3fecd_story.html). The Washington Post.
81. Claburn, Thomas (January 16, 2013). "Meet Facebook's Graph Search Tool" (http://www.inform
ationweek.com/security/privacy/meet-facebooks-graph-search-tool/240146350). Information
Week.
82. Seifert, Dan (April 4, 2013). "HTC and Facebook announce the First smartphone with AT&T,
arriving April 12th for $99.99" (https://www.theverge.com/2013/4/4/4182302/htc-and-facebook-a
nnounce-the-first-smartphone). The Verge. Vox Media. Retrieved March 23, 2017.
83. Lunden, Ingrid (April 15, 2013). "Facebook Links Up With Attorneys General In 19 U.S. States
For Teen Social Networking Safety Program" (https://techcrunch.com/2013/04/15/facebook-link
s-up-with-attorneys-general-in-19-u-s-states-for-teen-online-safety-program/). TechCrunch.
AOL. Retrieved March 23, 2017.
84. Murphy, Samantha (November 18, 2011). "New Facebook Logo Made Official" (http://mashabl
e.com/2013/04/19/facebook-logo-update/). Mashable. Retrieved April 20, 2013.
85. Nelson, Sara C. (May 28, 2013). "#FBrape: Will Facebook Heed Open Letter Protesting
'Endorsement Of Rape & Domestic Violence'?" (http://www.huffingtonpost.co.uk/2013/05/28/fbr
ape-will-facebook-heed-open-letter-protesting-endorsement-rape-domestic-violence_n_33465
20.html). The Huffington Post UK. Retrieved May 29, 2013.
86. Carroll, Rory (May 29, 2013). "Facebook gives way to campaign against hate speech on its
pages" (https://www.theguardian.com/technology/2013/may/29/facebook-campaign-violence-a
gainst-women). The Guardian. Guardian Media Group. Retrieved March 23, 2017.
87. Dey, Aditya (June 13, 2013). "Facebook Introduces Hashtags to its Users" (https://web.archive.
org/web/20130614152042/http://www.techstake.org/2013/06/facebook-introduces-hashtags-to-i
ts-users.html). TechStake-Technology News Blog. Archived from the original (http://www.techst
ake.org/2013/06/facebook-introduces-hashtags-to-its-users.html) on June 14, 2013. Retrieved
June 13, 2013.
88. Thurm, Scott (July 2, 2013). "How Facebook's IPO Created the Best-Paid County In America"
(https://blogs.wsj.com/corporate-intelligence/2013/07/02/how-facebooks-ipo-created-the-best-p
aid-county-in-america/). Corporate Intelligence blog. The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved July 4,
2013.
89. Gibbs, Samuel (October 7, 2013). "Sir Tim Berners-Lee and Google lead coalition for cheaper
internet" (https://www.theguardian.com/technology/2013/oct/07/google-berners-lee-alliance-bro
adband-africa). The Guardian. Guardian Media Group. Retrieved March 23, 2017.
90. Rushe, Dominic (January 29, 2014). "Facebook posts record quarterly results and reports
$1.5bn profit for 2013" (https://www.theguardian.com/technology/2014/jan/29/facebook-record-
quarterly-results). The Guardian. Guardian Media Group. Retrieved March 23, 2017.
91. McDuling, John. "Facebook's mobile user base has crossed the 1 billion threshold – Quartz" (ht
tp://qz.com/202349/facebook-mobile-user-base-has-crossed-the-1-billion-threshhold/). Qz.com.
Retrieved April 24, 2014.
92. Lewis DVorkin (July 29, 2014). "Inside Forbes: Mobile Part II, Or 4 More Charts That Offer a
Peek Into the Future of Journalism" (https://www.forbes.com/sites/lewisdvorkin/2014/07/29/insi
de-forbes-mobile-part-ii-or-4-more-charts-that-offer-a-peak-into-the-future-of-journalism/).
Forbes. Forbes LLC. Retrieved August 13, 2014.
93. Luckerson, Victor (September 8, 2014). "Facebook Is Now Worth $200 Billion" (http://time.com/
3305662/facebook-valuation-200-billion/). Time. Retrieved May 31, 2017.
94. La Monica, Paul R. (September 9, 2014). "A lot to 'like': Facebook now worth $200 billion" (http
s://money.cnn.com/2014/09/09/investing/facebook-worth-200-billion/). CNNMoney. CNN.
Retrieved May 31, 2017.
95. "Facebook Valuation Tops $200 Billion" (https://www.bloomberg.com/graphics/infographics/fac
ebook-valuation-tops-200-billion.html). Bloomberg L.P. September 8, 2014. Retrieved May 31,
2017.
96. Oreskovic, Alexei (January 20, 2015). "Facebook clamps down on fake news stories" (https://w
ww.reuters.com/article/2015/01/20/us-facebook-hoaxes-idUSKBN0KT2C820150120). Reuters.
Retrieved February 4, 2015.
97. Bakshy, Eytan; Messing, Solomon; Adamic, Lada A. (June 5, 2015). "Exposure to ideologically
diverse news and opinion on Facebook". Science. 348 (6239): 1130–1132.
Bibcode:2015Sci...348.1130B (https://ui.adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015Sci...348.1130B).
doi:10.1126/science.aaa1160 (https://doi.org/10.1126%2Fscience.aaa1160). PMID 25953820
(https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/25953820). S2CID 206632821 (https://api.semanticscholar.or
g/CorpusID:206632821).
98. "Facebook Is Hiding Your Friends' Updates From You | Unicorn Booty" (https://web.archive.org/
web/20151208044342/https://unicornbooty.com/facebook-is-hiding-your-friends-updates-from-y
ou/). Unicorn Booty. May 28, 2015. Archived from the original (https://unicornbooty.com/faceboo
k-is-hiding-your-friends-updates-from-you/) on December 8, 2015. Retrieved November 8,
2015.
99. gong (November 28, 2015). " 페이스북 전세계 아빠 출산휴가 주 개월로 확대
, ' ' 4 →4 " (http://news.na
ver.com/main/read.nhn?mode=LSD&mid=shm&sid1=105&oid=001&aid=0008017659).
00. "Zuckerberg unveils 10-year plan to expand Facebook empire, with political tones" (https://ww
w.usatoday.com/story/tech/2016/04/12/zuckerbergs-10-year-plan-expand-facebook-empire/829
36814/). USA TODAY. Retrieved April 12, 2016.
01. Ackerman, Gwen (July 11, 2016). "Facebook Sued for $1B for Alleged Use of Medium for
Terror" (https://web.archive.org/web/20160819093935/http://www.msn.com/en-us/news/world/fa
cebook-sued-for-dollar1b-for-alleged-use-of-medium-for-terror/ar-BBucrBn?li=BBnbfcL&ocid=
mailsignout). Bloomberg L.P. Archived from the original (https://www.msn.com/en-us/news/worl
d/facebook-sued-for-dollar1b-for-alleged-use-of-medium-for-terror/ar-BBucrBn?li=BBnbfcL&oci
d=mailsignout) on August 19, 2016. Retrieved September 23, 2016.
02. Constine, Josh (July 26, 2016). "Facebook open sources Surround 360 camera with Ikea-style
instructions" (https://techcrunch.com/2016/07/26/if-you-source-it-they-will-build/). TechCrunch.
AOL. Retrieved March 23, 2017.
03. "Facebook wins first Emmy for Visual animated short "Henry" " (https://www.yahoo.com/tech/fac
ebooks-oculus-wins-emmy-for-its-virtual-reality-short-173213477.html). September 20, 2016.
Retrieved September 21, 2016.
04. Hu, Howard (October 11, 2016). "Facebook's Workplace Could Replace All Emails Within Your
Company" (https://www.forbes.com/sites/howardhyu/2016/10/11/facebooks-workplace-could-re
place-all-emails-within-your-company/). Forbes. Retrieved October 11, 2016.
05. Alba, Davey. "Facebook's Cracking Down on Fake News Starting Today" (https://www.wired.co
m/2016/12/facebook-gets-real-fighting-fake-news/). WIRED. Retrieved December 15, 2016.
06. Plunkett, Luke (March 25, 2014). "Facebook Buys Oculus Rift For $2 Billion" (https://kotaku.co
m/facebook-buys-oculus-rift-for-2-billion-1551487939). Kotaku.com. Retrieved March 25, 2014.
07. Shead, Sam (January 17, 2017). "Facebook is planning to open a startup incubator in Paris" (ht
tp://www.businessinsider.com/facebook-launches-startup-incubator-in-station-f-2017-1).
Business Insider. Axel Springer SE. Retrieved March 23, 2017.
08. Matt Burgess (February 1, 2017). "More than 100 entrepreneurs sign up to help Facebook and
Station F find the best startups" (https://www.wired.co.uk/article/station-f-facebook-startup-garag
e-startups). WIRED. Retrieved February 8, 2017.
09. Nick Statt (April 18, 2017). "Facebook's bold and bizarre VR hangout app is now available for
the Oculus Rift" (https://www.theverge.com/2017/4/18/15332658/facebook-spaces-virtual-realit
y-oculus-rift-f8-conference-2017). THE VERGE. Retrieved April 19, 2017.
10. Janko Roettgers (April 18, 2017). "A Closer Look at Facebook Spaces, the Company's First
Social VR App" (https://variety.com/2017/digital/news/facebook-spaces-vr-app-1202033330/).
Variety. Retrieved April 19, 2017.
11. Etherington, Darrell. "Facebook plans to spend up to $1B on original shows in 2018" (https://tec
hcrunch.com/2017/09/08/facebook-plans-to-spend-up-to-1b-on-original-shows-in-2018/).
TechCrunch. Retrieved January 29, 2018.
12. Constine, Josh. "Facebook acquires anonymous teen compliment app tbh, will let it run" (http
s://techcrunch.com/2017/10/16/facebook-acquires-anonymous-teen-compliment-app-tbh-will-le
t-it-run/). TechCrunch. Retrieved October 17, 2017.
13. "Facebook has bought tbh, the anonymous app loved by teens" (http://uk.businessinsider.com/f
acebook-buys-tbh-anonymous-app-loved-by-teens-2017-10?r=US&IR=T). Business Insider.
Retrieved October 17, 2017.
14. "Facebook Buys TBH App Popular With Teens for Anonymous Messaging" (https://www.bloom
berg.com/news/articles/2017-10-16/facebook-buys-tbh-app-popular-with-teens-for-anonymous-
messaging). Bloomberg.com. October 16, 2017. Retrieved October 17, 2017.
15. "tbh has a new home!" (https://web.archive.org/web/20171017051329/https://tbhtime.com/new
s/). tbh. Archived from the original (https://tbhtime.com/news/) on October 17, 2017. Retrieved
October 17, 2017.
16. "Facebook F8: Zuckerberg's dating service takes on Tinder" (https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/techn
ology-43965204). BBC News. May 2, 2018. Retrieved May 2, 2018.
17. "Facebook wants to get you a date – CBC News" (http://www.cbc.ca/news/business/facebook-
dating-service-1.4643498).
18. "Facebook faces maximum fine for data misuse" (https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/technology-4478
5151). BBC News. July 11, 2018. Retrieved July 11, 2018.
19. "Facebook sets up China subsidiary" (https://www.channelnewsasia.com/news/business/faceb
ook-sets-up-china-subsidiary-10559294). Channel News Asia. July 24, 2018.
20. Mozur, Paul (July 25, 2018). "China Said to Quickly Withdraw Approval for New Facebook
Venture" (https://www.nytimes.com/2018/07/25/business/facebook-china.html). New York
Times.
21. Imbert, Fred; Francolla, Gina (July 26, 2018). "Facebook's $100 billion-plus rout is the biggest
loss in stock market history" (https://www.cnbc.com/2018/07/26/facebook-on-pace-for-biggest-o
ne-day-loss-in-value-for-any-company-sin.html). CNBC. Retrieved July 26, 2018.
22. Newton, Casey (July 26, 2018). "Facebook's stock market decline is the largest one-day drop
in US history" (https://www.theverge.com/2018/7/26/17619424/facebook-stock-market-decline-l
argest-ever). The Verge. Retrieved July 26, 2018.
23. Joseph Menn (September 19, 2018). "Facebook expands fake election news fight, but
falsehoods still rampant" (https://www.reuters.com/article/us-facebook-elections/facebook-expa
nds-fake-election-news-fight-but-falsehoods-still-rampant-idUSKCN1LZ2XY). Reuters.
Reuters. Retrieved September 28, 2018.
24. "Facebook Portal brings Alexa and Messenger video chats to one device" (https://www.cnet.co
m/reviews/facebook-portal-plus-preview/). CNET. October 8, 2018. Retrieved November 10,
2018.
25. "You can buy Facebook's Portal smart displays starting today" (https://www.cnet.com/news/face
books-portal-video-calling-smart-display-hits-stores/). CNET. November 7, 2018. Retrieved
November 10, 2018.
26. "Why everybody's doing the 10 year challenge (with the best so far)" (https://www.standard.co.u
k/insider/alist/10-year-challenge-facebook-instagram-celebrity-glow-ups-a4039476.html).
January 15, 2019.
27. "Facebook '10 year challenge' could be used for good and evil thanks to AI" (https://www.mirror.
co.uk/tech/facebook-10-year-challenge-could-13866672). January 16, 2019.
28. Graham, Jefferson (March 7, 2019). "Facebook announces anti-vaxx crackdown, will block ads
with vaccine misinformation" (https://www.usatoday.com/story/tech/talkingtech/2019/03/07/face
book-looks-tackle-vaccine-misinformation/3092719002/). USA Today (Gannett). Retrieved
March 8, 2019.
29. Jamison, Amelia M.; Broniatowski, David A.; Dredze, Mark; Wood-Doughty, Zach; Khan,
Dureaden; Quinn, Sandra Crouse (2020). "Vaccine-related advertising in the Facebook Ad
Archive" (https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6954281). Vaccine. 38 (3): 512–520.
doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2019.10.066 (https://doi.org/10.1016%2Fj.vaccine.2019.10.066).
PMC 6954281 (https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6954281). PMID 31732327 (http
s://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31732327).
30. "Majority of anti-vaxx ads on Facebook are funded by just two organizations" (https://www.theg
uardian.com/technology/2019/nov/13/majority-antivaxx-vaccine-ads-facebook-funded-by-two-o
rganizations-study). The Guardian. November 14, 2019. Retrieved November 14, 2019.
31. Feinberg, Askley (March 14, 2019). "Facebook, Axios And NBC Paid This Guy To Whitewash
Wikipedia Pages" (https://www.huffpost.com/entry/wikipedia-paid-editing-pr-facebook-nbc-axio
s_n_5c63321be4b03de942967225). Huffington Post. Retrieved March 15, 2019.
32. Anderson, Charles (March 24, 2019). "Censor bans 'manifesto' of Christchurch mosque
shooter" (https://www.theguardian.com/world/2019/mar/24/censor-bans-manifesto-of-christchur
ch-mosque-shooter) – via www.theguardian.com.
33. Romm, Tony; Dwoskin, Elizabeth (March 27, 2019). "Facebook says it will now block white-
nationalist, white-separatist posts" (https://www.washingtonpost.com/technology/2019/03/27/fa
cebook-says-it-will-now-block-white-nationalist-white-separatist-posts/). Washington Post.
Retrieved March 28, 2019.
34. O'Sullivan, Donie (March 27, 2019). "Facebook bans white nationalism two weeks after New
Zealand attack" (https://www.cnn.com/2019/03/27/tech/facebook-white-nationalism-ban/index.h
tml). CNN. Retrieved March 28, 2019.
35. "Facebook bans far right groups and leaders" (https://www.bbc.com/news/technology-4797457
9). BBC News. April 18, 2019. Retrieved April 18, 2019.
36. Vincent, James (April 18, 2019). "Facebook bans UK's biggest far-right organizations, including
EDL, BNP, and Britain First" (https://www.theverge.com/2019/4/18/18484623/facebook-bans-uk
-far-right-groups-leaders-edl-bnp-britain-first). The Verge. Retrieved April 18, 2019.
37. "Sri Lanka bombings 'retaliation' for Christchurch mosque attacks, minister says" (https://www.n
zherald.co.nz/nz/news/article.cfm?c_id=1&objectid=12224693). NZ Herald. April 23, 2019.
38. "Sri Lanka 'bombing mastermind' named as Moulvi Zahran Hashim" (https://www.telegraph.co.
uk/news/2019/04/23/sri-lanka-bombing-mastermind-named-moulvi-zahran-hashim/). The Daily
Telegraph. April 23, 2019.
39. Statt, Nick (April 30, 2019). "Facebook CEO Mark Zuckerberg says the "future is private" " (http
s://www.theverge.com/2019/4/30/18524188/facebook-f8-keynote-mark-zuckerberg-privacy-futur
e-2019). The Verge. Retrieved May 4, 2019.
40. "Facebook pivots to what it wishes it was" (http://social.techcrunch.com/2019/05/01/aspirationb
ook/). TechCrunch. Retrieved May 4, 2019.
41. "Analysis | The Technology 202: Facebook's new emphasis on groups could leave it more
vulnerable to disinformation" (https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/powerpost/paloma/the-tec
hnology-202/2019/05/01/the-technology-202-facebook-s-new-emphasis-on-groups-could-leave
-it-more-vulnerable-to-disinformation/5cc8c0e01ad2e506550b2ec0/). Washington Post.
Retrieved May 4, 2019.
42. Hunt, Elle (May 1, 2019). "Will Facebook's Secret Crush end the unbearable pain of unrequited
love?" (https://www.theguardian.com/technology/shortcuts/2019/may/01/will-facebooks-secret-c
rush-end-the-unbearable-pain-of-unrequited-love). The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077 (https://ww
w.worldcat.org/issn/0261-3077). Retrieved May 4, 2019.
43. Isaac, Mike (April 30, 2019). "Facebook Unveils Redesign as It Tries to Move Past Privacy
Scandals" (https://www.nytimes.com/2019/04/30/technology/facebook-private-communication-g
roups.html). The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331 (https://www.worldcat.org/issn/0362-4331).
Retrieved May 4, 2019.
44. "All the important stuff from Facebook's F8 keynote" (https://www.engadget.com/2019/04/30/fac
ebook-f8-keynote-announcements/). Engadget. Retrieved May 4, 2019.
45. "Takeaways from F8 and Facebook's next phase" (http://social.techcrunch.com/2019/05/02/tak
eaways-from-f8-and-facebooks-next-phase/). TechCrunch. Retrieved May 4, 2019.
46. "Facebook Reality Labs- UCSF working on tech that reads your mind" (https://previewtech.net/f
acebook-human-brain-ucsf/). Preview Tech. August 17, 2019.
47. "Facebook Dating launches in the US, adds Instagram integration" (http://social.techcrunch.co
m/2019/09/05/facebook-dating-launches-in-the-u-s-adds-instagram-integration/). TechCrunch.
Retrieved September 5, 2019.
48. Dwyer, Colin; Chappell, Bill. "Facebook News: App Will Offer Hand-Picked Stories From NPR,
Other Outlets" (https://www.npr.org/2019/10/25/773331294/facebook-news-app-will-offer-hand-
picked-stories-from-npr-other-outlets). NPR. Retrieved October 29, 2019.
49. Robertson, Adi (October 25, 2019). "Mark Zuckerberg is struggling to explain why Breitbart
belongs on Facebook News" (https://www.theverge.com/2019/10/25/20932653/facebook-news
-breitbart-mark-zuckerberg-statement-bias). The Verge. Retrieved October 29, 2019.
50. Ellefson, Lindsey; Burch, Sean (October 25, 2019). "Facebook News Criticized for Including
Breitbart as 'Trusted' Source" (https://www.thewrap.com/facebook-news-criticized-for-including-
breitbart-as-trusted-source/). TheWrap. Retrieved October 29, 2019.
51. Lee, Dami (December 13, 2019). "A thief stole unencrypted hard drives filled with 29,000
Facebook employees' information" (https://www.theverge.com/2019/12/13/21020736/facebook-
theft-unencrypted-drives-employee-payroll-security). The Verge. Retrieved December 14, 2019.
52. "Facebook Names Two New Directors, Making Board 40% Women" (https://www.bloombergqui
nt.com/technology/facebook-names-two-new-directors-making-board-40-women).
BloombergQuint. Retrieved March 10, 2020.
53. Wakefield, Jane (June 30, 2020). "UK hotel and insurance giants pause Facebook ads" (https://
www.bbc.com/news/technology-53235302). BBC News. Retrieved July 1, 2020.
54. Clayton, James (June 29, 2020). "Could a boycott kill Facebook?" (https://www.bbc.com/news/t
echnology-53225139). BBC News. Retrieved July 1, 2020.
55. "Facebook begins merging Instagram and Messenger chats in new update" (https://www.thever
ge.com/2020/8/14/21369737/facebook-merging-instagram-messenger-chats-update). The
Verge. Retrieved August 14, 2020.
56. Zadie Smith (November 25, 2010). "Generation Why?" (http://www.nybooks.com/articles/archiv
es/2010/nov/25/generation-why/?pagination=false). The New York Review of Books. Retrieved
February 15, 2014.
57. Jose Antonio Vargas (September 20, 2010). "LETTER FROM PALO ALTO: THE FACE OF
FACEBOOK" (https://www.newyorker.com/reporting/2010/09/20/100920fa_fact_vargas?current
Page=all). The New Yorker. Condé Nast. Retrieved February 15, 2014.
58. Haiping Zhao (February 2, 2010). "Developer Blog – HipHop for PHP: Move Fast" (https://devel
opers.facebook.com/blog/post/2010/02/02/hiphop-for-php--move-fast/). Facebook Developers.
Facebook. Retrieved November 11, 2013.
59. Paul, Ryan (April 5, 2012). "Exclusive: a behind-the-scenes look at Facebook release
engineering" (https://arstechnica.com/business/2012/04/exclusive-a-behind-the-scenes-look-at
-facebook-release-engineering/). Ars Technica. Condé Nast. Retrieved June 14, 2017.
60. "Facebook's New Real-time Analytics System: HBase To Process 20 Billion Events Per Day"
(http://highscalability.com/blog/2011/3/22/facebooks-new-realtime-analytics-system-hbase-to-pr
ocess-20.html). Highscalability.com. March 22, 2011. Retrieved December 26, 2012.
61. "The Evolution of Advanced Caching in the Facebook CDN" (https://research.fb.com/blog/201
6/04/the-evolution-of-advanced-caching-in-the-facebook-cdn/). April 7, 2016.
62. Dwarakanath, Navya (August 12, 2019). [[[:Template:Service.canonical]] "What I Learned About
How Facebook Infrastructure Serves Our Photos"] Check |url= value (help).
Template:Service.siteName. Retrieved July 10, 2020.
63. "An Analysis of Facebook Photo Caching" (https://research.fb.com/publications/an-analysis-of-f
acebook-photo-caching/).
64. "Does Facebook use any other CDN apart from Akamai? Encountered fbcdn.net subdomain
that does not belong to Akamai" (https://webapps.stackexchange.com/questions/85953/does-fa
cebook-use-any-other-cdn-apart-from-akamai-encountered-fbcdn-net-subdoma). Web
Applications Stack Exchange.
65. Farahbakhsh, Reza; Cuevas, Angel; Ortiz, Antonio M.; Han, Xiao; Crespi, Noel (2015). "How
far is Facebook from me? Facebook network infrastructure analysis". IEEE Communications
Magazine. Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE). 53 (9): 134–142.
arXiv:1705.00717 (https://arxiv.org/abs/1705.00717). doi:10.1109/mcom.2015.7263357 (https://
doi.org/10.1109%2Fmcom.2015.7263357). ISSN 0163-6804 (https://www.worldcat.org/issn/016
3-6804). S2CID 7987529 (https://api.semanticscholar.org/CorpusID:7987529).
66. Metz, Cade (March 20, 2014). "Facebook Introduces 'Hack', the Programming Language of the
Future" (https://www.wired.com/wiredenterprise/2014/03/facebook-hack/). Wired.
67. Havenstein, Heather (July 21, 2008). "Facebook Facelift Targets Aging Users and New
Competitors" (https://www.nytimes.com/idg/IDG_852573C4006938800025748D0064C292.htm
l). The New York Times.
68. Slee, Mark (September 10, 2008). "Moving to the new Facebook" (http://blog.new.facebook.co
m/blog.php?post=30074837130). The Facebook Blog. Retrieved September 12, 2008.
69. Knibbs, Kate (December 11, 2015). "How Facebook's design has changed over the last 10
years" (https://www.dailydot.com/debug/old-facebook-profiles-news-feeds/). The Daily Dot.
Retrieved June 14, 2017.
70. Schulman, Jacob (September 22, 2011). "Facebook introduces Timeline: 'a new way to
express who you are' " (https://www.theverge.com/2011/09/22/facebook-introduces-timeline-a-e
xpress-are). The Verge. Vox Media. Retrieved June 14, 2017.
71. Gayomali, Chris (September 22, 2011). "Facebook Introduces 'Timeline': The 'Story' of Your
Life" (http://techland.time.com/2011/09/22/facebook-introduces-timeline-the-story-of-your-life/).
Time. Retrieved June 14, 2017.
72. Panzarino, Matthew (September 22, 2011). "Facebook introduces radical new profile design
called Timeline: The story of your life [Video]" (https://thenextweb.com/facebook/2011/09/22/fac
ebook-introduces-timeline-the-story-of-your-life/). The Next Web. Retrieved June 14, 2017.
73. Weaver, Jason (March 30, 2012). "The Evolution of Facebook for Brands" (http://mashable.co
m/2012/03/30/facebook-for-brands/). Mashable. Retrieved June 14, 2017.
74. "Before Graph Search: Facebook's Biggest Changes" (http://uk.pcmag.com/internet-products/5
8174/gallery/before-graph-search-facebooks-biggest-changes?p=3). PC Magazine. Ziff Davis.
January 15, 2013. Retrieved June 14, 2017.
75. Hof, Rob (November 6, 2007). "Facebook Declares New Era for Advertising" (https://www.bloo
mberg.com/news/articles/2007-11-05/facebook-declares-new-era-for-advertising). Bloomberg.
Retrieved June 14, 2017.
76. Parr, Ben (June 9, 2009). "Facebook to Launch Vanity URLs for All" (http://mashable.com/2009/
06/09/facebook-vanity-urls/). Mashable. Retrieved June 14, 2017.
77. O'Neill, Nick (June 9, 2009). "Facebook Begins Rolling Out Free Profile Usernames For Vanity
URLs" (http://www.adweek.com/digital/facebook-begins-rolling-out-free-profile-usernames-for-v
anity-urls/). Adweek. Beringer Capital. Retrieved June 14, 2017.
78. Crook, Jordan; Constine, Josh (February 13, 2014). "Facebook Opens Up LGBTQ-Friendly
Gender Identity And Pronoun Options" (https://techcrunch.com/2014/02/13/facebook-gender-id
entity/). TechCrunch. AOL. Retrieved March 23, 2017.
79. "Facebook expands gender options: transgender activists hail 'big advance' " (https://www.theg
uardian.com/technology/2014/feb/13/transgender-facebook-expands-gender-options). The
Guardian. Guardian Media Group. February 14, 2014. Retrieved June 14, 2017.
80. Oreskovic, Alexei (February 13, 2014). "In new profile feature, Facebook offers choices for
gender identity" (https://www.reuters.com/article/us-facebook-gender-idUSBREA1C1RU20140
214). Reuters. Thomson Reuters. Retrieved June 14, 2017.
81. Machkovech, Sam (May 16, 2014). "Facebook adds naggy "ask" button to profile pages" (http
s://arstechnica.com/business/2014/05/facebook-introduces-naggy-ask-function-into-profile-pag
es/). Ars Technica. Condé Nast. Retrieved June 14, 2017.
82. Stampler, Laura (May 19, 2014). "Facebook's New 'Ask' Button Gives You a Whole New Way to
Badger Friends About Their Relationship Status" (http://time.com/104720/facebooks-new-ask-b
utton-gives-you-a-whole-new-way-to-badger-friends-about-their-relationship-status/). Time.
Retrieved June 14, 2017.
83. Sanghvi, Ruchi (September 6, 2006). "Facebook Gets a Facelift" (http://blog.facebook.com/blo
g.php?post=2207967130). The Facebook Blog. Retrieved February 11, 2008.
84. "Facebook: Celebrate Your Birthday Every Day" (http://blog.colnect.com/2010/03/facebook-cel
ebrate-your-birthday-every.html). Colnect blog. Retrieved March 9, 2010.
85. Lacy, Sarah (September 8, 2006). "Facebook Learns from Its Fumble" (http://www.businesswee
k.com/technology/content/sep2006/tc20060908_536553.htm). BusinessWeek. New York.
Retrieved June 28, 2008.
86. Gonsalves, Antone (September 8, 2006). "Facebook Founder Apologizes In Privacy Flap;
Users Given More Control" (http://www.informationweek.com/news/internet/ebusiness/showArti
cle.jhtml?articleID=192700574). InformationWeek. New York. Retrieved June 28, 2008.
87. US patent 7669123 (https://worldwide.espacenet.com/textdoc?DB=EPODOC&IDX=US766912
3)
88. "US Patent No. 7669123" (https://web.archive.org/web/20110515155132/http://themelis-cuiper.
com/22/us-patent-no-7669123.html). Social Media. March 1, 2010. Archived from the original (h
ttp://themelis-cuiper.com/22/us-patent-no-7669123.html) on May 15, 2011. Retrieved March 9,
2010.
89. "EdgeRank" (http://edgerank.net/). EdgeRank. October 29, 2007. Retrieved February 16, 2013.
90. Arrington, Michael (May 24, 2007). "Facebook Launches Facebook Platform; They are the Anti-
MySpace" (https://techcrunch.com/2007/05/24/facebook-launches-facebook-platform-they-are-t
he-anti-myspace/). TechCrunch. AOL. Retrieved March 23, 2017.
91. "Share More Memories with Larger Photo Albums" (http://blog.facebook.com/blog.php?post=87
157517130). Retrieved January 4, 2010.
92. "Photos" (https://web.archive.org/web/20080731205244/https://www.facebook.com/help.php?p
age=7). Facebook. Archived from the original (https://www.facebook.com/help.php?page=7) on
July 31, 2008. Retrieved March 15, 2008.
93. Shontell, Alyson (May 13, 2011). "The First 20 Facebook Employees: Where Are They Now?"
(https://www.businessinsider.com/facebooks-first-20-employees-2011-5#aaron-sittig-was-broug
ht-on-by-sean-parker-he-created-the-concept-of-tagging-friends-in-facebook-pictures-4).
Business Insider. Retrieved September 10, 2019.
94. Cutler, Kim-Mai (May 17, 2011). "Facebook Wins Patents For Tagging In Photos, Other Digital
Media" (https://www.adweek.com/digital/facebook-patent-photo-tagging/). Adweek. Retrieved
September 10, 2019.
95. "Facebook to launch App Center" (https://web.archive.org/web/20120608112718/http://timesofi
ndia.indiatimes.com/tech/news/internet/Facebook-to-launch-App-Center/articleshow/1392064
1.cms). The Times Of India. June 8, 2012. Archived from the original (http://timesofindia.indiati
mes.com/tech/news/internet/Facebook-to-launch-App-Center/articleshow/13920641.cms) on
June 8, 2012.
96. "Introducing Instant Articles – Facebook Media" (https://web.archive.org/web/20150514162847/
http://media.fb.com/2015/05/12/instantarticles/). fb.com. Archived from the original (http://media.f
b.com/2015/05/12/instantarticles/) on May 14, 2015. Retrieved May 15, 2015.
97. "Facebook launches "Instant Articles" " (http://previewtech.net/facebook-launches-instant-articl
es/). Preview Tech. May 14, 2015.
98. Constine, Josh (January 25, 2017). "Facebook Stories puts a Snapchat clone above the News
Feed" (https://techcrunch.com/2017/01/25/facebook-stories/). TechCrunch. AOL. Retrieved
March 23, 2017.
99. Franklin, Rachel (October 11, 2017). "Building Connections Through Creativity and Opening
VR to Everyone" (https://www.oculus.com/blog/building-connections-through-creativity-and-ope
ning-vr-to-everyone/). Oculus. Retrieved February 28, 2018.
00. Isaac, Mike (2018). "Facebook Overhauls News Feed to Focus on What Friends and Family
Share" (https://www.nytimes.com/2018/01/11/technology/facebook-news-feed.html). The New
York Times. ISSN 0362-4331 (https://www.worldcat.org/issn/0362-4331). Retrieved January 17,
2018.
01. Kincaid, Jason (February 9, 2009). "Facebook Activates "Like" Button; FriendFeed Tires Of
Sincere Flattery" (https://techcrunch.com/2009/02/09/facebook-activates-like-button-friendfeed-t
ires-of-sincere-flattery/). TechCrunch. AOL. Retrieved May 31, 2017.
02. Mangalindan, JP (April 21, 2015). "Facebook Likes don't go as far as they used to in News
Feed update" (http://mashable.com/2015/04/21/news-feed-facebook-likes/). Mashable.
Retrieved May 31, 2017.
03. Constine, Josh (September 6, 2016). "How Facebook News Feed Works" (https://techcrunch.c
om/2016/09/06/ultimate-guide-to-the-news-feed/). TechCrunch. AOL. Retrieved May 31, 2017.
04. "Like and React to Posts" (https://www.facebook.com/help/1624177224568554/). Facebook
Help Center. Facebook. Retrieved May 31, 2017.
05. Albanesius, Chloe (June 17, 2010). "Facebook Adds Ability to 'Like' Comments" (https://www.p
cmag.com/article2/0,2817,2365190,00.asp). PC Magazine. Ziff Davis. Retrieved May 31, 2017.
06. Newton, Casey (February 24, 2016). "Facebook rolls out expanded Like button reactions
around the world" (https://www.theverge.com/2016/2/24/11094374/facebook-reactions-like-butt
on). The Verge. Vox Media. Retrieved May 31, 2017.
07. Stinson, Liz (February 24, 2016). "Facebook Reactions, the Totally Redesigned Like Button, Is
Here" (https://www.wired.com/2016/02/facebook-reactions-totally-redesigned-like-button).
Wired. Retrieved May 31, 2017.
08. Garun, Natt (May 3, 2017). "Facebook reactions have now infiltrated comments" (https://www.th
everge.com/2017/5/3/15536812/facebook-reactions-now-available-comments). The Verge. Vox
Media. Retrieved May 31, 2017.
09. Cohen, David (May 3, 2017). "Facebook Just Extended Reactions to Comments" (http://www.a
dweek.com/digital/facebook-reactions-comments/). Adweek. Beringer Capital. Retrieved
May 31, 2017.
10. Lyles, Taylor. "Facebook adds a 'care' reaction to the like button 5" (https://www.theverge.com/2
020/4/17/21224805/facebook-care-reaction-like-button-messenger-app). The Verge. Retrieved
May 2, 2020.
11. Hendrickson, Mark (April 6, 2008). "Facebook Chat Launches, For Some" (https://techcrunch.c
om/2008/04/06/facebook-chat-enters-pre-release-beta/). TechCrunch. AOL. Retrieved June 2,
2017.
12. Siegler, MG (November 15, 2010). "Facebook's Modern Messaging System: Seamless, History,
And A Social Inbox" (https://techcrunch.com/2010/11/15/facebook-messaging/). TechCrunch.
AOL. Retrieved June 2, 2017.
13. Kincaid, Jason (August 9, 2011). "Facebook Launches Standalone iPhone/Android Messenger
App (And It's Beluga)" (https://techcrunch.com/2011/08/09/facebook-launches-standalone-mobi
le-messenger-app-and-it%E2%80%99s-beluga/). TechCrunch. AOL. Retrieved June 2, 2017.
14. King, Hope (April 27, 2015). "Facebook Messenger now lets you make video calls" (https://mon
ey.cnn.com/2015/04/27/technology/facebook-messenger-mobile-video-call/). CNN. Retrieved
June 2, 2017.
15. Statt, Nick (December 19, 2016). "Facebook Messenger now lets you video chat with up to 50
people" (https://www.theverge.com/2016/12/19/14006752/facebook-messenger-group-video-ch
at-feature-update). The Verge. Vox Media. Retrieved June 2, 2017.
16. Hamburger, Ellis (January 16, 2013). "Facebook launches free calling for all iPhone users in
the US" (https://www.theverge.com/2013/1/16/3883538/facebook-launches-free-calling-in-mess
enger-for-iphone-us). The Verge. Vox Media. Retrieved June 2, 2017.
17. Constine, Josh (April 27, 2015). "Facebook Messenger Launches Free VOIP Video Calls Over
Cellular And Wi-Fi" (https://techcrunch.com/2015/04/27/facebook-messenger-video-chat/).
TechCrunch. AOL. Retrieved June 2, 2017.
18. Arthur, Charles (December 4, 2012). "Facebook turns Messenger into a text message killer" (htt
ps://www.theguardian.com/technology/2012/dec/04/facebook-messenger-android-sms-killer).
The Guardian. Guardian Media Group. Retrieved June 2, 2017.
19. "Chat Heads come to Facebook Messenger for Android" (https://www.theverge.com/2013/4/12/
4216838/facebook-updates-messenger-adds-chat-heads). The Verge. Vox Media. April 12,
2013. Retrieved June 2, 2017.
20. Perez, Sarah (February 11, 2016). "Facebook Tests SMS Integration In Messenger, Launches
Support For Multiple Accounts" (https://techcrunch.com/2016/02/11/facebook-tests-sms-integrat
ion-in-messenger-launches-support-for-multiple-accounts/). TechCrunch. AOL. Retrieved
June 2, 2017.
21. Greenberg, Andy (October 4, 2016). "You Can All Finally Encrypt Facebook Messenger, So Do
It" (https://www.wired.com/2016/10/facebook-completely-encrypted-messenger-update-now/).
Wired. Retrieved June 2, 2017.
22. Constine, Josh (November 29, 2016). "Facebook Messenger launches Instant Games" (https://t
echcrunch.com/2016/11/29/messenger-instant-games/). TechCrunch. AOL. Retrieved June 2,
2017.
23. Constine, Josh (March 17, 2015). "Facebook Introduces Free Friend-To-Friend Payments
Through Messages" (https://techcrunch.com/2015/03/17/facebook-pay/). TechCrunch. AOL.
Retrieved June 2, 2017.
24. Hawkins, Andrew J. (December 16, 2015). "Facebook Messenger now lets you hail an Uber
car" (https://www.theverge.com/2015/12/16/10303878/facebook-messenger-uber-app-integratio
n-API). The Verge. Vox Media. Retrieved June 2, 2017.
25. Vincent, James (March 9, 2017). "Facebook's Snapchat stories clone, Messenger Day, is now
rolling out globally" (https://www.theverge.com/2017/3/9/14867192/facebook-messenger-snapc
hat-stories-clone-day). The Verge. Vox Media. Retrieved June 2, 2017.
26. Vincent, James (March 23, 2017). "Facebook Messenger gets reactions for individual
messages and @ notifications" (https://www.theverge.com/2017/3/23/15033810/facebook-mes
senger-notifications-reactions). The Verge. Vox Media. Retrieved June 2, 2017.
27. King, Hope (March 25, 2015). "7 big changes coming to Facebook" (https://money.cnn.com/201
5/03/25/technology/facebook-f8-messenger/). CNN. Retrieved June 2, 2017.
28. Newton, Casey (April 12, 2016). "Facebook launches a bot platform for Messenger" (https://ww
w.theverge.com/2016/4/12/11395806/facebook-messenger-bot-platform-announced-f8-confere
nce). The Verge. Vox Media. Retrieved June 2, 2017.
29. Statt, Nick (April 6, 2017). "Facebook's AI assistant will now offer suggestions inside
Messenger" (https://www.theverge.com/2017/4/6/15200836/facebook-messenger-m-suggestion
s-ai-assisant). The Verge. Vox Media. Retrieved June 2, 2017.
30. Constine, Josh (April 6, 2017). "Facebook Messenger's AI 'M' suggests features to use based
on your convos" (https://techcrunch.com/2017/04/06/facebook-messengers-ai-m-suggests-featu
res-to-use-based-on-your-convos/). TechCrunch. AOL. Retrieved June 2, 2017.
31. Constine, Josh (April 18, 2017). "Facebook Messenger launches group bots and bot discovery
tab" (https://techcrunch.com/2017/04/18/facebook-bot-discovery/). TechCrunch. AOL. Retrieved
June 2, 2017.
32. Hamburger, Ellis (December 5, 2012). "Facebook snubs 'Subscribe' button in favor of Twitter-
esque 'Follow' on all profile pages" (https://www.theverge.com/2012/12/5/3731986/facebook-lik
e-follow). The Verge. Vox Media. Retrieved March 23, 2017.
33. Constine, Josh (February 15, 2012). "Facebook Launches Verified Accounts and Pseudonyms"
(https://techcrunch.com/2012/02/15/facebook-verified-accounts-alternate-names/). TechCrunch.
AOL. Retrieved March 23, 2017.
34. "Edward Snowden: Leaks that exposed US spy programme" (https://www.bbc.com/news/world-
us-canada-23123964). BBC News. January 17, 2014.
35. "Search Privacy" (https://www.facebook.com/privacy/?view=search). Facebook. Retrieved
June 13, 2009.
36. "Choose Your Privacy Settings" (https://www.facebook.com/settings/?tab=privacy). Facebook.
Retrieved September 10, 2009.
37. Wilberding, Kurt; Wells, Georgia (February 4, 2019). "Facebook's Timeline: 15 Years In" (http
s://www.wsj.com/articles/facebooks-timeline-15-years-in-11549276201). Wall Street Journal.
ISSN 0099-9660 (https://www.worldcat.org/issn/0099-9660). Retrieved February 6, 2019.
38. "Facebook" (https://facebook.com/whitehat). Facebook. Retrieved August 4, 2014.
39. "Facebook Offers $500 Bounty for Reporting Bugs: Why So Cheap" (https://www.pcmag.com/ar
ticle2/0,2817,2389460,00.asp). PC Magazine. Retrieved January 18, 2015.
40. Bug Bounty, Facebook. "Facebook Bug Bounty" (https://www.facebook.com/notes/facebook-bu
g-bounty/bug-bounty-highlights-and-updates/818902394790655). Facebook Security.
Retrieved April 3, 2014.
41. Schroeder, Stan (August 26, 2008). "Facebook's 100 Million Users: How Much are They
Worth?" (http://mashable.com/2008/08/26/facebook-100-million-users/). Mashable. Retrieved
June 4, 2017.
42. Kiss, Jemima (October 4, 2012). "Facebook hits 1 billion users a month" (https://www.theguardi
an.com/technology/2012/oct/04/facebook-hits-billion-users-a-month). The Guardian. Guardian
Media Group. Retrieved June 4, 2017.
43. Welch, Chris (June 27, 2017). "Facebook crosses 2 billion monthly users" (https://www.theverg
e.com/2017/6/27/15880494/facebook-2-billion-monthly-users-announced). The Verge. Vox
Media. Retrieved June 27, 2017.
44. Constine, Josh (June 27, 2017). "Facebook now has 2 billion monthly users ... and
responsibility" (https://techcrunch.com/2017/06/27/facebook-2-billion-users/). TechCrunch.
AOL. Retrieved July 1, 2017.
45. Cohen, David (November 6, 2015). "Facebook Changes Definition of Monthly Active Users" (ht
tp://www.adweek.com/digital/monthly-active-users-definition-revised/). Adweek. Beringer
Capital. Retrieved June 4, 2017.
46. Abrar Al-Heeti, Facebook lost 15 million US users in the past two years, report says (https://ww
w.cnet.com/news/facebook-lost-15-million-us-users-in-the-past-two-years-report-says/), CNET
(March 6, 2019).
47. Nick Statt, Facebook's US user base declined by 15 million since 2017, according to survey (ht
tps://www.theverge.com/2019/3/6/18253274/facebook-users-decline-15-million-people-united-s
tates-privacy-scandals), The Verge (March 6, 2019).
48. Heaven, Will (June 14, 2011). "Is this the beginning of the end for Facebook?" (https://web.arch
ive.org/web/20120314014241/http://blogs.telegraph.co.uk/news/willheaven/100092236/is-this-t
he-beginning-of-the-end-for-facebook/). The Daily Telegraph. Archived from the original (http://b
logs.telegraph.co.uk/news/willheaven/100092236/is-this-the-beginning-of-the-end-for-faceboo
k/) on March 14, 2012.
49. Silverman, Matt (June 13, 2012). "The End of Facebook: What Will It Take to Kill the King of
Social?" (https://mashable.com/2012/06/13/facebook-decline). Mashable.
50. Bilton, Nick (October 27, 2017). "This Could Be the End of Facebook" (https://www.vanityfair.co
m/news/2017/10/this-could-be-the-end-of-facebook-hive-podcast). Vanity Fair.
51. "December Data on Facebook's US Growth by Age and Gender: Beyond 100 Million – Inside
Facebook" (http://www.insidefacebook.com/2010/01/04/december-data-on-facebook%E2%8
0%99s-us-growth-by-age-and-gender-beyond-100-million/). Inside Facebook. Retrieved
October 7, 2014.
52. "Facebook users by country | Statistic" (https://www.statista.com/statistics/268136/top-15-countr
ies-based-on-number-of-facebook-users/). Statista. Retrieved February 4, 2019.
53. Khan, Aarzu (August 19, 2018). "Number of Facebook Monthly Active Users Worldwide, By
Region - DGraph" (https://dazeinfo.com/2018/08/20/facebook-users-by-region-dgraph/).
Dazeinfo. Retrieved February 4, 2019.
54. "Social Networking" (https://www.pcmag.com/article2/0,2817,2169354,00.asp). PC Magazine.
August 13, 2007. Retrieved May 9, 2008.
55. "12th Annual Webby Awards Nominees" (https://web.archive.org/web/20100926024111/http://
www.webbyawards.com/webbys/current.php?season=12). International Academy of Digital
Arts and Sciences. Archived from the original (http://www.webbyawards.com/webbys/current.ph
p?season=12) on September 26, 2010. Retrieved May 6, 2008.
56. Ha, Anthony (January 11, 2010). "Congratulations to Facebook, Bing, and the other Crunchies
winners" (https://venturebeat.com/2010/01/11/crunchies-winners-facebook-bing/). VentureBeat.
Retrieved July 13, 2017.
57. Kincaid, Jason (January 8, 2010). "Congratulations Crunchies Winners! Facebook Takes Best
Overall For The Hat Trick" (https://techcrunch.com/2010/01/08/crunchies-winner/). TechCrunch.
AOL. Retrieved March 23, 2017.
58. Wauters, Robin (July 7, 2009). "China Blocks Access To Twitter, Facebook After Riots" (https://t
echcrunch.com/2009/07/07/china-blocks-access-to-twitter-facebook-after-riots/). TechCrunch.
AOL. Retrieved June 3, 2017.
59. "Iranian government blocks Facebook access" (https://www.theguardian.com/world/2009/may/2
4/facebook-banned-iran). The Guardian. Guardian Media Group. May 24, 2009. Retrieved
June 3, 2017.
60. Oweis, Khaled Yacoub (November 23, 2007). "Syria blocks Facebook in Internet crackdown" (h
ttps://www.reuters.com/article/us-syria-facebook-idUSOWE37285020071123). Reuters.
Thomson Reuters. Retrieved June 3, 2017.
61. "Facebook to be banned in Papua New Guinea for a month" (https://www.bbc.com/news/techn
ology-44290012). BBC News. BBC. May 29, 2018. Retrieved May 30, 2018.
62. Business, Kaya Yurieff, CNN. "Instagram influencers can no longer promote vaping and guns"
(https://www.cnn.com/2019/12/18/tech/instagram-influencers-vaping-guns/index.html). CNN.
Retrieved December 19, 2019.
63. Aspen, Maria (February 11, 2008). "How Sticky Is Membership on Facebook? Just Try
Breaking Free" (https://www.nytimes.com/2008/02/11/technology/11facebook.html). The New
York Times. Retrieved June 3, 2017.
64. Anthony, Sebastian (March 19, 2014). "Facebook's facial recognition software is now as
accurate as the human brain, but what now?" (http://www.extremetech.com/extreme/178777-fac
ebooks-facial-recognition-software-is-now-as-accurate-as-the-human-brain-but-what-now).
ExtremeTech. Ziff Davis. Retrieved June 3, 2017.
65. Gannes, Liz (June 8, 2011). "Facebook facial recognition prompts EU privacy probe" (https://w
ww.cnet.com/news/facebook-facial-recognition-prompts-eu-privacy-probe/). CNET. CBS
Interactive. Retrieved June 3, 2017.
66. Robinson, Bill (February 10, 2014). "Facebook: The World's Biggest Waste of Time?" (https://w
ww.huffingtonpost.com/billrobinson/facebook-the-worlds-bigge_b_4585457.html).
www.huffingtonpost.com. Huffington Post. Retrieved March 3, 2018.
67. Friedman, Matt (March 21, 2013). "Bill to ban companies from asking about job candidates'
Facebook accounts is headed to governor" (http://www.nj.com/politics/index.ssf/2013/03/bill_to
_ban_companies_from_req.html). NJ.com. Advance Digital. Retrieved June 3, 2017.
68. "How Facebook Breeds Jealousy" (https://www.seeker.com/how-facebook-breeds-jealousy-17
65020296.html). Seeker. Group Nine Media. February 10, 2010. Retrieved June 3, 2017.
69. Matyszczyk, Chris (August 11, 2009). "Study: Facebook makes lovers jealous" (https://www.cn
et.com/news/study-facebook-makes-lovers-jealous/). CNET. CBS Interactive. Retrieved
June 3, 2017.
70. Ngak, Chenda (November 27, 2012). "Facebook may cause stress, study says" (https://www.cb
snews.com/news/facebook-may-cause-stress-study-says/). CBS News. CBS. Retrieved
June 3, 2017.
71. Smith, Dave (November 13, 2015). "Quitting Facebook will make you happier and less
stressed, study says" (http://www.businessinsider.com/quitting-facebook-will-make-you-happier
-and-less-stressed-study-2015-11). Business Insider. Axel Springer SE. Retrieved June 3,
2017.
72. Bugeja, Michael J. (January 23, 2006). "Facing the Facebook" (https://web.archive.org/web/200
80220193743/http://chronicle.com/jobs/news/2006/01/2006012301c/careers.html). The
Chronicle of Higher Education. Archived from the original (http://chronicle.com/jobs/news/2006/
01/2006012301c/careers.html) on February 20, 2008. Retrieved June 3, 2017.
73. Hough, Andrew (April 8, 2011). "Student 'addiction' to technology 'similar to drug cravings',
study finds" (https://www.telegraph.co.uk/technology/news/8436831/Student-addiction-to-techn
ology-similar-to-drug-cravings-study-finds.html). The Telegraph. Telegraph Media Group.
Retrieved June 3, 2017.
74. "Facebook and Twitter 'more addictive than tobacco and alcohol' " (https://www.telegraph.co.uk/
news/health/news/9054243/Facebook-and-Twitter-more-addictive-than-tobacco-and-alcohol.ht
ml). The Telegraph. Telegraph Media Group. February 1, 2012. Retrieved June 3, 2017.
75. Evan Osnos. "Can Mark Zuckerberg Fix Facebook Before It Breaks Democracy?" (https://www.
newyorker.com/magazine/2018/09/17/can-mark-zuckerberg-fix-facebook-before-it-breaks-demo
cracy). The New Yorker, September 17, 2018 Issue. Retrieved September 15, 2018.
76. Wauters, Robin (September 16, 2010). "Greenpeace Slams Zuckerberg For Making Facebook
A "So Coal Network" (Video)" (https://techcrunch.com/2010/09/16/greenpeace-slams-zuckerbe
rg-for-making-facebook-a-so-coal-network-video/). TechCrunch. AOL. Retrieved June 3, 2017.
77. Neate, Rupert (December 23, 2012). "Facebook paid £2.9m tax on £840m profits made outside
US, figures show" (https://www.theguardian.com/technology/2012/dec/23/facebook-tax-profits-o
utside-us). The Guardian. Guardian Media Group. Retrieved June 3, 2017.
78. Grinberg, Emanuella (September 18, 2014). "Facebook 'real name' policy stirs questions
around identity" (http://edition.cnn.com/2014/09/16/living/facebook-name-policy). CNN.
Retrieved June 3, 2017.
79. Doshi, Vidhi (July 19, 2016). "Facebook under fire for 'censoring' Kashmir-related posts and
accounts" (https://www.theguardian.com/technology/2016/jul/19/facebook-under-fire-censoring-
kashmir-posts-accounts). The Guardian. Guardian Media Group. Retrieved June 3, 2017.
80. Arrington, Michael (November 22, 2007). "Is Facebook Really Censoring Search When It Suits
Them?" (https://techcrunch.com/2007/11/22/is-facebook-really-censoring-search-when-it-suits-t
hem/). TechCrunch. AOL. Retrieved June 3, 2017.
81. Greenwald, Glenn; MacAskill, Ewen (June 7, 2013). "NSA Prism program taps in to user data
of Apple, Google and others" (https://www.theguardian.com/world/2013/jun/06/us-tech-giants-n
sa-data). The Guardian. Guardian Media Group. Retrieved June 3, 2017.
82. Setalvad, Ariha (August 7, 2015). "Why Facebook's video theft problem can't last" (https://www.t
heverge.com/2015/8/7/9114149/facebook-freebooting-video-copyright-infringement). The
Verge. Vox Media. Retrieved June 3, 2017.
83. "Facebook, Twitter and Google grilled by MPs over hate speech" (https://www.bbc.com/news/u
k-39272261). BBC News. BBC. March 14, 2017. Retrieved June 3, 2017.
84. Toor, Amar (September 15, 2015). "Facebook will work with Germany to combat anti-refugee
hate speech" (https://www.theverge.com/2015/9/15/9329119/facebook-germany-hate-speech-x
enophobia-migrant-refugee). The Verge. Vox Media. Retrieved June 3, 2017.
85. Sherwell, Philip (October 16, 2011). "Cyber anarchists blamed for unleashing a series of
Facebook 'rape pages' " (https://www.telegraph.co.uk/technology/facebook/8829165/Cyber-ana
rchists-blamed-for-unleashing-a-series-of-Facebook-rape-pages.html). The Telegraph.
Telegraph Media Group. Retrieved June 3, 2017.
86. "20,000 Israelis sue Facebook for ignoring Palestinian incitement" (http://www.timesofisrael.co
m/20000-israelis-sue-facebook-for-ignoring-palestinian-incitement/). The Times of Israel.
October 27, 2015. Retrieved June 3, 2017.
87. "Israel: Facebook's Zuckerberg has blood of slain Israeli teen on his hands" (http://www.timesof
israel.com/israel-facebooks-zuckerberg-has-blood-of-slain-israeli-teen-on-his-hands/). The
Times of Israel. July 2, 2016. Retrieved June 3, 2017.
88. Burke, Samuel (November 19, 2016). "Zuckerberg: Facebook will develop tools to fight fake
news" (https://money.cnn.com/2016/11/19/technology/mark-zuckerberg-facebook-fake-news-el
ection/). CNN. Retrieved June 3, 2017.
89. Staff, Our Foreign (June 1, 2017). "Hillary Clinton says Facebook 'must prevent fake news from
creating a new reality' " (https://www.telegraph.co.uk/technology/2017/05/31/hillary-clinton-says
-facebook-must-prevent-fake-news-creating/). The Telegraph. Telegraph Media Group.
Retrieved June 3, 2017.
90. Fiegerman, Seth (May 9, 2017). "Facebook's global fight against fake news" (https://money.cnn.
com/2017/05/09/technology/facebook-fake-news/index.html). CNN. Retrieved June 3, 2017.
91. Grinberg, Emanuella; Said, Samira (March 22, 2017). "Police: At least 40 people watched
teen's sexual assault on Facebook Live" (http://edition.cnn.com/2017/03/21/us/facebook-live-ga
ng-rape-chicago). CNN. Retrieved June 3, 2017.
92. Grinberg, Emanuella (January 5, 2017). "Chicago torture: Facebook Live video leads to 4
arrests" (http://edition.cnn.com/2017/01/04/us/chicago-facebook-live-beating). CNN. Retrieved
June 3, 2017.
93. Sulleyman, Aatif (April 27, 2017). "Facebook Live killings: Why the criticism has been harsh" (h
ttps://www.independent.co.uk/life-style/gadgets-and-tech/features/facebook-live-killings-ai-artifi
cial-intelligence-not-blame-fatalities-murders-us-steve-stephens-a7706056.html). The
Independent. Retrieved June 3, 2017.
94. "Paradise Papers reveal hidden wealth of global elite" (https://tribune.com.pk/story/1550750/3-
paradise-papers-reveal-hidden-wealth-global-elite/). The Express Tribune. November 6, 2017.
95. May 13, Reuters | Updated; 2019; Ist, 21:29. "Sri Lanka Riots: Sri Lanka imposes nationwide
curfew after anti-Muslim riots - Times of India" (https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/world/south-
asia/sri-lanka-imposes-nationwide-curfew-after-anti-muslim-riots/articleshow/69311594.cms).
The Times of India. Retrieved May 14, 2019.
96. "Sri Lanka blocks social media after worst anti-Muslim violence since Easter Sunday attacks"
(https://www.thenational.ae/world/asia/sri-lanka-blocks-social-media-after-worst-anti-muslim-vi
olence-since-easter-sunday-attacks-1.860859). The National. Retrieved May 14, 2019.
97. Sullivan, Mark. "Facebook catches 3 billion fake accounts, but the ones it misses are the real
problem" (https://www.fastcompany.com/90354777/facebooks-active-user-problem-how-many-
maus-are-fake). Fast Company.
98. Cox, Kate. "The FTC is investigating Facebook. Again" (https://arstechnica.com/tech-policy/20
19/07/facebook-faces-new-anti-competition-investigation-as-privacy-probe-is-settled/). ars
Technica. Retrieved August 11, 2019.
99. Ingram, David; Fioretti, Julia (March 29, 2018). "Facebook cuts ties to data brokers in blow to
targeted ads" (https://www.reuters.com/article/us-facebook-privacy-idUSKBN1H41KV).
Reuters. Retrieved February 5, 2019.
00. Simpson, David; Brown, Pamela (September 30, 2013). "NSA mines Facebook, including
Americans' profiles" (http://edition.cnn.com/2013/09/30/us/nsa-social-networks/index.html).
cnn.com. Retrieved September 30, 2013.
01. "Facebook Settles FTC Charges That It Deceived Consumers By Failing To Keep Privacy
Promises" (http://www.ftc.gov/opa/2011/11/privacysettlement.shtm). FTC. November 29, 2011.
Retrieved November 29, 2011.
02. "Social networks: can robots violate user privacy?" (https://wayback.archive-it.org/all/20140103
153742/https://www.htbridge.com/news/social_networks_can_robots_violate_user_privacy.htm
l). August 27, 2013. Archived from the original (https://www.htbridge.com/news/social_networks
_can_robots_violate_user_privacy.html) on January 3, 2014. Retrieved January 5, 2014.
03. Van Grove, Jennifer (January 2, 2014). "Facebook sued for allegedly intercepting private
messages" (https://www.cnet.com/news/facebook-sued-for-allegedly-intercepting-private-mess
ages/). CNet. CBS Interactive. Retrieved March 16, 2015.
04. "Facebook bug set 14 million users' sharing settings to public" (https://money.cnn.com/2018/06/
07/technology/facebook-public-post-error/index.html). June 7, 2018. Retrieved June 7, 2018.
05. "Millions of Facebook Records Found On Amazon Servers" (https://hackhex.com/security/millio
ns-of-facebook-records-found-on-amazon-servers-5173.html). Hack Hex. April 4, 2019.
Retrieved June 4, 2019.
06. "Facebook confirms 419m phone numbers exposed in latest privacy lapse" (https://www.thegua
rdian.com/technology/2019/sep/04/facebook-users-phone-numbers-privacy-lapse). The
Guardian. September 5, 2019. Retrieved September 7, 2019.
07. Brandom, Russell (April 11, 2018). "Shadow profiles are the biggest flaw in Facebook's privacy
defense" (https://www.theverge.com/2018/4/11/17225482/facebook-shadow-profiles-zuckerber
g-congress-data-privacy). The Verge. Retrieved June 28, 2019.
08. "How Facebook can have your data even if you're not on Facebook" (https://www.usatoday.co
m/story/tech/columnist/baig/2018/04/13/how-facebook-can-have-your-data-even-if-youre-not-fa
cebook/512674002/). USA TODAY. Retrieved April 13, 2018.
09. Hill, Kashmir (November 7, 2017). "How Facebook Figures Out Everyone You've Ever Met" (htt
ps://gizmodo.com/how-facebook-figures-out-everyone-youve-ever-met-1819822691). Gizmodo.
Retrieved June 28, 2019.
10. Lewis, Paul; Wong, Julia Carrie (March 18, 2018). "Facebook employs psychologist whose firm
sold data to Cambridge Analytica" (https://www.theguardian.com/news/2018/mar/18/facebook-c
ambridge-analytica-joseph-chancellor-gsr). the Guardian. Retrieved March 20, 2018.
11. Franceschi-Bicchierai, Lorenzo (March 19, 2018). "Why We're Not Calling the Cambridge
Analytica Story a 'Data Breach' " (https://motherboard.vice.com/en_us/article/3kjzvk/facebook-c
ambridge-analytica-not-a-data-breach). Motherboard. Retrieved March 20, 2018.
12. Rosenberg, Matthew; Confessore, Nicholas; Cadwalladr, Carole (March 17, 2018). "How
Trump Consultants Exploited the Facebook Data of Millions" (https://www.nytimes.com/2018/0
3/17/us/politics/cambridge-analytica-trump-campaign.html) – via NYTimes.com.
13. Timberg, Craig; Romm, Tony (March 18, 2018). "Facebook may have violated FTC privacy
deal, say former federal officials, triggering risk of massive fines" (https://www.washingtonpost.c
om/news/the-switch/wp/2018/03/18/facebook-may-have-violated-ftc-privacy-deal-say-former-fe
deral-officials-triggering-risk-of-massive-fines/). Washington Post. ISSN 0190-8286 (https://ww
w.worldcat.org/issn/0190-8286). Retrieved March 25, 2018.
14. CNBC (March 23, 2018). "UK High Court grants Cambridge Analytica search warrant to ICO"
(https://web.archive.org/web/20180323222219/https://www.cnbc.com/2018/03/23/uk-high-court-
grants-cambridge-analytica-search-warrant-to-ico.html). CNBC. Archived from the original (http
s://www.cnbc.com/2018/03/23/uk-high-court-grants-cambridge-analytica-search-warrant-to-ico.
html) on March 23, 2018. Retrieved March 23, 2018.
15. "Facebook boss apologises in newspaper ads" (https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/business-435329
48). BBC News. March 25, 2018. Retrieved March 25, 2018.
16. Ivanova, Irina (March 26, 2018). "Facebook stock rebounds after FTC investigation news" (http
s://www.cbsnews.com/news/ftc-facebook-investigation-confirmed-opened-facebook-stock-drop
s-futher-today/). CBS News. Retrieved March 26, 2018.
17. Feiner, Lauren (April 24, 2019). "Facebook estimates up to $5 billion loss in FTC privacy
inquiry" (https://www.cnbc.com/2019/04/24/facebook-estimates-up-to-5-billion-loss-in-ftc-privac
y-inquiry.html). www.cnbc.com. Retrieved April 25, 2019.
18. Solon, Olivia (April 12, 2018). "Fact-checking Mark Zuckerberg's testimony about Facebook
privacy" (https://www.theguardian.com/technology/2018/apr/11/fact-checking-mark-zuckerberg-
testimony-congress). The Guardian. Retrieved June 29, 2018.
19. "Zuckerberg says Facebook will offer GDPR privacy controls everywhere" (https://techcrunch.c
om/2018/04/04/zuckerberg-gdpr/). TechCrunch. Retrieved April 4, 2018.
20. Brodkin, Jon (April 12, 2018). "Facebook exits anti-privacy alliance it formed with Comcast and
Google" (https://arstechnica.com/tech-policy/2018/04/facebook-donated-200000-to-kill-a-privac
y-law-but-now-its-backtracking/). Ars Technica. Retrieved April 13, 2018.
21. "Funny, When Obama Harvested Facebook Data On Millions Of Users To Win In 2012,
Everyone Cheered (https://web.archive.org/web/20190220020940/https://www.investors.com/p
olitics/editorials/facebook-data-scandal-trump-election-obama-2012/)". Investor's Business
Daily. March 19, 2018.
22. "Why Are We Only Now Talking About Facebook And Elections? (https://www.forbes.com/sites/
kalevleetaru/2018/03/19/why-are-we-only-now-talking-about-facebook-and-elections/)".
Forbes. March 19, 2018.
23. "Former Facebook staffer, Obama campaign boss reveal concerns about Facebook data (http://
www.news.com.au/technology/online/security/former-obama-campaign-boss-reveals-how-they-
could-access-creepy-facebook-data/news-story/5a275b7c9f540fc9542f5256e644e26e)".
News.com.au. March 21, 2018.
24. "Comparing Facebook data use by Obama, Cambridge Analytica" (https://www.politifact.com/tr
uth-o-meter/statements/2018/mar/22/meghan-mccain/comparing-facebook-data-use-obama-ca
mbridge-analyt/). PolitiFact. Retrieved May 24, 2019.
25. "Everything you need to know about Facebook's data breach affecting 50M users" (https://techc
runch.com/2018/09/28/everything-you-need-to-know-about-facebooks-data-breach-affecting-50
m-users/). TechCrunch. Retrieved October 2, 2018.
26. Isaac, Mike; Frenkel, Sheera (September 28, 2018). "Facebook Security Breach Exposes
Accounts of 50 Million Users" (https://www.nytimes.com/2018/09/28/technology/facebook-hack-
data-breach.html). The New York Times. Retrieved September 29, 2018.
27. Wong, Julia Carrie (September 28, 2018). "Facebook says nearly 50m users compromised in
huge security breach" (https://www.theguardian.com/technology/2018/sep/28/facebook-50-milli
on-user-accounts-security-berach). The Guardian. Retrieved September 29, 2018.
28. "Not Tens of Thousands, But Millions of Instagram Passwords Exposed, Admits Facebook" (htt
ps://www.news18.com/news/tech/not-tens-of-thousands-but-millions-of-instagram-passwords-e
xposed-admits-facebook-2108667.html). News18. Retrieved April 19, 2019.
29. Ghoshal, Abhimanyu (December 20, 2019). "267 million Facebook users' data has reportedly
been leaked" (https://thenextweb.com/facebook/2019/12/20/267-million-facebook-users-data-h
as-reportedly-been-leaked/). The Next Web. Retrieved December 21, 2019.
30. "Facebook's Twitter account hacked" (https://www.nbcnews.com/tech/security/facebook-s-twitte
r-account-hacked-n1132901). NBC News. Retrieved February 7, 2020.
31. Morris, Betsy; Seetharaman, Deepa (August 9, 2017). "The New Copycats: How Facebook
Squashes Competition From Startups" (https://www.wsj.com/articles/the-new-copycats-how-fac
ebook-squashes-competition-from-startups-1502293444). Wall Street Journal. ISSN 0099-
9660 (https://www.worldcat.org/issn/0099-9660). Retrieved August 15, 2017.
32. "The New Copycats: How Facebook Squashes -2-" (http://www.foxbusiness.com/features/201
7/08/09/new-copycats-how-facebook-squashes-2.html). Fox Business. August 9, 2017.
Retrieved August 15, 2017.
33. "Facebook knew about Snap's struggles months before the public" (https://www.engadget.com/
2017/08/13/facebook-knew-about-snap-struggles-through-app-tracking/). Engadget. Retrieved
August 15, 2017.
34. "Apple makes Facebook pull its spyware(ish) VPN from the App Store" (https://www.fastcompa
ny.com/90224974/apple-makes-facebook-pull-its-spywareish-vpn-from-the-app-store). Fast
Company. August 23, 2018. Retrieved September 3, 2018.
35. McKay, Tom (August 22, 2018). "Facebook Pulls Its Data-Harvesting Onavo VPN From App
Store After Apple Says It Violates Rules" (https://gizmodo.com/facebook-pulls-its-data-harvesti
ng-onavo-vpn-from-app-s-1828541718). Gizmodo. Retrieved September 3, 2018.
36. Morse, Jack (August 22, 2018). "Facebook to pull its creepy VPN Onavo from App Store after
Apple pushback" (https://mashable.com/article/facebook-pulls-onavo-from-app-store/).
Mashable. Retrieved September 3, 2018.
37. "Apple removed Facebook's Onavo from the App Store for gathering app data" (https://techcrun
ch.com/2018/08/22/apple-facebook-onavo/). TechCrunch. Retrieved August 23, 2018.
38. "Facebook will pull its data-collecting VPN app from the App Store over privacy concerns" (http
s://www.theverge.com/2018/8/22/17771298/facebook-onavo-protect-apple-app-store-pulled-pri
vacy-concerns). The Verge. Retrieved August 23, 2018.
39. Constine, John (January 29, 2019). "Facebook pays teens to install VPN that spies on them" (h
ttp://social.techcrunch.com/2019/01/29/facebook-project-atlas/). TechCrunch. Retrieved
January 30, 2019.
40. Wagner, Kurt (January 30, 2019). "Apple says it's banning Facebook's research app that
collects users' personal information" (https://www.recode.net/2019/1/30/18203231/apple-banni
ng-facebook-research-app). Recode. Retrieved January 30, 2019.
41. Warren, Tom (January 30, 2019). "Apple blocks Facebook from running its internal iOS apps" (h
ttps://www.theverge.com/2019/1/30/18203551/apple-facebook-blocked-internal-ios-apps). The
Verge. Retrieved January 30, 2019.
42. Isaac, Mike (January 31, 2019). "Apple Shows Facebook Who Has the Power in an App
Dispute" (https://www.nytimes.com/2019/01/31/technology/apple-blocks-facebook.html). The
New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331 (https://www.worldcat.org/issn/0362-4331). Retrieved
February 2, 2019 – via NYTimes.com.
43. Gallagher, Sean (March 24, 2018). "Facebook scraped call, text message data for years from
Android phones [Updated]" (https://arstechnica.com/information-technology/2018/03/facebook-
scraped-call-text-message-data-for-years-from-android-phones/). Ars Technica. Retrieved
January 31, 2019.
44. Rosenberg, Adam. "Facebook's app has been collecting Android phone data for years on
some devices" (https://mashable.com/2018/03/25/facebook-android-phone-call-data-gatherin
g/). Mashable. Retrieved February 6, 2019.
45. Facebook has been collecting call history and SMS data from Android devices (https://www.the
verge.com/2018/3/25/17160944/facebook-call-history-sms-data-collection-android) The Verge
46. "Android users file lawsuit against Facebook for invasion of privacy" (https://www.jurist.org/new
s/2018/05/android-users-file-lawsuit-against-facebook-for-invasion-of-privacy/). jurist.org.
47. Buckner, Gabriella (May 14, 2018). "Facebook faces class action lawsuit for Android call and
message data scraping" (http://www.itpro.co.uk/data-mining/31107/facebook-faces-class-action
-lawsuit-for-android-call-and-message-data-scraping). itpro.co.uk. Retrieved February 7, 2019.
48. "Off-Facebook Activity" (https://www.facebook.com/off-facebook-activity). Facebook for
Business.
49. Fowler, Geoffrey A. "Perspective | Facebook will now show you exactly how it stalks you —
even when you're not using Facebook" (https://www.washingtonpost.com/technology/2020/01/
28/off-facebook-activity-page/). Washington Post.
50. Bowie, Norman E.; Schnieder, Meg (February 9, 2011). Business Ethics For Dummies (https://b
ooks.google.com/books?id=SzxDTGGr80EC&pg=PA119). John Wiley & Sons.
ISBN 9781118020623.
51. Hempel, Jessi (March 30, 2018). "A Short History of Facebook's Privacy Gaffes" (https://www.w
ired.com/story/facebook-a-history-of-mark-zuckerberg-apologizing/). Wired. ISSN 1059-1028 (h
ttps://www.worldcat.org/issn/1059-1028). Retrieved February 6, 2019.
52. Statt, Nick (March 25, 2018). "Mark Zuckerberg apologizes for Facebook's data privacy scandal
in full-page newspaper ads" (https://www.theverge.com/2018/3/25/17161398/facebook-mark-zu
ckerberg-apology-cambridge-analytica-full-page-newspapers-ads). The Verge. Retrieved
February 6, 2019.
53. "Social Media/polls Show Low Trust In Facebook" (https://www.digitaltrends.com/social-media/
polls-show-low-trust-facebook/). www.digitaltrends.com. Retrieved February 6, 2019.
54. Christofides, E.; Muise, A.; Desmarais, S. (March 31, 2010). "Privacy and Disclosure on
Facebook: Youth & Adults' Information Disclosure and Perceptions of Privacy Risks -
Contributions Program 2009-2010" (https://www.priv.gc.ca/en/opc-actions-and-decisions/resear
ch/funding-for-privacy-research-and-knowledge-translation/completed-contributions-program-pr
ojects/2009-2010/p_200910_06/). www.priv.gc.ca. Office of the Privacy Commissioner of.
Retrieved February 6, 2019.
55. Wong, Julia Carrie (December 12, 2017). "Former Facebook executive: social media is ripping
society apart" (https://www.theguardian.com/technology/2017/dec/11/facebook-former-executiv
e-ripping-society-apart). The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077 (https://www.worldcat.org/issn/0261-3
077). Retrieved February 6, 2019.
56. Roose, Kevin. "Facebook and YouTube Give Alex Jones a Wrist Slap" (https://www.nytimes.co
m/2018/07/27/technology/alex-jones-facebook-youtube.html). Retrieved August 4, 2018.
57. Siva Vaidhyanathan (June 12, 2018), Antisocial Media: How Facebook Disconnects Us and
Undermines Democracy, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0-19-084118-8, Wikidata
Q56027099
58. p. 195-196 of 276 and chapter 6. "The Politics Machine" and its section on "The Damage" more
generally
59. Section on "How Facebook helped make Trump president" in chapter 6, esp. p. 215.
60. "Borne by Facebook, Conspiracy Theory That U.S. Created ISIS Spreads Across Middle East"
(https://www.nytimes.com/2014/08/27/world/middleeast/isis-conspiracy-theories-include-a-purp
orted-american-plot.html). Retrieved August 4, 2018.
61. Gowen, Annie; Bearak, Max. "Fake news on Facebook fans the flames of hate against the
Rohingya in Burma" (https://www.washingtonpost.com/world/asia_pacific/fake-news-on-facebo
ok-fans-the-flames-of-hate-against-the-rohingya-in-burma/2017/12/07/2c1fe830-ca1f-11e7-b50
6-8a10ed11ecf5_story.html). The Washington Post. Retrieved August 4, 2018.
62. "Myanmar's Military Said to Be Behind Facebook Campaign That Fueled Genocide" (https://w
ww.nytimes.com/2018/10/15/technology/myanmar-facebook-genocide.html). Retrieved
October 15, 2018.
63. News, Scott Waldman,E&E. "Climate Denial Spreads on Facebook as Scientists Face
Restrictions" (https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/climate-denial-spreads-on-facebook-a
s-scientists-face-restrictions/). Scientific American. Retrieved August 6, 2020.
64. Pozner, Leonard; Rosa, Veronique De La; Pozner, parents of Noah (July 25, 2018). "An open
letter to Mark Zuckerberg from the parents of a Sandy Hook victim" (https://www.theguardian.co
m/commentisfree/2018/jul/25/mark-zuckerberg-facebook-sandy-hook-parents-open-letter). the
Guardian. Retrieved August 4, 2018.
65. "Facebook Fueled Anti-Refugee Attacks in Germany, New Research Suggests" (https://www.n
ytimes.com/2018/08/21/world/europe/facebook-refugee-attacks-germany.html). Retrieved
August 21, 2018.
66. MMller, Karsten; Schwarz, Carlo (2017). "Fanning the Flames of Hate: Social Media and Hate
Crime". SSRN Working Paper Series. doi:10.2139/ssrn.3082972 (https://doi.org/10.2139%2Fss
rn.3082972). ISSN 1556-5068 (https://www.worldcat.org/issn/1556-5068). SSRN 3082972 (http
s://ssrn.com/abstract=3082972).
67. Beauchamp, Zack (January 22, 2019). "Social media is rotting democracy from within" (https://
web.archive.org/web/20190125171545/https://www.vox.com/policy-and-politics/2019/1/22/181
77076/social-media-facebook-far-right-authoritarian-populism). Vox. Archived from the original
(https://www.vox.com/policy-and-politics/2019/1/22/18177076/social-media-facebook-far-right-a
uthoritarian-populism) on January 25, 2019.
68. Etter, Lauren (December 7, 2017). "What Happens When the Government Uses Facebook as a
Weapon?" (https://web.archive.org/web/20190124225207/https://www.bloomberg.com/news/fe
atures/2017-12-07/how-rodrigo-duterte-turned-facebook-into-a-weapon-with-a-little-help-from-f
acebook). Bloomberg. Archived from the original (https://www.bloomberg.com/news/features/20
17-12-07/how-rodrigo-duterte-turned-facebook-into-a-weapon-with-a-little-help-from-facebook)
on January 24, 2019.
69. Hunt, Elle (March 22, 2017). " 'Disputed by multiple fact-checkers': Facebook rolls out new alert
to combat fake news" (https://www.theguardian.com/technology/2017/mar/22/facebook-fact-che
cking-tool-fake-news). The Guardian. Retrieved November 4, 2019.
70. Sherman, Amy. "In phony Facebook ad, Warren said most TV networks will refuse ads with a
'lie' but that's wrong" (https://www.politifact.com/truth-o-meter/statements/2019/oct/15/elizabeth-
warren/phony-facebook-ad-warren-said-most-tv-networks-wil/). Politifact. Retrieved
November 4, 2019.
71. Scola, Nancy. "Facebook on fake Pelosi video: Being 'false' isn't enough for removal" (https://w
ww.politico.com/story/2019/05/24/facebook-fake-pelosi-video-1472413). Politico.
72. "Mail Bomber Cesar Sayoc Threatened Me on Facebook - Volokh Conspiracy" (http://reason.co
m/volokh/2018/10/27/mail-bomber-cesar-sayoc-threatened-me-on). October 27, 2018.
73. Frenkel, Sheera (July 18, 2018). "Facebook to Remove Misinformation That Leads to Violence"
(https://www.nytimes.com/2018/07/18/technology/facebook-to-remove-misinformation-that-lead
s-to-violence.html). The New York Times. Retrieved August 9, 2018.
74. Darcy, Oliver. "Facebook's rhetoric on misinformation doesn't match its actions" (https://money.c
nn.com/2018/07/20/media/facebook-infowars-false-news-misinformation/index.html).
CNNMoney. Retrieved August 4, 2018.
75. Kelly, Heather. "Mark Zuckerberg clarifies his Holocaust comments" (https://money.cnn.com/20
18/07/18/technology/zuckerberg-recode-holocaust/index.html). CNNMoney. Retrieved
August 4, 2018.
76. Oliver Darcy (May 2, 2019). "Facebook bans Louis Farrakhan, Milo Yiannopoulos, InfoWars
and others from its platforms as 'dangerous' " (https://www.cnn.com/2019/05/02/tech/facebook-b
an-louis-farrakhan-infowars-alex-jones-milo-laura-loomer/index.html). CNN.
77. Michael Cappetta and Ben Collins (May 2, 2019). "Alex Jones, Louis Farrakhan, others banned
from Facebook and Instagram" (https://www.nbcnews.com/tech/tech-news/facebook-bans-alex-
jones-louis-farrakhan-others-facebook-instagram-n1001311). NBC News.
78. Newton, Casey (May 12, 2020). "Facebook will pay $52 million in settlement with moderators
who developed PTSD on the job" (https://www.theverge.com/2020/5/12/21255870/facebook-co
ntent-moderator-settlement-scola-ptsd-mental-health). The Verge. Retrieved May 13, 2020.
79. Newton, Casey (February 25, 2019). "The secret lives of Facebook moderators in America" (htt
ps://www.theverge.com/2019/2/25/18229714/cognizant-facebook-content-moderator-interviews
-trauma-working-conditions-arizona). The Verge. Retrieved May 16, 2020.
80. "Facebook Content Moderators Win $52m Compensation Settlement" (https://www.moderatorri
ghts.com/blog/facebook-content-moderators-win-52m-compensation-settlement/).
ModeratorRights.com. May 13, 2020. Retrieved May 13, 2020.
81. "Media — both on the left and right — are pressing Facebook to define what journalism is" (http
s://www.recode.net/2018/7/16/17577426/media-left-right-facebook-define-journalism). Recode.
Retrieved August 4, 2018.
82. Kosoff, Maya. "Why Facebook Won't Actually Ban Fake News" (https://www.vanityfair.com/new
s/2018/07/how-facebooks-infowars-crisis-exposes-mark-zuckerbergs-hypocrisy?mbid=social_t
witter). The Hive. Retrieved August 4, 2018.
83. "Facebook Said Alex Jones' Threatening Rant Against Robert Mueller Doesn't Violate Its
Rules" (https://www.buzzfeednews.com/article/charliewarzel/facebook-alex-jones-robertmuelle
r-pedophile). BuzzFeed News. Retrieved August 4, 2018.
84. Darcy, Oliver. "Facebook suspends personal profile of InfoWars founder Alex Jones" (https://mo
ney.cnn.com/2018/07/26/media/facebook-infowars-alex-jones/index.html). CNNMoney.
Retrieved August 4, 2018.
85. Ross, Jamie (August 6, 2018). "Facebook and Apple iTunes Ban Alex Jones as Internet Giants
Silence Infowars" (https://www.thedailybeast.com/facebook-and-apple-itunes-ban-alex-jones-a
s-internet-giants-silence-infowars). The Daily Beast. Retrieved August 6, 2018.
86. Gleicher, Nathaniel; Rodriguez, Oscar (October 11, 2018). "Removing Additional Inauthentic
Activity from Facebook" (https://newsroom.fb.com/news/2018/10/removing-inauthentic-activity/).
Facebook Newsroom. Retrieved May 27, 2019.
87. "Snowden Docs: British Spies Used Sex and 'Dirty Tricks' " (https://www.nbcnews.com/news/in
vestigations/snowden-docs-british-spies-used-sex-dirty-tricks-n23091). NBC News. February
7, 2014.
88. "Snowden leaks: GCHQ 'attacked Anonymous' hackers" (https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/technolo
gy-26049448). BBC. February 5, 2014.
89. "China's 'troll factory' targeting Taiwan with disinformation prior to election" (https://www.taiwan
news.com.tw/en/news/3568146). Taiwan News. May 11, 2018.
90. "Trolls, bots and shutdowns: This is how Turkey manipulates public opinion" (https://ahvalnew
s.com/freedoms/trolls-bots-and-shutdowns-how-turkey-manipulates-public-opinion). Ahval.
November 17, 2017.
91. "Jewish Internet Defense Force 'seizes control' of anti-Israel Facebook group" (https://www.jpos
t.com/Jewish-World/Jewish-News/Jewish-Internet-Defense-Force-seizes-control-of-anti-Israel-
Facebook-group). The Jerusalem Post. July 29, 2008.
92. Morrison, Sarah (March 4, 2008). "Jewish Activist Battles For Israel on Facebook" (http://www.i
sraelnationalnews.com/News/News.aspx/125783). Israel National News.
93. "Social media manipulation rising globally, new report warns" (http://www.ox.ac.uk/news/2018-
07-20-social-media-manipulation-rising-globally-new-report-warns). University of Oxford. July
20, 2018.
94. "Facebook: Most political trolls are American, not Russian" (https://www.telegraph.co.uk/techno
logy/2018/10/11/facebook-political-trolls-american-not-russian/). The Daily Telegraph. October
12, 2018.
95. "Facebook suspends five accounts, including that of a social media researcher, for misleading
tactics in Alabama election" (https://www.washingtonpost.com/technology/2018/12/22/facebook
-suspends-five-accounts-including-social-media-researcher-misleading-tactics-alabama-electi
on/). The Washington Post. December 22, 2018.
96. "Democratic operatives created fake Russian bots designed to link Kremlin to Roy Moore in
Alabama race" (https://www.foxnews.com/politics/democratic-operatives-created-fake-russian-b
ots-in-alabama-race-designed-to-link-kremlin-to-republican-roy-moore). Fox News. December
20, 2018.
97. "Facebook Says It Removed 783 Accounts Tied to an Iranian Manipulation Campaign" (http://fo
rtune.com/2019/01/31/facebook-manipulation-campaign-iran-fake-news/). Fortune. January 31,
2019.
98. Madowo, Larry (May 24, 2019). "Is Facebook undermining democracy in Africa?" (https://www.b
bc.com/news/world-africa-48349671). Retrieved June 8, 2019.
99. Satter, Isabel Debre and Raphael (May 16, 2019). " 'Change reality': Facebook busts Israel-
based campaign to disrupt elections" (https://www.smh.com.au/world/middle-east/change-realit
y-facebook-busts-israel-based-campaign-to-disrupt-elections-20190517-p51oad.html). The
Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved June 8, 2019.
00. "Removing Coordinated Inauthentic Behavior From Israel | Facebook Newsroom" (https://news
room.fb.com/news/2019/05/removing-coordinated-inauthentic-behavior-from-israel/). Retrieved
June 8, 2019.
01. Business, Donie O'Sullivan and Hadas Gold, CNN. "Facebook says Israeli company used fake
accounts to target African elections" (https://www.cnn.com/2019/05/16/tech/facebook-takedown
-israeli-company/index.html). CNN. Retrieved June 8, 2019.
02. Needleman, Sarah E. (May 16, 2019). "Facebook Bans Israeli Firm Over Fake Political
Activity" (https://www.wsj.com/articles/facebook-bans-israeli-firm-over-fake-political-activity-115
58030115). Wall Street Journal. ISSN 0099-9660 (https://www.worldcat.org/issn/0099-9660).
Retrieved June 8, 2019.
03. "Facebook Removed Nearly 3.4 Billion Fake Accounts In 6 Months" (https://www.npr.org/2019/
05/23/726353723/facebook-removed-nearly-3-2-billion-fake-accounts-in-last-six-months).
National Public Radio. Retrieved May 23, 2019.
04. "Facebook removes fake accounts from Thailand, Russia, Ukraine, Honduras" (https://www.reu
ters.com/article/us-facebook-accounts/facebook-removes-fake-accounts-from-thailand-russia-u
kraine-honduras-idUSKCN1UK0KE). Reuters. Retrieved July 25, 2019.
05. "Facebook deletes accounts of workers at NSO Israeli firm" (https://qudsnen.co/facebook-delet
es-accounts-of-workers-at-nso-israeli-firm/). Quds News Network. Retrieved November 1,
2019.
06. Romm, Tony (May 12, 2020). "Facebook Helps Launch American Edge, a Dark-Money
Advocacy Group for Big Tech" (https://www.washingtonpost.com/technology/2020/05/12/facebo
ok-lobbying-american-edge/). The Washington Post. Retrieved May 12, 2020.
07. "Facebook prepares legal action against Thai government's order to block group" (https://editio
n.cnn.com/2020/08/24/tech/facebook-blocks-thailand-group/index.html). CNN International.
Retrieved August 25, 2020.
08. "Internet Research Agency indicted: Who is the Russian company behind the fake Facebook
ads?" (https://www.foxnews.com/tech/internet-research-agency-indicted-who-is-the-russian-co
mpany-behind-the-fake-facebook-ads). Fox News. February 16, 2018.
09. "13 Russians Indicted as Mueller Reveals Effort to Aid Trump Campaign" (https://www.nytimes.
com/2018/02/16/us/politics/russians-indicted-mueller-election-interference.html). The New York
Times. February 16, 2018.
10. "Exposing Russia's Effort to Sow Discord Online: The Internet Research Agency and
Advertisements" (https://intelligence.house.gov/social-media-content/). intelligence.house.gov.
Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence. Retrieved May 27, 2019.
11. Seetharaman, Deepa; Tau, Byron; Harris, Shane (September 15, 2017). "Facebook Gave
Special Counsel Robert Mueller More Details on Russian Ad Buys Than Congress" (https://ww
w.wsj.com/articles/facebook-gave-special-counsel-robert-mueller-more-details-on-russian-ad-b
uys-than-congress-1505514552). Wall Street Journal. ISSN 0099-9660 (https://www.worldcat.o
rg/issn/0099-9660). Retrieved September 15, 2017.
12. "Facebook sold $100,000 of political ads to fake Russian accounts during 2016 US election" (h
ttps://www.independent.co.uk/life-style/gadgets-and-tech/news/facebook-russia-ads-us-election
-political-adverts-trump-putin-fake-news-a7933461.html). The Independent. September 6,
2017. Retrieved May 24, 2019.
13. "Facebook Says Russian Accounts Bought $100,000 in Ads During the 2016 Election" (http://ti
me.com/4930532/facebook-russian-accounts-2016-election/). Time. September 6, 2017.
14. "New Studies Show Pundits Are Wrong About Russian Social-Media Involvement in US
Politics" (https://www.thenation.com/article/russiagate-elections-interference/). The Nation.
December 28, 2018.
15. Castillo, Michelle (September 6, 2017). "Facebook gave special counsel Robert Mueller data
on Russian ads, report says" (https://www.cnbc.com/2017/09/06/facebook-gave-special-counse
l-robert-mueller-data-on-russian-ads-report-says.html). Retrieved September 7, 2017.
16. Leonnig, Carol D.; Dwoskin, Elizabeth; Timberg, Craig (September 18, 2017). "Facebook's
openness on Russia questioned by congressional investigators" (https://www.washingtonpost.
com/politics/facebooks-openness-on-russia-questioned-by-congressional-investigators/2017/0
9/18/060e1ee4-9c90-11e7-9083-fbfddf6804c2_story.html). Washington Post. ISSN 0190-8286
(https://www.worldcat.org/issn/0190-8286). Retrieved September 19, 2017.
17. "Russians trolls organized a protest in the US" (https://edition.cnn.com/videos/us/2018/06/25/ru
ssia-protest-philando-castile-distorting-truth-orig.cnn/video/playlists/russian-trolls-exploit-philan
do-castiles-death/). CNN. June 25, 2018.
18. "Did Russian hackers organize Philando Castile protest? Activists say no" (http://www.startribu
ne.com/local-organizers-doubt-reports-of-russian-ties-to-castile-protest/454368633/). Star
Tribune. November 1, 2017.
19. Ackerman, Ben Collins|Kevin Poulsen|Spencer (September 12, 2017). "Exclusive: Russia
Used Facebook Events to Organize Anti-Immigrant Rallies on U.S. Soil" (http://www.thedailybe
ast.com/exclusive-russia-used-facebook-events-to-organize-anti-immigrant-rallies-on-us-soil).
The Daily Beast. Retrieved September 12, 2017.
20. "Shuttered Facebook group that organized anti-Clinton, anti-immigrant rallies across Texas
was linked to Russia" (https://amp.businessinsider.com/facebook-group-russia-texas-anti-immi
grant-rallies-2017-9). Business Insider. Retrieved September 14, 2017.
21. "Russians Staged Rallies For and Against Trump to Promote Discord, Indictment Says (http://fo
rtune.com/2018/02/17/russian-organized-rallies-election-meddling/)". Fortune. February 17,
2018.
22. Ackerman, Ben Collins|Gideon Resnick|Kevin Poulsen|Spencer (September 20, 2017).
"Exclusive: Russians Appear to Use Facebook to Push Trump Rallies in 17 U.S. Cities" (http://
www.thedailybeast.com/russians-appear-to-use-facebook-to-push-pro-trump-flash-mobs-in-flori
da). The Daily Beast. Retrieved September 20, 2017.
23. Dwoskin, Adam Entous, Craig Timberg and Elizabeth (September 25, 2017). "Russian
operatives used Facebook ads to exploit divisions over black political activism and Muslims" (h
ttps://www.washingtonpost.com/business/technology/russian-operatives-used-facebook-ads-to-
exploit-divisions-over-black-political-activism-and-muslims/2017/09/25/4a011242-a21b-11e7-a
de1-76d061d56efa_story.html). Washington Post. ISSN 0190-8286 (https://www.worldcat.org/is
sn/0190-8286). Retrieved September 25, 2017.
24. "Exclusive: Russian-bought Black Lives Matter ad on Facebook targeted Baltimore and
Ferguson (https://money.cnn.com/2017/09/27/media/facebook-black-lives-matter-targeting/inde
x.html)". CNN. September 28, 2017.
25. Ackerman, Ben Collins|Kevin Poulsen|Spencer (September 27, 2017). "Exclusive: Russians
Impersonated Real American Muslims to Stir Chaos on Facebook and Instagram" (http://www.t
hedailybeast.com/exclusive-russians-impersonated-real-american-muslims-to-stir-chaos-on-fac
ebook-and-instagram). The Daily Beast. Retrieved September 28, 2017.
26. Shinal, John (September 27, 2017). "Mark Zuckerberg responds to Trump, regrets he
dismissed election concerns" (https://www.cnbc.com/2017/09/27/mark-zuckerberg-says-facebo
ok-impact-on-2016-election-went-beyond-ads.html). CNBC. Retrieved September 27, 2017.
27. "Kremlin-owned Firms Linked to Major Investments in Twitter and Facebook (https://www.icij.or
g/investigations/paradise-papers/kremlin-owned-firms-linked-major-twitter-facebook-investment
s-icij/)". International Consortium of Investigative Journalists – ICIJ. November 5, 2017.
28. Drucker, Jesse (November 5, 2017). "Kremlin Cash Behind Billionaire's Twitter and Facebook
Investments" (https://www.nytimes.com/2017/11/05/world/yuri-milner-facebook-twitter-russia.ht
ml). The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331 (https://www.worldcat.org/issn/0362-4331).
Retrieved November 6, 2017.
29. "Disinformation and 'fake news': Final Report" (https://publications.parliament.uk/pa/cm201719/
cmselect/cmcumeds/1791/179109.htm). publications.parliament.uk. Digital, Culture, Media and
Sport Committee – House of Commons. Retrieved May 24, 2019.
30. Gleicher, Nathaniel (January 17, 2019). "Removing Coordinated Inauthentic Behavior from
Russia" (https://newsroom.fb.com/news/2019/01/removing-cib-from-russia/). Facebook
Newsroom. Retrieved May 24, 2019.
31. Cuthbertson, Antony (March 26, 2019). "Facebook removes thousands more Russian
accounts" (https://www.independent.co.uk/life-style/gadgets-and-tech/news/facebook-russia-bo
ts-brexit-account-iran-instagram-a8840256.html). The Independent. Retrieved May 24, 2019.
32. "Disinformation and 'fake news': Interim Report" (https://publications.parliament.uk/pa/cm20171
9/cmselect/cmcumeds/363/36308.htm). publications.parliament.uk. Digital, Culture, Media and
Sport Committee – House of Commons.
33. Cadwalladr, Carole (July 28, 2018). "A withering verdict: MPs report on Zuckerberg, Russia
and Cambridge Analytica" (https://www.theguardian.com/technology/2018/jul/28/dcms-report-fa
ke-news-disinformation-brexit-facebook-russia). The Observer. Retrieved May 24, 2019.
34. "NBC News, to Claim Russia Supports Tulsi Gabbard, Relies on Firm Just Caught Fabricating
Russia Data for the Democratic Party" (https://theintercept.com/2019/02/03/nbc-news-to-claim-r
ussia-supports-tulsi-gabbard-relies-on-firm-just-caught-fabricating-russia-data-for-the-democrati
c-party/). The Intercept. February 3, 2019.
35. "Secret Experiment in Alabama Senate Race Imitated Russian Tactics" (https://www.nytimes.co
m/2018/12/19/us/alabama-senate-roy-jones-russia.html). The New York Times. December 19,
2018.
36. "Removing Myanmar Military Officials From Facebook" (https://newsroom.fb.com/news/2018/0
8/removing-myanmar-officials/). Facebook Newsroom. Retrieved May 27, 2019.
37. Mozur, Paul (October 15, 2018). "A Genocide Incited on Facebook, With Posts From
Myanmar's Military" (https://www.nytimes.com/2018/10/15/technology/myanmar-facebook-geno
cide.html). The New York Times. Retrieved May 27, 2019.
38. "The Past and Future of Facebook and BJP's Mutually Beneficial Relationship" (https://thewire.
in/politics/bjp-facebook-india-modi). The Wire.
39. Purnell, Newley; Horwitz, Jeff (August 14, 2020). "Facebook's Hate-Speech Rules Collide With
Indian Politics" (https://www.wsj.com/articles/facebook-hate-speech-india-politics-muslim-hindu
-modi-zuckerberg-11597423346). Wall Street Journal. ISSN 0099-9660 (https://www.worldcat.o
rg/issn/0099-9660). Retrieved August 16, 2020.
40. Bissell, Tom (January 29, 2019). "An Anti-Facebook Manifesto, by an Early Facebook Investor"
(https://www.nytimes.com/2019/01/29/books/review/roger-mcnamee-zucked.html) – via
NYTimes.com.
41. Schneider, Nathan; Cheadle, Harry (March 27, 2018). "It's Time for Mark Zuckerberg to Give Up
Control of Facebook" (https://www.vice.com/en_us/article/qvxbgq/its-time-for-mark-zuckerberg-t
o-give-up-control-of-facebook).
42. Brown, Shelby. "Facebook co-founder Chris Hughes calls for company's breakup" (https://www.
cnet.com/news/facebook-co-founder-chris-hughes-calls-for-companys-breakup-zuckerberg/).
CNET.
43. Hughes, Chris (May 9, 2019). "Opinion | It's Time to Break Up Facebook" (https://www.nytimes.
com/2019/05/09/opinion/sunday/chris-hughes-facebook-zuckerberg.html) – via NYTimes.com.
44. Brown, Shelby. "More politicians side with Facebook co-founder on breaking up company" (http
s://www.cnet.com/news/more-politicians-side-with-chris-hughes-and-are-ready-to-split-up-face
book/). CNET.
45. Collins, Katie. "EU competition commissioner: Facebook breakup would be 'last resort' " (http
s://www.cnet.com/news/eu-competition-commissioner-facebook-breakup-would-be-last-resort/).
CNET.
46. Farivar, Cyrus (January 7, 2016). "Appeals court upholds deal allowing kids' images in
Facebook ads" (https://arstechnica.com/tech-policy/2016/01/appeals-court-upholds-deal-allowi
ng-kids-images-in-facebook-ads/). Ars Technica. Condé Nast. Retrieved June 3, 2017.
47. Levine, Dan; Oreskovic, Alexei (March 12, 2012). "Yahoo sues Facebook for infringing 10
patents" (https://www.reuters.com/article/us-yahoo-facebook-lawsuit-idUSBRE82B18M201203
12). Reuters. Thomson Reuters. Retrieved June 3, 2017.
48. Wagner, Kurt (February 1, 2017). "Facebook lost its Oculus lawsuit and has to pay $500
million" (https://www.recode.net/2017/2/1/14476500/facebook-oculus-zenimax-lawsuit-500-milli
on). Recode. Vox Media. Retrieved June 3, 2017.
49. Brandom, Rusell (May 19, 2016). "Lawsuit claims Facebook illegally scanned private
messages" (https://www.theverge.com/2016/5/19/11712804/facebook-private-message-scanni
ng-privacy-lawsuit). The Verge. Vox Media. Retrieved June 3, 2017.
50. Tryhorn, Chris (July 25, 2007). "Facebook in court over ownership" (https://www.theguardian.co
m/media/2007/jul/25/digitalmedia.usnews). The Guardian. Guardian Media Group. Retrieved
June 3, 2017.
51. Michels, Scott (July 20, 2007). "Facebook Founder Accused of Stealing Idea for Site" (https://ab
cnews.go.com/TheLaw/story?id=3391856). ABC News. ABC. Retrieved June 3, 2017.
52. Carlson, Nicholas (March 5, 2010). "How Mark Zuckerberg Hacked Into Rival ConnectU In
2004" (http://www.businessinsider.com/how-mark-zuckerberg-hacked-connectu-2010-3).
Business Insider. Axel Springer SE. Retrieved June 3, 2017.
53. "BlackBerry to Facebook: You stole our messaging technology" (http://www.foxnews.com/tech/
2018/03/07/blackberry-to-facebook-stole-our-messaging-technology.html). Fox News. March 7,
2018. Retrieved March 8, 2018.
54. Jolly, Bradley (January 21, 2019). "Refugee 'waterboarded' by bullies to sue Facebook over
Tommy Robinson claims" (https://www.mirror.co.uk/news/uk-news/refugee-waterboarded-bullie
s-sue-facebook-13885978). Mirror.
55. Halliday, Josh (January 21, 2019). "Bullied Syrian schoolboy to sue Facebook over Tommy
Robinson claims" (https://www.theguardian.com/technology/2019/jan/21/bullied-syrian-schoolb
oy-to-sue-facebook-over-tommy-robinson-claims). The Guardian.
56. Whitcomb, Dan. "Woman sues Facebook, claims site enabled sex trafficking" (https://www.reut
ers.com/article/us-sex-trafficking-facebook-lawsuit/woman-sues-facebook-claims-site-enabled-
sex-trafficking-idUSKCN1MD080). U.S. Retrieved October 4, 2018.
57. Whitcomb, Dan. "Facebook, responding to lawsuit, says sex trafficking banned on site" (https://
www.reuters.com/article/us-sex-trafficking-facebook-lawsuit/facebook-responding-to-lawsuit-sa
ys-sex-trafficking-banned-on-site-idUSKCN1ME038). U.S. Retrieved October 4, 2018.
58. "Delay, Deny and Deflect: How Facebook's Leaders Fought Through Crisis" (https://www.nytim
es.com/2018/11/14/technology/facebook-data-russia-election-racism.html). Retrieved
November 15, 2018.
59. Wong, Julia Carrie (November 15, 2018). "Facebook reportedly discredited critics by linking
them to George Soros" (https://www.theguardian.com/technology/2018/nov/14/facebook-georg
e-soros-pr-firm-discredit-critics-crisis). the Guardian. Retrieved November 15, 2018.
60. "Facebook Cuts Ties With Definers Public Affairs Following Outcry" (https://www.nytimes.com/
2018/11/15/technology/facebook-definers-soros.html). Retrieved November 15, 2018.
61. "Facebook paid hundreds of contractors to transcribe users' audio" (https://www.latimes.com/bu
siness/story/2019-08-13/facebook-paid-hundreds-of-contractors-to-transcribe-audio-of-users).
Los Angeles Times. August 13, 2019.
62. "Are you a robot?" (https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2019-08-13/facebook-paid-hundr
eds-of-contractors-to-transcribe-users-audio). Bloomberg. August 13, 2019. Retrieved July 10,
2020.
63. Haselton, Todd (August 13, 2019). "Facebook hired people to transcribe voice calls made on
Messenger" (https://www.cnbc.com/2019/08/13/facebook-hired-people-to-transcribe-voice-calls
-made-on-messenger.html). CNBC.
64. Gebelhoff, Robert (May 8, 2019). "Facebook is becoming a vast digital graveyard — and a gift
to the future" (https://www.washingtonpost.com/opinions/2019/05/08/facebook-is-becoming-vas
t-digital-graveyard-gift-future/). The Washington Post. Archived (https://web.archive.org/web/20
190508220055/https://www.washingtonpost.com/opinions/2019/05/08/facebook-is-becoming-v
ast-digital-graveyard-gift-future/) from the original on May 8, 2019. Retrieved July 16, 2019.
65. Levin, Jonathan (2013). "The Economics of Internet Markets". In Acemoglu, Daron; Arellano,
Manuel; Dekel, Eddie (eds.). Advances in Economics and Econometrics. pp. 48–75.
doi:10.1017/CBO9781139060011.003 (https://doi.org/10.1017%2FCBO9781139060011.003).
ISBN 978-1-139-06001-1. S2CID 37187854 (https://api.semanticscholar.org/CorpusID:371878
54).
66. "Greenpeace Declares Victory Over Facebook Data Centers" (https://www.wired.com/2011/12/
greenpeace-declares-victory-over-facebook-data-centers/). Wired. December 15, 2011.
Retrieved August 14, 2018.
67. "The Facebook App Economy" (https://www.rhsmith.umd.edu/files/Documents/Centers/DIGITS/
AppEconomyImpact091911.pdf) (PDF). University of Maryland. September 19, 2011.
68. "Facebook extends lead as news gateway: Study – The Economic Times" (http://economictime
s.indiatimes.com/tech/internet/facebook-extends-lead-as-news-gateway-study/articleshow/524
56528.cms). The Economic Times. May 26, 2016. Retrieved May 27, 2016.
69. Allcott, Hunt; Braghieri, Luca; Eichmeyer, Sarah; Gentzkow, Matthew (2020). "The Welfare
Effects of Social Media" (https://doi.org/10.1257/aer.20190658). American Economic Review.
110 (3): 629–676. doi:10.1257/aer.20190658 (https://doi.org/10.1257%2Faer.20190658).
ISSN 0002-8282 (https://www.worldcat.org/issn/0002-8282).
70. Ellison, Nicole B.; Steinfield, Charles; Lampe, Cliff (2007). "The Benefits of Facebook
"Friends:" Social Capital and College Students' Use of Online Social Network Sites" (https://do
i.org/10.1111/j.1083-6101.2007.00367.x). Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication. 12
(4): 1143–1168. doi:10.1111/j.1083-6101.2007.00367.x (https://doi.org/10.1111%2Fj.1083-610
1.2007.00367.x).
71. Marche, Stephen (April 2, 2012). "Is Facebook Making Us Lonely?" (https://www.theatlantic.co
m/magazine/archive/2012/05/is-facebook-making-us-lonely/308930/). The Atlantic. Emerson
Collective. Retrieved December 15, 2017.
72. Konnikova, Maria (September 10, 2013). "How Facebook Makes Us Unhappy" (https://www.ne
wyorker.com/tech/elements/how-facebook-makes-us-unhappy). The New Yorker. Condé Nast.
Retrieved December 15, 2017.
73. Dent, Grace (March 6, 2017). "Social media is full of sad, lonely people pretending they're OK
and perfectly fine attention-seekers pretending to be sad" (https://www.independent.co.uk/voice
s/facebook-instagram-twitter-social-media-makes-sad-lonely-attention-seekers-
a7614396.html). The Independent. Retrieved December 15, 2017.
74. Sifferlin, Alexandra (January 24, 2013). "Why Facebook Makes You Feel Bad About Yourself"
(http://healthland.time.com/2013/01/24/why-facebook-makes-you-feel-bad-about-yourself/).
Time. Retrieved December 15, 2017.
75. Hobson, Katherine (March 6, 2017). "Feeling Lonely? Too Much Time On Social Media May Be
Why" (https://www.npr.org/sections/health-shots/2017/03/06/518362255/feeling-lonely-too-muc
h-time-on-social-media-may-be-why). NPR. Retrieved December 15, 2017.
76. Goldsmith, Belinda (January 22, 2013). "RPT-Is Facebook envy making you miserable?" (http
s://www.reuters.com/article/facebook-envy-idUSL6N0AR8D820130122). Reuters. Thomson
Reuters. Retrieved July 13, 2017.
77. Kelly, Heather (August 15, 2013). "Study: Using Facebook can make you sad" (http://edition.cn
n.com/2013/08/15/tech/social-media/study-facebook-blues/index.html). CNN. Retrieved
July 13, 2017.
78. Flacy, Mike (January 22, 2012). "Study: Why Facebook is making people sad" (https://www.digi
taltrends.com/social-media/study-why-facebook-is-making-people-sad/). Digital Trends.
Retrieved July 13, 2017.
79. Sachs, Wendy (February 8, 2012). "Facebook Envy: How Cruising Can Kill Self Esteem" (http
s://www.huffingtonpost.com/wendy-sachs/facebook_b_1262681.html). HuffPost. AOL.
Retrieved July 13, 2017.
80. Usigan, Ysolt (August 29, 2011). "Facebook makes teens narcissistic, anxious and depressed
– but also nice, social and engaged" (https://www.cbsnews.com/news/facebook-makes-teens-n
arcissistic-anxious-and-depressed-but-also-nice-social-and-engaged/). CBS News. CBS.
Retrieved December 15, 2017.
81. Newton, Casey (December 15, 2017). "Facebook says 'passively consuming' the News Feed
will make you feel worse about yourself" (https://www.theverge.com/2017/12/15/16781448/face
book-makes-you-feel-bad-study-research). The Verge. Vox Media. Retrieved December 15,
2017.
82. Brodzinsky, Sibylla (February 4, 2008). "Facebook used to target Colombia's FARC with global
rally" (http://www.csmonitor.com/World/Americas/2008/0204/p04s02-woam.html). The Christian
Science Monitor. Boston. Retrieved August 1, 2010.
83. Roberts, Laura (August 21, 2010). "North Korea joins Facebook" (https://www.telegraph.co.uk/t
echnology/facebook/7957222/North-Korea-joins-Facebook.html). The Daily Telegraph.
London. Retrieved August 22, 2010.
84. Sutter, John D. (February 21, 2011). "The faces of Egypt's 'Revolution 2.0' " (http://edition.cnn.c
om/2011/TECH/innovation/02/21/egypt.internet.revolution/index.html). CNN. Retrieved June 7,
2013.
85. Hauslohner, Abigail (January 24, 2011). "Is Egypt About to Have a Facebook Revolution?" (htt
p://www.time.com/time/world/article/0,8599,2044142,00.html). Time. New York. Retrieved
June 7, 2013.
86. Kessler, Sarah (January 26, 2011). "Facebook & Twitter Both Blocked in Egypt" (http://mashabl
e.com/2011/01/26/facebook-blocked-in-egypt/). Mashable. Retrieved June 7, 2013.
87. Agencies, Suzi Dixon and (August 4, 2011). "Facebook 'used to hunt down Bahrain
dissidents' " (https://www.telegraph.co.uk/expat/expatnews/8681230/Facebook-used-to-hunt-do
wn-Bahrain-dissidents.html). Retrieved September 24, 2015.
88. Johnson, Luke (September 26, 2011). "Facebook forms its own Political Action Committee" (htt
ps://www.huffingtonpost.com/2011/09/26/facebook-forms-its-own-pac_n_982053.html).
Huffington Post. Retrieved September 27, 2011.
89. Nagesh, Gautham (September 26, 2011). "Facebook to form its own PAC to back political
candidates" (http://thehill.com/blogs/hillicon-valley/technology/183951-facebook-forming-own-p
ac-to-back-candidates). The Hill. Washington DC. Retrieved September 27, 2011.
90. "Kobani Kurds Use Facebook To Recruit Foreign Fighters In Struggle Against IS" (https://www.r
ferl.org/a/islamic-state-ypg-foreign-fighters/26690432.html). Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty.
November 13, 2014.
91. "Frontline Isis: The Real Story of Narin Afrini and the Kurdish Female 'Lions' Terrorising Islamic
State" (http://www.ibtimes.co.uk/frontline-isis-real-story-narin-afrini-kurdish-female-lions-terrorisi
ng-islamic-front-1470119). International Business Times UK. October 15, 2014.
92. Quattrociocchi, Walter; Uzzi, Brian; Caldarelli, Guido; Scala, Antonio; Puliga, Michelangelo;
Vicario, Michela Del; Zollo, Fabiana; Bessi, Alessandro (August 23, 2016). "Users Polarization
on Facebook and Youtube" (https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4994967). PLOS
ONE. 11 (8): e0159641. arXiv:1604.02705 (https://arxiv.org/abs/1604.02705).
Bibcode:2016PLoSO..1159641B (https://ui.adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PLoSO..1159641B).
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0159641 (https://doi.org/10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0159641).
ISSN 1932-6203 (https://www.worldcat.org/issn/1932-6203). PMC 4994967 (https://www.ncbi.nl
m.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4994967). PMID 27551783 (https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/2755
1783).
93. Solon, Olivia (November 10, 2016). "Facebook's failure: did fake news and polarized politics
get Trump elected?" (https://www.theguardian.com/technology/2016/nov/10/facebook-fake-new
s-election-conspiracy-theories). The Guardian. Retrieved May 24, 2019.
94. "The country where Facebook posts whipped up hate" (https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/blogs-trend
ing-45449938). BBC News. September 12, 2018. Retrieved May 24, 2019.
95. Mozur, Paul (October 15, 2018). "A Genocide Incited on Facebook, With Posts From
Myanmar's Military" (https://www.nytimes.com/2018/10/15/technology/myanmar-facebook-geno
cide.html). The New York Times. Retrieved May 24, 2019.
96. "ABC News Joins Forces With Facebook" (https://abcnews.go.com/Technology/Politics/story?i
d=3899006&page=1). ABC News. December 18, 2007. Retrieved March 23, 2010.
97. Minor, Doug (November 29, 2007). "Saint Anselm to Host ABC Debates Jan. 5" (https://web.arc
hive.org/web/20171009210810/http://blogs.anselm.edu/blog/2007/11/29/abcdebates/). Saint
Anselm College blog. Archived from the original (http://blogs.anselm.edu/blog/2007/11/29/abcd
ebates/) on October 9, 2017. Retrieved July 18, 2010.
98. Bradley, Tahman (December 12, 2007). "Republicans Lead off ABC News, WMUR-TV and
Facebook Back-To-Back Debates in New Hampshire" (https://web.archive.org/web/201105111
22929/http://blogs.abcnews.com/politicalradar/abc_wmur_and_facebook_debates/index.html).
Political Radar blog. ABC News. Archived from the original (http://blogs.abcnews.com/politicalr
adar/abc_wmur_and_facebook_debates/index.html) on May 11, 2011. Retrieved March 23,
2010.
99. Callahan, Ezra (January 5, 2008). "Tune in to the ABC News/Facebook Debates, Tonight
7 pm/6c on ABC" (http://blog.facebook.com/blog.php?post=8183627130). Facebook Blog.
Retrieved March 23, 2010.
00. Goldman, Russell (January 5, 2007). "Facebook Gives Snapshot of Voter Sentiment" (https://ab
cnews.go.com/Politics/story?id=4091460&page=1). ABC News. Retrieved March 23, 2010.
01. Sullivan, Michelle (November 3, 2008). "Facebook Effect Mobilizes Youth Vote" (https://www.cb
snews.com/stories/2008/11/04/politics/uwire/main4568563.shtml). CBS News. Retrieved
March 23, 2010.
02. Carlisle, Juliet E.; Patton, Robert C. (January 1, 2013). "Is Social Media Changing How We
Understand Political Engagement? An Analysis of Facebook and the 2008 Presidential
Election". Political Research Quarterly. 66 (4): 883–895. doi:10.1177/1065912913482758 (http
s://doi.org/10.1177%2F1065912913482758). JSTOR 23612065 (https://www.jstor.org/stable/23
612065). S2CID 154739808 (https://api.semanticscholar.org/CorpusID:154739808).
03. Skogerbø, Eli; Krumsvik, Arne H. (May 4, 2015). "Newspapers, Facebook and Twitter" (https://
www.duo.uio.no/bitstream/10852/41249/3/SkogerboKrumsvik_JP_final.pdf) (PDF). Journalism
Practice. 9 (3): 350–366. doi:10.1080/17512786.2014.950471 (https://doi.org/10.1080%2F1751
2786.2014.950471). hdl:10852/41249 (https://hdl.handle.net/10852%2F41249).
S2CID 145344499 (https://api.semanticscholar.org/CorpusID:145344499).
04. Bossetta, Michael (March 2018). "The Digital Architectures of Social Media: Comparing
Political Campaigning on Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, and Snapchat in the 2016 U.S.
Election" (https://curis.ku.dk/portal/da/publications/the-digital-architectures-of-social-media-com
paring-political-campaigning-on-facebook-twitter-instagram-and-snapchat-in-the-2016-us-electi
on(38ec7c51-c55d-4902-8066-5b3149619644).html). Journalism & Mass Communication
Quarterly. 95 (2): 471–496. doi:10.1177/1077699018763307 (https://doi.org/10.1177%2F10776
99018763307).
05. Julia Angwin; Madeleine Varner; Ariana Tobin (September 14, 2017). "Facebook Enabled
Advertisers to Reach 'Jew Haters' — ProPublica" (https://www.propublica.org/article/facebook-
enabled-advertisers-to-reach-jew-haters). ProPublica. Retrieved September 14, 2017.
06. Rosenberg, Matthew; Confessore, Nicholas; Cadwalladr, Carole (March 17, 2018). "How
Trump Consultants Exploited the Facebook Data of Millions" (https://www.nytimes.com/2018/0
3/17/us/politics/cambridge-analytica-trump-campaign.html). The New York Times. ISSN 0362-
4331 (https://www.worldcat.org/issn/0362-4331). Retrieved March 17, 2018.
07. "Facebook bans Trump-affiliated data firm Cambridge Analytica" (https://web.archive.org/web/2
0180317234505/https://www.newsobserver.com/news/business/article205653624.html).
newsobserver. Archived from the original (https://www.newsobserver.com/news/business/articl
e205653624.html) on March 17, 2018. Retrieved March 17, 2018.
08. Cadwalladr, Carole (March 18, 2018). " 'I made Steve Bannon's psychological warfare tool':
meet the data war whistleblower" (https://www.theguardian.com/news/2018/mar/17/data-war-w
histleblower-christopher-wylie-faceook-nix-bannon-trump). The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077 (htt
ps://www.worldcat.org/issn/0261-3077). Retrieved March 18, 2018.
09. Ananth, Venkat (April 1, 2019). "Facebook takes down Pakistan military backed pages
targeting India ahead of LS polls" (https://economictimes.indiatimes.com/news/elections/lok-sa
bha/india/facebook-takes-down-pakistan-military-backed-pages-targeting-india-ahead-of-ls-pol
ls/articleshow/68668722.cms). The Economic Times. Retrieved April 1, 2019.
10. "Facebook Removes Nearly 700 Pages Linked to Congress Ahead of Polls" (https://www.news
18.com/news/india/facebook-removes-nearly-700-pages-linked-to-congress-ahead-of-polls-20
84823.html). News18. Retrieved April 1, 2019.
11. Nicole, Kristen (December 21, 2007). "I Can So "Facebook" You Now (and be gramatically [sic]
correct)" (http://mashable.com/2007/12/21/facebook-noun-verb-collins-english-dictionary/).
Mashable. Retrieved March 23, 2010.
12. "Unfriend is New Oxford dictionary's Word of the Year" (http://content.usatoday.com/communitie
s/ondeadline/post/2009/11/unfriend-is-new-oxford-dictionarys-word-of-the-year-/1). USA Today.
Washington DC. November 17, 2009. Retrieved July 12, 2010.
13. "Internet.org" (https://info.internet.org/en/mission/). English. August 25, 2015. Retrieved
February 14, 2019.
14. "Facebook's Internet.org has connected almost 100M to the 'internet' " (http://social.techcrunch.
com/2018/04/25/internet-org-100-million/). TechCrunch. Retrieved May 13, 2019.
15. Solon, Olivia (July 27, 2017). " 'It's digital colonialism': how Facebook's free internet service has
failed its users" (https://www.theguardian.com/technology/2017/jul/27/facebook-free-basics-dev
eloping-markets). The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077 (https://www.worldcat.org/issn/0261-3077).
Retrieved May 13, 2019.

Further reading
Arrington, Michael (April 25, 2010). "The Age of Facebook" (https://techcrunch.com/2010/04/25/
the-age-of-facebook/). TechCrunch. Retrieved March 23, 2017.
Kirkpatrick, David (October 6, 2006). "Why Facebook matters: It's not just for arranging dates.
And it's not just another social network. Facebook offers sophisticated tools for maintaining
social relationships" (https://money.cnn.com/2006/10/06/magazines/fortune/fastforward_facebo
ok.fortune/index.htm). Fortune. Retrieved April 9, 2017.
Lee, Newton (September 15, 2012). Facebook Nation: Total Information Awareness (https://boo
ks.google.com/books?id=Sh0zgX2bj7QC). Springer Science & Business Media.
ISBN 9781461453086.
McNamee, Roger (2019). Zucked: Waking up to the Facebook Catastrophe. HarperCollins.
ISBN 978-0-0083-1899-4.
Miller, Daniel (2011). Tales from Facebook (https://books.google.com/books?id=FSRt8xhLF6c
C). Polity. ISBN 978-0-7456-5209-2.
Muffett, Alec (October 31, 2014). "Making Connections to Facebook More Secure" (https://www.
facebook.com/notes/protect-the-graph/making-connections-to-facebook-more-secure/1526085
754298237/). Facebook. Retrieved December 13, 2016.
Schroeder, Stan (February 7, 2011). "Facebook Privacy: 10 Settings Every User Needs to
Know" (http://mashable.com/2011/02/07/facebook-privacy-guide/). Mashable. Retrieved
February 1, 2015.
External links
Official Facebook website (https://www.facebook.com/) (Mobile (https://m.facebook.com/))

Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Facebook&oldid=975868696"

This page was last edited on 30 August 2020, at 21:18 (UTC).

Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. By using this
site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia
Foundation, Inc., a non-profit organization.