Sunteți pe pagina 1din 116

Senior High School

st
NOT

21 Century
Literature from
the Philippines
and the World

Department of Education ● Republic of the Philippines


st
21 Century
Literature from
the Philippines
and the World
Quarter 1 - Module 1
Philippine Literary History

This instructional material was collaboratively developed and reviewed


by educators from public and private schools, colleges, and or/universities. We
encourage teachers and other education stakeholders to email their feedback,
comments, and recommendations to the Department of Education at action@
deped.gov.ph.

We value your feedback and recommendations.

Department of Education ● Republic of the Philippines


21st Century Literature from the Philippines and the
World Alternative Delivery Mode
Quarter 1 – Module 1: Philippine
Literature First Edition, 2020

Republic Act 8293, section 176 states that: No copyright shall subsist in any
work of the Government of the Philippines. However, prior approval of the government
agency or office wherein the work is created shall be necessary for exploitation of such
work for profit. Such agency or office may, among other things, impose as a condition
the payment of royalty.

Borrowed materials (i.e., songs, stories, poems, pictures, photos, brand names,
trademarks, etc.) included in this book are owned by their respective copyright holders.
Every effort has been exerted to locate and seek permission to use these materials
from their respective copyright owners. The publisher and authors do not represent
nor claim ownership over them.

Published by the Department of Education – Division of Cagayan de Oro


Schools Division Superintendent: Dr. Cherry Mae L. Limbaco, CESO V

Development Team of the Module

Author/s: Dr. Rosalinda C. Tantiado


Dinah Zoraida B. Zamora
Ronald L Ampong
Emee F. Cael

Focal Person: Dr. Jerry G. Roble


Division English/Reading Coordinator

Language Reviewers: Mark John T. Gabule, Dr. Phoebe S. Taruc

Illustrator and Layout Artist:

Management Team

Chairperson: Cherry Mae L. Limbaco, PhD, CESO


V Schools Division Superintendent

Co-Chairpersons: Alicia E. Anghay, PhD, CESE


Asst. Schools Division Superintendent

Lorebina C. Carrasco, OIC-CID Chief

Members Joel D. Potane, LRMS Manager


Lanie O. Signo, Librarian II
Gemma Pajayon, PDO II
Printed in the Philippines by
Department of Education – Bureau of Learning Resources (DepEd-BLR)
Office Address: Fr. William F. Masterson Ave Upper Balulang Cagayan de Oro
Telefax: (08822)855-0048
E-mail Address: cagayandeoro.city@deped.gov.ph
gh School
Senior High School

st
21 Century
Literature from
the Philippines
and the World
Quarter 1 - Module 1
Philippine Literary History

This instructional material was collaboratively developed and reviewed


by educators from public and private schools, colleges, and or/universities. We
encourage teachers and other education stakeholders to email their feedback,
comments, and recommendations to the Department of Education at action@
deped.gov.ph.

We value your feedback and recommendations.

Department of Education ● Republic of the Philippines


This page is intentionally blank
Table of Contents

What This Module is About .................................................................................................................. i


What I Need to Know ............................................................................................................................. i
How to Learn from this Module .......................................................................................................... ii
Icons of this Module .............................................................................................................................. ii

What I Know ........................................................................................................................................... iii

Lesson 1 Week 1:
Philippine Literature in Pre-Colonial Period
What I Need To Know -------------------------------------------------------------------1
What’s In-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------1
What’s New .................................................................................................................. 2
What Is It ....................................................................................................................... 3
What’s More ................................................................................................................. 4-5
What I Have Learned................................................................................................. 6
What I Can Do ............................................................................................................. 6

Lesson 2 Week 2:
Philippine Literature in Spanish Period...........................................................
What’s In ....................................................................................................................... 8
What I Need to Know................................................................................................. 8
What’s New ................................................................................................................ 9
What Is It ..................................................................................................................... 9-10
....... What’s More……………………………………………………………………11-14
What I Have Learned--------------------------------------------------------------------14
What I Can Do ........................................................................................................... 15

Lesson 3 Week 3:
Philippine Literature in American Period .....................................................
What’s In-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------16
What I Need to Know--------------------------------------------------------------------------16
What’s New ................................................................................................................ 17
What Is It ..................................................................................................................... 17
....... What’s More………………………………………………………………..18-25
What I Have Learned---------------------------------------------------------------------26
What I Can Do-- ........................................................................................................ 26
Lesson 4 Week 4:
Philippine Literature in Japanese Period .....................................................
What’s In--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------28
What I Need to Know-------------------------------------------------------------------28
What’s New ................................................................................................................. 29
What Is It ..................................................................................................................... 29
What’s More ............................................................................................................... 30
What I Have Learned---------------------------------------------------------------------31
What I Can Do ........................................................................................................... 31

Lesson 5 Week 5:
Literature in the Late 20th Century ..............................
What’s In ....................................................................................................................... 34
What I Need to Know................................................................................................. 34
What’s New ................................................................................................................ 35-39
What Is It ..................................................................................................................... 39-40
What’s More ............................................................................................................... 40
What I Have Learned----------------------------------------------------------------------41
What I Can Do ........................................................................................................... 41-42

Lesson 6 Week 6:
Various 21st Century Literature Genres .............................................................
What’s In ....................................................................................................................... 43
What I Need to Know................................................................................................. 43
What’s New ................................................................................................................ 44-47
What Is It ..................................................................................................................... 48-49
What’s More 50-51
What I Have Learned--------------------------------------------------------------------52
What I Can Do ........................................................................................................... 53

Lesson 7 Week 7:sthe Philippines and the World .....................


What’s In ....................................................................................................................... 55
What I Need to Know................................................................................................. 55
What’s New ................................................................................................................ 44-47
What Is It ..................................................................................................................... 55-60
What’s More 61-62
What I Have Learned--------------------------------------------------------------------63
What I Can Do 64-67

Summary ................................................................................................................................................ 68
Assessment: (Post-Test).................................................................................................................... 69-73
Key to Answers .................................................................................................................................... 74-76
References ............................................................................................................................................ 77-79
This page is intentionally blank
What This Module is About
Hello Learners! Let us now have our Module 1 for this subject. You are going to read
and learn 21st Century literature from the region where our school is based in relation to the
literature of other regions in various genres and forms in consideration of the various
dimensions of Philippine literary history from pre-colonial to contemporary.

The following are the lessons contained in this module:


Lesson 1. Philippine Literature in Pre- Colonial Period
Lesson 2. Philippine Literature in Spanish Period

Lesson 3. Philippine Literature in American Period

Lesson 4. Philippine Literature in Japanese Period

Lesson 5. Philippine Literature in the Contemporary Period

Lesson 6. 21st Century Philippine Literature

What I Need to Know

In this module, you are going to write a close analysis and critical interpretation
of literary texts and doing an adaptation of these which require you the ability to:

a. Identify the geographic, linguistic, and ethnic dimensions of Philippine literary history
from pre-colonial to the contemporary.
b. Identify representative texts and authors from each region (e.g. engage in oral history
research with focus on key personalities from the students’ region/provinces.
c. Compare and contrast the various 21st century literary genres and the ones from the
earlier genres/periods citing their elements, structures and traditions.
d. Discuss how different contexts enhance the text’s meaning and enrich the reader’s
understanding,
e. Produce a creative representation of a literary text by applying multi-media and ICT
skills,
f. Do self-and/or peer assessment of the creative adaptation of a literary text, based on
rationalized criteria, prior to presentation,

i
How to Learn from this Module
To achieve the objectives cited above, you are to do the following:
• Take your time reading the lessons carefully.
• Follow the directions and/or instructions in the activities and
exercises diligently.
• Answer all the given tests and exercises.

Icons of this Module

What I Need to This part contains learning objectives that


Know are set for you to learn as you go along the
module.

What I know This is an assessment as to your level of


knowledge to the subject matter at hand,
meant specifically to gauge prior related
knowledge
What’s In This part connects previous lesson with that
of the current one.

What’s New An introduction of the new lesson through


various activities, before it will be presented
to you

What is It These are discussions of the activities as a


way to deepen your discovery and under-
standing of the concept.

What’s More These are follow-up activities that are in-


tended for you to practice further in order to
master the competencies.

What I Have Activities designed to process what you


Learned have learned from the lesson

What I can do These are tasks that are designed to show-


case your skills and knowledge gained, and
applied into real-life concerns and situations.

ii
What I Know

Directions: Choose the letter of the correct answer.

1. Which of the following deals with ideas, thoughts, and emotions of man. It
is said to be the story of man?
a. literature b. history c. generation d. tragedy
2. Which deals with the life of a person which may be about himself, his
autobiography or that of others?
a. interview b. biography c. anecdote d. play
3. Which lyric poem has 14 lines dealing with an emotions, a feeling, or idea?
a. ballad b. sonnet c. psalm d. awit
4. Which is an example of Corridos (Kuridos)?
a. Florante at Laura b. Ibong Adarna c. The Lover’s Death d. Chit-Chirit-Chit
5. Which lyrical poetry refers to a noble feeling expressed with dignity, with
no definite number of syllables or definite lines in a stanza?
a. ode b. folksongs c. psalm d. elegy
6. Which Latin word of “literature” is derived?
a. literus b. litera c. literature d. literia
7. Which is written by Carlos Bulosan?
a. Without Seeing the Dawn c. The Laughter of My Father
b. El Filibusterismo d. Thirteen Plays
8. “The Moth and the Lamp” is an example of which genre?
a. anecdote b. essay c. biography d. oration
9. Who is the prince of Philippine Literature?
a. Francisco Balagtas c. Ricaredo Dementillo
b. Francisco Baltazar d. Wilfredo M. Guerrero
10. An example of a Bikolano folksong.
a. Pamulinawen c. Manang Biday
b. Inday, Inday sa balitaw d. Sarong banggui
https://www.slideshare.net/emral8/g12-21st-century-literature-diagnostic-test

iii
This page is intentionally blank
Lesson Philippine Literature
1 in Pre-Colonial Period
Grade 12, First Semester, Q1 – Week 1

What I Need to Know

Hello Learners! Today, we are going to study sample literary works


before our country was colonized by other countries, like Spain, United States
of America and Japan.

At the end of this lesson, you are expected to:

a. Identify the geographic, linguistic, and ethnic dimensions of Philippine literary


history from pre-colonial to the contemporary ( );
b. Identify representative texts and authors from each region (e.g. engage in oral
history research with focus on key personalities from the students’
region/provinces( );
c. Compare and contrast the various 21st century literary genres and the ones
from the earlier genres/periods citing their elements, structures and traditions(
); and
d. Discuss how different contexts enhance the text’s meaning and enrich the
reader’s understanding ( ).

What I Know
Activity 1. Have you heard the following selections below? Try identifying their
literary forms.

1. Biag ni Lam-ang = _____________________


2. Taga Ilog ! –Tagailog = _____________________
3. The moon and the Sun = _____________________
4. The Monkey and the Turtle= _____________________
5. Kundiman = _____________________
What’s In

Activity 2. Identify the following statements as True or False.
Write your answer on the space provided at the end of every
statement.
SHARED OPTIONSSENIOR HIGH ALTERNATIVE RESPONSIVE EDUCATION DELIVERY GRADE 11 DLP LEARNING ACTIVITY SHEET

1. Folktales about Juan are very popular. Some emphasize certain virtues, and
some serve as warning about behavior. _______
2. “Biag ni Lam-ang” is an Ilocano epic that tells about the adventures of Lam-ang,
a man with supernatural powers. _______
3. The monkey is a common animal character in Philippine fables. It is often
depicted as a tricky animal. ________
4. There are different Filipino legends of the great flood. The story of Bukidnon tells
that a huge crab caused the water to rise by going into the sea. _______
5. There are Philippine versions of the creation myth. The Igorot’s story tells that
Lumawig the Great Spirit created people. ________

1
What’s New

In the pre-colonial times, oral transmission was the primary means of


communicating and preserving Philippine literature. Long before the colonizers brought
their own influences to our culture, our literary collection had already amassed
an abundance of folk sayings, stories and songs (Simoun Victor D. Redoblado, Brilliant
Creations Publishing, Inc., 2017:8-11).
Literary forms during this period were:
1. Oral Literature 3. Folk Songs
a. Riddles a. Lullabies
b. Proverbs b. Drinking Songs
2. Folk Tales c. Love songs
a. Myth d. Songs of Death
b. Legends e. Religious Songs
c. Epic
d. Fables

Activity 3. Identify the literary forms.

1. It is better to have a hut


Inhabited by a person
Than a mansion
Wherein an owl lives = _____________________
2. Go to sleep, my child
Your father is far He
cannot fetch us
For the way is muddy and rugged=_________________
3. Skin and bone flying,

4. Let’s sing and feast


For two hearts who are to be married
the path they’ll pass
Let’s strew the rice.= ______________________
5. Pass now the glass of tuba,
For we are tired and thirsty.
Don’t take too big a gulp
Because you might drown. = _______________________

Have you identified them correctly? These are typical examples of the pre-
colonial literary works.

2
What Is It

To this day, the literary genre of the riddle in pre-colonial times has endured. It
has many names and forms: bugtong in Tagalog, paktakon in Ilongo, patototdon in
Bicol, and buburtia in Ilocano. Riddles relied on talinghaga or metaphor. It is a
guessing game of objects represented by other objects (Simoun Victor D. Redoblado,
Brilliant Creations Publishing, Inc., 2017:2-3).
Here is an example:
Buto’t balat, lumilipad (Saranggola)
Skin and bone flying,(Kite)
Proverbs are statement of a particular culture’s codes of behavior and beliefs
and intended to teach values. They are known as kasabihan in Tagalog, panultihon or
pagya among the Cebuano, kasebian among the Pampango, and humbaton or
hurobaton among the Ilonggo. In Panay it was called daragiton or daraida, and
basahanan in Bukidnon. (Simoun Victor D. Redoblado, Brilliant Creations Publishing, Inc.,
2017:3). Here is an example:
(Tagalog)
Bahay man ay palsyo It is better to have a hut
Kung ang laman ay kuwago inhabited by a person
Mabuti pa ang kubong than a mansion
Laman ay tao. Wherein an owl lives.
Epics were the most prominent literary genre of the pre-colonial period. It
featured local heroes taking on (and, indeed succeeding in) various adventures.
Across the country, each tribe has at least one epic, along with five or six minor epics.
It was called darangen in Maranao, ulahingan in Manobo, guman in Subanon, and
hudhud in Ifugao.
Popular examples are Biag ni Lam-ang from the Ilocanos, the Ibaloy epic
Kabunlan and Bendian, the Tagalog epic Kumintang, the Palawan epic Kudaman, the
Panay-Bisaya epic Maragtas at Hinilawod, the Manobo epic Tuwaang Midsakop, the
Negros Bisaya epic Hari sa Bukit, the Mindanao epic Darangen, the Muslim epic
Bantugan, and the Ifugao epic Hudhud at Alim.
Myths, legends, and fables are short forms of fiction. Myths served to explain
how the world was created. Legends explained the origin of things while fables were
meant to teach lessons.
Aside from short fiction and epics, our country’s pre-colonial literature also
abounded in songs. There love songs, courtship songs, serenades and lullabies.
Lullabies were songs to put infants to sleep.
As children grew, they continued to have songs tailored to their imagination and
playtime. Other songs were intended for activities shared by the members of the
community. Like a song for rowing, for pounding rice, for making pots and for hunting
bees. There were even songs for drinking (Simoun Victor D. Redoblado, Brilliant
Creations Publishing, Inc., 2017:4-6).

3
What’s More

You have just learned the different genres in the pre-colonial period.
Now, let us dwell on the common myths about how the world was created. Read the
following selections to appreciate how different points of view-one from Luzon, one
from Mindanao-pictured the world’s creation(Simoun Victor D. Redoblado, Brilliant
Creations Publishing, Inc., 2017:8-11).

Bilaan Story of Creation from Mindanao.

In the very beginning there lived a being so large that he cannot be compared
with any known thing. His name was Melu, and when he sat on the clouds, which were
his home, he occupied all the space above. His teeth were pure gold, and because he
was very cleanly and continually rubbed himself with his hands, his skin became pure
white. The dead skin which he rubbed off his body was placed on one side in a pile,
and by and by this pile became so large that he was annoyed and set himself to
consider what he could do with it.

Finally Melu decided to make the earth; so he worked very hard in putting the
dead skin into shape, and when it was finished he was so pleased with it that he
determined to make two beings like himself, though smaller, to live on it.

Taking the remnants of the material left after making the earth he fashioned two
men, but just as they were all finished except their noses, Tau Tana from below the
earth appeared and wanted to help him.

Melu did not wish any assistance, and a great argument ensued. Tau Tana
finally won his point and made the noses which he placed on the people upside down.
When all was finished, Melu and Tau Tana whipped the forms until they moved. Then
Melu went to his home above the clouds, and Tau Tana returned to his place below
the earth.

All went well until one day a great rain came, and the people on the earth nearly
drowned from the water which ran off their heads into their noses. Melu, from his place
on the clouds, saw their danger, and he came quickly to earth and saved their lives by
turning their noses the other side up.

The people were very grateful to him, and promised to do anything he should ask
of them. Before he left for the sky, they told him that they were very unhappy living on the
great earth all alone, so he told them to save all the hair from their heads and the dry skin
from their bodies and the next time he came he would make them some companions. And
in this way there came to be a great many people on the earth.

Source: Mabel Cook Cole, Philippine Folk Tales (Chicago: A. C. McClurg and Company, 1916:139-140).

4
Read another story on creation. This was still made during pre-colonial period.

The Creation Story


Tagalog

When the world first began there was no land, but only the sea and the sky,
and between them was a kite (a bird something like a hawk). One day the bird which
had nowhere to light grew tired of flying about, so she stirred up the sea until it threw
its waters against the sky. The sky, in order to restrain the sea, showered upon it many
islands until it could no longer rise, but ran back and forth. Then the sky ordered the
kite to light on one of the islands to build her nest, and to leave the sea and the sky in
peace.

Now at this time the land breeze and the sea breeze were married, and they
had a child which was a bamboo. One day when this bamboo was floating about on
the water, it struck the feet of the kite which was on the beach. The bird, angry that
anything should strike it, pecked at the bamboo, and out of one section came a man
and from the other a woman.

Then the earthquake called on all the birds and fish to see what should be done
with these two, and it was decided that they should marry. Many children were born to
the couple, and from them came all the different races of people.

After a while the parents grew very tired of having so many idle and useless
children around, and they wished to be rid of them, but they knew of no place to send
them to. Time went on and the children became so numerous that the parents enjoyed
no peace. One day, in desperation, the father seized a stick and began beating them
on all sides.

This so frightened the children that they fled in different directions, seeking
hidden rooms in the house -- some concealed themselves in the walls, some ran
outside, while others hid in the fireplace, and several fled to the sea.

Now it happened that those who went into the hidden rooms of the house later
became the chiefs of the islands; and those who concealed themselves in the walls
became slaves. Those who ran outside were free men; and those who hid in the
fireplace became negroes; while those who fled to the sea were gone many years,
and when their children came back they were the white people.

Source: Mabel Cook Cole, Philippine Folk Tales (Chicago: A. C. McClurg and
Company, 1916:187-188).
Process Questions

Activity 4. In 2 to 3 sentences, answer the following questions:

1. How do you compare the origin of the two stories? Which elements do they
share, and what differences do they have in explaining how the world came to
be?
2. Which creation story is espoused by your religion? How do you compare that
particular origin story to these two folk narratives?

55
3. Which aspects of the two cultures could have influenced the stories? Based
on the details of the two creation stories, what can we conclude about the
two cultures that came up with them?
4. Is there such a thing as a “correct” version of how the world was created?
What can we learn about diversity from the creation stories that we have?

What I Have Learned

Activity 5. Compare and contrast how your time and the early Filipinos
viewed God as reflected in the myth you have read and the
belief you have now through a Venn Diagram.

A C B

How Filipinos viewed


God:
A. Early Filipinos’
viewed God
B. Your time view
God
C. Similar views
on God by early
Filipinos and
now.

What I Can Do

Activity 6. Write your own version of Creation based on your imagination.


Please do refer to the Rubrics found on the last part of this lesson.

66
Rubrics for a Story Writing:
CATEGORY 4 3 2 1
Audience/Purpose Presents details Presents details Presents few Supports no
targeted at a suited to an details suited to purpose; is not
unique audience; audience; an audience; written for a
successfully narrates the some ides specific audience
narrates the events of a story conflict with
events of a story narration of story
Plot (x2) Presents events Presents Presents a Presents no
that create a sequence of confusing logical order
clear narrative events sequence of
events
Characters (x2) Successfully goes Goes in-depth Includes some Does not go in
in depth with with description; description; depth with
description; covers all aspects covers some description; does
clearly covers all of character aspects of not cover all
aspects of character aspects of
character character
Point of View (x2) Writes from a Told from a Contains Uses an
consistent point specific point of inconsistent inconsistent
of view view points of view point of view
Dialogue & Contains details Contains details Contains Contains few or
Elaboration (x2) that provide and dialogue that characters and no details to
insight to develop setting; contains develop
character; characters some dialogue characters or
contains setting; no
dialogue that dialogue
reveals provided
characters and
furthers the plot
Grammar Contains no Contains few Contains some Contains many
errors in errors in errors in errors in
grammar, grammar, grammar, grammar,
punctuation and punctuation, and punctuation, and punctuation, and
spelling spelling spelling spelling
Use of Language Uses fresh word Uses interesting Uses clichés and Uses uninspired
choice and tone and fresh word unoriginal word choices
to reveal story’s choices expressions
setting and
character
Page Length Meets required -------------------- --------------------
Does not meet
page length required page
length
Adopted: http://jfmueller.faculty.noctrl.edu/toolbox/examples/cihock10/narrative.pdf [accessed
June 12, 2020].
Assessment
Multiple Choice. Choose the best answer. Write the letter of your answer on the
blank before the number.
--------1. What literary genre are the lines below?
Bungbong kung liwanag Bamboo stem during the day
Kung gabi ay dagat. At night, a sea.

a. Proverbs b. Riddle c. Epic d. Legend

______2. What object is described in the number 1 literary work?


a. Bed b. Wall C. Mat d. Map

______3. What literary genre are the lines below?


Bahay man ay palasyo It is better to have a hut
Kung ang laman ay kuwago Inhabited by a person
Mabuti pa ang kubong than a mansion
Laman ay tao. Wherein an owl lives.

a. Proverbs b. Riddle c. Epic d. Legend

_____4. What is the message of the literary work in Number 2?


a. It is nice to live in a big house with an owl.
b. It is nice to live in a hut with poor people.
c. It is nice to live in a hut with a human being.
d. It is nice to live in a mansion of an owl.
____5. Which one is a song of a boatman?
a. How pitiful are those born poor
Our sinews if we don’t stretch
Will not earn silver.
b. Row, let’s row
Our full strength let’s give
The wind is strong; we might be benighted
c. Go to sleep, my child
Your father is far
He cannot fetch us.
d. Badla will also descend
He’ll give away strength
Let the Baylans dance…
7
Lesson Philippine Literature
2 in Spanish Period

Grade 12, First Semester, Q1 – Week 2

What I know
Activity 1. Multiple Choice. Choose the best answer. Write the letter of your
answer on the blank before the number.

---------1. Work of poetry written in octosyllabic verse.


a. Duplo b. Corrido c. Balagtasan d. Awit
---------2. A poetic competition in speaking and reasoning.
a. Duplo b. Corrido c. Balagtasan d. Awit
--------3. A poetic competition which debates a particular topic or issue.
a. Duplo b. Corrido c. Balagtasan d. Awit
--------4. The most popular composition of Dr. Jose P. Rizal.
a. Doctrina Crstiana c. Noli Me Tangere
b. Florante at Laura d. La Solidaridad
--------5. The most popular verses written by Francisco Balagtas.
a. Doctrina Crstiana c. Noli Me Tangere
b. Florante at Laura d. La Solidaridad

What’s In

We learned in the previous lesson that during the pre-colonial period


there were already different genres of literature existed. Let us see if you can
remember some of them.

Activity 2. Arrange the jumbled letters below to form the different


genres and other forms of literature during the pre-
colonial period.

Jumbled Words Correct Words

1. SYMHT _________________________

2. AELFB _________________________
3. E E L D G N_________________________

4. L L L A I E U B_________________________

5. V R P B S O E_________________________

What I Need to Know

Hello Learners! Let us now journey Lesson 2 for this Module.


At the end of this lesson, you are expected to:
1. Identify the geographic, linguistic, and ethnic dimensions of Philippine literary
history from pre-colonial to the contemporary ( );
2. Identify representative texts and authors from each region (e.g. engage in
oral history research with focus on key personalities from the students’
region/provinces( );
3. Compare and contrast the various 21st century literary genres and the ones
from the earlier periods citing their elements, structures and traditions( ); and
4. Discuss how different contexts enhance the text’s meaning and enrich the
reader’s understanding( ).

What’s New
Activity 3. Arrange the jumbled letters below to identify some of
the Philippine literatures which were influenced by the
Spanish.

1. O R C R R D O_________________

2. A O Y R R S_________________

3. S N K L I A U O_________________

4. S S W L R A A E _________________

5. P U L D O _________________
What Is It
There were many changes occurred during the Spanish period. The
Spanish have a strong influence on our literature. They introduced the Roman
alphabet. The teaching of the Christian Doctrine became the basis of religious
practices. Many Filipinos embraced the Catholic religion. Our periodicals gained
religious tone. The Spanish language became the literary language. But they
collected and translated our ancient literature to Tagalog. Many grammar books
they have were printed in Filipino.
The Christian Doctrine (Doctrina Cristiana) was the first book printed in the
Philippines in 1593. It was written by Fr. Juan de Placencia and Fr.Domingo Nieva
in Tagalog and Spanish. It contained the Our Father (Pater Noster), Hail Mary (Ave
Maria), Hail Holy Queen (Regina Coeli), The Ten Commandments of God, the
Commandments of the Catholic Church, the Seven Mortal Sins, How to Confess,
and the Catechism.
The Passion is another book printed which is about the life and sufferings
of Jesus Christ that is still read during Lenten season nowadays by devout
Catholics. This book is an example of a narrative poetry.
Religious lyric poems included complimentary verses and meditative verses.
Complimentary verses were intended to attract readers to read a certain book by
giving praises. It served a double purpose: to draw readers and to teach the Spanish
language to the Filipinos. Meditative verses were found in novenas and catechisms.
Examples of meditative verses were Francisco de Salazar’s “Dalit sa Caloualhatian sa
Langit na Cararatnan nang mga Banal” and Pedro Suarez Ossorio’s “Salamat nang
Ualang Hoyang.” Verses in novenas and catechisms tended to be written in the poetic
form dalit, an early form that resembles free verse, in that there is no fixed rhyme or
meter, save for some octosyllabic four-line stanzas.
The Spaniards brought a variety of dramatic forms to enrich Philippine theater.
These forms included sarswela, the sinakulo and the komedya. It is evident that even
in the genre drama, religious themes continued to be dominant. The sinakulo, for one,
dramatized the pasyon, in that it was a live action simulation of Christ’s passion and
death. Even battles between Christian and Muslims-itself an

9
longstanding issue-was dramatized in the moro-moro or comdia de capa y
espada(Simoun Victor D. Redoblado, Brilliant Creations Publishing, Inc., 2017:12-14).
Other contributions of the Spanish were: Duplo, it is a poetic joust in
speaking and reasoning. Balagtasan is another poetic joust of skills in debate on a
particular topic or issue. This replaced duplo and is held in honor of Francisco
“Balagtas” Baltazar. Folksongs became widespread in the Philippines. Each region
had its song. It manifests the artistic feelings of the Filipinos. Examples which are
sting sang today are: Leron-Leron Sinta from the Tagalog, and Dandansoy, a
Bisaya song. There was also a Corrido. It is in octosylllabic verse. Example to this
is Ibong Adarana. Awit is another work which is dodecasyllabic. Florante at Laura
of Francisco Balagtas is an example.
It was in this period that our national hero, Dr. Jose Rizal made many
compositions which are still known today. Like the Noli Me Tangere and El
Filibusterismo. His two masterpieces that portrayed the colorful characteristics of
Philippine society. Before he died, he wrote the Mi Ultimo Adios.

Source: Alicia H. Kahayon and Celia A. Zulueta, Philippine Literature: Through the Years,
Cacho Hermanos, Inc., 2010:31-43).

What More

Being colonized by the Spanish government for more than three


centuries, Jose Rizal expressed his feelings towards them published in La
Solidaridad in 1890. Examine carefully how he voiced out his mind fearlessly
against a notion held by the Spaniards in his write up “The Indolence of the
Filipinos”.

10
11
12
13
Source: Rodrigo M. Martinez, Philippine’s Literary: GEMS An Anthology, (Mindshapers. Co. Inc,
2016:99-102).

Process Questions

Activity 4. Based on the given preceding excerpt, briefly answer the following
questions:

1. Whose idea was Dr. Rizal responding to? What exactly was the notion held
about Filipinos during Rizal’s time?
2. How did Rizal defend the identity of his countrymen? What arguments,
conditions, and examples did he cite to substantiate his case?
3. Among Rizal’s arguments, which was the most helpful to his defense of
Filipinos? Explain.
4. In your own experience and perspective, how can you prove that the Filipinos
are, in actuality, hardworking? Cite concrete examples to make your case.

Source: Simoun Victor D. Redoblado, Brilliant Creations Publishing, Inc., 2017:20.

What I Have Learned

Activity 5. Fill in the blanks with the correct literary works during the Spanish
period.

1. _______________was a debate in poetic delivery during the Spanish


time which is still done today.
2. _______________is recited during Lenten season by Catholic devotees.
3. _______________is written by Dr. Jose P. Rizal before he died.
4. _______________the first book printed which consisted the rosary and
commandments.
5. _______________means lazy.

14
What I Can Do
Activity 6. Write a reflective essay to prove that Filipinos are one of the most
industrious people in the world. Provide specific examples or instances.

Essay Rubrics:

Adopted: https://catlintucker.com/2018/08/middle-school-writing-rubrics/
Assessment
Multiple Choice. Choose the best answer. Write the letter of your
answer on the blank before the number.

----------1. It has a religious theme which dramatizes the passion of Christ.


a. Sarswela b. Sinakulo c. komedya d. moro-moro
---------2. A book which is about the life and sufferings of Jesus Christ.
a. Christian Doctrine c. Complimentary Verse
b. The Passion d. Meditative Verse
--------3. A religious lyric poem were novenas and catechisms are found
a. Christian Doctrine c. Complimentary Verse
b. The Passion d. Meditative Verse

--------4. What did Rizal believe can cure the cause of indolence among Filipinos.
a. revolution b. peace c. education d. slavery

--------5. What was the situation of the Filipinos based on “The Indolence of
Filipinos” essay.
a. They lived lazily in their homes
b. They worked so hard with less pay.
c. They worked but not appreciated.
d. They lived without work.
15
Lesson Philippine Literature
3 in American Period

Grade 12, First Semester, Q1 – Week 3

What I Know

Activity 1. Multiple Choice. Choose the best answer. Write the letter of your
answer on the blank before the number.
______1. Leads the modernization of poetry.
a. Zoilo Galang c. Jose Garcia Villa
b. Paz marquez Benitez d. Wilfredo Ma. Guerrero
______2. The first Philippine novel in English.
a. Have Come, Am Here b. A Child of Sorrow
b. Sons For Sale d. Dead Stars
______3. The first successful Philippine short story in English.
a. Have Come, Am Here b. A Child of Sorrow
b. Sons For Sale d. Dead Stars
______4.A prolific writer who wrote100 plays and helped the Philippine theater
scene reached new heights.
a. Zoilo Galang c. Jose Garcia Villa
b. Paz Marquez Benitez d. Wilfredo Ma. Guerrero
_____5. The first Philippine book of essays in English.
a. Stealer of hearts c. Condemned
b. Life and Success d. Souls in Torment
What’s In
We have just learned in the previous lesson that different genres of literature existed
during the pre-colonial and Spanish period. Let us see if you can remember some
of those.

Activity 2.Identify and encircle horizontally, vertically and/or diagonally the


words discussed in the previous lesson.

E I A N N S O L O M O B A
I N L A G I N G H A N A D
Z G O I N N G S D U P L O
E E N D L A P L A Y S A B
N L Z A T K A M A N A G O
H E Z L O U M A M I T T A
O I N D O L E N C E P A L
R O S E L O B R I G H S T
W I N N E K O M E D Y A S
E P H R A I M O M M Y N R
A D N I L A S O R C A N E

What I Need to Know

Hello learners! We are now in Lesson 3.

At the end of this lesson, you are expected to:

1. Identify the geographic, linguistic, and ethnic dimensions of Philippine literary history
from pre-colonial to the contemporary ( );
2. Identify representative texts and authors from each region (e.g. engage in oral history
research with focus on key personalities from the students’ region/provinces( );
3. Compare and contrast the various 21st century literary genres and the ones from the
earlier genres/periods citing their elements, structures and tradition ( ); and,
4. Discuss how different contexts enhance the text’s meaning and enrich the reader’s
understanding ( ).

16
What’s New

The Filipino Revolutionists won against the Spaniards who colonized for
more than 300 years. On June 12, 1898 the Philippine flag was raised as a symbol
of our independence. Many Filipinos started writing again and the nationalism of
the people remain undaunted.
Activity 3. Guess what are the forms of literature did we have during the

American period by putting a check ( ) beside the word and x
if you think it was not done.
1. Poetry _____
2. Novels _____
3. Essays _____
4. News Reports ______
5. Short Stories ______

What Is It

At the dawn of the 20th century, American culture began to establish its form
grip on the Filipino identity. They brought another groundbreaking cultural
milestone: the English language. The Philippine writers appreciated the new styles
and genres of writing that they brought.
From the 1920s onwards, Philippine literature in English began to gain
momentum. The genres of poetry, fiction, drama, and essay saw remarkable growth.
Modernization of poetry took place. It was headed by Jose Garcia Villa in his “Have
Come, Am Here” in two volumes. Then many adopted. Novel was also introduced in this
period. Many vernacular novels were written. The first Philippine novel in English was
Zoilo Galang’s “A Child of Sorrow” which was published in 1921.
Short stories had its start during this period. The “Dead Stars” by Paz Marquez
Benitez in 1925 was the first successful Philippine short story in English. She mentored
other writers that in 1927, a collection of Philippine short stories in English written by
one author was published, Jose Villa Panganiban’s “Stealer of Hearts”. It is then
followed in 1933, “Footnote to Youth” by Jose Garcia Villa.
Drama was also introduced in this period. The three former UP Presidents had
legacies of excellent drama writing. Carlos P. Romulo who became President of the
United Nations General Assembly, wrote “Sons for Sale”, “The Ghost” and “The Real
Leader.” Jorge Bacobo published four plays: Vidal Tan gained fame with Rizal
inspired plays like “The Meeting in the Town Hall” and “Souls in Torment.”
From 1922-1931, nearly 40 plays were produced or published in the country.
These plays echod cries for independence from the American colonizers. The next 10
years were dominated by an all-time great in Philippine Literature: Wilfredo Ma.
Guerrero. A highly prolific writer to whom over 100 plays are credited. Guerrero helped
the Philippine theater scene reached new heights. His masterpieces included,
“Condemned” , “ Women are Extraordinary”, and “Forever”.
Essay genre flourished in this period too. Just as he was the pioneer in fiction,
Zoilo Galang broke new ground with essays as well. In 1921, he published “Life and
Success,” the first Philippine book of essays in English.
Literary criticism also emerged. Manuel A. Viray was among the most notable
critics, aside from being a poet and fictionist himself.
Source: Simoun Victor D. Redoblado, (Brilliant Creations Publishing, Inc., 2017:25-3).

17
What More
He
Let us study the masterpiece of Wilfredo Ma. Guerrero, “Condemned.”
It is a hallmark literary piece considered a legacy of the American influence.
The excerpt below reflects how the Americans helped fortify the Philippine
drama scene.

18
19
20
21
22
23
24
Source: Simoun Victor D. Redoblado, (Brilliant Creations Publishing, Inc., 2017:31-38).

25
Process Questions

Activity 4. Based on the given drama, answer the following questions briefly:

1. What conflicts are confronted by Pablo in this excerpt? Are his internal
struggles more difficult than his clashes with the other characters?
2. How would you describe Pablo’s relationship with the three women in this
excerpt? To whom is the closest?
3. Is Pablo a dynamic character in this excerpt? Does his character
experience significant change by the end of the play? Explain.
4. How would you evaluate Guerrero’s use of the English language in this
play? Can we consider “Condemned” to be a testament of Filipino’s mastery
of the language? Justify your claim by citing details from the excerpt of the
drama.

What I Have Learned

Activity 5. Answer the following questions by choosing the letter only.


Write it on the space provided before the number.

_____1. Who was Cristina in Pablo’s life?


a. mother b. fiancée c. wife d. sister
_____2. Why did Pablo hate his mother?
a. His mother loved gambling than him.
b. His mother left his father.
c. His mother abandoned him.
d. His mother did not teach him right attitude.
_____3. Did Pablo get angry with Tia Cheding when he learned that she did
not tell the true reason of his mother’s gambling.
a. YES b. NO (explain your answer)
_____4. Based on how the story was presented, did Pablo forgive his
mother? a. YES b. NO (explain your answer)
_____5. Based on how the story was presented, What was the ending of the
story?
a. Angela will be back to Marcos Nable.
b. Angela will be angry with Tia Cheding.
c. Angela and Tia Cheding will friends again.
d. Angela will take care of Cristina.

What I Can Do
Activity 6. State whether you “Agree” or Disagree” to the following
questions by justifying your claim.
1. If you were about to be married to a person who is sentenced to death,
will you still push through the marriage before his/her death? Why?
2. Is it right to blame anybody of the plight/condition you have in the future?
Why?

26
Adopted: https://catlintucker.com/2018/08/middle-school-writing-rubrics/accessedJune 12,2020
Assessment
Multiple Choice. Choose the best answer. Write the letter of your
answer on the blank before the number.
______1. In the story, “Condemned” what qualities did Pablo want for his mother.
a. A mother who would love him.
b. A mother would discipline him.
c. A mother who would not mind him.
d. Both a and b
______2. Pablo grew up with undesirable traits because
a. He has everything he wanted
b. He was tolerated by Tia Chedeng.
c. He lacked his mother’s love.
d. He was very poor.
______3. Cristina wanted to marry Pablo before his death because
a. She has no one to turn to.
b. Pablo’s mother was rich.
c. Pablo has wealth to leave her.
d. She loved Pablo very much.
______4.Whom did Pablo blame his life sentence?
a. The man who attempted to rape Cristina.
b. Cristina who walked alone that night.
c. His mother who left him since 10 years old.
d. Tia Chedeng for always understanding him.
______5.Who has the greatest love for Pablo.
a. His mother Angela.
b. His fiancée Cristina
c. His Aunt Tia Chedeng
d. His priest friend.
______6.Who was condemned in the play, “Condemned”
a. Angela.
b. Cristina
c. Pablo
d. All of the above

27
Lesson Philippine Literature
4 in Japanese Period

Grade 12, First Semester, Q1 – Week 4

What I Know

This time we will study the Philippine literature during the


Japanese Period and its contributions to our literature.
Activity 1. Read the following questions carefully. Then choose your answers
from the words in the box.

HAIKU TANAGA ISHIWARA LIWAYWAY TRIBUNE

_________________1. One of the two newspapers which were not stopped to operate
during the Japanese period.
_________________2. A weekly magazine which was under surveillance until it was
managed by a Japanese.
_________________3. A Japanese who managed the weekly magazine who gave a
break to Filipino literature.
_________________4. A free verse poem in 17 syllables, divided into three lines.
_________________5. A free verse poem on which each line has 17 syllables.
What’s In
We are now in Lesson 4. Previously, we have studied about the
American contributions in Philippine literature. Do you still remember
some of them?
Activity 2. Fill in the squares to form the different genres or composition
our Filipino writers have developed during the American
period.

D
P
C
E

SHORTSTORI ES

Y
L Y

What I Need to Know

At the end of this lesson, you are expected to:

1. Identify the geographic, linguistic, and ethnic dimensions of Philippine literary history
from pre-colonial to the contemporary( );
2. Identify representative texts and authors from each region (e.g. engage in oral history
research with focus on key personalities from the students’ region/provinces( );
3. Compare and contrast the various 21st century literary genres and the ones from the
earlier genres/periods citing their elements, structures and traditions( ); and
4. Discuss how different contexts enhance the text’s meaning and enrich the reader’s
understanding( ).

28
What’s new

Activity 3. This time we will study the Philippine literature during the Japanese
Period and its contributions to our literature.
Try to analyze this:

1. You’re pulling a saber


The flowers shivered
When you approached.

How many lines is the poem? __________


How many syllables are there in the poem? ___________

2. He’s a behaved palay


Who bowed when the wind blew
But stood up again
And bore gold.
How many lines is the poem? ________________
How many syllables are there in the poem? _____________

Which is a Haiku? Tanaga?

What Is It

Haiku is a poem of free verse that Japanese liked. which is made up of


17 syllables divided in three lines.It is allegorical in meaning, short and covers a
wide scope of meaning. The same with Tanaga, short but with 17 syllables in each
line and it has measure and rhyme. Source: Alicia Kahayon and Celia A. Zulueta, ( Cacho
Hermanos Inc..,2010:84).

Rejecting the English language espoused by Americans, the Japanese


colonizers sought to redefine Philippine Literature by strengthening the vernacular
languages. There were Filipino writers who distinguished themselves as excellent
practitioners of short fiction in the vernacular.

In the post- war period, there were vernacular novels that reflected social and
political realities. Literature in Tagalog brought their own touch of modernism.
American influence could be gleaned from the writers’ works that reflected realism.
Vernacular poetry continued to blossom. The strains of modernism were
evident to some ‘writers but produced excellent works. Writers based in the Ateneo de
Manila University, focused on concrete objects rather than the abstract ideas
espoused by the poets of old. We see emphasis on the tangible along with a touch of
modernism.
The modernist movement continued to be dominant in the post –war period,
particularly in the genre of poetry.
Source: Simoun Victor D. Redoblado, (Brilliant Creations Publishing, Inc., 2017:40-
45).
What’s More

Read the poem that follows. Notice the style and blend of images-
a testament to the uniqueness of poetic voices during that literary epoch.

Source: Simoun Victor D. Redoblado, (Brilliant Creations Publishing, Inc., 2017:45).

Process Questions:

Activity 4. In 3 to 5 sentences, answer the following questions:

1.Describe the poem’s handling of standard English grammar-punctuation,


capitalization, sentence/phrase structure. What effect do liberties of the poem have on
the message that it imparts?
2. Why does the poem allude to Icarus and Daedalus? ‘what is the story of these
figures of Greek mythology, and what does this story have to do with the poem.
3. What persona is being invoked by this poem? Who or what could be the voice that
unfolds each line of the poem.

30
What I Have Learned

Activity 5. Compare and contrast Ilio’s use of the English language with
Guerrero’s handling of English in “Condemned”. As suggested by “Icarus,” to
what extent have our writers embraced the English language during the post-war
period? Rubrics are found on the last page of this lesson.

___________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________

What I Can Do

Activity 6. Be a Poet! Get inspired with the poem. Compose a free verse poem
in ten lines, which expresses a specific emotion, too. Rubrics are on the last page of
this lesson.
___________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________

31
Rubrics for Comparison and Contrast

Meets or Meets Some Meets Few Meets No


Exceeds Expectations Expectations Expectations
Expectations
Description 3 2 1 0

1. Purpose & Supporting Details


a. The paper compares and contrasts
items clearly.
b. The paper points to specific examples
to illustrate the comparison.
c. The paper includes only the
information relevant to the comparison.

2. Organization & Structure


a. The paper breaks the information into
the whole-to-whole, similarities to-
differences, or point by-point structure.
b. The paper follows a consistent order
when discussing the comparison.
c. The paper breaks the information into
appropriate sections or paragraphs to
the ideas.

3. Transitions & Coherence


a. The paper moves smoothly from one
idea to the next.
b. The paper uses comparison and
contrast transition words to show
relationships between ideas.
c. The paper uses a variety of sentence
structures and transitions.

4. Conventions
a. The paper shows correct grammar and
usage.
b. The paper follows the rules for
punctuation.
c. The paper includes words that are
spelled correctly
TOTAL
Adopted:https://www.eriesd.org/site/handlers/filedownload.ashx?moduleinstanceid=14837&dat
aid=13730&FileName=5Comparison%20Contrast%20Rubric.pdf [accessed June 12, 2020].

32
Rubrics for the Poem

Adopted: https://www.teacherspayteachers.com/Product/Basic-Poetry-Rubric-3691783
[accessed June 12, 2020].
Assessment
Multiple Choice. Choose the best answer. Write the letter of your
answer on the blank before the number.

______1. Below is an example of _________.

You’re pulling a saber


The flowers shivered
When you approached.

a. Haiku b. Tanaga c. Free verse

______2. Below is an example of _________.

He’s a behaved palay


Who bowed when the wind blew
But stood up again
And bore gold.

a. Haiku b. Tanaga c. Free verse

______3. In the poem,”Icarus in Catechism Class”, who do you think is speaking?


a. Icarus b. Daedalus c. angels labyrinth
______4. The lines in “Icarus in Catechism Class”, what does it mean?
Or make us angels all, with dirty feet,
Without wings, chanting the beatitudes,
a. Icarus was interested to fly.
b. Icarus was disinterested to fly.
c. Icarus was excited to fly.
d. Icarus wanted to fly for escape.
______5. What did the poem,“Icarus in Catechism Class” believed for angels?
a. with dirty feet b, with halo
c.with clean feet d. without halo
33
Lesson Literature in the
5 Late 20th Century

Grade 12, First Semester, Q1 – Week 5

What I Know

Activity 1. List down five (5) Filipino foods you love to eat. Describe why
you love those foods. Use the chart below.

Foods Reason/s
1

What’s In

In our previous lesson, we learned that Icarus in Catechism Class by


Dominador I. IIio, which was based on the story “Myth of Icarus.” In the story,
Icarus was the son of Daedalus who attempted to escape prison from the hands of
King Minos. In like manner, the story talked about Icarus's father who made feather
out of wax for them to use in escaping the dark labyrinth.
Today, our new lesson is about Puto-Bumbong, Bibingka, Salabat, atbp:
The Filipino Christmas Table by Doreen Fernandez.
34
What’s New

Puto-Bumbong, Bibingka, Salabat, atbp:


The Filipino Christmas Table
Doreen Fernandez as published in Sarap: Essays on Philippine Food

Rice Delicacy for Christmas

"I'm dreaming of a green Christmas," wrote a Filipina working at the United Nations
in New York. In the midst of the snow and tinsel, the bright shop windows and the glittering
trees of an American Christmas, she remembered the soft lantern light from a star-shaped
parol, the nip in the air as one walked to the dawn misa de gallo, and especially the food:
"It was not really the choir voices nor the whispered prayers of our elders that kept us
awake. It was something else... the promise of the piping hot puto bumbong being
prepared by the vendors along the way home that kept our spirits up, our appetites
whetted, and hence, our senses disquieted. The sweet lavender rice sprouting out of little
bamboo tubes, topped by a generous sprinkling of grated coconut meal and brown sugar,
was part of our Christmas delight."

She was, of course, remembering the makeshift stalls that sprout like
mushrooms the week the dawn masses begin. Along the streets leading to the
churches, and especially in the patios-at Las Piňas, under an ancient tree lit by a
galaxy of lanterns-are built lean-tos made from bamboo poles and roofed with old
blankets or coconut leaves, with a dulang in front serving as counter. From them
cooking smells tantalize the churchgoers and render children impatient to get through
mass.

Not only is there puto bumbong made from violet-colored pirutung rice, but also
bibingka, flat and soft and fragrant in banana leaves a mite singed by the charcoal fire
above and below. Sometimes these have a bit of native cheese on them or a sliver of
salted egg-but always they come with freshly grated coconut meat for sprinkling on the
hot, moist and golden cake. With it is served a customary free cup of hot tea or salabat,
ambrosia on a cold morning.

The above simbang gabi fare in the Tagalog provinces is echoed by the other
rice cakes and dishes in other regions at Christmastime. It is asif our forebears,
dependent on rice as staple and base and year-round pampabigat sa tiyan, gratefully
gave it primacy of place in the celebration of native Christmas. Thus, just as breads
mark Christmas for the German, pudding for the Englishman, and cakes like Buche
de Noel and Gateaux des Rois for the Frenchman, so rice cakes signify Christmas for
the Filipino.

In Pampanga, for example, the region acknowledged to have some of the


richest gastronomic traditions, the Christmas week specialties include putong sulot
and especially putong lusong eaten with panara. Putong lusong is a white, anise-
flavored cake cut in thick trapezoidal wedges; panara is a little pasty filled with grated
upo or green papaya sauteed with garlic, chopped onion, cooked pork and shrimp,
and seasoned with salt and plenty of black pepper. This is wrapped like a turnover in
a dough of galapong,anisado wine and achuete, then fried in hot fat in a large kawali

35
right in front of the buyer. It comes sizzling out of the pan and is laid on banana leaf-
covered tables to cool.

"They were hot!" remembered the late Enriqueta David Perez (author of the
excellent, long-running cookbook Recipes of the Philippines)." Yet one could hardly
wait to pick them up. So I would take two pieces of puto and use them to pick up my
panara.The puto would take two pieces of puto and use them to pick up my panara,
The puto would also serve to absorb some of the oil. The combination was perfect:
the hot, peppery panara, the soft white puto and a little grated coconut making juice
on the tongue. And the tea with pandan and no sugar- hot and fragrant."

Cebuanos, novelist Lina Espina Moor recounted, call the predawn breakfast painit
(since it literally warms one up). It traditionally features hot, sticky chocolate, potomaya
(malagkit cooked with coconut milk), suman bodbod (sweetened malagkit cooked in
coconut leaves), biko (sweetened malagkit molded on a plate) and bibingka.

Sanirose Singson Orbeta, born and bred in Vigan, remembers that an important
part of her Christmas was the preparation of tinubong, also from rice. A half-cooked puto
mixture would be poured into a long bamboo tubes and left to cook on coals while the
whole town went off to midnight mass. When they returned, the coals would be dying
down, the bamboo charred and the tinubong cooked. The long tubes were then cut and
distributed among the family. The lazy (to cook) could buy them at stores in 10-centavo
(pre-1950s prices), 20-centavo and even 50-centavo (for the greedy) lengths. For
Sanirose the sound that brings back Vigan media noches is the cracking of hot, charred
bamboo tubes in hands eager to get at the food of Christmas.

In Laoag, Ilocos Norte, on the other hand, the traditional delicacy is tupig. Writer
Benjamin Pascual, in a piece written for the old Sunday Times Magazine, remembers
that the whole town would prepare it "or risk the wrath of the children." Preparations
would start before daybreak on December 24, and children would wake up to the
sound of the townswomen pulverizing the malagkit : "the rhythmic thuds of thousands
of wooden pestles against thousands of mortars in the town became one huge throb
of gaiety... we youngsters sat on our haunches to watch the alternately bobbing
women. Our purring cats made warm cushions on our laps."*

This variety of puto was flavored with molasses, which had been stored in cans
long before the holiday season. 'When the can was not closed tight, lizards burglarized
it and feasted and then drowned on sweetness.. The upper layer of molasses thus had
to be scooped off, and this task fell to us children. For all the exertions of plunging a
crowbar into the asphalt-tough molasses, we enjoyed the work because we were free
to sample the sweet..."

The next step was the grating of coconut to be mixed with the dough, and here
again the children involved themselves, "riding" the coconut graters carved from tree
trunks and shaped like horses, dogs or even alligators. The coconut-mixed dough was
next wrapped in layers of dark green, mature banana leaves, and cooked by burying
them in a huge mound of burning rice chaff, a community oven for several neighbors.
"The virtue of rice chaff is that it does not burst into flames, but smolders in a leisurely
way," such that the tupig bakes unhurriedly and evenly as in an oven.

Besides the tupig, a Laoag media noche would include patupat or tinapet, also
rice delicacies, this time wrapped in pyramidal fashion in the young, lemon-yellow
shoots of the banana plant. (In other towns coconut fronds are used).

36
Many other varieties of puto, suman and bibingka exist around the islands,
among them putong puti, which in its modern version uses baking powder; putong
pula, sweet with brown sugar; kutsinta colored with lye; rich suman with a thick topping
of latik; kutsinta colored with lye; rich suman with a thick topping of latik; "poverty"
suman with but a hint of coconut milk and sugar; suman to be rolled in sugar, or dipped
in coconut, or fried, or rolled in leaves, or folded in leaves, or sliced. And of course
there are all the other kakanin for which each region, even each town, has its own
names and its own Christmas memories.

Still another rice-based Christmas delicacy is the Filipino tamales, which is


quite different from the Mexican variety, being made basically of rice, coconut milk,
achuete and ground toasted peanuts, with slices of pork, chicken, duck, shrimp, ham,
etc., depending on region, availability and budget of the maker. A Cebuana
remembers tamales of two kinds;one sweet and one pepper hot, both wrapped in
layers of banana leaf and those of Sorsogon are said to take three days to make.
Those who have them as part of their Christmas memories seek them in vain in the
streets and foodshops of the big city.

Although this plethora of rice cakes forms the basis of our Christmas fare, other
dishes drawn from the Chinese, Spanish and American influences on our food culture
have become traditional too- to families, to regions. This is because the centrality and
grandeur of the feast make it imperative to have something special, and "special" is
determined both by the culture and by the individual taste. An informant from a poor
Sorsogon barrio told us, for example, that her family ate fish all year round and had
pork adobo once in the year, for the media noche. The next days, it was "isda na
naman".

Lunch and Desserts Foods

“Special” for many are the Spanish dishes that have become traditional fiesta
fare. For Enriquetta Guerrero clan, it was cocido. “Oh, I hardly wait for the Mass to be
over,” she told us in that long-ago interview, “so that we could have the cocido. It was
the usual old-fashioned recipe, with jamon China, chorizo de Bilbao,morcilla, beef
kenchi with marrow bone, chicken, pork, cabbage, pechay, carrots, potatoes, onion,
tomato sauce and a thick broth- and served with eggplant sauce.”

Leni Guerrero of the Ermita Guerrero clan, whose French mother added richly
to their Christmas traditions, remembers their customary galantine and relleno, the
latter a fat capon stuffed with an assortment of riches, including, in the old days, foie
gras, truffles, ground pork, olives, imported pork sausages, Spanish sausages, and
such other luxuries. A Pampanga family known for its cooking liked fat nilagang manok
for its media noche, the chicken especially fattened and readied for the feast. A Nueva
Ecija family had pesang manok; one Negros family always had lechon stuffed with
tanglad. How central lechon can be to many a family feast is shown by the near-riot at
ELAR lechon office when the machine turning over the rows of lechon spits broke
down. The pigs had to be roasted in Montalban and were delayed and hundreds
crowded the office on Christmas Eve clamoring for their festal lechon, or for their
regales for compadres, ninongs and relatives.

Almost everyone used to have jamon en dulce, obviously another tradition


inherited from Spain. This used to be imported salted Chinese ham (also called jamon
Pina, or jamon en funda, because it would come in cloth sack), cooked in sugar, white

37
wine, beer, pineapple juice and fragrant spices-notably cloves-with a crisp, shiny sugar
glaze seared in by a hot sianse. Local and homemade hams now fill in for the imported
type, but most Filipinos of medium and high income levels cannot think of Christmas
even now without remembering rosy red slices of ham, with their translucent strips of
fat topped by a thick and delicious sugar layer.

Besides these, there were usually acharas of all kinds, sweetly pickled young
papayas and other vegetables cut into flowers, stars, (and/or) butterflies. And
wilderness of desserts: more suman of various persuasions; quivering leche flan
fragrant with dayap, macapuno en dulce in pale, translucent strands; santol strands;
santol preserves with that sweet sourness that the Filipino palate cannot resist;
preserved citrus fruit peel; pastillas in wrappers with cutout designs and mottoes like
"Recuerdo" and glass jars, thickly and sweetly purple; and whatever other specialties
mothers, aunts and grandmothers- all of them long on time and patience-were known
for.

There were, further, imported delicacies that used to appear only at Christmas
time: fragrant apples and Mandarin oranges; walnuts, pecans and Brazil nuts; brown,
sticky castañas; bunches of grapes fresh from their sawdust; and turrones de jijona
and turrones de alicante. The turrones came from Spain in flat, round tins or in wooden
boxes that were a ritual to open. They were so hard that they had to be hacked on a
wooden cutting board with a very dull knife and were given out in thin slivers and slices,
hard enough to break one's teeth. But they were delicious, a mixture of honey and
almonds covered with a paper-thin wafer like a communion hostia, seemingly made
for Christmas and for no other season. All the above are still available, but at
astronomical prices, making them part of the Christmas only of the nostalgic elite, and
not of the majority.

Breakfast on Christmas Day usually featured Spanish-style chocolate: hot and


thick ("Chocolate E" for espeso) if one could afford it; thin and watery ("Chocolate A"
for aguado) if one's budget was cramped. With this rich, savory drink were usually
served slices of queso de bola- hard, cream-colored Edam cheese that came in cans-
and ensaimadas, whose sweet light dough and butter-sugar-cheese topping make the
expatriate Filipino wax nostalgic, since they go so perfectly with the saltiness of the
cheese and the heavy sweetness of the chocolate.

Noche Buena (Christmas) and Media Noche (New Year)

Writer and gourmet E. Aguilar Cruz believes that the media noche is the most
important part of the urban Filipino's Christmas, but that for the rural Filipino it is the
Christmas Day breakfast and luncheon. Christmas Day used to be the time to visit
relatives and godparents, to give the ritual greetings (kiss on the hand, or hand on the
forehead), and receive gifts of money, sweets, toys, or religious objects.

Writer Carmen Guerrero-Nakpil remembers going to visit, in a bygone Ermita,


aunts in whose homes were laid out "an assortment of sweetmeats, some brought from
Bulacan and Pampanga and even Spain and America,but mostly prepared in their own
family kitchen. There were towering castillo (veritable monuments of candied pastry),
pastillas wrapped in decorated tissue paper, newly wrapped tamales and all manner of
candies and bonbons. These were pressed upon us with great insistence..."

This was the day the dulces de Magalang would appear, Abe Cruz remembers-
those many-splendored sweets from Magalang, Pampanga. It was also the day aunts

38
and mothers trotted out the Brazo de la Reina, a meringue roll with a syrupy egg yolk
and butter filling; tocino del cielo, tiny and wickedly rich caramel custards in miniature
cups; meringue sweets that were chewy inside and crisp outside and "wrapped in
paper, " my father remembered,"only at Christmas time." The Ilocos homes might have
instead abrillantados, crystallized colored coconut candy rolled in fine white
sugar.Other regions or families had kalamay, or pinipig pudding, or yemas.

The Christmas noonday meal, which may be taken with immediate family or
with one's grandparents, or with the oldest of the clan, depending on familial custom,
differs widely in different regions. It might be pinapaitan in Abra (a peppery dish of goat
variety meats); embutido or morcon in a Manila household; bam-i in a Cebuano home
(chicken, pork, dried shrimp, mushrooms and two kinds of noodle; legend has it that
only a Cebuano can cook it properly); pancit Molo in an Ilongo family; sincuchar (beef
variety meats) or kilawin of goat meat in an Ilocano homes. In a poor household, it is
whatever the budget could make available- the long-kept chicken, rarely seen pork, or
the fish and rice of everyday. For the affluent, it is very often lechon. In urban homes,it
is often American roast turkey or baked ham, German ginger-bread and almond
stollen, French Buche de Noel.

Conclusion

The Filipino Christmas has adapted much from the foreign cultures that history has
introduced into our lives. Just as Christmas cards and trees have joined the belen,
villancicos like "Vamos Pastores" and the misa de gallo; just as blinking Christmas lights
surround the star-shapped bamboo parol; so have turkey, cheese cake and rum puddings
joined the native and Spanish dishes on the media noche table.

But, although our Christmases have Spanish and other foreign flavors, basic to
it are the puto bumbong, bibingka and salabat in church courtyards, the suman and
kutsinta at the family reunions, the taste of rice and of home, of which our Christmas
memories are made.

http://walking-writer.blogspot.com/2011/12/essay-puto-bumbong-bibingka-salabat.html

What is It

Activity 2. Based on the essay you have read, answer the following questions
succinctly:
1. What particular season does the essay focus on? Have you tried any of the
seasonal foods mentioned in the essay? If so, which ones?
___________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________

39
2. Describe the author’s style of writing. What techniques make her portrayal of food
effective?
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________

3. Name other occasions in our country that also feature a seasonal set of food.
Why do you think Filipinos favor specific food for specific seasons?

______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________

What’s More

Activity 3. Comment on the essay’s historical dimension. What


information does the essay give about our country’s
past colonizers? Write your answer in the space
provided.

Begin Here:
Comment 1 Comment 2
___________________________________ ___________________________________
___________________________________ ___________________________________
___________________________________ ___________________________________
___________________________________ ___________________________________
___________________________________ ___________________________________
___________________________________ ___________________________________
___________________________________ ___________________________________
___________________________________ ___________________________________
___________________________________ ___________________________________
___________________________________ ___________________________________
___________________________________ ___________________________________

40
What I Have Learned

Activity 4. Complete the statement below in the “Worth


Remembering Note.” Write your answer on the space
provided.

WRN: I learned that…


First,
____________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
Second,
____________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
Lastly,
____________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________

What I Can Do

Activity 5. Complete the table below by interviewing any of your family


member.

Family Members Preferred Food/s Reason/s


Father

Mother

Brother

Sister

Others
41
Assessment
Based on the story Puto-Bumbong, Bibingka, Salabat, atbp: The
Filipino Christmas Table, make a collage using the following rubrics.

Rubric on Collage / Poster Making


Total
Criteria Still a Goal On Standard Above Standard Points
(1-7) (8-14) (9-17) (17)
1. Organization ✓ Output is ✓ Shows some ✓ Has a very well
* relevance to unrecognized/ organization of organized work.
the theme not related to work.
the theme
(1-2) (3-4) (5-7) (7)
2.Appropriateness ✓ Pictures used ✓ Pictures are ✓ Pictures used
of are appropriate and are very
pictures used inappropriate. related to the appropriate.
theme.
(1-2) (3-4) (5-7) (7)
3. Creativity ✓ Lacks ✓ Demonstrates ✓ Demonstrate
imaginative moderate imaginative
thinking output imaginative skills. thinking.
✓ Produced has ✓ Output produced ✓ Output
no innovative has some produced has
and unique innovative and innovative &
qualities unique qualities. unique qualities.

(1-2) (3-4) (5-7) (7)


4. Neatness/ ✓ Lacks neatness ✓ Shows neatness ✓ Shows a very
Tidiness in her work neat output.
✓ Observes
cleanliness &
orderliness at all
times.
4. Over-all (1-2) (3-4) (5-7) (7)
Appearance ✓ Work has ✓ Shows an ✓ Shows a very
unattractive attractive work attractive work.
appearance.
Adopted from: Ampong, Ronald, Differentiated Approach in Enhancing the
Reading Proficiency Level

Begin Here:

42
Lesson
Various 21st Century
Literature Genres
6
Grade 12, First Semester, Q1 – Week 6

What I Need to Know

At the end of this Lesson 2, you will be able to:


a. Compare and contrast the various 21st century literary genres and the
ones from the earlier genres/periods citing their elements, structures
and traditions; and
b. Discuss how different contexts enhance the text’s meaning and
enrich the reader’s understanding

What I Know

Activity 1. Give two proverbs or salawikain that you may have heard from
your elders. Then extract the lessons which influences our
existence today.

Proverbs Lessons

__________________________ ____________________________________________
__________________________ ____________________________________________
__________________________ ____________________________________________
__________________________ __________________________________________
________________________

__________________________ ____________________________________________
__________________________ ____________________________________________
__________________________ ____________________________________________
__________________________ __________________________________________
________________________

43
What’s In

In our previous lesson, we learned the story entitled Puto-Bumbong,


Bibingka, Salabat, atbp: The Filipino Christmas Table by Doreen
Fernandez as published in Sarap: Essays on Philippine. This essay
reflects that Filipinos as “lovers of eating” for their own sake or (at most,
for the sake of friendship, family, or religion). However, this time, we will
discuss about various 21st century literary genres.

What’s New

The Story of Tunkung Langit and Alunsina


(a folklore from Panay)

Once upon a time when the earth was but a shapeless, formless void appeared
the god called Tungkung Langit (“Pillar of Heaven”) and the virgin goddess of the
eastern skies, Alunsina (“The Unmarried One”).

The old Visayan folklore states that Tungkung Langit fell in love with Alunsina.
After he had courted her for many years, they married and made their home in the
highest part of heaven. There the water was always warm and the breeze was forever
cool, not a bad weather was in sight, and the couple was happy. In this place in the
heavens, order and regularity began.

Tungkung Langit was a loving, hard-working god. He wanted to impose order


over the confused world. He decided to arrange the world so that the heavenly bodies
would move regularly. On the other hand, Alunsina was a lazy, jealous, selfish
goddess. She sat at the window of their home all day doing nothing but brush her long
beautiful hair. Sometimes she would leave her home, sit down by a pool near the door,
and comb her long, jet-black hair all day long. One day Tungkung Langit told his wife
that he would be away for some time. He said he must make time go on smoothly and
arrange everything in the world and did not return for a long time. Alunsina thought he
was off to see a lover, so she summoned the breeze to spy on Tungkung Langit.
Tungkung Langit caught the spying breeze and he became very angry with Alunsina.
After he returned home, he told her that it was ungodly of her to be jealous since there
were no other gods in the world except the two of them.

Alunsina resented this reproach, and they quarreled all day. In his anger, Tungkung
Langit drove his wife away. And with that, Alunsina suddenly disappeared, without a word
or a trace to where she went. A few days passed, Tungkung Langit felt very lonely and
longed for his wife. He realized that he should not have lost his temper. But it was too late,
Alunsina is gone. Their home which was once vibrant with Alunsina's sweet voice, his
home became cold and desolate. In the morning when he

44
woke up, he would find himself alone. In the afternoon when he came home, he would
feel loneliness creeping deep within him.

For months Tungkung Langit lived in utter desolation. Try as he did he could
not find Alunsina. And so in his desperation, he decided to do something to forget his
sorrow and win back his wife’s favor. So he came down to earth and planted trees and
flowers that she may notice it, but she still didn’t come home. Then in desperation, he
took his wife's jewels and scattered them in the sky. He hoped that when Alunsina
should see them she might be induced to return home.

Alunsina's necklace became the stars, her comb the moon, and her crown the
sun. But in spite of all his efforts, Alunsina did not return home. Until now, as the story
goes, Tungkung Langit lives alone in his palace in the skies and sometimes, he would
cry out for Alunsina and his tears would fall down upon the earth as rain and his loud
voice, calling out for his wife, was believed to be the thunder during storms, begging
for her to come back to their heavenly palace once more.

Source: http://vizayanmyths.blogspot.com/2013/05/creation-myth-variant-1.htmls

The Story of Creation


Holy Bible

1 In the beginning, when God created the universe,[a] 2 the earth was formless and
desolate. The raging ocean that covered everything was engulfed in total darkness, and
the Spirit of God[b] was moving over the water. 3 Then God commanded, “Let there be
light”—and light appeared. 4 God was pleased with what he saw. Then he separated the
light from the darkness, 5 and he named the light “Day” and the
darkness “Night.” Evening passed and morning came—that was the first day.
6-7
Then God commanded, “Let there be a dome to divide the water and to keep
it in two separate places”—and it was done. So God made a dome, and it separated
the water under it from the water above it. 8 He named the dome “Sky.” Evening
passed and morning came—that was the second day.
9
Then God commanded, “Let the water below the sky come together in one
place, so that the land will appear”—and it was done. 10 He named the land “Earth,”
and the water which had come together he named “Sea.” And God was pleased with
what he saw. 11 Then he commanded, “Let the earth produce all kinds of plants, those
that bear grain and those that bear fruit”—and it was done. 12 So the earth produced
all kinds of plants, and God was pleased with what he saw. 13 Evening passed and
morning came—that was the third day.

14 Then God commanded, “Let lights appear in the sky to separate day from night
and to show the time when days, years, and religious festivals [c] begin; 15 they will shine in
the sky to give light to the earth”—and it was done. 16 So God made the two larger lights, the
sun to rule over the day and the moon to rule over the night; he also made the stars. 17 He
placed the lights in the sky to shine on the earth, 18 to rule

45
over the day and the night, and to separate light from darkness. And God was pleased
with what he saw. 19 Evening passed and morning came—that was the fourth day.
20
Then God commanded, “Let the water be filled with many kinds of living beings, and
let the air be filled with birds.” 21 So God created the great sea monsters, all kinds of creatures
that live in the water, and all kinds of birds. And God was pleased with what he saw. 22 He
blessed them all and told the creatures that live in the water to reproduce and to fill the sea,
and he told the birds to increase in number. 23 Evening passed and morning came—that was
the fifth day.

24
Then God commanded, “Let the earth produce all kinds of animal life: domestic and
wild, large and small”—and it was done. 25 So God made them all, and he was pleased with
what he saw.

26 Then God said, “And now we will make human beings; they will be like us and
resemble us. They will have power over the fish, the birds, and all animals, domestic and
wild,[d] large and small.” 27 So God created human beings, making them to be like himself. He
created them male and female, 28 blessed them, and said, “Have many children, so that your
descendants will live all over the earth and bring it under their control. I am putting you in
charge of the fish, the birds, and all the wild animals. 29 I have provided all kinds of grain and
all kinds of fruit for you to eat; 30 but for all the wild animals and for all the birds I have provided
grass and leafy plants for food”—and it was done. 31 God looked at everything he had made,
and he was very pleased. Evening passed and morning came—that was the sixth day..

Source: https://www.biblegateway.com/passage/?search=Genesis+1&version=GNT

Typhoons
(an except)
by Rio Alma (translated by Marne Kilates)

The typhoons’ episodes of terror are yearly:


Berserk wind and shattered glass
Streaming from the mouths of a thousand serpents,
Smoke of dark crystal billowing
From beyond the ancient shoulders of the bristling land.
The heavens crawl with crackling electricity
And the verdicts of thunder are without forgiveness or pity.
There were nights
When we were children watching
And listening for the keening
And whiplash of wet, demented monsters:
Turning wildly they tore every roof,
They toppled and smashed every wall and post;
The drains and canals choked,
The distressed bamboo begged for mercy.

46
We shut our eyes
At the final rumbling rape
Of our prostrate crops, the helpless land.
Tightly we shut our eyes,
Tightly, ever tightly…
Only to wonder in the morning
What power of sun expunged
And expelled these armies of the night.

Source: https://wordsmadeflesh.wordpress.com/tag/rio-alma/

Coñotations
by Paolo Manalo

1. I’m like tripping right now I have suitcase fever.

2. Dude, man, pare, three people can be the same.

3. Except he’s not who he says he is, pare. He’s a sneeze with Chinese blood:
Ha Ching!

4. Naman, it’s like our Tagalog accent, so they won’t think we’re all airs; so much
weight it means nothing naman.

5. Dude, man, pare, at the next stop we’ll make buwelta. So they can see
we know how to look where we came from.

6. It’s hirap kaya to find a connection. Who ba’s puwede to be our guide?

7. Dude, man, can you make this areglo naman?

8. Make it pabalot kaya in the mall. So they can’t guess what you’re
thinking. That’s what I call a package deal.

9. Who says ’coz should be shot.

10. Only kolehiyalas make tusok the fishballs. Us guys, dude, pare, we
make them tuhog.

11. Talaga, she said she’d sleep with you? Naman pare, when she says talaga,
it means she’s lying.

12. Hey, wala namang like that-an.

https://aquarius129.wordpress.com/2009/03/08/conotations-a-poem-by-paolo-manalo/

4
What is It

Activity 3. Compare and contrast the story of creation as told by


the story of Tungkung Langit and Alunsina with the
story of creation that appears in Genesis from the Bible.
Write your answer in the table.
Elements of the Tungkung Langit and The Creation
Story Alunsina
1. Setting/s

2. Characters

5. Conflict/s

6. Result/s

48
What’s More

Activity 4. In 3 to 6 sentences, answer the following questions:


1. Write the similarities and differences of the god mentioned in Tungkung
Langit and Alunsina to the God mentioned in the Bible.

GOD

Similarities Differences

_______________________________ _______________________________
_______________________________ _______________________________
_______________________________ _______________________________
_______________________________ _______________________________
_______________________________ _______________________________
_____________________________ _____________________________

2. What are the similarities and differences in the creation of the universe in
both stories?
Creation of the Universe

Similarities Differences

_______________________________ _______________________________
_______________________________ _______________________________
_______________________________ _______________________________
_______________________________ _______________________________
_______________________________ _______________________________
_____________________________ _____________________________

3. How about the similarities and differences in the creation of man?


Creation of Man

Similarities Similarities

_______________________________ ________________________________
_______________________________ ________________________________
_______________________________ ________________________________
_______________________________ ________________________________
_______________________________ ________________________________
_____________________________ ________________________
49
What I Have Learned

Activity 5. Provide human qualities or traits(personifications)


mentioned in the following lines of the poem
“Typhoons”(pp.46-47).

1. The heavens crawl with crackling electricity


What is being personified? - _____________________
What human trait or quality is given? - _____________________

2. And whiplash of wet, demented monsters: Turning wildly they tore every roof
What is being personified? - _____________________
What human trait or quality is given? - _____________________

3. The drains and canals choked


What is being personified? - _____________________
What human trait or quality is given? - _____________________

4. The distressed bamboo begged for mercy


What is being personified? - _____________________
What human trait or quality is given? - _____________________

5. What power of sun expunged and expelled these armies of the night
What is being personified? - _____________________
What human trait or quality is given? - _____________________

Activity 6. Based on the poem “Coñotations,” answer the following questions:


1. Who do you think are the characters in the poem?

_________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________

2. Using the urban dictionary, define “CoÑo”.

_________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________

3. What do these characters talk about?

_________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________

50
4. Is there a story that you can derive from the poem?

_________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________

5. What are some events or situations mentioned in the poem?

_________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________

6. What language/s did the author use in the given selection?

_________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________

7. Have you tried using the same language while talking to friends or other
family members?

_________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________

8. Do you easily understand the meaning of the lines in the poem based on the
language used?

_________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________

9. Who do you think are the types of individuals using such language?

_________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________

51
What I Can Do

Activity 6. Complete the statement below in the “Leaning Map “LMs”,” Write your
b b answer on the space provided.

Title Leaning
__________________________________ __________________________________
_______________________________ __________________________________
__________________________________
__________________________________
__________________________________
__________________________________
__________________________________
__________________________________
______________________________

2 Leaning
__________________________________
__________________________________
__________________________________
Title __________________________________
__________________________________ __________________________________
_______________________________ __________________________________
__________________________________
__________________________________
______________________________

52
Assessment

. Read the text on “Textula” below and answer the questions that follow.
The term "textula" is a blend of the English word "text" and the
Filipino word "tula! ' Meaning, it is a poem written in the form
of a text message. Usually consisting of one or two stanzas, it
is a form of direct communication to a person close to the
sender.

Textula
1. Ayy! Napana ang Tigre
Ang dilaw naging
verde Di-El-Es-Yu-Yu-
Es-Ti
Mga Ten gang nagwagi.

2. Sa mahilig sa bola Hindi


bago ang kanta Nang
mag-dribble si Ama Sa
anak ipinasa.

Begin Here:
1. What is the text tula about?
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________

2. Is it similar to the traditional poems that you have read before? In what way
is it similar or different?
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________

3. Does the text tula have rhyming patterns?


______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________

4. How about the verse, do they have a similar number of syllables per line?
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________

5. What are possible venues of social media where we can use text tula?

53
Lesson Philippine Literature
7 in Pre-Colonial Period

Grade 12, First Semester, Q1 – Week 7

What I Need to Know

At the end of Lesson 7, the learners are expected to:


a. Discuss how different context enhance the text’s meaning
and enrich the readers understanding; and
b. Produce creative representation of a literary text by applying
multi-media and ICT skills.

What I Know

Activity 1. Read and analyze the questions below. Write your answers
in the space found in the table.

How would you compare 21st century genres (such as Tweets and SMS
Fiction) with traditional forms of literature? What makes these 21 st
century literature texts unique?

20th Century Literature 21st Century Literature


54
What’s In

In our previous lesson, you learned about the stories of Tungkung


Langit and Alinsina, The Creation, Typhoons, Coñotations.

Today, we will discuss the 21st century stories from the Philippines
and the World.

What’s New

Activity 2. Briefly answer the questions below.


1. Did you witness an accident? What was your reaction?
_________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________

2. Complete the sentence: If there is a calamity, I will –


________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________

What is It

Except From New York City Post 9/11


by Cristina P. Hidaldo

Who is Cristina Pantajo – Hidalgo? She is an award winning Filipina fictionist


critic and a pioneering writer of creative nonfiction. She was born on August 21, 1944,
a high school Valedictorian of St Paul College, Quezon City. She has been writing
since the age of 15. She has worked as a writer, editor, and a teacher in Thailand,
Lebanon, Korea, Myanmar and New York.

Everything starts in October 4, Cristina and her friends, Preachy Legasto and
Fe Mangahas, were traveling together to attend a conference in New York City. That
was Cristina’s first trip to US after 9/11 security check were tighter and the lines were
miles long.

55
What happen on 9/11? The innocent dies, heroes truly tried, and the masses
cried. Cristina wanted to go to Ground Zeroformerly known ad “world trade center”,
she wanted to see 9/11changed America or New York City. SO she went to ground
zero, there are images of the incredible collapse of those towers, played so often on
international TV that they had become indelibly imprinted on the imagination. BBC
anchor, saying “And now we return to New York and its Broken Heart” GroundZero

America changed, New York changed. Change is painful but citizens of


America move forward and accept the fact that it happened. Things won’t be the same
anymore. Life goes on, but they will NEVER FORGET what happened.

Earlier, America marked the 15th anniversary of 9/11. Fifteen years after the
September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks, friends, and families still grieve. Children search
for understanding. Survivors still suffer.

The nation and the world still REMEMBER. Seeing how the world change after
9/11 isn’t what hurts, what hurts is remembering how it used to be.

The Baby in the Backpack


by Patricia Evangelista

The backpack sat on the curbside. The surface was flaking, the purple print
scratched. We found it in the afternoon, beside three corpses in body bags. The men
working along the highway said that the bodies had just been recovered. They said
there was a baby in the backpack.

It was cold that day. The air smelled of dead. I remember crouching beside the
bag and hunting for the zipper, remember thinking I had to verify the story, remember
feeling uneasy. It was a morbid act, like opening a stranger’s closed coffin. Maybe it
was a convenient excuse, an odd conservatism in a city where the dead had been
shoved into plastic garbage bags. I didn’t open the bag, ran my hands over it instead,
tracing the lumps of head and hands and folded knees.
It was 15 days since the storm, and there was a corpse inside the backpack.

I write this late at night, in Manila, almost three months after typhoon Haiyan. It
is difficult to write. I meant to write something else, have been trying to write something
else for a week, an analysis of post-disaster vulnerabilities and government
mishandling. I did the interviews, read the documents, watched the congressional
hearings and the resulting glad-handing and politicking that came with it: the secretary
of the interior smiling, the mayor of the broken city smiling back, the men and women
in the background smiling along, all of them grinning as if they were not witness to
weeks of calling each other liars and frauds.

Instead I’m writing about how it was, on the ground, the apocalypse that all of
us found when we landed on the Tacloban tarmac. I seem to be unable to write about
anything else. I’ve been a columnist for ten years, a reporter for the last five. My beat
is disaster and human rights and the stories that fall in between – the dead, the lost,
the rebels and the survivors. Nothing I’ve seen prepared me for what I saw after
Haiyan.

I don’t claim to be a veteran. What I’ve seen is nothing to what many others
have seen, and my version of reportage is very often limited to individual human

56
experience instead of the larger implications. I fixate on images, sentences, narrative
arcs, the smoke in the sky, the blood on the doorknob, the bottle of White Flower
carried by the defendant, the color and pattern of the tiles on the floor of Quezon City
Regional Trial Court Branch 221 instead of the decision handed down by the trial court
judge. For me, Haiyan was the rainbow blanket around the dead boy. It was the father
who covered his drowned daughter’s corpse with a tin roof to protect her from the rain.
It was the man who walked daily to his girlfriend’s grave, the plastic panda floating in
the water, the baby in the purple backpack.

There were many other stories. Government ineptitude. Political infighting. The
scale of displacement and the terrible conditions forced on the survivors. I admit I went
looking for the dead, an easy thing in Haiyan country. My reasoning is the same as it's
always been – in a situation where morals are suspended and the narrative makes no
sense, it is necessary to hold whatever truth is left: that the dead shouldn't be dead.

Maybe there is some ego involved here, the awareness that the sights and smells
and sounds that will force the average person to turn away is something that can be
handled without flinching, safe under the cloak of public interest. It is necessary to pretend
those of us who report are tougher than everyone else. It is necessary, very often, to
pretend this is a job, a commitment, a challenge met that separates us from the
government clerk or the lawyer or even the reporters who cover the seemingly safer beats.
We understand, for example, that it is possible to step away, to retreat to some safe mental
corner while noting down the observation that the body in the water is probably female,
that what may or may not be breasts are still under the faded yellow shirt, in spite of the
fact the face above the shirt has been stripped of skin and flesh.

It is of course presumptuous for me to use the word “we” instead of “I,” but “I”
is a pronoun that I have used under protest in the last few years. “I” is personal, it
redirects the spotlight, it is arrogant and indulgent and emphasizes the primacy of
personal opinion instead of the real story. I don’t pretend to speak for all journalists, or
even for some journalists. I’m not certain I even speak for myself, as the safe mental
corner that I used to have is no longer particularly safe. Fourteen million people were
affected, at least 6,000 died. What I felt and continue to feel is not the story I mean to
tell, as there are many things more deserving of public space than the confusion of a
28-year-old journalist, especially one who demanded for this coverage and found out
that the magic cape has holes.

Everyday I asked the questions. Framed the interviews. Rolled the video. Held
up a hand to stop a weeping man midsentence because of the roar of the C130
swooping overhead. Nodded, in understanding, as if it was possible to understand
how it feels to watch wife and children drown while hanging on to a slab of concrete. I
asked survivors about the height of the waters and the loss of daughters, and although
many of them were desperate to tell their stories, it was impossible not to feel
exploitative, that we were, or I was, using their grief to add to the grand drama that
was the aftermath of typhoon Haiyan.

I don’t pretend I made any sort of difference. The stories I told were stories people
might or might not read or watch – or share, in the language of the Internet – but they were
only stories, and at the end of the day I knew I was leaving, knew that in a week or two
weeks I would be in Manila at my desk and the weeping father would still be there, in the
dark, dreaming of his lost babies. I suspect I went looking for the worst to validate my
being on the ground. It would be romantic to say I was bearing witness for the victims. The
truth was that I went from shock to further shock, and I was afraid, always, that I wasn’t
doing anyone’s story justice. Covering Haiyan was like walking into a Salvador Dali
painting and discovering the paint was still damp.
57
I asked for a week longer, after a week I stayed one more, and then was allowed
one more. I like to think I stayed as long as I could, but that’s only one way of telling the
story. The longer I stayed, the less guilty I felt. I admit I didn’t finish out that last week,
because on the 16th day I found myself on the coast shooting a woman’s corpse hanging
from a tree. It took a long time to see the body. I was standing less than five feet across, I
could smell it, I was told it was there, but her head was pushed back and her arms were
the color of dead wood and my brain refused to acknowledge that what I was staring at
used to be a person. When the image suddenly made sense in my head, I took the photo,
then turned to vomit into the bushes.

There were many more bodies before and after that, mass graves with
hundreds of tangled dead, but none of them had me heaving with my hands on my
knees. Maybe it was the fact she hung meters away from the shanty of a man who
refused to leave for an evacuation center because he was waiting for his missing wife
to come home – “I want to be here when she comes,” he said. His name is William
Cabuquing, and he was one of the survivors who packed the bodies of his neighbors
into bags 14 days after he staggered home bleeding after being swept across the bay.
He did not know who the woman on the tree was.

That night I was on the phone with my editor. Are you all right, she asked. It
was a question that at that point seemed terribly important, and I stuttered and
mumbled and was largely inarticulate until I managed to say, after a series of evasions,
that yes, I wanted to go home.

The truth is that there is no going home. It is difficult to write about it, and more
difficult to write about anything else. I am aware there are many journalists who can move
past stories like this, that my job demands I move past it myself. I also know there are
others like me who have been smoking too much and sleeping too long, who have come
home to wake in the night, unable to move on to other stories and other responsibilities,
aware, one way or another, that whatever story comes along, Haiyan is out there, and the
promises we made are still no more than promises.

I like to think of journalism as an attempt to make the public imagine. We cannot


protest against what we cannot see, we cannot move when we cannot be made to
feel. Six thousand is a large number, larger than Ketsana’s 464, Bopha’s 1,067 or
Washi’s 1,453, but it is difficult, as with any statistic, to remember that each one of the
thousands in each of the storms shouldn’t have died, could have been saved,
deserved, if nothing else, to be buried with some attempt at dignity instead of being
left to rot in a muddy field covered with campaign posters. We are meant to understand
that, to imagine that, to stand in the shoes of the man scrabbling in the muck for his
fiancée. To forget what happened makes us all guilty, makes us accomplices to what
brought them here, allows the same tragedy to happen again and again, as it has
happened, again and again.

I don’t know what I intended to say. Maybe that I can’t forget, or that I’m afraid
I will. Many of us who were on the ground are afraid to say what it was like, because
we’re supposed to be tough as nails. We’re supposed to be brave. We’re meant to
serve the story. We’re supposed to walk away from the mass grave and report the
number and the state of decomposition. We can stand in the hellhole that was
Zamboanga City in September and say yes, we can take more. We’re afraid if we say
we can’t, we won’t be sent to the next story, will be told we don’t have the balls, don’t
have what it takes, can’t deliver, won’t survive. I say “we” because it’s harder to say
“I,” and maybe that was what I meant to say. – Rappler.com

58
21st Century Literature for 21st Century Readers
As society and technology change, so does literacy because technology has
increased the intensity complexity of literate environments, the 21st century demands that
a literate person possesses a wide range of abilities and competencies. These literacies
– from the reading online newspapers to participating in virtual classrooms
– are multiple, dynamic and malleable. As such, twenty-first century readers and
writers need to:
1. Develop proficiency with the tools of technology.
2. Build relationships with others to pose and solve problems collaboratively
and cross-culturally.
3. Design and share information for global communities to meet a variety of
purposes.
4. Manage, analyze, and synthesize multiple streams of simultaneous
information.
5. Create, critique, analyze, and evaluate multi-media texts.

As widely known, the twenty-first century readers grow up using technology as


primary learning tool. They are capable of navigating and interpreting digital formats and
media messages. They possess literacy skills which include technological abilities such
as keyboarding, internet navigation, interpretation of technological speak, ability to
communicate and interpret coded language and decipher graphic.

21st century literature per se is anything that was written and published in the
year 2000s. It is a bit too early to give a definite and elaborate description of the 21st
century literature in the Philippines and the world. It is possible, however, to approach
contemporary literature as a reaction to and dialogue with existing forms of expressive
culture. As we engage in technology more and more, we create and discover more
existing forms of expressive culture as well.

Here are more examples of literary genres in the 21st century Philippine
literature:

1. Creative nonfiction. It’s a rich mix of flavors, ideas, and techniques, some of
which are newly invented and others as old as writing itself. Creative nonfiction
can be an essay, a journal article, a research paper, a memoir, or a poem; it
can be personal or not, or it can be all of these. Some of the creative nonfiction
in the Philippines are:

1. “The Cardinal’s Sins, the General’s Cross, the Martyr’s Testimony,


and Other Affirmations” by Gregorio C. Brillantes
2. “Manananggal Terrorizes Manila and Other Stories” by Jessica Zafra

2. Hyper poetry. Hypertext poetry and hypertext fiction are new genres of
literature that use the computer screen as medium, rather than the printed
page. The literary works rely on the qualities unique to a digital environment,
such as linked World Wide Web pages or effects such as sound and movement.
Hypertext “poetry” can consist of words, although not necessarily organized into
lines and stanzas, as well as, sounds, visual images, movement or other special
effects.

59
3. Mobile phone text tula. A cell phone novel, or mobile phone novel is a literary
work originally written on a cellular phone via text messaging. This type of literature
originated in Japan, where it has become a popular literary genre.

4. Chick lit. This is genre fiction, which “consists of heroin-centered narratives


that focus on the trials and tribulations of their individual protagonists”. The
genre often addresses issues of modern womanhood – from romantic
relationships to female friendships to matters in the workplace – in humorous
and lighthearted ways. Some of the chick lit in the Philippines are:

1. Spotlight New Adult by Mina V. Esguerra


2. Tall Story by Candy Gourlay

5. Speculative fiction. It covers all stories from fantasy to science fiction to


slipstream to magic realism to urban fantasy — so on and so forth. In other
words (or in other worlds), it encompasses all the stories that are removed from
the reality that we are currently living in.” Some of the speculative fiction in the
Philippines are:

1. Smaller and Smaller Circles by FH Batacan


2. The Secret Origin of Spin-Man by Andrew Drilon

6. Flash fiction. Flash fiction goes by many names, including microfiction,


microstories, short-shorts, short stories, very short stories, sudden fiction,
postcard fiction and nanofiction. While it can be difficult to pinpoint an exact
definition of flash fiction based on word count, consideration of several of its
features can help provide clarity, like its brevity, length, background and
purpose. Some of the flash fiction in the Philippines are:

1. 100 Kislap, by Abdon M. Balde Jr.


2. Karapote: Antolohia Dagiti 13 a Nasuerte A Sarita, by Ariel S. Tabag

7. Blog. A blog (shortening of “weblog”) is an online journal or informational


website displaying information in the reverse chronological order, with latest
posts appearing first.

8. Graphic novels. The ‘graphic novel’ has existed as an art form arguably from
the time our species learned how to paint. However, the term has only been in
use since the 1960’s, and though it’s often a hotly debated issue, it’s generally
accepted that a graphic novel is a longer work or collection of works presented
in ‘comics’ style. Some of the graphic novels in the Philippines are:
1. The Mythology Class (Nautilus comics) by Arnold Arre
2. Light (Anino comics) by Rob Cham

Contemporary writers often consciously draw inspiration and ideas from the
writers who have come before them. As an outcome, many works of 21st literature
deal with the events, movements and literature of the past in order to make sense of
the current times.

-https://21stcenturylitph.wordpress.com/introduction-to-philippine-
literature/

60
What’s More

Activity 3. Answer the following questions briefly:

1. How was “Ground Zero” of the 9/11 terrorist attack transformed into a
memorial? What does it look like? Find a picture of the latest ground zero
memorial grounds.
2. What is Hidalgo’s essay all about? Who is its target audience?
3. How does an author’s voice affect the essay? How can an author establish
his or her voice in writing an essay?
4. What does the writer want to communicate to her readers through this essay?
How do you respond to the message that you perceive from what she has
written?

Activity 4. Answer the “Learning Map” (LMs) below. Write your answer
in the space provided.
What is one personal story that you have
that can help you relate more to the essay
on hand? How is the deadly Typhoon Haiyan
portrayed in the text?

Do you still remember what you were doing


LM 2
during Typhoon Haiyan? Discuss the extent
___________________________________
of the typhoon damage and a survivor’s
___________________________________
story.
___________________________________
___________________________________
___________________________________
LM 1
___________________________________
__________________________________ ___________________________________
__________________________________ ___________________________________
__________________________________
__________________________________
__________________________________
__________________________________
__________________________________
__________________________________ LM 3
__________________________________ ___________________________________
___________________________________
___________________________________
___________________________________
___________________________________
Is this essay entertaining resisting or ___________________________________
challenging the events or beliefs of the ___________________________________
Filipino culture? What does it say about ___________________________________
journalism and writing? ___________________________________

61
Activity 5. You, the 21st century students, are privileged to enjoy the literary
innovations of your time. Use these developments to exercise your
creative thinking skills. Compose the texts indicated below. Adhere
to the themes that are related to the 21st century. See the rubrics for
the criteria.
Rubrics in the online Lit O VG G S NI
Publication
1. Creativity 5 4 3 2 1
2. Relevance to the theme 5 4 3 2 1
3. Use of the language 5 4 3 2 1
4. Plus Factor 5 4 3 2 1
TOTAL POINTS

Compose 3 tweets about the theme “The Benefits of Information


and Communication Technology.”

Compose a Facebook post about the theme


“The offense of plagiarism.”

Compose a story in SMS/text language; convey the theme of


“Cyber-bullying and why it should be avoided.”

62
What I Have Learned

Activity 6. In no less than 3-6 sentences, answer following questions:

1. What is the importance of using 21st century technology responsibility? What


are the ill effects that will happen if we do not put this to practice? What are the
implications of this issue for literature?
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
2. Which 21st century genres do you like the best? Which of these genres has
caught your attention the most, and why?
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________

Activity 7. Write six-word stories on what you have learned. SWS is a story
within a limited number of character. Example: “It’s not working, let
me go.”
1 2 3 4 5 6

63
What I Can Do

Activity 8. Textula is done using a mobile phone. With the use of social
media, we can practice expressing our emotions and opinions
in a more creative and artistic way while more people have the
chance to see it.
I. Create a twitter account and send your Tanaga/text tula with a hash tag
#21CPhiLit. Make it trend on twitter by making sure the whole class sends it at
the same time.

II. As a visual artist, one of your tasks is to create a beautiful multimedia


presentation that show cases one of the best Philippine short stories written.
This is to be showcased in an international festival as an introduction to Philippine
society and culture.
Tips to Remember:
1. Your multimedia presentation must not exceed five minutes and can be
through any media possible.
2. It must have the complete elements of the story. Be creative and be visually
appealing.
3. See the rubrics below for the criteria.

64
Rubrics on Audio- Visual (AVP) Presentation
Areas Needs Satisfactory Very Good Outstanding
Improvement
(2) (3) (4) (5)
organization There is no Content is presents Presents
sequence of logically organized information in information in
information, just a for the most part, logical sequence logical, interesting
series of facts but audience which audience sequence which
could have some can follow, but audience can
difficulty following the overall follow.
presentation. organization of
topics is basic.
Content Content is minimal Includes some Includes Covers topic in-
Knowledge and/or there are essential essential depth with details
several factual information about knowledge about and examples.
errors. the topic and/or the topic. Subject Subject
there are a few knowledge knowledge is
factual errors. appears to be excellent.
good, but student
doesn't
elaborate.
Visual Student used little Student Visuals related to used visuals to
Attractiveness to no visuals occasionally used text and reinforce
and/or use of font, visuals that rarely presentation. presentation and
color, graphics, supported text and Student makes makes excellent
effects etc.distract presentation. good use of font, use of font, color,
from the Student makes color, graphics, graphics, effects,
presentaion use of font, color, effects, etc. to etc. to enhance
content. graphics, effects, enhance to the presentation.
etc. but presentation.
occasionally these
detract from the
presentation
content.
Mechanics More than 4 errors Four misspellings Three or fewer No misspellings or
in spelling or and/or misspellings grammatical
grammar. grammatical and/or errors.
errors. mechanical
errors.
Total Point
Adapted from: http://rubistar.4teachers.org/index.php?screen=ShowRubric&rubric_id=2562213&

III. As a leading digital artist of a production company, they want you to make an
audio-visual presentation (AVP) of the future of Philippine literature for an
upcoming PEN conference.
Tips to Remember:
1. Your AVP must, first and foremost, feature the different trends in Philippine
literature and some notable stories and their scenes in it.
2. It must be creative and hip for the younger audience, but also comprehensible
for the more mature ones. It should also not be longer than 5 minutes.
3. See the rubrics for the criteria.

65
Rubrics on Audio- Visual (AVP) Presentation

Areas Needs Satisfactory Very Good Outstanding


Improvement
(2) (3) (4) (5)
Content The multimedia The multimedia The multimedia The multimedia
element lacks a element is vague in element reflects a element is clear
clear point of view conveying a point fairly logical and concise, with a
and logical of view and does progression of very logical
sequence of not create a strong ideas. Includes progression of
information. sense of purpose. ALL assignment ideas. Includes
Missing requirements. ALL assignment
requirements. Includes some of requirements.
Does not address the requirements. Addresses
aspects such as Somewhat aspects such as Clearly addresses
one objective addresses aspects one objective aspects such as
focus, visual such as one focus, visual one objective
images, written objective focus, images, written focus, visual
words, and self- visual images, words, and self- images, written
contained written words, and contained words, and self-
selfcontained contained
Quality Multimedia Multimedia element Multimedia Multimedia
element is unclear. is mostly unclear. If element is element is clear. If
If sound is sound is included, somewhat clear. If sound is included,
included, it is not it is not easy to sound is included, it is easy to
easy to hear/understand. If it is easy to hear/understand. If
hear/understand. If video is included, it hear/understand. video is included, it
video is included, it cannot be seen If video is can be seen and/
cannot be seen and/ or cannot be included, it can be or can be heard.
and/ or cannot be heard. seen and/ or can
heard. be heard.
Included Description does Description Description Description clearly
Description not include the includes some somewhat and concisely
main parts of a information addresses the addresses ALL of
lesson (intro, regarding the main main parts of a the main parts of a
objective, content, parts of a lesson lesson (intro, lesson: intro,
and assessment). (intro, objective, objective, content, objective, content,
content, and and assessment). and assessment.
assessment).
APA Uses little to no Reflects Documents most Documents
formatting correct APA incomplete sources using sources using APA
as needed formatting. knowledge of APA APA formatting formatting
formatting. with minor accurately and
violations. consistently.
Total Point
Adapted from:
https://conference.iste.org/uploads/ISTE2016/HANDOUTS/KEY_100536516/AudioVideoPresentation.pdf

IV. Imagine that you are a highly regarded professor. You are tasked by your
university to write a critical review of a book published in your region or
hometown. It may be any book that you wish to review as long as it promotes
local culture and way of life.
Tips to Remember:
1. Your review must be two to four pages long, doubled-spaced, and with a
proper title and format of a critical paper.

66
2. It must also be entertaining for both young adults and adults, for it will be
printed on both magazines and school journals. After writing, you will
exchange work with your colleague.
3. Both of you will give constructive criticism about each other’s work.
See the rubric below for the criteria.

Rubrics on Critical Analysis Essay


Areas Needs Satisfactory Very Good Outstanding
Improvement
(2) (3) (4) (5)
Introduction Background details are Introduction adequately Introduction creates There is a well-
and a random, unclear explains the interest. Thesis states developed introduction
Conclusion collection of background, but may the position. with an attention
(Background information. Thesis is lack detail. Thesis states Conclusion effectively grabber that grabs the
History/Thesis vague and unclear. the topic, but key summarizes the topic. reader’s interest and
Statement) Conclusion is not elements are missing continues to engage the
effective and does not reader up until the
summarize main points. thesis statement.
Conclusion should
effectively wraps up and
re stresses the
importance of the
thesis.
Main Points Less than three Three or more main Three or more main Well developed main
(Body ideas/main points are points are present, but points relate to the points/topic sentences
Paragraphs) explained and/or they lack details in describing thesis, but some may that relate directly to the
are poorly developed. the event. Little lack details. The thesis. Supporting
The story tells; it descriptive language is analysis shows events examples are concrete
doesn’t show used. from the author’s point and detailed. The
of view, but could use analysis is developed
more descriptive with an effective points
language.
Organization Writing is not Organization is clear. Logical progression of Logical Progression of
(Structure organized. The Transitions are present ideas. Transitions are ideas with a clear
And transitions between at times, but there is present throughout the structure that enhances
Transitions) ideas are unclear or very little variety. essay, but lacks the thesis. Transitions
non existent. variety. are effective and vary
throughout the
paragraph, not just in
the topic.
Style Writing is confusing and Writing is clear, but Writing is clear and Writing is smooth,
(Sentence hard to follow. Contains could use a little more sentences have varied skillful, and coherent.
Flow, Variety, fragments and/or run- sentence variety to structure, Diction is Sentences are strong
Diction) on sentences. make the writing more consistent. and expressive with
interesting. varied structure. Diction
is consistent and words
are well chosen.
Mechanics Distracting errors in There are only a few (3- Punctuation, spelling, Punctuation, spelling,
(Spelling, punctuation, spelling, 4) errors in punctuation, and capitalization are and capitalization are all
Punctuation, and capitalization. spelling, and generally correct with correct. No errors.
Capitalization) capitalization. few errors (1-2)
Total Point
Adapted from: http://swaskiewicz.blogs.ccps.us/files/2015/12/RubricforcriticalanalysisEssay.pdff

67
Summary

Philippines is rich with literature which has existed long before it was colonized
by different countries like Spain, America and Japan. It shows the customs and
traditions of our ancestors. It also expresses the feelings about love, happiness, griefs,
thoughts and even sentiments of the Filipinos during the time when we were already
under the Spanish government, American and Japanese government. It is closely
interrelated with our history. But not all literature are true to history because we have
fiction and non-fiction. Fictions are just mere imagination of the writers like the stories
of creation shared in this module. Non-fictions are stories which really happened like
the story of the 9/11 in New York in early 20th century which is also found in this
module.
Our literature has evolved. First, it was written using our own alphabets and
dialects of the different provinces of the country and others were shared orally by their
parents and passed on from one generation to the next generation which we call it
folktales. The Spaniards proved that our ancestors we were fond of poetry, songs,
stories, riddles and proverbs. We have many stories about legends like how a certain
place got its name. There were also heroic stories about saving a woman or saving a
village which we call it as epic stories.
Then came the Spaniards. We were under the Spanish government for more
than 3 centuries. We were taught with Roman alphabets and Catholic religion. Many
Filipinos were converted, so our literature has religious tone. We have stage plays
about the passion and death of Jesus Christ and poems orally delivered during Lenten
season. But we have Balagtasan in Tagalog, a poetic debate on particular issue. We
also Corrido and Awit which are long narrative stories.
When the Americans came after the Spaniards, more Filipinos were inspired to
write not only using the dialects from the different provinces as the medium, but also
in English language. Most of the works of literature were published because we
already have periodicals. Added to the different genres was the essay, formal and
informal essays.
The last to invade our country was the Japanese. They introduced short poems
which are called Haiku and Tanaga.
And now in this 21st century. Everybody can be a writer in any way we want.
We can express our feelings and deliver it through writing in different platforms through
Internet. There is no more observance of rhymes, syllabications or medium used. It
can be spread right away. All are considered correct because freedom of expression
nowadays is well emphasized.

68
Assessment (Post Test)

Choose the correct letter that best corresponds to your choice.


1. Our Father and Hail Mary are found in what book during the Spanish period.
a. Nuestra Seňora del Rosario c. La Solidaridad
b. Libro de los Cuatro Postprimeras de Hombre d. Doctrina Cristiana
2. Part of the dramatization is the death of Jesus Christ.
a. Sinakulo b. sarswela c. duplo d. passion
3. It is a literary genre which talks about heroic deed of a character during Pre-
colonial period.
a. myth b. legend c. epic d. essay
4. A statement of a particular culture’s codes of behavior and beliefs and
intended to teach values.
a. riddle b. proverbs c. lullaby d. folktale
5. A guessing game of objects represented by other objects.
a. riddle b. proverbs c. lullaby d. folktale
6. These are sang to tack babies to sleep.
a. riddle b. proverbs c. lullaby d. folktale
7. It was written by Jose P. Rizal before he died.
a. Like the Molave b. Mi Ultimo Adios c.In My Youth d. El Filibusterismo
8. The poem, Tanaga was introduced by the________.
a. Spanish b. Americans c. Japanese d. Millenials
8. The dead skin which he rubbed off his body was placed on one side in a
pile, and by and by this pile became so large that he was annoyed and set
himself to consider what he could do with it. What attitude is observed
in this sentence.
a. Industry b. innovative c. self-reliant d. boredom
9. Literary criticism was first practiced during what period?
a. Spanish period b. American period c. Japanese period d. 21st Century
10. Condemned is an example of __________.
a. Play b. song c. essay d. poem
11.The people were very grateful to him, and promised to do anything he
should ask of them. What is expressed in this sentence?

a. Debt of gratitude c. Deep gratitude b. a


lifetime promise d. a broken promise
12. Before he left for the sky, they told him that they were very unhappy living on
the great earth all alone, so he told them to save all the hair from their
heads and the dry skin from their bodies and the next time he came he
would make them some companions. And in this way there came to be a
great many people on the earth. The italicized line tells us that
a. Blessings come when we do our part. c. Blessing come easily
b. Blessing come with a condition. d. Blessings come when there is love.
13. “The Indolence of Filipinos” was written by Rizal
because a. He believed that Filipinos are really indolent.
b. He explained why Filipinos are indolent.
c. He gave the causes of the indolence of Filipinos.
d.He wanted to express his anger to the Spaniards
14. The life of Filipinos in “The Indolence of Filipinos” were compared to the life of
69
the a. Spanish b. friars c. clerks d. soldiers

15. What did Rizal believe can cure the cause of indolence among Filipinos.
a. revolution b. peace c. education d. slavery
3. What was the situation of the Filipinos based on “The Indolence
of Filipinos” essay.
They lived lazily in their homes
They worked so hard with less pay.
They worked but not appreciated.
They lived without work.
4. In the story, “Condemned” what qualities did Pablo want for his mother.
A mother who would love him.
A mother would discipline him.
A mother who would not mind him.
Both a and b.
5. Pablo grew up with undesirable traits because
He has everything he wanted
He was tolerated by Tia Chedeng.
He lacked his mother’s love.
He was very poor.
6. Cristina wanted to marry Pablo before his death because
She has no one to turn to.
Pablo’s mother was rich.
Pablo has wealth to leave her.
She loved Pablo very much.
7. Whom did Pablo blame his life sentence?
The man who attempted to rape Cristina.
Cristina who walked alone that night.
His mother who left him since 10 years old.
Tia Chedeng for always understanding him.
8. Who has the greatest love for Pablo.
His mother Angela.
His fiancée Cristina
His Aunt Tia Chedeng
His priest friend.
9. Who was condemned in the play, “Condemned”
Angela.
Cristina
Pablo
All of the above
23. In the poem,”Icarus in Catechism Class”, who do you think is speaking?
a. Icarus b. Daedalus c. angels labyrinth 24. The lines in
“Icarus in Catechism Class”, what does it mean?
Or make us angels all, with dirty feet,
Without wings, chanting the beatitudes,
a. Icarus was interested to fly.
b. Icarus was disinterested to fly.
c. Icarus was excited to fly.
d. Icarus wanted to fly for escape.
25. What did the poem,“Icarus in Catechism Class” believed for angels?

a. with dirty feet b, with halo c.with clean


feet d. without halo
70
.

26. Below is an example of a ________________. It


is better to have a hut
Inhabited by a person
Than a mansion
Wherein an owl lives
a. riddle b. proverbs c. lullaby d. folktale
27. What is meant by the lines in No. 26.
a. It is better to be poor but kind than rich but rude.
b. It is better to be rich with a mansion than poor with a hut.
c. It is better to live simply with a human heart.
d. It is better to live meticulously.
28. What is meant by this folk song created during pre-colonial period?
When I was still young
You tripped me and still you don’t care
When I grew up to be a woman
I believe that there is even a threat!
a. Before she was not noticed by him but now he seems like her.
b. Before she looked ugly but now she looks beautiful.
c. Before he didn’t care but now he cares.
d. Before he hit her but didn’t care and now he plans to hit her again.
29. What kind of folk song is the stanza above?
a. war b. love c. courtship d. grief
30. What is the message of the maxim below:
To one who can understand
A few words will suffice.
a. A man of few words.
b. A wise man can understand once.
c. A man of understanding can take one direction.
d. A man doesn’t want to be told many times.

31. What particular season does the article, Puto-Bumbong, Bibingka,


Salabat, atbp focus on?

A. Hot Season C. Rainy Season B. Cool Season D.


Dry Season
32. In the selection of Doreen Fernandez, How dis the writer concluded the
story?
a. Christmas has a Spanish flavour.
b. Christmas has Spanish and foreign flavours basic to it are
bibingka, salabat, atbp in church courtyard.
c. Christmas is a wonderful and happy season.
d. Christmas in the Philippines marks remarkable experience to
all.
33. In the selection, Tungkung Langit and Alunsina, what was the main
reason of their quarrel?
a. Alunsina’s character which is lazy, zealous and selfish.
b. Alunsina does not listen at all.
c. Alunsina thought off to see a lover so she summoned the
breeze to Tungkung Langit, and when Tungkung Langit
caught breeze spying.
71
d. Alunsina wants to impose order over the confused world.

34. In the selection, The Creation, what was God created on the third day?

a. He created light and dark C. He created skies b. He


created human beings D. He produces all kinds of plants

35. The following are the characters in the poem Coñotation, except:
a. mare C. pare
b. dude D. man
36. What does Coño means ________?
a. nickname of a person C. nickname of an old man
b. Nickname of an old woman D. nickname of a family
member
37. What language in the poem, Coñotation being used?
a. Filipino-English C. English-Tagalog
b. Cebuano-Filipino D. Multilanguage
38. How does “Ground Zero” of 9/11 terrorist attack being describe by the
writer?
a. America change C. masses cries
b. Innocent dies D. both B and C
39. What is Hidalgo’s essay all about?
a. It captured how terrorist attract the tower.
b. It highlighted how the world trade center incredibly collapsed.
c. It talked about life is not permanent.
d. It focused on the painful experiences.
40. How do you fell after reading the selection of Hidalgo?
a. excited C. sad
b. happy D. contented
41. How was the typhoon Haiyan being describe in the article writer?
a. Covering Haiyan was like walking into a Salvador Dali
painting, discovering the paint…
b. Witnessing Haiyan incident was painful.
c. Seeing the incident, “the longer I stayed, the less guilty I felt”…
d. Covering a photo means turned to vomit into the bushes.
42. The following are the reasons why 21st century readers and writers
exposed themselves in reading, except:
a. Develop proficiency with the tools of technology
b. Build relationships with others to pose and solve problems
collaboratively and cross-culturally
c. Manage technological skills
d. Design and share information for global communities to meet
a variety of purposes
43. Cardinal Sins’ the Genaral’s Cross, the Martyr’s Testemony and other
Affirmations by Brillantes, is an example of ____________.
a. Hyper poetry C. Click It
b. Creative nonfiction D. Speculative Fiction
44. The Smaller and Smaller Circles by FH Batacan, is an example of
________?
A. Hyper poetry C. Click It

72
B. Creative nonfiction D. Speculative Fiction

45. ____________ it is an example of online journal displaying information


which the latest posts appearing first.
a. Hyper poetry C. Blog
b. Graphic visual D. Flash fiction

73
.D Sarong Baggui 10.
.B Francisco Baltazar 9.
.A anecdote 8.
Father
Key To Answers .C The Laughter of my 7.
.B litera 6.
.A ode 5.
.A Florante at Laura 4.
Lesson 2 .B Sonnet 3.
What I Know/Pre Test .B Biography 2.
.A Literature 1.
1. B Activity 1
2. A What I know
3. C
4. C
5. B Lesson 1
What’s In What I Know/Pre-Test
Activity 2 1. Epic
1. Myth 2. Legend
2. Fable 3. Folktale
3. Legend 4. Fable
4. Lullaby 5. Folksong
5. Proverbs
What’s In
What’s New Activity 2
Activity 3 1. True
1. Corrido 2. True 5 P ro v erb s.4 Lullab y .3 Leg end .2 F ab le.1 M yths

2. Rosary 3. True
3. Sinakulo 4. True
4. Sarswela 5. True
5. DuploWhat’s New
What’s More Activity 3
Activity 4 1, Proverbs
Answers vary 2. Riddle
What I Have Learned
3. Lullaby
Activity 5 4. Wedding Song
indolent .5 Song
5. Drinking
Doctrina Cristiana .4 Learned
What I Have 74
Mi UltimoActivity
Adios 4.3
Passion
Answers .2vary
Balagtasan .1
Assessment/Post Test
1. B
Assessment/Post Test
2. C
1. b 3. A
2. b 4. C
3. d 5. b
4. c
5. b/c
Lesson 3
What’s In What I Know
Activity 2 Activity 1
1. C
E I A N N S O L O M O B A 2. B
I N L A G I N G H A N A D 3. D
Z G O I N N G S D U P L O 4. D
5. B
E E N D L A P L A Y S A B
What’s More
N L Z A T K A M A N A G O Activity 4
H E Z L O U M A M I T T A Answers vary
O I N D O L E N C E P A L What I Can Do
R O S E L O B R I G H S T Activity 6
W I N N E K O M E D Y A S Answers vary
Assessment/Post Test
E P H R A I M O M M Y N R 1. D
A D N I L A S O R C A N E 2. b/c
3. d
4. a/b/c
5. d
.5✓
.4 ✓
.3 ✓ D .5
.2 ✓ .Yes Because he asked to take care of Cristina . 4.
.1 ✓ .No He was loved and cared by Tia Chedeng 3.
3.Activity C .2
What’s New B .1
Activity 5
What I Have Learned
Lesson 4
What’s In
Activity 2

D
R P
A C o n d e M n e d
M E E
A T N S
S H O R T S T O R I E S
Y V A
E Y
p L a Y s

What’s New What’s More


Activity 3 Activity 4
Tanaga .5 1. 3 Answers vary
Haiku .4 15 What I Have Learned
Ishiwara .3 2. 4 Activity 5
Liwayway .2 20 Answers vary
Tribune .1 Assessment/ Post Test
1Activity 1. A 3. A 5. b
What I Know 2. B 4. b
3.

75
C .45
30. .B A wise man can understand .once D .44
29. .C Courtship B .43
seems like her C .42
28. .A Before she was not noticed by him, but noe he A .41
.C It is better to live simply with a human .heart C .40
but .rude B .39
27. .A It is better to be poor but kind than to be rich D .38
26. .B Proverbs A .37
.c with clean feet C .36
25. .B with halo A .35
24. .B Icarus was disinterested to .fly D .34
.23 Icarus.A C.33
22. .D All of the above B .32
21. .B His fiancée B .31
.old
20. .C His mother who left him since 10 years
19. .D She loved Pablo very .much
18. .C He lacked his mother’s .love
17. .D Both A & B
.C The Filipinos workd but not appreciated
.pay
.B The Filipinos worked so hard with less 16.
.C Education 15.
.A Spanish 14.
.B He explained why Filipinos are indolent 13.
.B 12.
.A Debt of gratitude 11.
.A Play 10.
.B Amrican period 9.
.B Innovative 8.
.B Mi Ultimo Adios 7.
.C Lullaby 6.
.A Riddle 5.
.B Proverbs 4.
.C Epic 3.
.D Passion 2.
.D Doctrina Cristiana 1.
Assessment

76
References

Alicia Kahayon and Celia A. Zulueta, ( Cacho Hermanos Inc..,2010:84).

“Bible Gateway passage: Genesis 1 - Good News Translation”, Accessed June 14,
2020. Bible Gateway.
https://www.biblegateway.com/passage/?search=Genesis+1&version=GNT

“Caitlin Tucker,” Argumentative Rubric,accessed June 12, 2020,


https://catlintucker.com/2018/08/middle-school-writing-rubrics/

“Coñotations: A Poem by Paolo Manalo”, Accessed June 14, 2020. Thoughts and
Emotions. https://aquarius129.wordpress.com/2009/03/08/conotations-a-
poem-by-paolo-manalo/

Fernandez Doreen. Puto-Bumbong, Bibingka, Salabat, atbp: The Filipino


Christmas. Accessed June 14, 2020. http://walking-
writer.blogspot.com/2011/12/essay-puto-bumbong-bibingka-salabat.html

http://jfmueller.faculty.noctrl.edu/toolbox/examples/cihock10/narrative.pdf
[accessed June 12, 2020].

https://www.eriesd.org/site/handlers/filedownload.ashx?moduleinstanceid=14837&da
taid=13730&FileName=5Comparison%20Contrast%20Rubric.pdf [accessed
June 12, 2020].

https://www.slideshare.net/emral8/g12-21st-century-literature-diagnostic-tes,
accessed June 12, 2020.

https://www.teacherspayteachers.com/Product/Basic-Poetry-Rubric-
3691783 [accessed June 12, 2020].

https://www.univie.ac.at/Voelkerkunde/apsis/aufi/folk/folk-n01.html. Accessed May


24, 2020.

http://www.seasite.niu.edu/tagalog/literature/literary_forms_in_philippine_lit.html.
Accessed May 24, 2020.

https://fairytalez.com/the-creation-story-tagalog-version/. Accessed May 24, 2020.

http://paulmorrow.ca/bayeng1.html. Accessed May 24, 2020.

https://www.slideshare.net/beautyisbelle/phil-lit-during-the-spanish-period. Accessed
May 24, 2020.

http://www.bohol.ph/books/Indolence/Indolence.html. Accessed May 24, 2020.


77
https://www.slideshare.net/bing19928/the-indolence-of-the-filipinos. Accessed
May 24, 2020.

https://www.slideshare.net/josephestroga/philippine-literature-during-
american-period?next_slideshow=2. Accessed May 24, 2020.

https://pdfslide.net/documents/condemned-wilfredo-ma-guerrero.html.
Accessed May 24, 2020.

https://www.slideshare.net/DKPadua/japanese-period-of-philippine-literature.
Accessed May 24, 2020.

https://easiesteesubject1.blogspot.com/2019/06/icarus-in-catechism-
class.html Accessed May 24, 2020.

https://www.slideshare.net/josephestroga/philippine-literature-the-contemporary-
period. Accessed May 24, 2020.

http://walking-writer.blogspot.com/2011/12/essay-puto-bumbong-bibingka-
salabat.html. Accessed May 24, 2020.

https://www.slideshare.net/lhengacusan/21st-century-literary-genre

Mabel Cook Cole, Philippine Folk Tales (Chicago: A. C. McClurg and Company,
1916) Accessed May 24, 2020.

Philippines Luzviminda. Creation Myth Variant 1: Tunkung Langit and Alunsina.


Accessed June 14, 2020. Vizayanmyths.blogspot.com.
http://vizayanmyths.blogspot.com/2013/05/creation-myth-variant-1.html

“Powtoon - Excerpt from new York city post 9/11”, Accessed June 14, 2020.
Powtoon.com. http://www.powtoon.com/online presentation/bUsTfefUVdP/
excerpt-from“Literature review.” Accessed June 14, 2020. Une.edu.au.
https://www.une.edu.au/library/support/eskills-plus/mastering-the-academic-
literature/literature-review

“Rio Alma – words made flesh”, Accessed 14 June 2020. words made flesh.
https://wordsmadeflesh.wordpress.com/tag/rio-alma/

Rodrigo M. Martinez, Philippine’s Literary:GEMS An Anthology (Mindshapers.Co.Inc,


2016)

78
SHARED OPTIONSSENIOR HIGH ALTERNATIVE RESPONSIVE EDUCATION
DELIVERY GRADE 11 DLP LEARNING ACTIVITY SHEET

Simoun Victor D. Redoblado, (Brilliant Creations Publishing, Inc., 2017

“The Story of Tunkung Langit and Alunsina,” Accessed June 14, 2020.
http://vizayanmyths.blogspot.com/2013/05/creation-myth-variant-1.htmls

The Story of Creation. Holy Bible,” Accesses June 14, 2020.


https://www.biblegateway.com/passage/?search=Genesis+1&version=GNT

“Typhoons by Rio Alma (translated by Marne Kilates)”, Accessed 14 June 2020


https://wordsmadeflesh.wordpress.com/tag/rio-alma/

“21st Century Literature for 21st Century Readers”, Accessed 14 June 2020
https://21stcenturylitph.wordpress.com/introduction-to-philippine-literature/

“21st Century Literary Genre”, Accessed June 14, 2020. Slideshare.net.


https://www.slideshare.net/lhengacusan/21st-century-literary-genre

“Walking Poet. Essay: Puto-Bumbong, Bibingka, Salabat, atbp: The Filipino


Christmas Table”, Accessed June 14, 2020. Walking-writer.blogspot.com.
http://walking-writer.blogspot.com/2011/12/essay-puto-bumbong-bibingka-
salabat.html
79
For inquiries and feedback, please write or call:

Department of Education – Bureau of Learning Resources (DepEd-BLR)

DepEd Division of Cagayan de Oro City


Fr. William F. Masterson Ave Upper Balulang Cagayan de Oro
Telefax: ((08822)855-0048
E-mail Address: cagayandeoro.city@deped.gov.ph

80