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PHYSICAL
PROJECT
EDUCATION

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MOHAMMAD GUFRAN
CLASS XII A

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INTERNAL EXAMINER SIGNATURE-
EXTERNAL EXAMINER SIGNATURE-

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
Primarily I would like to thank God for being able to complete
this project with success. Then I would like to thank my Physical
Education teacher Mr. Vijay Sir, whose valuable guidance has been
the ones that helped me patch this project and make it full proof
success. His suggestions and his instructions has served as the major
contributor towards the completion of the project.
Then I would like to thank my parents and friends who have
helped me with their valuable suggestions and guidance has been
helpful in various phases of the completion of the project.
Last but not the least I would like to thank my classmates who
have helped me a lot.

MOHAMMAD GUFRAN.

CRICKET
Cricket is a bat-and-ball game played between two
teams of eleven players on a field at the centre of which
is a 22-yard (20-metre) pitch with a wicket at each end,
each comprising two bails balanced on three stumps.
The batting side scores runs by striking the ball bowled
at the wicket with the bat (and running between the
wickets), while the bowling and fielding side tries to
prevent this (by getting the ball to either wicket)
and dismiss each batter (so they are "out"). Means of
dismissal include being bowled, when the ball hits the
stumps and dislodges the bails, and by the fielding
side catching the ball after it is hit by the bat, but before
it hits the ground. When ten batters have been
dismissed, the innings ends and the teams swap roles.
The game is adjudicated by two umpires, aided by
a third umpire and match referee in international
matches. They communicate with two off-
field scorers who record the match's statistical
information.
Forms of cricket range from Twenty20, with each team
batting for a single innings of 20 overs, to Test
matches played over five days. Traditionally cricketers
play in all-white kit, but in limited overs cricket they wear
club or team colours. In addition to the basic kit, some
players wear protective gear to prevent injury caused by
the ball, which is a hard, solid spheroid made of
compressed leather with a slightly raised sewn seam
enclosing a cork core layered with tightly wound string.

HISTORY
ORIGIN:-
Cricket is one of many games in the "club ball" sphere
that basically involve hitting a ball with a hand-held
implement; others
include baseball, golf, hockey, tennis, squash, badminto
n and table tennis.[2] In cricket's case, a key difference is
the existence of a solid target structure, the wicket
(originally, it is thought, a "wicket gate" through which
sheep were herded), that the batsman must defend. The
cricket historian Harry Altham identified three "groups" of
"club ball" games: the "hockey group", in which the ball
is driven to and fro between two targets (the goals); the
"golf group", in which the ball is driven towards an
undefended target (the hole); and the "cricket group", in
which "the ball is aimed at a mark (the wicket) and
driven away from it".

It is generally believed that cricket originated as


a children's game in the south-eastern counties of
England, sometime during the medieval period.
[3]
 Although there are claims for prior dates, the earliest
definite reference to cricket being played comes from
evidence given at a court case in Guildford on Monday,
17 January 1597 (Julian calendar; equating to 30
January 1598 in the Gregorian calendar). The case
concerned ownership of a certain plot of land and the
court heard the testimony of a 59-year-old coroner, John
Derrick, who gave witness that.
I
Laws and gameplay
ON

In cricket, the rules of the game are specified in a code called The Laws
of Cricket (hereinafter called "the Laws") which has a global remit. There
are 42 Laws (always written with a capital "L"). The earliest known
version of the code was drafted in 1744 and, since 1788, it has been
owned and maintained by its custodian, the Marylebone Cricket
Club (MCC) in London.
Playing area
Cricket is a bat-and-ball game played on a cricket field (see image, right)
between two teams of eleven players each. The field is usually circular
or oval in shape and the edge of the playing area is marked by
a boundary, which may be a fence, part of the stands, a rope, a painted
line or a combination of these; the boundary must if possible be marked
along its entire length.
In the approximate centre of the field is a rectangular pitch (see image,
below) on which a wooden target called a wicket is sited at each end;
the wickets are placed 22 yards (20 m) apart. The pitch is a flat surface
10 feet (3.0 m) wide, with very short grass that tends to be worn away as
the game progresses (cricket can also be played on artificial surfaces,
notably matting). Each wicket is made of three wooden stumps topped
by two bails.

Figure 1 cricket pitch and creases

As illustrated above, the pitch is marked at each end with four white
painted lines: a bowling crease, a popping crease and two return
creases. The three stumps are aligned centrally on the bowling crease,
which is eight feet eight inches long. The popping crease is drawn four
feet in front of the bowling crease and parallel to it; although it is drawn
as a twelve-foot line (six feet either side of the wicket), it is, in fact,
unlimited in length. The return creases are drawn at right angles to the
popping crease so that they intersect the ends of the bowling crease;
each return crease is drawn as an eight-foot line, so that it extends four
feet behind the bowling crease, but is also, in fact, unlimited in length.

Batting Skills
Stance:-
Bill Woodfull's stance.

The stance is the position in which a batting player


stands to have the ball bowled to them. An ideal stance
is "comfortable, relaxed and balanced", with the feet 40
centimetres (16 in) apart, parallel and astride the crease.
Additionally, the front shoulder should be pointing down
the wicket, the head facing the bowler, the weight
equally balanced and the bat near the back toe.  A slight [3]

crouch is adopted in order to be in a more effective


striking posture whilst also isometrically preloading the
muscles; this allows the stroke to be played more
dynamically. As the ball is about to be released, the
batter will lift their bat up behind in anticipation of playing
a stroke and will shift their weight onto the balls of their
feet. By doing this they are ready to move swiftly into
position to address the ball once they see its path out of
the bowler's hand.
Although the textbook, side-on stance is the most
common, a few international players, such as Shivnarine
Chanderpaul, use an "open" or "square on" stance.

Backlift:-
A right-handed batsman lifts his bat in preparation for hitting the ball.

Backlift is how a batting player lifts their bat in


preparation for hitting the ball. While the bat should be
raised as vertically as possible, coaching manuals often
suggest that correct technique is for the bat to be slightly
angled from the perpendicular; a common instruction is
to point the face of the bat in the direction of first or
second slip. Some players (notably, in recent
times, Brian Lara, Virender Sehwag) have employed an
exaggerated backlift. Others, who have employed the
more unorthodox open stance, such as Peter Willey,
had a more abbreviated backlift.

Leave:-
The leave. Note the batting player's head focussed on where the ball had bounced.
The bat and hands are held well out of the way of the ball.

The leave is sometimes considered a cricket shot, even


though the batting player physically does not play at or
interfere with the ball as it passes them. The leave is
likely to be used by a batting player during the first few
balls they receive, to give themselves time to judge the
conditions of the pitch and the bowling before attempting
to play a shot. Leaving a delivery is a matter of judgment
and technique. The batting player still has to watch the
ball closely to ensure that it will not hit them or the
wicket; they also have to ensure that their bat and hands
are kept out of the path of the ball so that it cannot make
accidental contact and possibly lead to them being
out caught. Batting players only leave the ball when they
are certain that it will not hit the stumps.

Defensive shot:-
Having taken a long stride, a batting player blocks the ball with a forward defensive shot.

A block stroke is usually a purely defensive stroke


designed to stop the ball from hitting the wicket or the
batting player's body. This shot has no strength behind it
and is usually played with a light or "soft" grip
(commentators often refer to "soft hands") and merely
stops the ball moving towards the wicket. A block played
on the front foot is known as a forward defensive, while
that played on the back foot is known as a backward
defensive. These strokes may be used to score runs,
by manipulating the block to move the ball into vacant
portions of the infield, in which case a block becomes a
"push". Pushing the ball is one of the more common
ways batting player's manipulate the strike.
Leaving and blocking are employed much more often
in first-class cricket (including Test matches), as there is
no requirement to score runs as quickly as possible,
thus allowing the batting player to choose which
deliveries to play.

Drive:-

Ellyse Perry plays an off drive off the front foot. Note her stance and position of her
hands, legs, body and head.
A drive is a straight-batted shot, played by swinging the
bat in a vertical arc through the line of the ball, hitting the
ball in front of the batting player along the ground. It is
one of the most common shots in a batting player's
armory and often the first shot taught to junior cricketers.
Depending on the direction the ball travels, a drive can
be a cover drive (struck towards the cover fielding
position), an off drive (towards mid-off), straight
drive (straight past the bowler), on drive (between
stumps and mid-on) or square drive (towards point). A
drive can also be played towards midwicket, although
the phrase "midwicket drive" is not in common usage.
Drives can be played both off the front and the back
foot, but back-foot drives are harder to force through the
line of the ball. Although most drives are deliberately
struck along the ground to reduce the risk of being
dismissed caught, a batting player may decide to play
a lofted drive to hit the ball over the infielders and
potentially even over the boundary for six.

Flick:-

Virat Kohli playing the flick shot in 2015.


A flick shot is a straight-batted shot played on the leg
side by flicking a full-length delivery using the wrists. It is
often also called the clip off the legs. The shot is
playing with the bat coming through straight as for the
on drive, but the bat face is angled towards the leg side.
It can be played both off the front foot or the back foot,
either off the toes or from the hips. The shot is played
between the mid-on and square leg region. Typically
played along the ground, the flick can also be played by
lofting the ball over the infield.

Cut:-

A batting player plays a cut off the back foot. Note the balance and weight of the
batting player is on their back (right) leg.

A cut is a cross-batted shot played at a short-pitched


ball, placing it wide on the off side. The batting player
makes contact with the ball as it draws alongside or
passes them and therefore requires virtually no effort on
their part as they uses the bowler's pace to divert the
ball. A square cut is a shot hit into the off side at near to
90 degrees from the wicket (towards point). A late cut is
played as or after the ball passes the batting player's
body and is hit towards the third man position. The cut
shot is typically played off the back foot but is also
sometimes played off the front foot against slower
bowling. The cut should be played with the face of the
bat rolling over the ball to face the ground thus pushing
the ball downwards. A mistimed cut with an open-faced
bat (with the face of the bat facing the bowler) will
generally lead to the ball rising in the air, giving a
chance for the batting player to be caught.

Pull and hook:-

Ricky Ponting playing a pull shot.

A pull is a cross-batted shot played to a ball bouncing


around waist height by swinging the bat in a horizontal
arc in front of the body, pulling it around to the leg side
towards mid-wicket or square leg. The term hook shot is
used when the shot is played against a ball bouncing at
or above chest high to the batting player, the batting
player thus "hooking" the ball around behind square leg,
either along the ground or in the air. Pull and hook shots
can be played off the front or back foot, with the back
foot being more typical.

Sweep:-
A left-handed player plays a sweep shot.

A sweep is a cross-batted front foot shot played to a low


bouncing ball, usually from a slow bowler, by kneeling
on one knee, bringing the head down in line with the ball
and swinging the bat around in a horizontal arc near
the pitch as the ball arrives, sweeping it around to the
leg side, typically towards square leg or fine leg.
A paddle sweep shot is a sweep shot in which the ball
is deflected towards fine leg with a stationary or near-
stationary bat extended horizontally towards the bowler,
whereas the hard sweep shot is played towards square
leg with the bat swung firmly in a horizontal arc.
Typically the sweep shot will be played to a legside
delivery, but it is also possible for a batting player to
sweep the ball to the leg side from outside off stump.
Attempting to sweep a full straight delivery on the
stumps is generally not recommended because of the
risk of lbw.

Leg Glance:-
A leg glance is a delicate straight-batted shot played at
a ball aimed slightly on the leg side, using the bat to flick
the ball as it passes the batting player, and requiring
some wrist work as well, deflecting towards the square
leg or fine leg area. The stroke involves deflecting the
bat-face towards the leg side at the last moment, head
and body moving inside the line of the ball. This shot is
played "off the toes, shins or hip". It is played off the
front foot if the ball is pitched up at the toes or shin of
the batting player, or off the back foot if the ball bounces
at waist/hip height to the batting player. Although the
opposite term off glance is not employed within cricket,
the concept of angling the bat face towards the offside to
deflect the ball away from the wicket for the purpose of
scoring runs through the off side is a commonly used
technique. This would commonly be described instead
as "running (or steering) the ball down to the third man".

Square drive:-
Although confusingly named a drive, the square drive is
actually a horizontal bat shot, with identical arm
mechanics to that of the square cut. The difference
between the cut and the square drive is the height of the
ball at contact: the cut is played to a ball bouncing waist
high or above with the batting player standing tall,
whereas the square drive is played to a wide ball of shin
height with the batting player bending their knees and
crouching low to make contact.

Horizontal bat shots:-


The second class of cricket stroke comprises the
horizontal bat shots, also known as cross bat shots: the
cut, the square drive, the pull, the hook, and the sweep.
Typically, horizontal bat shots have a greater probability
of failing to make contact with the ball than vertical bat
shots and therefore are restricted to deliveries that are
not threatening to hit the stumps, either by dint of being
too wide or too short. The bat is swung in a horizontal
arc, with the batting player's head typically not being
perfectly in line with the ball at the point of contact.
Reverse sweep:-

A reverse sweep is a cross-batted sweep shot played in


the opposite direction to the standard sweep, thus
instead of sweeping the ball to the leg side, it is swept to
the off side, towards a backward point or third man. The
batting player may also swap their hands on the bat
handle to make the stroke easier to execute. The batting
player may also bring their back foot to the front,
therefore, making it more like a traditional sweep. The
advantage of a reverse sweep is that it effectively
reverses the fielding positions and thus is very difficult to
set a field to. It is also a risky shot for the batting player
as it increases the chance of lbw and also is quite easy
to top edge to a fielder.
It was first regularly played in the 1970s by the Pakistani
batter Mushtaq Mohammad, though Mushtaq's
brother Hanif Mohammad is sometimes credited as the
inventor. Cricket coach Bob Woolmer has been credited
with popularising the stroke. The most famous example
of a reverse sweep backfiring was in the case of Mike
Gatting of England against Allan Border of Australia in
the 1987 Cricket World Cup Final. With England on
course for victory, Gatting attempted a reverse sweep
off the first delivery bowled by Border, top-edged the ball
and was caught by wicketkeeper Greg Dyer. England
subsequently lost momentum and eventually lost the
match.
Because of the unorthodox nature of hand and body
position, it is often difficult to get a lot of power behind a
reverse sweep; in many situations, the intention is to
glance or cut the ball to the back leg area. However, on
rare occasions, players have been able to execute
reverse sweeps for a six. Kevin Pietersen, who
pioneered switch-hitting, is adept at this, but one could
argue that the resulting shot is basically a sweep rather
than a reverse sweep. A more classic example of such a
shot would be Yusuf Pathan's six off Robin Peterson.
South Africa's AB de Villiers is well known for his ability
to hit sixes with the reverse sweep at ease and Glenn
Maxwell also often plays the reverse sweep.

Slog and slog sweep:-


A slog is a powerful pull shot played over mid-wicket,
usually, hit in the air in an attempt to score a six. A shot
would be referred to as a slog when it is typically played
at a delivery that would not ordinarily be pulled. A slog
can also be described as hitting the ball to "cow corner".
This phrase is designed to imply that the batting player
is unsophisticated in their strokeplay and technique by
suggesting they would be more at home playing on
more rudimentary cricket fields in which there may be
cows grazing along the boundary edge. The slog can be
an effective shot because all the batting player's power
and body weight can be put into swinging the bat at the
ball.
A slog sweep is a slog played from the kneeling
position used to sweep. Slog sweeps are usually
directed over square-leg rather than to mid-wicket. It is
almost exclusively used against reasonably full-pitched
balls from slow bowlers, as only then does the batting
player have time to sight the length and adopt the
kneeling position required for the slog sweep. The front
leg of the shot is usually placed wider outside leg stump
to allow for a full swing of the bat.

Upper cut:-
An upper cut is a shot played towards third man,
usually hit when the ball is pitched outside the off
stump with an extra bounce. It is a dangerous shot
which can edge the ball to keeper or slips if not
executed correctly. The shot is widely used in modern
cricket. The shot is advantageous in fast bouncy tracks
and is seen commonly in Twenty20 cricket. Notable
players to hit upper cut include Sachin
Tendulkar, Virender Sehwag and Brendan Taylor.

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