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Content

1. Introduction

2. History of basketball

3. Rules of the game

4. Technique of the game

5. Conclusion

6. References.

1. Introduction.

In modern life, more and more the use of physical exercises is aimed not
at achieving high results, but at increasing their health-improving effect on the
general population. For solving such a global problem, the most effective
means are, first of all, sports games.

Basketball is one of the means of physical development and education of


young people.

Basketball is one of the most popular games in our country. It is


characterized by a variety of movements; walking, running, stopping, turning,
jumping, catching, throwing and dribbling the ball, carried out in single
combat with opponents. Such a variety of movements help to improve
metabolism, the activity of all body systems, and form coordination.

2. History of basketball

The homeland of basketball is considered to be the United States of


America. The game was invented in December 1891 at the Christian Youth
Association training center in Springfield, Massachusetts. To spice up
gymnastics lessons, a young teacher, Dr. James Naismith, born in Ramsay,
Ontario, Canada in 1861, came up with a new game. He attached to the balcony
railing two fruit baskets from under peaches without a bottom, into which he
had to throw a soccer ball (hence the name basket - a basket, ball - a ball). The
concept of basketball originated in his school years, while playing "duck-on-a-
rock". The meaning of this popular game at that time was as follows: tossing
one small stone, it was necessary to hit the top of another stone, larger in size.
Already, as a physical education teacher, professor at the College in
Springfield, D. Naismith was faced with the problem of creating a game for the
Massachusetts winter, the period between baseball and football. Naismith
believed that due to the weather at this time of year, the best solution would be
to reinvent the indoor game. A year later, D. Naismith, in less than an hour,
sitting at a table in his office, developed the first 13 points of basketball rules:

1. The ball may be thrown in any direction with one or both hands.

2. The ball can be hit with one or both hands in any direction, but never
with a fist.
3. The player cannot run after the ball. A player must pass or throw the
ball into the basket from the point at which he caught it, except for a player
running at good speed.

4. The ball must be held with one or both hands. The forearms and body
cannot be used to hold the ball.

5. In any case, strikes, captures, holding and pushing the opponent are not
allowed. The first violation of this rule by any player shall be called a foul (dirty
play); a second foul will disqualify him until the next ball has been scored and,
if there was a clear intention to injure a player, for the entire game, no
substitution is allowed.

6. Striking the ball with a fist - violation of points 2 and 4, the penalty is
described in point 5.

7. If both sides commit three fouls in a row, they must be called for a goal,
for the opponents (this means that during this time the opponents must not
commit a single foul).

8. A goal is awarded - if the ball thrown or bounced off the floor enters the
basket and remains there. Defending players are not allowed to touch the ball
or the basket when they are thrown. If the ball touches the edge and the
opponents move the basket, a goal is awarded.

9. If the ball goes out-of-bounds, it must be thrown into the field by the
first player to touch it. In the event of a dispute, the referee must throw the ball
into the field. The thrower is allowed to hold the ball for five seconds. If he
holds it longer, then the ball is given to the opponent. If either side tries to stall
for time, the referee must give them a foul.

10. The referee must monitor the actions of the players and the fouls, and
also notify the referee about three consecutive fouls. He is vested with the
power to disqualify players under rule 5.

11. The referee must follow the ball and determine when the ball is in play
(within the court) and when it goes out-of-bounds (out of bounds), which side
should have the ball, as well as any other actions normally performed by the
referee.

12. The game consists of two halves of 15 minutes each with a break of 5
minutes between them.

13. The side with the most goals during this period is the winner.

But already the first matches according to these rules caused their
changes. Although most of them are valid to this day. The fans on the balconies
caught the flying away balls and tried to throw them into the opponent's
basket. Therefore, shields soon appeared, which became protection for the
basket. On February 12, 1892, after learning the rules and mastering the basics
of technology, students of Springfield College, in the presence of one hundred
spectators, played the first "official" match in the history of basketball, which
ended peacefully with a score of 2: 2. Its success was so deafening, and the
rumor about the new game spread with such speed that soon

Но уже первые матчи по этим правилам вызвали их


изменения. Хотя большинство из них действует и по сей день.
Болельщики на балконах ловили улетавшие мячи и пытались их
забросить в корзину противника. Поэтому вскоре появились
щиты, которые стали защитой для корзины. 12 февраля 1892 года,
изучив правила и освоив азы техники, студенты
Спрингфилдского колледжа в присутствии ста зрителей провели
первый в истории баскетбола «официальный» матч, мирно
завершившийся с результатом 2:2. Его успех был настолько
оглушительным, а слух о новой игре распространился с такой
скоростью, что вскоре две спрингфилдские команды стали
проводить показательные встречи, собирая на своих
выступлениях сотни зрителей. Их почин подхватили студенты
других колледжей, и уже на следующий год весь американский
северо-восток был охвачен баскетбольной лихорадкой. Уже в 1893
году появляются железные кольца с сеткой. Новая игра оказалась
настолько интересной и динамичной, что в 1894 году в США были
изданы первые официальные правила. В то же время баскетбол
из США проникает сначала на Восток – в Японию, Китай, на
Филиппины, а затем в Европу и Южную Америку. В 1895 году
были введены штрафные броски с расстояния 5м 25см. Ведение
мяча во всех его вариантах было узаконено в 1896 году.

Стихийное образование любительских команд и лиг привело


к тому, что студенты стремились заниматься исключительно
баскетболом, предпочитая его не только таким традиционным
игровым видам, как американский футбол и бейсбол, но и горячо
любимой попечителями колледжей гимнастике. Чиновники
Молодёжной Христианской Ассоциации, вняв жалобам
противников нового веяния, практически захлопнули двери
спортивных студенческих залов. Однако их стремление запретить,
стремительно набиравший популярность новый вид спорта было
подобно попыткам вручную остановить разогнавшийся поезд.

Через 10 лет на Олимпийских играх в Сент-Луисе (США)


американцы организовали показательный турнир между
командами нескольких городов.

Родиной отечественного баскетбола является Санкт - Петербург. Первое


упоминание об этой игре в нашей стране принадлежит известному русскому
пропагандисту физической культуры и спорта петербуржцу Георгию Дюпперону и
относится оно к 1901 году.

Уже в 1909 году состоялось событие, ставшее определённой вехой в истории не


только отечественного, но и мирового баскетбола. В Петербург приехала группа
членов американской ассоциации христиан. Из них и была составлена баскетбольная
команда, которая, к общей радости петербуржцев, проиграла местной команде
«лиловых» со счётом 19:28. Именно эта историческая встреча названа первым
международным баскетбольным матчем. Таким образом, получается, что именно
Россия стала местом проведения первого международного баскетбольного матча на
планете.

В 1920 году был внесён в школьную программу, в которой изучался наравне с


футболом в качестве обязательной дисциплины. Также в это время начинают активно
создаваться национальные федерации баскетбола, проводятся первые
международные встречи. Так в 1919 году состоялся баскетбольный турнир между
армейскими командами США, Италии и Франции. В 1923 году во Франции
проводится первый международный женский турнир. Игра завоёвывает всё большую
популярность и признание в мире, и в 1935 году Международный олимпийский
комитет вынес решение о признании баскетбола олимпийским видом спорта. В
баскетбольном турнире участвовали команды 21 страны. Матчи проводились на
открытых теннисных площадках, все последующие олимпийские турниры
проводились в закрытых помещениях. Первым олимпийским чемпионом стала
команда США

В первой половине 1950-х годов баскетбол стал терять


присущую ему остроту борьбы. Потребовалось внести в правила
целый ряд изменений и дополнений для её оживления. Наиболее
важными из этих дополнений были:

- введение правила 30 секунд (команда, владеющая мячом,


обязана в пределах этого времени бросить мяч в корзину);

- расширение площади зоны, в которой игрокам нападения не разрешалось


находиться более трёх секунд.

Дебют женского баскетбола на Олимпийских играх состоялся в 1976 году в


Монреале. В турнире участвовали шесть команд. Первыми олимпийскими
чемпионами стали баскетболистки сборной СССР.

Первый чемпионат Европы среди женщин прошёл в Риме в 1938 году, на


котором победили баскетболистки Италии. Сборная СССР – 21 раз становилась
чемпионом Европы (1950-1956, 1960-1991).

Джеймс Нейсмит создал игру всех народов мира, игру скорости, ловкости и
смекалки.

3. Правила игры «баскетбол».

Здесь представлены некоторые выдержки из официальных правил баскетбола.


В баскетбол играют две команды, в каждой из которых по пять игроков. Цель каждой
команды в баскетболе - забросить в корзину соперника и помешать другой команде,
овладеть мячом, и забросить его в корзину.

Победителем в баскетболе становится команда, которая по окончании игрового


времени набрала большее количество очков.
Игровая баскетбольная площадка должна представлять собой плоскую
прямоугольную твердую поверхность без каких-либо препятствий. Размеры должны
быть 28 метров в длину и 15 метров ширину.

Баскетбольные щиты с корзиной должны быть изготовлены из


соответствующего прозрачного материала или выкрашены в белый цвет. Размеры
баскетбольных щитов должны быть: 1,80 м по горизонтали и 1,05 м по вертикали.

But the first matches under these rules caused them to change. Although most of them
are still in effect today. Fans on the balconies caught flying balls and tried to throw them
into the opponent's basket. So soon there were shields that became protection for the
basket. On February 12, 1892, having learned the rules and mastered the basics of
technology, students of Springfield College in the presence of a hundred spectators held the
first "official" match in the history of basketball, which ended peacefully with a result of 2: 2.
Its success was so deafening, and word of the new game spread so quickly, that soon the two
Springfield teams began holding show meetings, drawing hundreds of spectators to their
performances. Their initiative was taken up by students from other colleges, and the next
year the entire American northeast was gripped by basketball fever. Already in 1893, iron
rings with a grid appeared. The new game was so interesting and dynamic that in 1894 the
first official rules were published in the United States. At the same time, basketball from the
United States penetrates first to the East – to Japan, China, the Philippines, and then to
Europe and South America. In 1895, free throws were introduced from a distance of 5 m 25
cm. Ball-playing in all its variants was legalized in 1896.

The spontaneous formation of Amateur teams and leagues led to the fact that students
sought to engage exclusively in basketball, preferring it not only to such traditional game
types as American football and baseball, but also to gymnastics, which is dearly loved by
College Trustees. Officials of the Youth Christian Association, heeding the complaints of
opponents of the new trend, almost slammed the doors of student sports halls. However,
their desire to ban the rapidly growing popularity of a new sport was like trying to manually
stop a speeding train.

10 years later, at the Olympic games in St. Louis (USA), the Americans organized an
exhibition tournament between teams from several cities.

The birthplace of Russian basketball is Saint Petersburg. The first mention of this
game in our country belongs to the famous Russian propagandist of physical culture and
sports Georgy Dupperon from St. Petersburg and it dates back to 1901.

Already in 1909, an event took place that became a certain milestone in the history of
not only domestic, but also world basketball. A group of members of the American Christian
Association came to St. Petersburg. From them, the basketball team was formed, which, to
the General joy of St. Petersburg residents, lost to the local team "lilovs" with a score of 19:
28. This historic meeting was called the first international basketball match. Thus, it turns
out that it was Russia that became the venue for the first international basketball match on
the planet.

In 1920, it was added to the school curriculum, where it was studied along with
football as a mandatory discipline. Also at this time, national basketball federations are
being actively created, and the first international meetings are being held. So in 1919, a
basketball tournament was held between the army teams of the United States, Italy and
France. In 1923, the first international women's tournament was held in France. The game
is gaining more and more popularity and recognition in the world, and in 1935 the
international Olympic Committee decided to recognize basketball as an Olympic sport.
Teams from 21 countries participated in the basketball tournament. Matches were played on
outdoor tennis courts, and all subsequent Olympic tournaments were held indoors. The first
Olympic champion was the US team

In the first half of the 1950s, basketball began to lose its inherent sharpness of struggle.
It was necessary to make a number of changes and additions to the rules to revive it. The
most important of these additions were:

- introduction of the 30-second rule (the team in possession of the ball must throw the
ball into the basket within this time);

- expanding the area of the zone where attacking players were not allowed to stay for
more than three seconds.

Women's basketball made its Olympic debut in 1976 in Montreal. Six teams
participated in the tournament. The first Olympic Champions were the basketball players of
the USSR national team.

The first European women's championship was held in Rome in 1938, which was won
by Italian basketball players. The USSR national team became European champion 21 times
(1950-1956, 1960-1991).

James Naismith created the game of all peoples of the world, a game of speed, agility
and ingenuity.

3. The rules of the game "basketball".

Here are some excerpts from the official rules of basketball.

Basketball is played by two teams, each with five players. The goal of each team in
basketball is to throw the opponent into the basket and prevent the other team from taking
possession of the ball and throwing it into the basket.

The winner in basketball is the team that scored the most points at the end of the game
time.

The basketball court should be a flat rectangular solid surface without any obstacles.
The dimensions should be 28 meters long and 15 meters wide.

Basketball boards with a basket must be made of an appropriate transparent material


or painted white. The dimensions of basketball boards should be: 1.80 m horizontally and
1.05 m vertically.

Basketball rings must be made of strong steel, with an internal diameter of 45 cm. The
ring bar must have a minimum diameter of 16 mm and a maximum diameter of 20 mm. On
the lower part of the ring there should be devices for attaching nets.

The basketball should have a spherical shape and be orange in color with a traditional
pattern of eight inserts and black seams. The circumference of the ball must be at least 74.9
cm and not more than 78 cm. The weight of the ball must not be less than 567 g and not
more than 650 g.
According to the rules of basketball, the game consists of four periods of ten minutes
with breaks of two minutes. The duration of the break between the halves of the game is
fifteen minutes. If the score is tied at the end of the fourth period, the game is extended for
an additional period of five minutes or for as many periods of five minutes as necessary to
upset the balance in the score. Teams must swap baskets before the third period. The game
officially begins with a controversial throw in the center circle, when the ball is correctly hit
by one of the disputants.

In basketball, the ball is played only with the hands. Run with the ball, deliberately
kick him on the leg, to block any part of the leg or strike it with your fist is a violation.
Accidental contact or touch of the ball with the foot or foot is not a violation.

If a player accidentally throws a ball from the court into his basket, points are recorded
to the opposing captain.

If a player intentionally throws the ball from the court into his basket, this is a
violation and points are not counted.

If a player forces the ball into the basket from below, it is a violation. A turn occurs
when a player holds a live ball on the court and steps one or more times in any direction
with the same foot, while the other foot, called the support foot, retains its place of contact
with the floor.

Each time a player gains control of a live ball on the court, an attempt to throw the
basket must be made by his team within twenty-four seconds.

Here are just some important excerpts from the rules of basketball. In General, the
official rules of basketball of the International Basketball Federation is a large hundred-page
guide that sets out all the nuances of the rules.

4. Technique of the game.

The most fun game you can get if you learn how to perform the basic techniques –
passing, dribbling, free throws, defense, selection and the rebound bounced off a shield ball.
The most important first rule - when you own the ball, hold it with your fingers and never
wrap your hands around it.

Passes are the easiest and most effective way to move the ball to the opponent's basket.
Their main types: transfers with two hands from the chest, two hands from the bottom, one
hand from the shoulder, one and two hands with a bounce from the floor.

To catch the ball, you need to stretch out your hands to it with your fingers spread out
and, as soon as it touches your fingers, bend your arms, pulling the ball to your chest.

The technique of the transmissions themselves is simple. They require, as a rule, a


small swing and a "shooting" movement of the hand with the ball in the direction of the
partner.

Dribbling. A player can move the ball on the court only by consistently hitting it on the
floor with one or the other hand. Driving the ball you need to follow a few simple rules:

- the ball is pushed to the floor mainly by the movement of the fingers and hand.
Hitting the ball with your palm will be a mistake.
- do not look down at the ball – keep your head up to see the other players and the
court as a whole.

- when doing the right hand the ball is held slightly to the side, the front right and left
side, front left.

- the player must be positioned between the ball and the defender. His legs are bent
and his body is bent forward. This position hides the ball from the defender, provides
sufficient speed and allows you to avoid mistakes when driving.

Throws the ball into the basket.

There are the following ways to throw the ball in the basket:

* Throw from under the basket with one hand on top

• One-handed throw from the spot

• Jump shot

• Shot using a shield

5. Conclusion.

Basketball, as a means of physical education, has found wide application in various


exercises are effective means of health promotion and recreation and can be used by a
person throughout his life in independent forms of physical education.

6. The list of references.

1. Basketball. Handbook, Moscow, 1993

2. Basketball. The rules of the competition. M., 1996.

3. Basketball: Textbook for institutes of physical culture / / Ed.

Yu. M. Portnova. - M: physical Culture and sport, 1998.

4. Basketball: Textbook for universities of physical culture/ Under. Ed. M. Portnov. -


M: physical Culture and sport, 1997.

5. Valtin A. I. "Mini-basketball at school".- Moscow: Prosveshchenie, 1996.

6. John R., wooden Modern basketball.- M: physical Culture and sport, 1997.