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PREFATA

Acest curs este destinat studenţilor de anul


I, specializarea navigaţie. Avînd in vedere
particularităţile acestei forme de învăţămînt,
cursul a fost elaborat pentru studiul individual.
Cursul este alcătuit din opt unităţi cu
următoarea structură: tema unităţii,
vocabularul de specialitate aferent temei;
gramatică-teorie; exerciţii de vocabular şi de
gramatică cu răspunsuri, test de autoevaluare
cu cheie. Exerciţiile şi testele sunt precedate
de instrucţiuni clare privind cerinţele pentru
rezolvarea sarcinilor (tasks).
Obiectivele cursului sunt: dezvoltarea şi
perfecţionarea capacităţilor de înţelegere şi
exprimare orală, citire şi scriere în limba
engleză, dezvoltarea şi perfecţionarea
priceperilor şi deprinderilor de folosire
corectă, oral şi in scris, a limbii engleze,
extinderea vocabularului, însuşirea şi aplicarea
normelor gramaticale în exprimarea situativă
conform tematicii prezentate în unitatea de
studiu; extinderea vocabularului prin însuşirea
termenilor tehnico-marinăresti referitor la
nomenclatura navei, aparatură. Echipamente şi
instalaţiile de la bord, însuşirea cuvintelor şi
expressilor standard recomandate de convenţia
STCW 98 pentru traficul maritim.
Vreau să aduc mulţumiri colegelor mele
Camelia Alibec şi Ana Ion, care au contribuit
la partea de gramatică a acestui curs precum şi
doamnei Daniela Ursea de la Centrul de Calcul
pentru elaborarea în format electronic al
acestui curs.
Contents:

1.Unit.1. Ship Structure;The


Noun;Vocabulary Practice;Vocabulary
Practice-Answer Key;GrammarPractice;
Grammar Practice Answer-Key;Self-Test;
Self-Test Answer-Key
2.Unit.2. Ship’s Dimensions;Articles and
other determiners;Vocabulary
Practice;Vocabulary Practice-Answer
Key;Grammar Practice; Grammar Practice-
Answer Key; Self-Test; Self-Test Answer-Key.
3.Unit.3. Directions.Terms Relating to
Position in a
Ship;Adjectives:kind,position,comparison;Voc
abulary Practice; Vocabulary practice Answer
Key;Grammar Practice;Grammar Practice-
Answer Key;Self-Test;Self-Test Answer key.
4.Unit.4. Propulsion, Steering and the
Bridge;Adverbs:kind,
position,comparison;Vocabulary
Practice;Vocabulary Practice-Answer
Key;Grammar Practice;Grammar Practice-
AnswerKey;Self-Test;Self-Test Answer Key
5.Unit.5. NavalEquipment: Ground
Tackle;The Simple Present and the Present
Continuous;Vocabulary Practice/Vocabulary
Practice Answer-Key;Grammar Practice;
Grammar Practice Answer Key;Self-Test;Self-
Test Answer Key.
6. Unit.6. Naval Equipment:Signal Lights,
Flags and Bells;The Present Perfect Simple
and Continuous;Vocabulary
Practice;Vocabulary Practice-Answer
Key;Grammar Practice;Grammar Practice-
Answer key;Self-Test;Self-Test;Answer Key
7. Unit.7.Seamanship:Different Types of
Rope; The Simple Past Tense and Past Tense
Continuous; Vocabulary Practice; Vocabulary
Practice-Answer Key;Grammar
Practice;Grammar practice-Answer Key; Self-
Test;Self-Test Answer Key.
8. Unit.8. Manning:The Traditional
Organization of a ship’s Crew;The Simple
Past Perfect and The Past Perfect
Continuous;Vocabulary Practice; Vocabulary
Practice-Answer Key;Grammar Practice;
Grammar Practice-Answer Key;Self-Test;Self-
Test Answer Key.
Unit 1.

SHIP STRUCTURE

Objectives: After studying the topic presented


in the course book the learners should be able
to: identify the main parts of a hull on a
layout; recognise, match and label the various
decks and name their functions; give
Romanian equivalents to the English terms
relating to the hull and decks.

1.General Structure of the Ship

The main body of the ship is called the hull.


The hull consists of an inside framework and
an outside skin called shell plating. At the
base of the hull is a heavy metal plate called
the keel. When the ship is at sea this part of
the ship is under water. To make it easier to
refer to parts of the ship, the hull is divided
into three areas or parts. They are the
forward, amidships and after parts. The
forward part is nearest the bow. The after part
is nearest the stern. Amidships is in the centre
part of the ship.
Identify the main parts of the hull in the
diagram below:

In the bow, the hull is attached to the stem


post. In the stern, the hull is attached to the
sternpost. The hull is divided into a number of
watertight compartments. Decks divide the
hull horizontally and bulkheads divide it
vertically. Deck beams support the decks and
stanchions support the bulkheads.
Label the deck beams and the stanchions on
the diagram below:
Cargoes are stored in cargo holds. Cargo
holds are usually situated at the bottom of the
ship. Within the hull, decks are given a special
name,i.e. between decks (often called simply
tween decks). There may be upper tween
decks and lower tween decks above the
holds.

Bulkheads are partitions that can run either


transversely (across the ship) or longitudinally
(fore and aft) sometimes bulkheads are built so
that they are completely watertight. This
makes it possible either to carry liquid
cargoes, or to seal off the ship if water should
break in. The bulkhead nearest the stem must
be very strong. If the ship is damaged it must
remain watertight. This bulkhead is called the
collision bulkhead.

Besides the space for cargo the hull also


contains the engine room, which is situated at
the after end of the ship, and a number of
tanks: at the fore end of the ship is the
forepeak tank, and at the after end of the ship
is the after peak tank. These tanks are used
for storing fresh water and ballast water. At
the bottom of the ship is the double bottom
tank, which is used for storing fuel and water
ballast.
If you look at the after part of the ship’s hull,
you can see small round openings in the ship’s
side. These let light and air into the cabins, the
crew’s quarters. The openings are called
portholes.

Now look at the diagram below:


The diagram shows you the upper deck,
which is the deck covering the top of the hull,
and the bulwarks at the fore and after end of
the hull. The bulwark is an extension of the
hull plating, which rises above the top of the
upper deck. They act as a barrier against the
force of the waves. Along the edge of the
remainder of the upper deck, especially
amidships, you will find a line of guard rails.
These are made up of vertical posts called
guard stanchions which are linked together
by either wires or tubes. These protect the
passengers and crew from falling overboard.

1.2. As stated previously, ships are divided


off into different levels called decks. The
upper deck is the deck which is level with the
top of
the
hull. Modern ships also have decks forward
and aft above the upper deck and these are
called the forecastle deck and poop deck.
Amidships above the level of the upper deck
is the superstructure. On a cargo ship the
superstructure is usually quite small. The
superstructure consists of several decks each
with a different purpose. In the diagram below
the four decks are named.

The lowest of the four decks of the


superstructure is called the bridge deck. The
crew’s quarters and the galley are on this deck.
The next deck is the upper bridge deck or
saloon deck. Hare are cabins for the
passengers and a lounge and saloon for their
use. Above the saloon deck is the boat deck.
On this deck the officers have their
accommodation and so does the captain. On
the boat deck you can also find lifeboats,
which are raised and lowered into the water by
davits. The highest deck in the superstructure
is called the navigation bridge. This is the
nerve centre of the ship. The wheelhouse is
here and so is the chart room and the radio
room. The navigation bridge is where the ship
is steered or conned from.

Look at the diagram below and name the


four
decks of
the

superstructure labelled as A to D. What are the


decks E and F called ?

On which deck are the following found?

(a) Lifeboats
(b) Wheelhouse
(c) Galley
(d) Passenger’s accommodation
(e) Crew’s quarters
(f) Captain’s cabin.

2. VOCABULARY

Hull = coca, corp de nava; osatura, carcasa


Keel= chila
Bow= prova
Stern = pupa
Forward = partea din fata a navei, inainta, in
prova
Amidships = la cantrul/mijlocul navei; in axul
navei; la cuplul maestru
After = din(spre) pupa; la/spre pupa; inapoi
Hold = magazie/hambar (de nava)
Deck = punte de nava, coverta
Bulkhead =perete etans de nava, perete de
compartimentare (de regula transversal)
Between deck (‘tween deck) = intrepunte
(spatiu)
Watertight compartment = compartiment etans
Collision bulkhead = perete de coliziune/de
forpic; perete de pic prova
Stem post= etrava
Sternpost =etambou
Porthole =iublou
Bulwark = parapet, falsbord; spargeval de
punte
Guard stanchion = baston de balustrada
Upper deck = punte superioara
Forecastle deck = puntea teuga
Poop deck =puntea dunata
Superstructure = suprastructura
Fore =prova; extremitate prova; // spre prova;
in/la prova, dinspre prova
Aft = pupa// la/spre/dinspre pupa, din pupa
Bridge deck = punte de comanda/navigatie
Boat deck = punte a barcilor; punte de
promenadă (la navele de pasageri)
Upper bridge deck= punte superioară
Crew quarters = cabinele echipajului
Galley = bucătărie (pe nava)
Saloon deck= punte de clasa întîia (la navele
de pasageri)
Lounge = careu
Accommodation = cabine, spatiu de locuit
pentru ofiteri
Lifeboats = bărci de salvare
Wheelhouse = camera a timonei
Funnel = coş

3. Answer key to questions in unit 1.

I.
a) stanchions
b) deck beams
c) bulkheads
d) decks

II
A bridge deck
B upper bridge deck
C boat deck
D navigation deck
E forecastle
F poop deck
III.
a) boat deck
b) navigation bridge
c) bridge deck
d) upper bridge deck
e) bridge deck
f) boat deck

4. THE NOUN

What is a noun?
A noun is a word that names a person, place,
or thing. The word noun comes from the Latin
word nomen, which means name. Nouns are of
different kinds: common nouns, proper nouns,
abstract nouns, compound nouns and
collective nouns.
Proper nouns name a specific person, place,
or thing. They are written with capital letters –
Bob, Bucharest, Britain, Monday, April, Mars,
the War of the Roses, etc.
The days of the week and the months of the
year are always written with capital letters
(unlike in the Romanian language) and also
the names of nationalities and languages, no
matter the position in the sentence.
Some proper nouns have become common
nouns, therefore they are not written with
capital letters anymore. Here there are
examples of: objects named after their place of
origin (china, holland, oxfords) or objects
named after those who invented, discovered,
inspired them (a hovercraft, a mackintosh, an
Oscar, a tommy-private in the army, a volt, a
watt).
Common nouns name any one of a class of
person, place, or thing: boy, city, dog, family,
food, water, happiness. They are divided into
the following groups, according to their
meaning:
Abstract nouns name actions, states,
sensations, senses, relations, considered to be
notions. They refer to intangible items.
Examples: joy, love, friendship, greatness,
labour, rest, force, etc.
Concrete nouns name objects, plants, things,
phenomena and events, which we are aware of
using our senses. They refer to tangible items.
Examples: moon, lion, tree, John, rain.
Collective nouns name groups of people or
things: audience, family, team, crowd, council,
association, government, crew, congress, the
public, etc.
Compound nouns are two or more nouns that
function as a single unit. A compound noun
can be two individual words (time capsule),
hyphenated words (great-uncle), combined
words (basketball).
Another important criterion in selecting nouns
is their countability. According to this, we can
divide nouns into: countable and uncountable
nouns.
Count nouns refer to things that we can count;
they have singular and plural forms and can be
preceded by the definite article a, an.
Examples: one (a) cat, two cats, flowers,
children families, days, birds, crowds, etc.
Uncountable nouns name objects that cannot
be counted, they do not have plural form and
do not get the definite article. In this category
we have: names of sports (football, tennis,
rugby), material or concrete mass nouns
(steam, smoke, meat, silver), natural products
(fat, marmalade, milk, oil), fruit, vegetables
and cereals (corn, maize, rice, rye, celery,
spinach, cabbage), abstract mass nouns
(admiration, applause, age, homework, peace,
youth).
! Note that nouns that are uncountable in
English may be count nouns in other
languages (information, advice), or there are
nouns used only in the plural form even when
we are talking about one item (trousers,
clothes, jeans). We have to use a partitive
noun with of when referring to a single item (a
pair of trousers, an item of clothes, a pair of
jeans).

Gender of nouns
Gender is the grammatical category specific to
nouns and it represents the form of nouns to
show sex difference, when speaking about
animates, and the absence of gender when
speaking about inanimates.
English grammar has 3 types of gender:
Gender of personal nouns: - masculine
gender: man, actor, landlord, hero, bull,
brother
- feminine gender: woman,
actress, landlady, heroine, cow,
sister.
This type of gender can be expressed in 3
ways:
a) lexically - with the help of different words:
brother/ sister, king/ queen, man/ woman,
uncle/ aunt.
b) morphologically – by adding a suffix to the
masculine form (actress, hostess, princess,
goddess, waitress,
heroine).
- by adding a suffix to the feminine
form (widow- widower, bride-
bridegroom)
c) common gender – one form for both
masculine and feminine: artist, cook, doctor,
friend, musician, cousin,
parent, person, student, teacher, writer.
Gender of animate nouns – animate nouns are
classified into:
a) names of big animals, which are generally of

male gender (horse). There can be a


distinction male-female: horse (stallion-
mare); deer (stag-hind); sheep (ram-ewe), or
adding suffixes (lion-lioness, tiger-tigress).
b) names of small animals, which are neuter,

being replaced by it. In some cases there are


lexical differences: cock-hen, gander-goose,
dog-bitch. There are also special gender
words: he goat-she goat, Tom cat-she cat,
male frog-female frog.
Gender of inanimate nouns – these nouns are
neuter: Where is my umbrella? It is in my bag/
The truth will emerge; it always does.

Case of nouns
Case is the way in which a noun can be given
a change of spelling (an inflection), which
indicates that the noun has a particular
function in a clause, Case is used to denote the
syntactical functions of nouns.
The nominative case – for the nouns which
are subjects in a sentence (My boy is waiting
for his friend), or predicates (He is a teacher).
The accusative case – is the case of the direct
object (I ate an ice-cream an hour ago).
If there is only one object in the sentence, this
is a direct object in the accusative (Shut the
window, please); if there are two objects, both
could be direct objects in the accusative (I
asked him a question), or one indirect object
in the dative and one direct object in the
accusative (I lent her my umbrella).
The following verbs are followed by two
accusatives: ask, envy, excuse, give, forgive,
offer, save, strike, etc.
The dative case – is the case of the indirect
object. It is marked by the prepositions to and
for (She gave some sweets to the children/ I
bought a present for my mother).
The genitive case – expresses possession and
the syntactical function of attribute. There are
several types of genitive:

a) The ‘s genitive (synthetic genitive) operates


as follows: for singular nouns (girl’s
dress, Ann’s bag, teacher’s book), for
irregular plural nouns (men’s car, children’s
toys), for plural nouns (boys’ cars,
Dickens’ life).
b) The of genitive – is used as an equivalent of

the ‘s genitive (the plays of Shakespeare). It


is used with nouns, names of things (the title
of the book), with geographical places (the
city of London), for emphasizing (the
arrival of his grandfather), with names of
small animals (the tail of the mouse).
c) The implicit genitive – no ‘s: audience

participation, student hostel, afternoon tea


(this type of genitive is used in
contemporary English, especially in
journalism).
d) The double genitive – ‘s genitive + of

genitive with names of people (this joke of


Peter’s).
The vocative case – Bob, hurry up! / Have you
got a minute, Mr. Brown?

Number in nouns
Singular number is used when the noun refers
to one item. Plural number is used when the
noun refers to more than one item. Count
nouns have both singular and plural forms.
Uncountable nouns and mass nouns do not
normally have a plural form.
The regular plural ending of an English noun
is –s (cat-cats, ship-ships, sailor-sailors).
These are the exceptions to the normal pattern:
Singular noun ending
Plural noun ending
-s, -ss, -ch, -x, -zz -es`
examples: focus-focuses, princess-princesses,
church-churches, box-boxes, buzz-buzzes
-o -s or –
es
examples: hero-heroes, piano-pianos, potato-
potatoes
consonant + y -ies
examples: baby-babies, hobby-hobbies, spy-
spies
vowel + y -s
examples: boy-boys, key-keys, ray-rays, play-
plays
-f -s or –
ves
examples: thief-thieves, wolf-wolves, leaf-
leaves, roof-roofs, dwarf-dwarfs/ dwarves
-fe -ves
examples: life-lives, knife-knives
Irregular plurals
Some nouns have two plural forms (fish-fish/
fishes). Some of them have the same form in
the singular and plural (a sheep-ten sheep, a
deer-ten deer). A few change a vowel to form
the plural (man-men, woman-women, foot-feet,
goose-geese, tooth-teeth, mouse-mice, louse-
lice). Some nouns form the plural in –en
(child-children, ox-oxen).
Compound nouns normally form the plural by
adding –s to the last word of the compound (a
girl friend-two girl friends, a bookcase-two
bookcases). A compound noun formed from a
verb and an adverb adds –s to the last word (a
take-away/ two take-always), but a compound
noun formed from a noun and an adverb
makes the first word plural (a passer-by/ two
passers-by). Compound nouns with man or
woman as the first word make both words
plural (a manservant-two menservants, a
woman doctor- two woman doctors).
Some nouns referring to clothes and tools
where two equal parts are joined together
(trousers, binoculars, scissors) are treated as
being plural and are followed by a verb in the
plural (My trousers are torn/ The scissors are
on the table). To talk about one of these items
we use the expression a pair of…(John bought
a pair of jeans). To talk about more than one
we talk about however many pairs of…
(Martina bought five pairs of tights).
When used as ordinary numbers, words such
as dozen, thousands, million have no plural
form (nine million stars/ two dozen glasses).
When used to mean an indefinitely large
number, they do have a plural form, which can
be used as a partitive (There are thousands of
people here/ I saw dozens of children in the
playground).
Foreign plurals
Nouns that have come into English from
foreign languages can:
- keep the plural form of the language they

come from (an axis-two axes, a crisis-two


crises, a thesis-two theses, datum-data)
- have plural formed according to the rules for

plural in English in preference to the foreign


plurals (a memorandum-two memorandums/
memoranda, a stadium-two stadiums/
stadia)
- have two plurals: one from the foreign

language and the other formed according to


the rules for plural in English (an index-
indexes/ indices, a formula-formulas/
formulae)
The foreign plural is usually kept for scientific
or specialized use.

5. Vocabulary practice

1. Answer the following questions.

a).What is the large part of a ship below the


main deck consisting of an inside framework ?
b).What is the main structural part that goes
along the bottom of a ship?
c). How is the hull divided?
d). Where is the cargo stowed?
e). What are the spaces contained between
decks within the hull called?
f). What are the vertical partitions called?
g). How do you call the windows of the ship?
h). How do you call the deck which is level
with the top of the hull?
i). What is there amidships above the level of
the upper deck?

2. Complete the following statements with


one or two words.
a. In the bow, the hull is attached to the ……
b. In the stern, the hull is attached to the….
c. The role of the … …is to seal off the ship if
water should break in.
d. At the fore end of the ship is the… …..
e. At the after end of the ship is the … ….
f. At the bottom of the ship is the … …. tank.
g. The…. Is an extension of the hull plating ,
which rises above the top of the upper deck.
h. … …., which protect the passengers and
crew from falling overboard, are linked
together by either wires or tubes.

3. Fill in the blanks. Use the words below.

Poop, forecastle, decks, holds, upper, above,


superstructure, cargo, fore, aft

On the cargo ship, the main body of the


ship, the hull, is divided into…which
contain…..
The deck at the top of the hull is called the…
deck. Above the upper deck are the…deck and
the …decks. The poop deck is…and the
forecastle is…Amidships…the level of the
upper deck is the….On a cargo ship the
superstructure is usually quite small. The
superstructure consists of several…each with a
different purpose.

4. Are these statements TRUE (T) or


FALSE (F)? Circle the right answer.
a. The upperdeck houses the crew’s quarters.
T/F
b. The galley is where the food is prepared.
T/F
c. The upper bridge deck contains passengers’
cabins. T/F
d. The crew’s quarters are in the holds.
T/F
e. The upper bridge deck is sometimes called
the saloon deck. T/F
f. The galley is in the upper bridge deck.
T/F

6. Vocabulary practice -Answer Key

1.
a. the hull
a. the keel
b.into watertight compartments
c. into the holds
d.between decks or tween decks
e. bulkheads
f. portholes
g.main deck or upper deck
h.the superstructure

2.

a. stempost
b. sternpost
c. collision bulkhead
d. forepeak tank
e. afterpeak tank
f. double bottom tank
g. bulwark
h. guard stanchions

3.
Holds; cargo; upper; forecastle; poop; aft;
fore; above; superstructure;
Decks
4.

a.) F; b.) T; c.) T; d.) F; e) T; f) F

7. Grammar Practice: The Noun


Exercise 1. Use a collective noun for the
following:
1. father, mother, sons and daughters;
2. the eleven players in a game of
football;
3. a multitude of persons;
4. the group of sailors working on a ship
or boat;
5. scores of sheep together.

Exercise 2. Use a compound noun to


illustrate:
1. a desk for writing at;
2. an engine driven by steam;
3. a wall made of stone;
4. a man who makes a wall by laying
bricks one on top of the other;
5. a machine for washing clothes;
6. a box for holding matches;
7. a room in which you sleep;
8. a room in which you wash;
9. a pen containing ink in it;
10.a railway carriage in which people can
take their meals.

Exercise 3. Give the plural of the following


nouns .Use them in sentences.
a) bus, town, woman, box, fly, key, bee,
Englishman. tooth, wish, goose, city, potato,
book, child, leaf, life, foot, apple, toy, ball,
wolf, safe, ox.
b) brush, thief, Chinese, German, donkey,
shelf, fish, cliff, Swiss, inch, sheep, louse,
bamboo, handkerchief, axe, proof,
phenomenon, dynamo, means, piano.
c) echo, loaf, niece, half, chief, volcano,
Japanese, deer,
mouse, knife, birth, daughter, buffalo, atlas.

Exercise 4. Fill in the gaps with the most


suitable noun:
Model:a . . . of cards; a pack of cards:
1. a ... of boots; 2. a …of sheep; 3. a …of
cattle; 4. a …of hounds; 5. a …of birds; 6. a
…of mosquitoes; 7. a… of fish; 8. a… of
trousers; 9. a…of swine; 10. a …of robbers;
11. a… of stockings; 12. a … of whales; 13. a
… of footballers; 14. a… of wolves; 15.
an… at a concert; 16. a … of flowers; 17. a …
of lies;

Exercise 5. Give the feminine correspondents


of the following masculine nouns:
a) man, father, brother, milkman,
Englishman, son-in-law,. sportsman, nephew,
boy, Mr., husband, uncle, chairman.
b) widower, wizard, waiter, bachelor, lord,
king, bridegroom, hero, dog, bull, horse,
gander, ram, peacock ,drone.
c) duke, prince, actor, god, host, waiter,
manager, tzar, sultan, poet, nephew, vixen.

Exercise 6. Form nouns by adding the


appropriate noun-forming suffixes to the
following adjectives:

SUFFIX 1 2 3
-ness short existential mean
-ism cruel foolish childish
-th sane social anxious
-dom gay short long
-(i)ty/iety free wide strong

Exercise 7. Give the corresponding nouns for


the following verbs and adjectives:
o To bleed, to bath, to sing, to believe, to
breathe, to feed, to lose, to live, to prove,
to choose;
o Broad, deep, long, strong, wide, new.
Exercise 8. Use the saxon genitive (‘s) in the
following sentences:
1. He knows nothing about the climate of this
country. 2. Do you know the name of the
typist of the manager? 3. The new car of the
friend of his cousin is a Dacia 1300. 4. Jane
doesn’t know the time table of her daughter. 5.
She does not doubt the good intentions of the
parents of her husband. 6. You can easily
notice die first signs of spring. 7. The dresses
of the shop-girls are the best advertisment. 8.
They all welcomed the protection of the
police. 9. These are the best plays of 0.8.
Shaw. 10. He has been studying the folklore of
Scotland for several years. 11. The parents of
all the children are present at the meeting. 12.
She won’t say a word about the purpose of her
life. 13. The industry of Romania is in full
swing. 14. The high note of the nightingale
can be easily heard.

Exercise 9.Translate into Romanian:


1. We’ve run out of orange juice; you’d better go
to the grocer’s and buy some.
2. My husband’s new suit is not ready yet; it is
still at the tailor’s.
3. When you go to UK don’t miss the chance to
go to Madame Tussaud’s.
4. They usually buy fresh fruits at the
greengrocer’s every Monday morning.
5. Have you ever seen St. James’s?
6. They decided to go to the lawyer’s tomorrow
at noon.
7. On your way home you might stop at the
tobacconist’s and buy some cigarettes for
me.
8. I have been an employee at Ford’s for twenty
years.
9. I’ll go to the hairdresser’s later.
10 Before my coming back home, I
dropped into the baker’s where I bought a
loaf of soft bread and these delicious
rolls.

Exercise 10. Translate into English paying


attention to the genitive case:
1. Străzile acestui oraş sunt foarte largi.
2. Căsătoria copiilor prietenilor mei a avut loc
acum două săptămâni.
3. Acesta este noul profesor de matematică al
fiului meu.
4. Înainte de a începe orele, am făcut o plimbare
de douăzeci de minute.
5. Personalul acestei companii este format din
treizeci de oameni.
6. In intervalul de o lună care urmează, terminăm
toate examenele.
7. La vârsta lui, o călătorie de zece ore cu trenul
trebuie să fie foarte obositoare.
8. Nu trebuie să uităm niciodată de drepturile
celor săraci.
9. 0 aşteptare de cinci minute nu mai contează.
10. Ziarul de ieri a publicat multe ştiri
interesante.

Exercise 11. Form derivative nouns from the


following —
• Verbs:
1. to decide 2.to approve 3. to discuss 4. to

refer 5. to discover 6. to teach


7. to weigh 8.to grow 9. to pay 10. to
perform 11.to limit 12. to betray.
• Adjectives:
1.national 2.wise 3. likely 4. free 5. great 6.
weak 7. kind 8. happy 9. true 10. deep
11.high 12.warm
• Nouns:
1.dictator 2. friend 3. scholar 4. leader 5.
child 6. piano 7. music 8. mathematics
9.science 10. host 11. widow 12. waiter.

Exercise 12. Rewrite in the plural:


1. This is a box. 2. That’s a lorry. 3. Where’s
the knife? 4. Is it your watch? 5. This is a new
house.6. That’s an old chimney. 7. That isn’t
my dress. 8. That’s a shoe. 9. Who’s this man?
10. He’s a farmer and this is his wife. 11.
That’s a row of people. 12. Is it a new bridge?
13. There is a match in the box. 14. There’s no
child in their family.15. Is there a dictionary
on his desk? 16. Is there a desk in that room?
17. The face of that woman is attractive. 18.T-
he house isn’t large but it’s comfortable. 19.
Who’s that person? 20. Which book is yours?

Exercise 13. Put into the singular:


1. Balls are round. 2. Houses have roofs. 3.
These are phonemes. 4. Foxes are animals.5.
Roses are beautiful flowers. 6. Watches are
small clocks. 7. Dogs have tails. 8. Those boys
are good friends. 9. These are simple
sentences. 10. These aren’t boxes. 11. The
children are at school. 12. These are my
notebooks. 13. My friends want to study
German. 14.His brothers work hard all day.
15. Housewives have to work very hard. 16.
Children receive a lot of pleasure from this
game. 17. They live in small houses. 18. The
postmen bring letters three times a day. 19.
The boys wake up at six. 20. There are some
pictures on the walls.

Exercise 14. Match A and B in order to obtain


compound nouns. Use them in sentences:
arm sitter
bottle pages
fast heating
Yellow chair
lawn directory
telephone mower
chewing conditioner
central bag
air opener
tea food
alarm gum
post clock
baby stop
heart tale
burglar attack
fairy office
credit lenses
bus card
bank alarm
contact account

Exercise 15.Underline the nouns in the texts


and put the plural ones in the singular:
1. Thieves stole the cameras and videos from
two shops in Stapleton Road yesterday. They
also took several boxes of video cassettes and
hundreds of audio cassettes.

2. Two police officers were injured in a fight


last night. One policeman lost four teeth.
Three other people were also injured. The
police were called to the Central car park
where there was a fight involving about two
dozen young men and women. Dozens of cars
and two buses were damaged.
Example: pl. thieves = sg. thief

Exercise 16. Complete the sentences with the


plural form of the words in brackets:
My hotel’s a bit primitive. I’ve seen (1
mouse)_____ in my room! And there are (2
fly)_____ everywhere during the day and (3
mosquito) _____ at night. But the (4 beach)
_____ are beautiful.
There are a lot of old (5 church) _____ on the
island and I’ve taken lots of (6 photo) _____
of them.
Every day I buy two small (7 loaf) _____ of
bread and some (8 fruit) _____ , usually (9
peach) _____ , (10 orange) _____ and (11
tomato) _____ . but the (12 shelf) _____ in the
shops are almost empty, so yesterday I went
fishing and caught two (13 fish) _____ for my
lunch.
There aren’t any (14 bus) _____ so I walk
everywhere. My (15 foot) _____ really hurt. I
want to go into the mountains. They say there
are (16 wolf) _____ there.
The (17 person) _____ are very friendly.
Sometimes (18 family) _____ come out to say
hello when I walk past. The (19 man) _____
have two or three (20 wife) _____ and dozens
of (21 child) _____. I don’t think their (22 life)
_____ have changed for (23 century) _____.
It’s certainly one of the most unspoilt (24
country) _____ I’ve ever been to.

Exercise 17.Which are the 15 countable nouns


in this news report?
Hi! You’re listening to GWR Radio. What a
terrible morning! There have been several
accidents on the roads. A number of people
were hurt in an accident on the M 32
motorway when two cars crashed near
Junction 4. And there are a few problems for
rail travellers. Many trains between cities in
the west and London are running twenty to
thirty minutes late.

Exercise 18. What are the eight uncountable


nouns in the news report of the explosion at
Brislington?
An explosion has destroyed a chemical factory
in Brislington. Thanks to the courage of the
firefighters no one was hurt. The air around
the factory is still thick with smoke, and for
their own safety, residents have been told not
to drink the water. Residents are worried about
their children’s health and the damage to the
environment caused by the explosion.

Noun + verb agreement


Exercise 19. Choose the right form of the
verbs in brackets:

1. His family (is/ are) in Bucharest now.


2. The news (was/ were) a great surprise for
all of us.
3. People (rush/ rushes) home when the
day’s work is over.
4. Our football team (plays/ play) this
evening.
5. Your group (is/ are) made up of thirty
students.
6. The audience (is/are) listening to the
piano player.
7. The cattle (is/are) entering the ranch yard.
8. The committee (agrees/agree) with all the
changes.
9. The furniture in my daughter’s room
(is/are) new and modern.
10. The crew of the ship (was/were)
gathered on the upper deck.
11. The parliament (is/are) voting a new law.
12. The luggage (was/were placed) on the
luggage rack.
13. Where (is/are) my glasses?
14. Mathematics(is/are) his favourite subject
at school.
15. My cousin’s trousers (is/are) very
expensive.
16. Proceedings of the conference (is/are)
published within a week.
17. The particulars of the witness (is/are)
taken down by a young policeman.
18. There (is/are) enough money in the
drawer.
19. Measles (is/are) a very dangerous
catching disease.
20.The customs (is/are) not far from here.

Exercise 20.. Choose the correct form of


the verb:
1. Clothes (isn’t/ aren’t) cheap nowadays.
2 People (doesn’t/ don’t) buy clothes that
are too expensive.
3 60 pounds (is/ are) a lot of money for a
pair of jeans.
4. The government (is/ are) trying to keep
prices low.

Exercise 21. Choose the correct verb forms:


His clothes (1 are/ is) _____ very old. His
trousers (2 has got/ have got) _____ holes in
them and his glasses (3 are/ is) _____ broken.
All his belongings (4 is/ are) _____ in a bag on
his back. The police often (5 stops/ stop)
_____ him and (6 asks/ ask) _____ him
questions. People (7 avoid/ avoids) _____ him
in the streets. His earnings (8 are/ is) _____
very small. He gets 40 pounds a week from
social security. For him 40 pounds (9 is/ are)
_____ a lot of money. “I’m not interested in
possessions,” he says, “mathematics (10 are/
is) _____ my passion.”

8. Keys of the exercises

Exercise 1. 1 family, 2 team, 3 crowd, 4 crew,


5 flock.

Exercise 2. writing-desk, steam-engine, stone


wall, bricklayer, washing machine,
mach-box, bedroom, bathroom,
fountain-pen, dining car.

Exercise 3. a) buses, towns, women, boxes,


flies, keys, bees, Englishmen, teeth,
wishes, geese, cities, potatoes, books,
children, leaves, lives, feet, apples, toys,
balls, wolves, safes, oxen.
b) brushes, thieves, Chinese,
Germans, donkeys, shelves, fishes,
cliffs, Swiss, inches, sheep, lice,
bamboos, handkerchiefs, axes, proofs,
phenomena, dynamos, means, pianos.
c) echoes, loaves, nieces, halves,
chiefs, volcanoes, Japanese, deer, mice,
knives, births, daughters, buffaloes,
atlases.

Exercise 4. pair, flock, herd, pack, flight,


cloud, shoal, pair, herd, gang, pair,
school, team, pack, audience, bunch,
pack.

Exercise 5.. a) woman, mother, sister,


milkwoman, Englishwoman, daughter-
in-law, sportswoman, niece, girl, Mrs.,
wife, aunt, chairwoman.
b) widow, witch, waitress, spinster,
lady, queen, bride, heroine, bitch, cow,
mare, goose, sheep, hen, bee.
c)duchess, princess, actress, goddess,
hostess, waitress, manageress, tzarina,
sultana, poetess, niece, fox.

Exercise 6. 1. shortness, cruelty, sanity, gaiety,


freedom
2. existentialism, foolishness,
socialism, shortness, width,
3. meanness, childishness,
anxiety, length, strength

Exercise 7. blood, bath, song, belief, breath,


food, loss, life, proof, choice,
Breadth, depth, length, strength,
width, novelty.

Exercise 8.1.He knows nothing about this


country’s climate. 2. Do you know the
name of the manager’s typist? 3. The
new car of his cousin’s friend is a Dacia
1300. 4. Jane doesn’t know her
daughter’s time table. 5. She does not
doubt the good intentions of her
husband’s parents. 6. You can easily
notice the spring’s first signs . 7. The
shop-girls’dresses are the best
advertisment. 8. They all welcomed the
police’s protection. 9. These are G.B.
Shaw’s best plays . 10. He has been
studying Scotland’s folklore for several
years. 11. All the children’s parents are
present at the meeting. 12. She won’t say
a word about her life’s purpose. 13.
Romania’s industry is in full swing. 14.
The nightingale’s high note can be easily
heard.

Exercise 9.
1. Nu mai avem suc de portocale; mai bine te-
ai duce la băcănie sa cumperi.
2. Costumul cel nou al soţului meu nu este
gata încă; se afla la croitorie.
3. Când mergi in Regatul Unit, sa nu pierzi
ocazia sa mergi la muzeul Tussaud.
4. De regulă, ei cumpără fructe proaspete de la
aprozar in fiecare luni dimineaţa.
5. Ai văzut vreodata palatul St. James?
6. Ei s-au decis sa meargă la biroul de
avocatura mâine la amiaza.
7. In drumul tău către casa, te-ai putea opri la
tutungerie sa-mi cumperi nişte ţigări.
8. Sunt angajat al firmei Ford de 20 de ani.
9. Mă voi duce la coafor mai târziu.
10. Înainte de a mă întoarce acasă, am trecut
pe la brutărie, de unde am cumpărat o pâine
proaspătă şi aceste delicioase cornuri.

Exercise 10
1. The streets of this town are very large.
2. The marriage of my friends’ children took
place two weeks ago.
3. This is my son’s new teacher of
mathematics.
4. Before starting my classes, I took a twenty
minutes’ walk.
5. The staff of this company is made up of
thirty people.
6. In the next month’s interval we are going to
finish all our exams.
7. At this age, a ten hours’ travel by train must
be tiresome.
8. We must never forget about the poor’s
rights.
9. A five minutes’ wait does not matter any
longer.
10. The yesterday’s newspaper published
many interesting news.

Exercise 11.
o Decision, approval, discussion, reference,

discovery, teacher, weight, growth,


payment, performance, limitation,
betrayal,
o Nationalism, wisdom, likelihood,
freedom, greatness, weakness, kindness,
happiness, truth, depth, height, warmth
o dictatorship, friendship, scholarship,
leadership, childhood, pianist, musician,
mathematician, scientist, hospitality,
widowhood, waiting.

Exercise 12.
1. These are boxes. 2. Those are lorries. 3.
Where are the knives? 4. Are they your
watches? 5. These are new houses. 6. Those
are old chimneys. 7. Those aren’t my dresses.
8. Those are shoes. 9. Who are these men? 10.
They are farmers and these are their wives. 11.
Those are rows of people. 12. Are they new
bridges? 13. There are matches in the boxes.
14. There are no children in their family. 15.
Are there dictionaries on his desk? 16. Are
there desks in that room? 17. The faces of
those women are attractive. 18. The houses
aren’t large, but they are comfortable. 19. Who
are those persons? 20. Which are your books?

Exercise 13.
1. The ball is round. 2. The house has a roof.
3. This is a phoneme. 4. The fox is an animal.
5. The rose is a beautiful flower. 6.A watch is
a small clock. 7. The dog has a tail. 8. That
boy is a good friend to the other one. 9. This is
a simple sentence. 10. This isn’t a box. 11. The
child is at school. 12. This is my notebook. 13.
My friend wants to study German. 14. His
brother works hard all day. 15.A housewife
has to work very hard. 16. A child receives a
lot of pleasure from this game. 17. He lives in
a small house. 18. The postman brings letters
three times a day. 19. The boy wakes up at six.
20. It is a picture on the wall.

Exercise 14. armchair, bottle- opener, fast-


food, yellow pages, lawn mower,
telephone directory, chewing gum,
central heating, air conditioner, tea bag,
alarm clock, post office, babysitter,
heart attack, burglar alarm, fairy tale,
credit card, bus stop, bank account,
contact lenses.

Exercise 15.. 1. camera, video, shop, box,


cassette, hundred.
2. officer, tooth, person, man,
woman, dozen, car, bus.

Exercise 16. 1 mice, 2 flies, 3 mosquitoes, 4


beaches, 5 churches, 6 photos, 7 loaves,
8 fruit, 9 peaches, 10 oranges, 11
tomatoes, 12 shelves, 13 fish, 14 buses,
15 feet, 16 wolves, 17 people, 18
families, 19 men, 20 wives, 21 children,
22 lives, 23 centuries, 24 countries

Exercise 19. radio, morning, accidents, roads,


people, accident, motorway, cars,
junction problems, rail, travellers,
trains, cities, minutes.

Exercise 20. courage, air, smoke, safety,


water, health, damage, environment.

Exercise 21. 1.are, 2.was, 3.rush, 4.play, 5.is


made up, 6.are listening to, 7.are
entering, 8.agree, 9.is, 10.were
gathered, 11.are voting, 12.was placed,
13.are, 14.is, 15.are, 16.are published,
17.are taken down, 18. is, 19. is, 20.is.

Exercise 22. 1 aren’t, 2 don’t, 3 is, 4 is/ are


trying,

Exercise 23. 1 are, 2 have got, 3 are, 4 are, 5


stop, 6 ask, 7 avoid, 8 are, 9 is, 10 is.
Unit.1 Self-Test

! You are awarded one point (1p)


for each correct answer. If your score is
lower than 30p you’ll have to go back to
unit 1 and revise the vocabulary or
grammar problems you were wrong
about. After revising the unit, go through
the test again. If your score is above 30p
you may pass on to the next unit. Good
luck!

I. Fill in the blanks with the appropriate


term(s)

1. The main body of the ship is called…


2. The hull consists of an inside……….
3. The forward part is nearest the……..
4. The after part is nearest the………..
5. In the bow, the hull is attached to the…
6. In the stern, the hull is attached to the…
7. The hull is divided into a number of… ….
8……divide the hull horizontally.
9. ….divide the hull vertically.
10…..support the bulkheads.
10p

II. Answer the following questions:

1. Where are cargoes stored?


2. What are the special names given to the
decks within the hull?
3. What is the purpose of the collision
bulkhead?
4. What is the name of the tank at the fore
end of the ship?
5. What is the name of the tank at the after
end of the ship?
6. What is the purpose of the double bottom
tank?
7. How do you call the deck covering the top
of the hull?
8. What is the bulwark?
9. How do you call the decks which are
forward and aft above the upper deck?
10. What are guard stanchions?

10p
III. Are these statements TRUE(T) or
FALSE (F). Circle the correct answer.

1. The lowest of the four decks of the


superstructure is called the upper bridge
deck T/F
2. Above the saloon deck is the boat deck.
T/F
3. The highest deck in the superstructure is
called the navigation bridge. T/F
4. The bridge deck is where the ship is
steered or conned from. T/F
5. The galley is the ship’s kitchen.
T/F
6. The crew’s quarters and the galley are on
the boat deck T/F

6p

IV. Each pair of words contains one


countable noun and one uncountable
noun. Draw up two columns and put
the nouns into the appropriate
column.
1. accommodation/flat; 2. desk/ furniture;
3.bag/luggage; 4. work/ ob; 5. travel/trip; 6.
trouble/ problem; 7.fact/information 8.
chance/ luck; 9. advice /suggestion; 10.
knowledge /capability; 11. news /headline;
12. dollar/ money; 13. hour/ time; 14.
scenery/ landscape

14p

V. Most of these sentences have a


mistake in them. Correct them, or if
there is no mistake, write RIGHT.

1. I believe it’s very difficult to find a cheap


accommodation in London.
……to find cheap accommodation……
2. We’re looking for a place to
rent……….RIGHT
3.We’re late because they’re re-surfacing
the motorway and the traffics are terrible.
4.He was asked to leave the college because
of a bad behaviour at the end of term
party.
5.I’m going to phone my brother to wish
him good luck for his driving test.
6.I think it’s a pity Rebecca had her hairs cut
short because she looked much more
attractive before.
7.As an old friend, may I give you an
advice?
8.It’s not a bad room but the furnitures take
up too much space.
9.If we don’t have up-to-date information,
how can we make sensible decisions?
10. Fortunately, the check-up was less
unpleasant experience than I had expected.
11. All the luggages are here in the
corridor.
12. Peter doesn’t like milk in his tea.
1
0
p

Unit 1. Self-Test-Answer Key

I.
1.the hull
2.framework
3.the bow
4.the stern
5.stempost
6.sternpost
7. watertight compartments

8.decks
9.bulkheads
10. stanchions

II.

1.in the holds


2.between decks or tween decks
3.to seal off the ship if water should break
in
4.forepeak tank
5.afterpeak tank
6.to store fuel and water ballast
7.upper deck
8.an extension of the hull plating, which
rises above the top of the upper deck
9.vertical posts which are linked together
by either wires or tubes
10. forecastle deck and poop deck
III.

1.F; 2.T; 3.T; 4.F; 5.T; 6.F


IV.

Countable Uncountable
nouns
Flat accommodation
Desk furniture
Bag luggage
Job work
Trip travel
Problem trouble
Fact information
Suggestion advice
Dollar money
Landscape scenery
Chance luck
Knowledge capability
Headline news

V.

3……the traffic is terrible.


4……because of bad behaviour…
5……RIGHT
6……Rebecca had her hair cut short
7……the furniture takes up too much
space.
8……I give you some advice?/…a piece
of advice?
9…….RIGHT
10…..was a less experience than I had
expected
11….the luggage
12….RIGHT

UNIT 2
SHIP’S DIMENSIONS
Objectives: After studying the unit in the
course book, the learner should be able to:
define the ship’s dimensions; identify the
ship’s dimensions on a diagram; discriminate
among the different patterns used for
expressing measurements.

A ship’s size and capacity can be


described in two ways-linear dimensions or
tonnage. Each is completely different yet
interrelated. A ship’s measurement is
expressed in feet and inches-linear
dimensions. A ship is a three dimensional
structure having length, width and depth.

LENGTH
A ship’s length is measured in different ways
for ship’s officers, for architects and designers,
and for registry. Terms used for technical or
registry purposes include registered length,
tonnage length, floodable length, and length
by ABS rules. We mention these terms for
familiarization only. The more commonly
used length measurements-length overall,
length between perpendiculars, and length on
load waterline are discussed as follows.
1.1.Length Overall (LOA)

A ship’s Length Overall is measured in


feet and inches from the extreme forward end
of the bow to the extreme aft end of the stern.
Watercraft operators must be familiar with this
and similar dimensions to safely manoeuvre
the ship. The dimension is commonly found in
lists of ship’s data for each vessel.

1.1.2.Length Between Perpendiculars (LBP)

A ship’s Length Between Perpendiculars


is measured in feet and inches from the
forward surface of the stem, or main bow
perpendicular member, to the after surface of
the sternpost, or main stern perpendicular
member. On some types of vessels this is, for
all practical purposes, a waterline
measurement.

1.13. Length on Load Waterline (LWL)

A ship’s Length on Load Waterline is an


important dimension because length at the
waterline is a key factor in the complex
problem of speed, resistance, and friction. On
vessels with a counter stern, the LWL and
LBP can be the same or about the same. On a
ship with a cruiser stern, the LWL is greater
than the LBP
Consider the diagram below. Can you state
which lines show the LOA and the LBP of this
vessel?

1.2. WIDTH

A ship’s width or, more properly a ship’s


breadth is expressed in a number of ways and,
like length, for a number of reasons.

1.2.1. Maximum/Extreme Breadth

A ship’s maximum/extreme breadth is


measured in feet and inches from the most
outboard point on one side to the most
outboard point on the other at the widest point
on the ship.

1.2.2. Beam

The beam of a ship is the width of the ship


(over the plating) taken at any position along
the length. When giving a brief summary of
ship’s measurements there is a tendency to use
the term beam for maximum/extreme breadth.

1.3. DEPTH

The depth of a vessel involves several


important vertical dimensions. They involve
terms like freeboard, draft, draft marks, and
load lines. The vessel’s depth is measured
vertically from the lowest point of the hull,
ordinarily from the bottom of the keel, to the
side of any deck that you may choose as a
reference point.

1.3.1. Freeboard

When a ship floats, a large part of it is


below the waterline. The waterline is the line
at which a ship floats in the water, depending
on its load. The vertical distance from the
waterline to the edge of the lowest outside
deck is the freeboard.

1.3.2. Draft/Draught

The vertical distance form the waterline to


the lowest part of the ship’s bottom is the
draft. The draft is also the least depth of water
in which a ship will float. The draft of a ship
will vary according to the weight with which it
is loaded. A fully-loaded ship will have a
deeper draft than when unloaded. An unloaded
ship will have a shallow draft. There may be a
difference between the ship’s draft aft and her
draft forward according to the weight of the
load carried. Large vessels are usually vessels
of deep draft or hampered vessels. They have
to comply with maritime international
regulations relating to the maximum draft
permitted in various navigable areas.

1.3.3. Draft marks and load lines

A vessel that was overloaded might


become unstable and sink. To stop that from
happening there are very strict laws governing
the loading of ships. On the side of every
vessel there is painted a line (like the one in
the drawing) which shows the safe level at
which the ship floats in water of different
densities. The vessel must never be loaded so
that this line goes below the level of the water.
This safety line carries the name of the man
who advocated it- Samuel Plimsoll. It is called
the Plimsoll Line. A set of marks are painted
on the bows, the stern and amidships. These
marks show the vertical height of the hull from
the underside of the keel to just the load line.
These marks are called draft marks.
Look at the diagram below and identify the
lines which show the freeboard, draft,
waterline, height, and extreme breadth.

1.3.4.Trim and List

The relation of the length of the draft and


the bow and stern is called the trim. The ship
in the figure below is horizontal, so we say it’s
in trim. Sometimes either the bow or stern is
lower in the water than it should be. Then we
say the ship is out of trim. When this happens
we say that the ship is trimmed by the head or
trimmed by the stern/down by the head or
down by the stern.
If the ship is out of balance from left to
right, she is said to have a list. The ship may
have a list to port/starboard of….degrees. In
order to upright the ship you have to transfer
fuel/ ballast water/ fresh water/oil from one
tank to another to correct the list. If cargo is
not properly lashed, it may shift and cause a
list of the ship to port or starboard. In this case
you have to move the cargo to correct the list.
Study the diagram below showing some
important ship dimensions:

1.4. EXPRESSING GENERAL


DIMENSIONS

1.4.1. Study the table below

Noun Adjective
length long
width wide
breadth broad
depth deep
height high

1.4.2. We can describe the length, breadth,


depth and height of an object by using four
different patterns:

1.The beam is three metres in length.


2.The beam has a length of three metres.
3.The length of the beam is three metres.
4.The beam is three metres long.

In order to describe the radius, diameter or


the circumference of an object you will have
to use only the patterns 1,2 and 3.

1.4.3. We can describe the dimensions of a


ship using the following patterns:

1. The ship’s overall length (LOA) is 146


metres.
2. The overall length (LOA) of the ship is 146
metres.
3. The ship has an overall length (LOA) of 146
metres.

1.5. Words and Phrases

Length = lungime
LOA(length overall) = lungime maxima
LBP(length between perpendiculars) =
lungime a navei între perpendiculare
LWL( length on load waterline) = lungime a
navei la linia de plutire de încărcare
Width = lăţime
Breadth = lîţime a navei
Beam = lăşime maximă (a navei); traversul
navei
Depth = adîncime(a apei);înal]ţime a
bordului; pescaj
Freeboard = bordul liber
Draught/draft = pescaj
Draught /draft forward =pescaj prova
Draught/draft aft = pescaj pupa
Draught/draft marks = scara de
pescaj/încărcare
Load lines = marca de încarcare, marca de
bord liber
Plimsoll line/mark = semn Plimsoll, marca
de bord liber
Trim = asieta, diferenţa de pescaj; înclinare
longitudinală
Trimmed by the bow/head/stem = (nava)
aprovată
Trimmed by the stern = (nava) apupată
List = canarisire, înclinare transversală
permanentă/statică, unghi de canarisire/a se
înclina, a se canarisi
To have/take a list = a (se) canarisi

2. THE ARTICLE AND OTHER


DETERMINERS

DETERMINERS
Definite article - the man
Indefinite article - a tree,
an apple
Zero article - men, trees,
apples
DEMONSTRATIVE ADJECTIVES
- this newspaper,
- that magazine
- these/those
ships
POSSESSIVE ADJECTIVES -
my/your/his/her/its
our/their
uniform
INTERROGATIVE ADJECTIVES
- what/which/ whose
book do you
want?
INDEFINITE ADJECTIVES -
each student, every
day, some books,
any officer, no rules,
either side,
neither sailor
PREDETERMINERS preceed the
determiners:
a) all the books, both my children, both of

these features, half these cadets


b) multiplicative numerals: twice the amount,

three times the sum


c) fractions: one-third the time, three
quarters the total
POSTDETERMINERS
a) ordinal numerals: the first three important

events
b) the other name, the next duty station, the
last shipment
THE ARTICLE is the part of speech which
induvidualize objects and phenomena in a
linguistic context; it does not have any
flexionary forms; it works as a determiner.
The definite article: THE
Functions: it is used to express a unique
reference
a) deictic function: with nouns whose
preference is immediately understood by
the speakers within a context- in a room:
the door, the window: Close the
window, will you?; in a forest: The ground
is covered with dry leaves; in a city:
Can you tell me how to get to the harbour?
b) anaphoric function: with nouns which

were previously mentioned:


I bought a book yesterday; the book is
interesting.
c) cataphoric function: when the definite

determination is after the noun, expressed


by a relative clause: The man who is
commanding the ship is the master of
that ship.
d) generic function: the noun is used in a
general way, as representing a whole
class: The horse is a useful animal.
The definite article used with: proper
nouns- the UK, the USA, the University of
Bucharest; plural nouns- the Browns, the
Alps, the Carpathians; geographical
names: the Danube, the Olt, the Suez
Canal, the Sahara; names of institutions:
the Lido (Hotel), the National Theatre, the
British Museum; newspapers: the
Times, the Guardian; names of ships: the
Transylvania.
The indefinite article: A, AN
Functions: a) epiphoric function: to introduce
a word which was not mentioned
previously: There is a young
officer waiting for you.
b) numerical function: the
indefinite article has the meaning of one
She bought a dress, two blouses,
and an umbrella.
A/one hundred people are on this
ship.
c) generic function: to represent an
entire class of objects or beings
An officer is a gentleman.
The zero article: She drinks *tea every day;
*Clothes do not make the name;
In these situation the absence of the article(*)
is equal to the presence of it.
Functions: 1) generic function: I like coffee/
literature/long walks.
2) for the unique reference of
proper nouns and some common nouns in
different contexts: Peter and
Mary will go to school in autumn.
Proper nouns used with the zero article:
a)names of people: Peter, Dr. Smith, Lord
Nelson, father, uncle
b) time divisons: Monday, January,
Christmas
c)geographical names: Asia, England, Paris
d) proper nouns followed by common
nouns: Bran Castle, Oxford Street
Other determiners: The demonstrative
adjective: this/that/these/those
It determines a noun, saying how far or close
is from the speaker.
Functions: a) deictic function (space or time
orientation in a context)
This is my desk./ What are those
people doing?
b) anaphoric function:I saw an
English teacher in his new car. This car is
really something.
c) cataphoric function: These little
children are very pretty.
d) emotional function: (to highlight
the determined noun)
This Tom Brown is always
playing the piano at night.
The possessive adjective –replaces the
possessor and determines the name of the
possessed object: Peter’s stamp collection
is valuable. His stamp collection is
valuable.
Possessives are used to specify the ownership
of an item or, if the noun refers to something
animate, to specify a relationship: Mr. Smith
was my teacher when I was a student in the
Academy.
The possessive phrase acts just like a
possessive word but is a noun or noun phrase
ending in ‘s or s’. A possessive phrase acts as
a possessive determiner but may itself include
one of the other determiners: Sally’s new job;
a good day’s work; the residents’ dining
room; the visitors’ room.
*the body parts are always preceded by the
possessive adjective (my hand, his leg, her
arm) and clothes items also(his coat, her
gloves, my uniform).

3.Vocabulary practice

I. Answer the following questions.

1. How is a ship’s measurement expressed?


2. What does LOA stand for?
3. What does LBP stand for?
4. What does LWL stand for?
5. What is the ship’s maximum breadth?
6. What is meant by the beam of a ship?
7. How do you measure a vessel’s depth?
8. What is the freeboard?
9. What is the draft of a vessel?
10. What does in trim mean?

II. Complete the following statements with


the appropriate term(s).
1. The painted line which shows the safe
level at which the ship floats in water of
different densities is called the…..Line.
2. The …of a ship is the width of the ship
(over the plating) taken at any position
along the length.
3. When either the bow or stern is lower in
the water than it should be, we say the ship
is… … …
4. If the ship is out of balance from left to
right, she is said to have a…
5. A…is the line at which a ship floats in the
water.

III. Describe the dimensions of these objects


in as many ways as possible:
1. CONTAINER : height:2.44m;
length:12.2m; width:2.44m
2.TANK : depth:3m
3. LIFEBUOY : inner
circumference:229mm; outer
circumference:381mm
4. BEAM : thickness: 10mm
5. PISTON RING: circumference: 2500m

IV. Translate the following sentences into


English.
1. Am pescaj maxim 6m, bord liber 2m si
inaltimea 12m.
2. Pescajul prova este de 25 picioare,
pescajul pupa este de 27 picioare, bordul
liber 9 picioare si inaltimea 38 picioare.
3. Nava mea este aprovata.
4. Nava “Osiris” este stinjenita de pescaj.
5. Am o inclinare de 10 grade spre babord.
6. Care este lungimea maxima?
7. Care este pescajul maxim actual?
8. Pescajul maxim permis este de 20m
9. Lungimea maxima a navei este de 146m
10. Tancul are o adincime de 3m.

4.Vocabulary Practice-answer key

I. Answer the following questions

1 A ship’s measurement is expressed in


feet and inches.
2 LOA stands for length overall.
3 LBP stands for length between
perpendiculars.
4 LWL stands for length on load waterline
5 A ship’s maximum breadth is measured
in feet and inches from the most
outboard point on one side to the most
outboard point on the other at the widest
point on the ship.
6 The beam of a ship is the width of the
ship (over the plating0 taken at any
position along the length.
7 A vessel’s depth is measured vertically
from the lowest point of the hull,
ordinarily from the bottom of the keel, to
the side of any deck that you may
choose as reference point.
8 The vertical distance from the waterline
to the edge of the lowest outside deck is
the freeboard.
9 The vertical distance from the waterline
to the lowest part of the ship’s bottom is
the draft.
10 The relation of the length of the draft
and the bow and stern is called the trim.

II. Fill in the blanks with appropriate


term(s).

1. The Plimsoll Line


2. beam
3. out of trim
4. list
5. waterline

III. Describe the dimensions of these


objects in as many ways as possible.

1. The height of the container is 2.44m/The


container is 2.44m high
2. The length of the container is 12.2m/The
container is 12.2m long
3. The width of the container is 2.44m/The
container is 2.44m wide
4. The height of the tank is 3m
5. The lifebuoy has an inner circumference
of 229mmm/The inner circumference of
the lifebuoy is 229mm
6. The outer circumference of the lifebuoy
is 381mm/The lifebuoy has an outer
circumference of 381mm
7. The beam is 10mm thick/The beam has a
thickness of 10mm/The thickness of the
beam is 10mm.
8. The piston ring has a circumference of
2500mm/The circumference of the
piston ring is 2500 mm/The piston ring
is 2500 mm in circumference.

IV. Translate into English


1. My maximum draft is 6m, freeboard 2m
and air draft 12m.
2. My draft forward is 25 feet, draft aft is
27 feet, freeboard is 9 feet and air draft
is 38 feet.
3. My vessel is trimmed by the head.
4. Vessel “Osiris” is a deep draft vessel/a
hampered vessel.
5. I have a list to port of 10º/I have a list of
10º to port.
6. What is your LOA?
7. What is your present draft?
8. The maximum permitted draft is…
9. The vessel’s LOA is 146m.
10. The tank is 3m deep/The depth of the
tank is 3m/The tank has a depth of
3m/The tank is 3m in depth.

5. Grammar Practice
The Article

Exercise 1. Put the following sentences into


singular:
1. Nouns are words.
2. Cities are big towns.
3. Horses are animals.
4. Roses are beautiful flowers.
5.Tables are pieces of furniture.

Exercise 2. Fill the blanks with the requested


articles and translate the text:

LITTLE TOMMY AND ... HORSE


Tommy: Father, . . . teacher does not know
what horse is.
Father: Why do you think so, Tommy?
Tommy: You know, I drew ... horse
yesterday and showed it to ... teacher
and he asked me what it was.

Exercise 3. Fill in the blanks with the


appropriate article:
1. Would you like ... cup of ... tea and ...
cake?
2. It is better to tell . . . truth than tell . . .
lies.
3. Where is ... hat I bought yesterday?
4. Smith, ... man I told you about, is ...
very man.
5. I like to eat . . . bread and ... butter
in . . . morning.
6. Little Tommy goes to ... school only
in … morning.
7. He went to . . . bed with . . . bad cold.
8. He crossed ... lake in ... record time.
9. He collects . . . butterflies, . . . stamps,
and … matchboxes.
10. In ... autumn of ... 2003 we went on ...
excursion to . . . Danube Delta.

Exercise 4. Fill the gaps with the appropriate


articles:
1. Take... little tea; it will do you ... lot of
good.
2. Out of…sight, out... mind.
3. l like … lot of. . . sugar in my tea.
4 ... supper is... last meal of... day.
5. ... bad drivers are punished by … law.
6. Take ... chair and make yourself at …
home; he will be back in ... minute.
7. This is . . . answer to ... problem ... teacher
gave us.
8. There won’t be another train for at least …
hour.
9. We had ... dinner together at ... good
restaurant … yesterday.
10. ... Danube, ... Rhine and ... Thames are
three important European rivers.
Exercise 5. Put the articles a, an, the into the
gaps:
1. He came to see me ... last week and
brought… English handbook with him.
2. … good dictionary is . . . great help
to . . . students.
3. ... last night I met Tommy; he said he
would come here today if . . . weather were
fine.
4. Come to see me on ... Saturday at ...
latest.
5. He works hard by … day and sleeps
soundly at night.
6. ... help came at ... last and ... swimmer
was rescued.
7. He works every ... day from . . . early
morning till late at . . . night.
8. He went into ... inn and asked for ...
bread and … butter.
9. By ... way, he said, where is ... shop
you told me about?
10. What is … matter? Have you had ...
accident?
Exercise 6. Put the articles into their correct
places:
Our sun is enormous body with diameter
about 108 times that of earth. It would take
train, moving at 60 miles hour; over five
years to travel round its circumference. But
those little pinpoints of light we call stars are
also suns, and some of them are very much
larger and brighter than one which warms our
earth. One of them has diameter three
hundred times greater than that of our sun. Of
thousands of millions of stars, which can be
seen through powerful telescope, only six
thousand or so are visible to naked eye, and
their distance from earth is so tremendous that
their combined light is only about hundredth
of that shed by full moon.
(The Children’s New Illustrated
Encyclopedia)
Exercise 7. Fill in the blanks with the right
articles:
When ... sea was not too rough we were
often out in … little rubber boat ... taking
photographs. I shall not forget ... first time ...
sea was so calm that two men felt like …
putting ... balloon-like little thing into … water
and ... going for ... row. They had hardly got
clear of … raft when they dropped ... little oars
and sat ... roaring with ... laughter. And as ...
waves lifted them away and they disappeared
and reappeared among … seas, they laughed
so loud ... every time they caught … glimpse
of us that their voices rang out over ... desolate
Pacific. We looked round us with ... mixed
feelings, and saw ... nothing comic but our
own ... bearded faces; but as ... two in ... boat
should be accustomed to those by now; we
began to have ... suspicion that they had
suddenly gone mad. Sunstroke, perhaps ... two
fellows could hardly get … back on ... board ...
Kon-Tiki for sheer laughter, and gasping, with
tears in their eyes, begged us just to go and see
for ourselves.
Two of us jumped down into ... dancing
rubber boat, and were caught by ... sea which
lifted us clear. We sat down at ... once and
roared with ... laughter. We had never before
had ... outside view of ... ourselves in… open
sea. ... raft looked exactly like … old
Norwegian hay-loft lying helpless, drifting
about in ... open sea, … hay-loft full of ...
sunburnt bearded ruffians. If anyone had come
paddling after us at ... sea in ... bath we should
have felt ... same spontaneous urge to ...
laughter.
(Thor Heyerdahl)

Exercise 8. Fill in the spaces with the definite


article wherever necessary:
1. She is not ... Mrs. Smith I am looking
for.
2.My parents live on ... upper floor of an old
house; when ... wind blows, all ...
windows rattle.
3.... Carpathians are not so high as ... Alps.
4. ... Danube is Romania’s longest river.
5. ... clock in ... dining room is just striking
6. ... room Helen rushes into as soon as she
arrives home is ... kitchen.
7.Spring is ... first season of ... year.
8.“I’d like to see Mr. Smith, please.” “Do
you mean ... Mr. Smith who works in our
department or ... Mr. Smith ... sales
manager?”
9. ... British Library is one of ... largest
libraries all over ... world.
10. What is... French for ... “boy”?
11. ... Mike you met at my place
yesterday was not ... Mike I was talking
about a week before.
12. I have never feared ... death but ...
death of my father was ... greatest loss of
my life.
13. Ask them to come downstairs when ...
breakfast is ready.
14. ... Eatons have also been invited to ...
diner at ... Ritz.
15. She goes to school in ... morning and
plays tennis in ... afternoon.
16. She has always said that ...English
language is difficult.
17. On ... Sundays I like to stay in ... bed
till ... noon and spend ... time reading ...
Sunday papers and magazines.
18. Up to a point, Creangă is Mark Twain
of ... Romanian literature.
19. I have always appreciated ... sublime
of ...landscapes in ... Alps.
20. If you leave ... home at 7 you can reach ...

school in ... time.


21. My mother comes to ... school sometimes

to speak to ... headmaster.

Exercise 9. Put the indefinite article a or an in


the blanks wherever necessary:
1.We usually have ... lunch at 1 o’clock,
which, as ... rule, consists of three
courses: ...salad, ... dish and ... sweet.
2.Go to the grocer’s and buy ... dozen
oranges and ... pound of coffee beans.
3.The Smiths I am talking about live in ...
wonderful house and drive ... new Ford.
4.... old man suffering from ... cold should
be given hot tea three times ... day.
5.What ... name to give to ... cat!
6.There was once ... lonely old woman who
lived in ... hut in the outskirts of ... large
town.
7. What ... hot day for November! It’s
such ... pity we can’t go for ... hike or take ...
long walk in the wood.
8.Jack! ... Mr. Thomson wants to see you at
once!
9.Our friends gave us ... wonderful supper at
the ambassador.
10.She needs ... moment’s peace after
such ... bad piece of news.
11.The youngster was driving with sixty
miles ... hour when all of ... sudden ... deer
crossed the motorway. He stopped ... few
moments later and fled in ... panic without
taking ... back look.
12.He was puzzled that he should be in his
office at ... time when the General Manager
was so busy.
13.During the installation of ... newly
selected government there may appear many
... surprise.
14.Mr. Sydney did not appear to be ... man
who was making ... joke.
15.He was not ... addicted smoker but, now
and then, late at ... night, he was longing
for ... cigarette.

Exercise 10. Fill in the spaces with the


definite, indefinite or zero article wherever
necessary:
1.Good ... morning ..., uncle, said ... boy
with ... large smile on his face.
2. From ... photos of ... friends and ... relatives,
Mr. Abbot selected ... picture of ... Nick
Price, ... man who had come to visit them,
sometime in ... early ‘50.
3. She put ... book back on ... piano and went
to look out of ... window.
4. His voice was low and carefully modulated
— ... voice of ... man self-conscious about ...
impression he made. “Have you ever been
to ... Argentine?” he asked with ... undertone
of ... regret in his voice. .
5. Most ... critics admit that ... writer we are
talking about is ... new Shaw of ... English
literature.
6. Let me offer you ... cup of ... coffee,
Professor.
7. He speaks ... French and ... English quite
fluently but he has never been to ... France
or ... United Kingdom.
8. ... sky was starry, ... moon was shining
brightly and ... night was so warm and lovely
that all ... guests decided, all of ... sudden, to
take ... bath in ... cool waves of ... Atlantic
0cean.
9. That was not ... sort of ... remark expected
of ... right sort of ... chap who
studied at ... UCLA.
10. Nick was reminded of ... joke he had
heard at his club at ... lunch.
11. He had ... terrible feeling that ... operation
was going to be ... Waterloo of his career.
12. You may go either to ... National Theatre
to see ... play or to ... Capitol Cinema to see ...
film.
13. ... Prime Minister picked up ... telephone
and changed his day’s appointments to
make ... time to see ... deputy secretary in ...
Cabinet Office. 14. ... few days later we went
to ... Henry’s dinner at ... Ritz where we met ...
old Mr. Snow who claimed to be ... uncle of
my wife.
15. Such ... power and ... freedom of
...decision had only five times before been
given to ... American president.

Exercise 11. Here are some expressions with


the noun hand, preceded by the definite,
indefinite or zero article:

a. to bite the hand that feeds one; to give smb.


the glad hand; the hidden hand; by the left
hand; to have/get the upper hand; the skip’s
hand; a picture by the same hand; on the right
hand; on the one hand; on the other hand; at
the best hand; to be on the growing hand.
b. to have a free hand; to have an open hand;
not to lift a hand; with a heavy hand; a hand
for; an old hand at; a good hand at/in; a
poor/bad hand at; to have a hand like a foot; a
cool hand; to have a hand in smth.; to take a
hand at a game; to make a (good/ fine/fair)
hand.
c. hand in hand; the matter in hand; to take in
hand; light in hand; at hand; by hand; to bind
hand and foot; supplies on hand; to have a free
hand; to have an open hand; to shake hands;
clean hands; off hand; hand and glove; hand
over; from hand to mouth; out of hand; at first
hand; second hand; from good hands.
A. Choose some of them and make sentences
of your own.
B. Find some more new set expressions and
build up sentences of your own.

Exercise 12. Put the definite or the indefinite


article into the blank spaces where necessary.
Translate the jokes.

A) (1. ...) landlord was sitting with his


shephard on (2. ...) hill commanding (3. ...)
fine view of (4. ...) valley. Seeing (5. ...) flock
of (6. ...) sheep at (7. ...) rest in (8. ...) shadiest
nook, he observed to his companion, “John, if
I were (9. ... ) sheep, I would prefer to lie
in(10. ...) sun.” “Ah, my lord,” retorted (11. ...)
shepherd, “were you (12. ...) sheep, you would
have more sense.”

B) “If (1. ...) earthquake engulfed England,


(2. ...) English would manage to meet among
(3. ...) ruins and organize (4. ...) dinner just to
celebrate (5. ...) painful event.” That’s what (6.
... ) people of (7. ... ) other nationalities are apt
to say about (8. ...) English. Should (9. ...)
English be consulted on (10. ...) subject they
would say (11. ...) same thing about (12. ...)
French and their love of (13. ...) good dinners.

C) (1. ...) outside temperature being ten


degrees below (2. ...) zero, it was unusually
cold in (3. ...) school room.
“What is (4. ...) Latin for cold?” asked (5.
...) school-master addressing one of his boys,
who seemed to be suffering from cold more
than (6. ...) others. “Oh, sir,” answered (7. ...)
lad, his hands thrust in his trousers’ pockets, “I
can’t tell you for (8. ...) moment, although I
have it at my fingers’ ends.”

D)Dr. Crisp was invited to (1. ...) party in


(2. ...) country place. (3. ...) dinner being late
and(4. ...) company not quite to his taste,
(5. ...) doctor strolled out into (6. ...) garden
and then to (7. ...) nearby churchyard. When
(8. ...) dinner was served at last and (9. ...)
doctor had not yet returned, one of (10. ...)
guests wondered where he could have gone.
(11. ...) master of (12. ...) house, annoyed by
Dr. Crisp’s (13. ...) absence, explained that (14
) churchyard being not far from there, (15. ...)
doctor had gone to visit his former patients.

E)(1. ...) Englishman, driving in (2. ...)


hackney-coach through France, was annoyed
at (3. ...) slowness of (4. ...) pace. He tried to
make (5. ...) coachman drive faster but all in
vain. (6. ...) man couldn’t understand either his
English or his broken French. Then it occured
to (7. ...) Englishman, both his English and his
French being Greek to (8. ...) coachman, to use
(9. ...) high-sounding words that might
frighten (10. ...) fellow. So he roared into his
ear. “Westmorland, Cumberland,
Northumberland, Durham!” which had (11. ...)
desired effect, (12. ...) coachman taking these
words for some terrible threat.

F) In 1870 Mark Twain was walking along


(1. ...) streets of Boston when he noticed in
(2. ...) shop window (3. ...) machine he had
never seen before. He entered (4. ...)
shop,asked (5. ...) shop-assistant how
(6. ...) ,,monster” functioned and bought it for
125 dollars. He brought home (7. ...) machine
he had nicknamed “(8. ...) monster” and
started practising on it at once. (9. ...) machine
was (10. ...) typewriter and Mark Twain typed
(l1. ...) whole book on it. When he brought his
“manuscript” to (12. ...) editor, (13. ...) latter
was delighted. He made Mark Twain promise
him to bring everything he would write later
on typed, on this wonderful machine.
(14. ...) Tom Sawyer was (15. ...) first book
Mark Twain had typewritten.

G) You certainly know that (1. ...) waterproof


coat is often called (2. ...) mackintosh. But
perhaps you don’t know that (3. ...) word is (4.
...) surname.
In (5. ...) year 1823 in (6. ...) Scotland
there lived (7. ...) man whose (8. ...)name
was Charles Mackintosh. (9. ...) climate of his
country being rainy, he would often get
drenched to (10. ...) skin and heartily disliked
it. One day, having some rubber at his
disposal, he decided to rubberize his coat.
Now he could walk outdoors in any weather,
his rubberized coat protecting him from
(11. ...) rain. Most of his friends and (12. ...)
friends of his friends admired (13. ...)
waterproof coat and wanted to have their own
coats rubberized likewise. Soon (14. ...)
tradesmen took up his invention. (15. ...)
Waterproof coats became all (16. ...) fashion
and (17. ...) staple product of (18. ...) town,
(19. ...) name of (2o. ...) inventor, though not
(21. ...) inventor himself, getting (22. ...)
worldwide popularity.

Exercise 13. Fill in the gaps with the where


necessary.
I hate 1 ___ November! It doesn’t get light till
2 ___ 8 o’clock in 3 ___ morning. Then it’s
dark again as early as 4 ___ 4 o’clock in 5 ___
afternoon. After 6 ___ Christmas, 7 ___ days
start to get a bit longer, but 8 ___ weather
starts to get colder. On 9 ___ Friday 10 ___
last week, 11 ___ temperature was minus 10
C. 12 ___ next week 13 ___ weather forecast
is 14 ___ same.

Exercise 14. Put a or an before these words: 1


job, 2 union, 3 unusual name 4 enormous ice
cream 5 holiday, 6 honest man.

Exercise 15. Put in a/ an where necessary:


1. She works in restaurant in street near the
station.
2. For lunch she only has apple and glass of
milk.
3. Any’s friend works in pub. She’s barmaid.
She works three evenings week. She earns £
4.50 hour.

Exercise 16. Match the two parts of the


sentences.
a. I normally go to the dentist once
1. a dozen
b. These roses cost $20 2.
a litre
c. The car was doing 150 kilometers
3. a year
d. Lamb is selling at £ 7.50 4.
a week
e. The Sunday Mail is published once
5. a metre
f. Electric cable costs 50 cents
6. a kilo
g. How much is the oil? ~ £ 2.50
7. a day
h. The mail is delivered twice
8. an hour

Exercise 17. Complete the sentences with a/ an


or the.
1. ___ taxi they phoned for arrived late at their
house.
2. ___ taxi-driver didn't say he was sorry.
3. ___ traffic jam was caused by ___ accident
on___ motorway. ___ car had collided with
___ lorry.

Exercise 18. Put in the where necessary:


1. We had ___ breakfast at ___ home in
London before we left.
2. ___ bus station was on 38th Street.
3. We went to ___ hotel by ___ taxi.
4. We're flying home ___ next Thursday.

Exercise 19. Complete the sentences, using the


where necessary.
1. Our hotel manager went to ___ school in
England, then went to ___ university in the
States.
2. The New York police arrested a man for the
shooting. He was a cleaner at ___ university.
3. He'll appear in ___ court next week. He'll
definitely go to ___ prison.

Exercise 20. There are seven examples of the


in this text. How do you know which thing or
person the writer is referring to, in each case?
a. because it is only one in the immediate
situation;
b. because it is only one anywhere;
c. because it has been referred to before, in the
text;
d. because the writer is specifying which one,
by adding extra information.Neil Armstrong
was the first person to set foot on the surface
of the moon. The words that he said are
famous: 'That's one small step for a man, one
giant leap for the mankind.' He and his co-pilot
Buzz Aldrin then planted a flag and collected
rocks. The flag is probably still there. The
rocks have helped the scientists understand the
history of the solar system.

Exercise 21 Complete the sentences with a or


an, the or no article.
1. 'How much are the leeks?' 'They're 80 pence
a pound.'
2. I went to ___ wonderful concert by ___
London Symphony Orchestra.
3. ___ local school is soon to be closed.
4. I usually go to ___ work by ___ train.
5. Is ___ meat in ___ oven?
6. Is this ___ first time you've been to ___ Isle
of Man?
7. He's ___ art teacher and she's ___
electrician.
8. A lot of people give ___ money to ___
charity at this time of the year.
9. What ___ beautiful face that child's got!
10. ___ British usually have ___ butter on
their bread.
11. ___ life is very difficult for ___
unemployed these days.
12. ___ Leader of ___ Opposition is in danger
of losing her seat at ___ next election.
13. I like to have ___ cup of ___ tea when I
wake up in ___ morning.
14. I saw ___ fox this morning. I think it must
have been ___ same one that I saw last week.
15. Can I have ___ apple?
16. Have you ever seen ___ Acropolis in ___
Athens?
17. ___ police have had a lot of support from
___ general public over this issue.
18. ___ shirts on ___ washing-line should be
nearly dry now.
19. ___ people don't like him because of his
selfish life.
20. I bought my sister ___ book and ___ bottle
of ___ perfume for her birthday but I don't
think she liked ___ perfume.
6. Grammar Practice-Answer Key

Exercise 1: 1.A noun is a word. 2.A city is a


big town. 3.A horse is an animal. 4.A
rose is a beautiful flower. 5.A table is a
piece of furniture.

Exercise 2: the, the, a, the.

Exercise 3: 1.a ,-, a. 2. the ,-. 3. the 4. the, the


5.-, -, the 6.-, the 7.-, a 8. the, - 9.-, -, 10.
the, -, an, the.
Exercise 4: 1.a, a 2.-, - 3.a, - 4.-, the, the 5.-,
the 6.a, -, a 7. the, the, the 8. an 9.-, a, -10. the,
the, the.
Exercise 5: 1.-, the(an) 2.a, a, the 3.-, the 4.-,
the 5.-, - 6.-, -, the 7.-, -, - 8. an, -, - 9. the, the
10 .the, an.
Exercise 6. an enormous, a diameter, the earth,
a train, an hour, the stars, the one, a diameter,
the thousands, a powerful, the naked, the earth,
a hundredth, the full.
Exercise 7. the, the, -, the, the, -, the, the, -, a,
the, the, -, -, the, the, -, a, the, -, -, -, the, the, a,
the, -, -, the, the, a, -, -, an, -, the, the, an, the,
a, -, -, a, the, -.
Exercise 8. 1. the 2. the, the, the 3. the, the 4.
the 5. the, the 6. the, the 7. -, the, the 8. the,
the, the 9. the, the, the 10. the, - 11. the, the 12.
-, the, the 13. - 14. the, -, the 15. -, the, the 16.
the 17. -, -, -, the, the 18. the, the 19. the, the,
the 20. -, -, - 21. -, the.
Exercise 9. 1 .-, a, a, a, a 2. a, a 3. a, a 4. an, a,
a 5. a, a 6. a, a, a 7. a, a, a, a 8. a 9. a 10. a, a
11. an, a, a, a, a, a 12. a 13. a, a 14. a, a 15. an,
-, a.
Exercise 10. 1. -,-,the, a, 2. the, the, -, a, -, a,
the 3. the, the,the 4. the, a, the, the, an, -5. -,
the, the,the 6. a, -, 7. -, -, -, the 8. the, the,the ,
the, a, a, the, the 9. the, -, the, -, -10. the, - 11.
the/ a,the, the 12. the, a, the, a 13. the, the, -,
the, the 14 a ,the, the, the/an, the/an 15. -,
-, -, an.
Exercise 12 :
A)1.a, 2.a, 3.a, 4.the, 5.the, 6.-, 7.-, 8.the, 9.a,
10.the, 11.the, 12.a.
B)1.an, 2.the, 3.the, 4.a, 5.the, 6.-, 7.-, 8.the,
9.the, 10.the, 11.the, 12.the, 13.-.
C)1.the, 2.-, 3.the, 4.the, 5.the, 6.the, 7.the,
8.the
D)1.a, 2.a, 3.the, 4.the, 5.the, 6.the, 7.the,
8.the, 9.the, 10.the, 11.the, 12.the, 13.-, 14.the,
15.the.E)1.an, 2.a, 3.the, 4.the, 5.the, 6.the,
6.the, 7.the, 8.the, 9.-, 10.the, 11.the, 12.the.
F)1.the, 2.a, 3.a, 4.the, 5.the, 6.the, 7.the, 8.the,
9.the, 10.a, 11.a, 12.the, 13.the, 14.-,
15.the.G)1.a, 2.a, 3.the, 4.a, 5.the, 6.-, 7.a, 8.-,
9.the, 10.the, 11.the, 12.the, 13.the, 14.-, 15.-,
16.the, 17.a, 18.the, 19.the, 20.the, 21.the,
22.a.
Exercise 13. 1 -, 2 -, 3 the, 4 -, 5 the, 6 -, 7 the,
8 the, 9 -, 10 -, 11 the, 12 -, 13 the, 14 the,
Exercise 14. 1 a, 2 a, 3 an, 4 an, 5 a, 6 an
Exercise 15. 1 a restaurant, a street 2 an apple,
a glass, 3 a pub, a barmaid, a week, an hour
Exercise 16. a-3, b-1, c-8, d-6, e-4, f-5, g-2, h-
7
Exercise 17. 1. The, 2. The, 3. The, an, the, A,
a.
Exercise 18. 1. -, -, 2. the, -, 3. the, -, 4.-
Exercise 19. 1. -, -, 2. the, 3. -, -
Exercise 20. d, d, d, c, c, d, b
Exercise 21. 1. the, a 2. a, the 3. the 4. -, -, 5.
the, the, 6. the, the, 7. an, an, 8. -, -, 9. a, 10.
the, -, 11. -, the, 12. the, the, the, 13. a, -, the,
14. a, the, 15. an 16. the, -, 17. the, the, 18.

7.Self-Test
I. Match the terms in column A with their
definitions in column B.

A B
1. LOA a)The relation of the
length of the draft and
the bow and stern
2. Trim b) The vertical
distance from the
waterline to the lowest
part of the ship’s
bottom
3. LBP c) It is measured from
the extreme forward
end of the bow to the
extreme end of the
stern.
4. Beam d) It is measured from
the forward surface of
the stem to the after
surface of the
sternpost.
5. Draft e) The ship is out of
balance from left to
right
6. List f) The width of the
ship(over the plating)
taken at any position
along the length.

12p

II. Fill in the blanks with the appropriate


term(s).

1. A ship’s --- --- ---is an important


dimension because length at the waterline
is a key factor in the complex problem of
speed, resistance, and friction.
2. The---is the line at which a ship floats in
the water, depending on its load.
3. A set of marks are painted on the bows,
the stern and amidships. These marks are
called--- ----
4. Large vessels are usually vessels of deep
draft or--- ----
8
p
III. Give Romanian equivalents to the
following Standard Marine
Communication Phrases

1. What is your draft forward?


2. What is your present maximum draft?
3. I have a list to starboard of 10 degrees.
4. What is your freeboard?
5. The vessel is on even keel.
6. Maximum permitted draft is 20m.
7. The vessel is trimmed by the head.
8. What is your LOA?
9. What is your LBP?
10. Do you have a list?
20p

IV. Complete the table below to show which


quantifiers can be used with the
countable noun ‘vessels’ and the
uncountable noun ‘money’.

Quantifier Countable Uncountable


noun noun
several
no
A lot of
few
much
A little
many
A large
amount
some
most
10p
8.Self-Test-answer key

Match the terms in column A with their


definitions in column B

1c; 2a; 3d; 4f;5b;6e

I. Fill in the blanks with the appropriate


term(s)

1. length on load waterline


2. waterline
3. draft marks
4. hampered vessels

II. Give Romanian equivalents the the


following standard Marine
Communication Phrases

1. Care este pescajul prova?


2. Care este pescajul maxim actual?
3. Am o înclinare spre babord
4. Care este bordul liber?
5. Nava este pe chilă dreaptă
6. Pescajul maxim permis/admis
7. Nava este aprovată
8. Care este lungimea maximă?
9. Care este lungimea între perpendiculare?
10. Eşti canarisit/bandat?

III. Complete the table below to show which


quantifiers can be used with the
countable noun ‘vessels’ and the
uncountable noun ‘money’.

Quantifier Countable Uncountable


noun noun
several vessels
no vessels money

A lot of vessels money


few vessels
much money
A little money
many vessels
A large money
amount
some vessels money
most vessels money
Unit 3.

DIRECTIONS
TERMS RELATING TO POSITION IN
A SHIP

Objectives:After studying the topic in the


course book the learner should be able
to:identify directions on a diagram; compare
terms used to express direction and position on
board ship with terms used on land; describe a
traditional as well as a modern general cargo
vessel using terms relating to position and
direction on board ship correctly.

1. One way in which the language of the sea


and the language used on land are different is
in the terminology of directions. When a sailor
gets on a ship he goes aboard. He doesn’t go
to the back of the ship, he goes aft. If he wants
to walk toward the bow of the ship, he goes
forward .If he doesn’t find what he wants, he
checks fore and aft, which means from the
bow to the stern. If that doesn’t help, he looks
abaft which means further to the rear, or
astern (behind the stern). He never watches
the sea from the right side of the ship, he
watches from the starboard. The left side is
always called the port side. If he sees
something directly off either side of the ship,
it’s located abeam. An object or area which
lies across the ship from the starboard to the
port side is said to be athwartships. Anything
in the centre of the ship is located amidships.
A sailor looking to either side of the ship from
amidships is facing outboard. Somebody
watching him from either side has to face
inboard. Something over him from any part of
the ship is above. If it’s very high, such as on a
mast, it’s aloft .If it’s under him, it’s below.
Something away from the wind is lee. If it’s in
a lee direction, it’s leeward.If it moves in a lee
direction, it goes leeway. If it’s near the ship,
it’s close aboard.
1.1. Vocabulary

Aft = in spate, spre pupa


Forward = in fata, spre prova
Fore and aft = de-a lungul
Abaft = la pupa, aproape de pupa; inapoia,
spre/catre/inspre pupa
Astern = inapoi, in spate, la/in pupa; mers
inapoi; cu mers/mars inapoi
Starboard side = tribord
Port side = babord
Abeam = la travers, de la travers
Athwartships = transversal/travers pe nava; la
traversul navei
Amidships = la centrul/mijlocul navei; in axul
navei; la cuplul maestru; pozitie zero a cirmei
Outboard = peste bord, in exteriorul navei
Inboard = interior, in interiorul navei
Above = deasupra; in amonte
Aloft = in gabie, in arborada, sus pe verga
Below = jos, sub
Lee = bord de sub vint, zona de calm ( in
bordul de sub vint al navei) ; sub vint
Leeward = bord de sub vint; a veni sub vint
(despre nava);sub vint, la adapost de vint
Close aboard = foarte aproape, la mica distanta
(de nava)
1.2. Look at the diagram below and identify
the following directions:
( forward, aft, abaft, astern, on the port side,
on the starboard side, abeam,
athwartships ,amidships)
e.g. a is
forward
a f
b g
c h
d e
1.3. Now study this diagram of a traditional
general cargo ship and read the description
below:

A traditional general cargo ship has her


engine room and bridge superstructure
amidships. She may have three holds forward
of the bridge and two holds aft of the bridge.
Forward of No.1 hold is the forecastle and
right forward is the jackstaff. Derricks are
supported by masts and samson posts. They
are stowed fore and aft when the ship is at sea.
There are two lifeboats, one on the port side
amidships another on the starboard side
amidships, abaft the funnel. The poop is
situated aft and there is an ensign right aft.

1.4. Study the diagram below and read the


description of a modern general cargo:

A modern general cargo ship has her


engine room and bridge superstructure aft. She
may have four holds forward of the bridge and
one hold aft of the bridge. Forward of No.1
hold is the forecastle and right forward is the
jackstaff. Derricks are supported by masts and
Samson posts. They are stowed fore and aft
when the ship is at sea. There are two
lifeboats, one on the port side aft, another on
the starboard side aft, abaft the funnel. The
poop and the bridge superstructure are
combined. There is an ensign staff right aft.

1.5. Terms describing position in


relation to a ship
Study the diagram below:

As you have noticed, there is a tanker at


the centre of the diagram and a host of ships
around her. The position of these ships in
relation to the tanker can be expressed in the
following way:

a)Ship A is (dead) ahead./Ship A is ahead of


the tanker.
b) Ship B is on the starboard bow.
c)Ship C is before the starboard beam.
d) Ship D is before the starboard beam.
e)Ship E is abaft the starboard beam.
f) Ship F is on the starboard quarter.
g) Ship G is (dead astern)/Ship G is
astern of the tanker.
h) Ship H is on the port quarter.
i) Ship I is abaft the port beam.
j) Ship J is abeam./Ship J is on the port
beam
k) Ship K is before the port beam.
l) Ship L is on the port bow.

1.5. Answer to task 1.2

a is forward ; b is aft; c is abaft; d is


astern; e is on the port side; f is on the
starboard; g is abeam; h is
athwartships; i is amidships
2. THE ADJECTIVE

Adjectives are words that modify and describe


nouns and pronouns. They are the colour
commentators of language, the words that give
your writing and speech flavour. They answer
the questions: What kind?, How much?,
Which one?, How many?
What kind?……….red nose/gold ring
How much?………more sugar/little effort
Which one?………second wife/those units
How many?………several students/six cadets
There are 5 kinds of adjectives:
a) common adjectives-describe nouns and

pronouns (strong man, green plant)


b) proper adjectives are formed from proper

nouns ( Mexican food)


c) compound adjectives-are formed by more

than one word (far-off country, teenage


person)
d) indefinite adjectives-describe general

quantities;most of them were pronouns in


their first lives (another, both, each, either,
all, more)
The comparison of adjectives
There are three degrees of comparison:
1) The positive degree-shows the presence
of a quality, wihout making any
comparison: He is tall/She is beautiful.
2) The comparative degree-compares two

objects showing the presence of quality in


three ways:
Equality- He is as kind as Jane.
Superiority- He is kinder than Jane.
Inferiority- He is less kind than Jane.
3) The superlative degree – shows that a

member of a group possesses the


compared quality in its highest extent
through a direct comparison-the
relative superlative: He is the cleverest
of all.
or without a direct comparison-the
absolute superlative: She is very clever.
• When we compare two notions we use the

comparative preceded by the article the,


instead of the superlative: She is the
younger and the more beautiful of the
two sisters.
• Comparative and superlative- ways of

formation:
The synthetic comparison- adjectives
formed by one syllable form the comparative
and superlative by adding –(e)r or –(e)st:
small- smaller- the smallest
Spelling: double consonants before short
vowels (big-bigger-the biggest); adjectives
ending in –y (dry-drier-the driest); adjectives
ending in –e, -ee lose the final –e (nice-nicer,
free-freer)
The two-syllable adjectives obey the same
synthetic rules: happy-happier, able-abler
The analytical comparison- the adjectives
formed by two or more syllables form their
comparative and superlative using more/the
most (careful-more careful-the most careful)
The comparison of equality- the adjective in
the positive degree preceded by as and
followed by as: My cabin is as large as his.
The comparison of inferiority- the adjective
in the positive degree preceded by not so/as
and followed by as/less….than: My
assignment is not as easy as yours.
The absolute relative- is expressed by the
help of: very, too, highly, extremely:
It is extremely difficult to reach the top.
The irregular comparison: good-better- the
best; ill-worse- the worst;
much/many- more- the most; little- less- the
least; late- later- the latest/the latter/the
last; old- older/elder- the oldest/the eldest;
near- nearer- the nearest/the next;
far- farther/further the farthest/the furthest.
Syntactical functions:
• Attribute- Tom has a new uniform.

• Predicate nominative- This uniform is

new.
The place of adjectives in the sentence:
- the attributes precede the noun they
determine (a high mountain)
*exceptions: Ambassador Extraordinary,
Secretary General, Court Martial, poet laureate
- indefinite pronouns ending in –
body/one/thing are followed by the adjective:
She bought something nice/ He said nothing
interesting.
- when a noun is determined by two adjectives
in the comparative, one short and one long, the
short one precede the long one: She was taller
and more beautiful.
- when more adjectives determine a noun,
these adjectives follow one after the other in
the following order:
Sequence of adjectives

Art Si Sh A Col Parti Natio Mat No


icle ze ap g our ciple nality erial un
1 2 e e s 6 7 8 9
3 4 5
A lar ol tre
ge d e
A freez Engli da
ing s y
h
A blac leat jac
k her ket
A blue knitt hat
ed

Vocabulary Practice

! In order to do these tasks successfully


you’ll have to study unit 3 carefully. After
checking your achievement against the
answer key at the end of vocabulary
practise and grammar practise, go to Self-
Test and Self-Test Answer Key to evaluate
your performance. You’ll be awarded one
point (1p) for each correct answer. If your
score is under 30p, you’ll have to go back to
unit 3 and study the vocabulary or
grammar problems you have been wrong
about. If your score is above 30p you may
pass on to the next unit. Good Luck!

I. Answer the following questions.

1. What does go aboard mean?


2. What is aft?
3. What does forward mean on a ship?
4. What is fore and aft?
5. What is abaft?
6. What is astern?
7. What is starboard?
8. What is port?
9. Where is an object that’s abeam.
10. What does athwartships mean?
11. What is amidships?
12. What does looking outboard mean?
13. What does looking inboard mean?
14. What is aloft?
15. What does above mean in a naval context?
16. What does below mean in a naval context?
17. What is lee?
18. What is leeward?
19. What is leeway?
20. What is close aboard?

II. Complete the following sentences with


the appropriate term(s).

1. An object located amidships off either side


of a ship is said to be---
2. Something high above the main structure
of a ship is---
3. Something away from the wind is---
4. An object in a lee direction is---
5. An object moving in a lee direction
goes---
6. If it’s near the ship, it’s --- ---
7. When a sailor faces the bow of the ship, he
faces---
8. If you are standing at the center of a ship,
you’re standing---
9. The starboard side of a ship is the---
10. If you go along the ship from stem to
stern, you go ---and---the ship

III. Fill in the blank spaces using the words


provided below.
Amidships; abaft; fore and aft; portside;
forward of; aft of; right forward; starboard
side; right aft

A traditional general cargo ship has her


engine room and bridge
superstructure---.She may have three holds
--- ---the bridge and two holds --- ---the
bridge. Forward of No.1 hold is the
forecastle and --- ----is the jackstaff.
Derricks are supported by masts and
samson posts. They are stowed --- and –
when the ship is at sea. There are two
lifeboats, one on the ---amidships another
on the ---amidships,---the funnel. The
poop is situated aft and there is an
ensign--- --

IV. Translate the following ext into


Romanian paying attention to the terms
relating to directions and position in a
ship.

A modern general cargo ship has her


engine room and bridge superstructure aft. She
may have four holds forward of the bridge and
one hold aft of the bridge. Forward of No.1
hold is the forecastle and right forward is the
jackstaff. Derricks are supported by masts and
Samson posts. They are stowed fore and aft
when the ship is at sea. There are two
lifeboats, one on the port side aft, another on
the starboard side aft, abaft the funnel. The
poop and the bridge superstructure are
combined. There is an ensign staff right aft.

4. Vocabulary Practice Answer-Key


I.
1. It means to get on a ship.
2. Aft means to the rear.
3. Forward is always used to mean to the
front of the ship.
4. To the front and rear of a ship/along the
ship/from stem to stern
5. Further to the rear.
6. Toward the stern.
7. The right side of the ship.
8. The left side of the ship.
9. Off either side of the ship, about
amidships.
10. Lying across a ship from starboard to port.
11. In the middle of the ship.
12. Looking to the side of the ship.
13. Looking from the side toward the center of
the ship.
14. Aloft means very high.
15. It means at a higher level than the speaker.
16. It means downstairs or under the speaker.
17. Away from the wind.
18. In a lee direction.
19. Moving in a leeward direction.
20. Near the ship.

II.
abeam
1. aloft
2. lee
3. leeward
4. leeway
5. close aboard

III. Check the text in your course book on


page---, paragraph 1.2.
IV. Translate into Romanian.

O nava moderna care transporta marfuri


generale are sala masinilor si suprastructura
spre pupa/in partea din spate a navei. Ea poate
sa aiba patru mazii in fata puntii de comanda
si o magazie in spatele puntii de comanda.In
fata magaziei nr.1 se afla castelul prova/teuga
si chiar in prova se afla bastonul de pavilion
prova. Bigile sunt sustinute de catarge si
coloane de bigi. Ele sunt
stivuite/asezate/plasate de-a lungul navei cind
nava este in larg/in voiaj/in mars. Exista doua
barci de salvare, una in babord iar cealalta in
tribord, in spatele cosului. Duneta si
suprastructura sunt combinate./formeaza corp
comun spre pupa. Chiar in pupa se afla
bastonul pentru pavilionul national.

5. Grammar Practice: The Adjective

1. There are twelve adjectives in this story.


Underline them.
I went for a long walk in the countryside
yesterday. It was a hot day, and soon I was
tired and thirsty. There was a small house by
the side of the road, and I decided to ask for a
glass of cold water. I rang the bell and an old
lady opened the big, wooden door. She looked
kind and she offered me a glass of fresh juice.
It tasted great!

II. Choose from the following adjectives to


fill in the sentences below: hungry, new,
terrible, expensive, sad, wonderful, Italian,
fresh, difficult.

1. Gold rings are normally expensive.


2. This food smells.................! I love fish and
chips.
3. It was a ................exam. I’m sure I haven’t
passed.
4. I’ve just bought a ...............sports car.
5. I met my wife in Rome, but she
isn’t................
6. He looks................. I don’t think he likes his
job.
7. Are you....................? Shall I buy some
sandwiches?
8. This orange juice tastes..................Is
it....................?

III. Look at these sentences. If you think the


adjectives are in the wrong order, change
the order. If you think the order is correct,
put a tick (√).

1. She lost a gold, small ring at the disco


yesterday night.
2. I have an old, Italian painting in my living
room.
3. I’m looking for my cotton, green shirt and
my brown, leather shoes.
4. George has a Spanish, modern villa near
the sea. He goes there every summer.
5. I live in an old, white house near the river.
I’ve got a black, large dog!
6. I had an interesting talk with a Polish,
young student last week.
7. We are having lunch in a big, Japanese,
new restaurant in the centre of town.
8. I left my books in a red, plastic bag on the
bus. I was so stupid!

IV. Write the comparative form of these


adjectives: cold, big, careful, expensive,
good, fat, famous, new, modern, young,
cheap, delicious, rich, long, hungry, nice,
happy, difficult, old, beautiful, friendly, hot,
bad, small, sad.

V. Put the words in brackets ( ) in the right


order to make sentences.

1. (the world – Antarctica – coldest – is –


place – the – in)
2. (city – the – Manchester – in England – is –
friendliest)
3. (in New York – expensive – restaurant –
The Manhattan – the – is – most)
4. (is – river – the world – the – The Nile –
longest – in)
5. (town – most – in Spain – Granada –
beautiful – is – the)
6. (painting – The Mona Lisa – the – famous –
in – is – most – the world)
7. (the – Europe – mountain – in – highest –
Mont Blanc – is)

VI. Use the words in brackets ( ) to write


sentences. Use the + superlative, and the
Present Perfect + ever.

1. (It’s/cold/place/I/visit) – It’s the coldest


place I’ve ever visited.
2. (It’s/big/shop/I/see)
3. (He’s/rich/man/I/meet)
4. (It’s/difficult/exam/I/do)
5. (It’s/sad/film/I/see)
6. (She’s/happy/person/I/meet)
7. (It’s/modern/ flat/I/see)
8. (It’s/hot/country/I/visit)
9. (It’s/small/dog/I/see).
VII. Complete the sentences using the
comparative form of the adjectives in
brackets and than.

1. I think that golf is more interesting than


(interesting) tennis.
2. This question is......................(easy) the last
one.
3. I’m a good player, but Eric
is ........................(good) me.
4. The group’s first record was.........................
(successful) their second record.
5. We both played well, but he
was.....................(lucky) me.
6. Your car is......................(powerful) mine.
7. This computer is....................(useful) that
one.

VIII. Complete the sentences using the


superlative form of the adjective in
brackets.

1. Anna is the youngest (young) person in her


class.
2. We stayed in ......................(bad) hotel in the
whole city.
3. People say that it is ...............(funny) film of
the year.
4. What is........................(tall) building in the
world?
5. Her teachers say that she is ....................
(good) student in the school.
6. This is........................(expensive) camera in
the shop.
7. Many people say that Venice is..................
(beautiful) city in the world.

IX. Complete each sentence so that it means


the same as the one above it. Use as +
adjective/adverb + as.

1. Sweden is bigger than Britain.


Britain isn’t as big as Sweden.
2. The other students learn more quickly than
me.
I don’t learn....................................the other
students.
3. You’re very angry and I’m angry also.
I’m........................................you.
4. The seats at the front are more expensive
than the seats at the back.
The seats at the back
aren’t.................................the seats at the
front.
5. Central Park in New York is bigger than
Hyde Park in London.
Hyde Park in London
isn’t........................Central Park in New York.
6. Her last film was very good and her new
film is also very good.
Her new film is.......................her last film.
7. The other students work harder than him.
He doesn’t work........................the other
students.

X. Join each pair of sentences in brackets


( ), using as much......as, or as many......as.

1. (I’ve got 50 books. Jack’s got about 100.)


I haven’t got as many books as Jack.
2. (You’ve done a lot of work. I’ve done a lot
of work also.)
I’ve done ............................you.
3. (Alan earns a lot of money. Sheila only
earns a little.)
Sheila doesn’t earn...........................Alan.
4. (George has been to five countries. I’ve also
been to five countries.)
I’ve been to...............................George.
5. (You’ve had five jobs. I’ve only had two.)
I haven’t had...........................you.
6. (Tom has a lot of luggage. Jane has a lot of
luggage too.)
Lane has............................Tom.
7. (Mary answered most of the questions. I
only answered about half.)
I didn’t answer.............................Mary.
8. (Ruth spent $50.I also spent $50.)
I spent...........................Ruth.

XI. Choose the correct adjective in brackets


( ) to put in the gaps.

1. It was a terrible play and I was bored


(bored/boring) from start to finish.
2. I’m very..................(excited/exciting)
because I’m going to New York tomorrow.
3. Are you................(surprised/surprising) or
were you expecting this news?
4. I’m reading a very.................
(interested/interesting) book at the moment.
5. I’ve had a very..............(tired/tiring) day at
work today and I want to go to bed.
6. Most people were...................
(surprised/surprising) that he won the
championship.
7. I’m.......................(bored/boring). Let’s go
out for a cup of coffee somewhere.
8. Visit our...................(excited/exciting) new
shop!
9. His speech was very long and
very...................(bored/boring).

XII. Complete the sentences using too or


enough and the words in brackets ( ).

1. I can’t eat this soup because it’s too hot


(hot).
2. We couldn’t buy the tickets because we
didn’t have enough money (money).
3. We didn’t buy the car because it wasn’t big
enough (big).
4. I couldn’t see her because it
was...................(dark).
5. I can’t decide what to do because I haven’t
got..................(information).
6. You can’t change the situation now.
It’s..................(late).
7. Have you had..................(food), or would
you like some more?
8. He did badly in the exam because he
was....................(nervous).
9. Slow down! You’re driving ...................
(fast).
10. He shouldn’t play in the team because he
isn’t.................(good).
11. I haven’t got ................(clothes). I must
buy some more.
l2. Robert didn’t go to work because he didn’t
feel.................(well).
13. I couldn’t lift the suitcase because I
wasn’t...................(strong).
14. We didn’t go swimming because the water
was................(cold).
15. Mary couldn’t post all the letters because
she didn’t have..............(stamps).

6. Answer key: The Adjective

I. hot, tired, thirsty, small, cold, old, big,


wooden, kind, fresh, great.

II. wonderful, difficult, new, Italian, sad,


hungry, terrible....fresh.
III. small, gold; old, Italian; green, cotton;
modern, Spanish; large, black; young, Polish;
big, new, Japanese; red, plastic.

IV. colder, bigger, more careful, more


expensive, better, fatter, more famous, newer,
more modern, younger, cheaper, more
delicious, richer, longer, hungrier, nicer,
happier, more difficult, older, more beautiful.
friendlier, hotter, more wonderful, worse,
smaller, sadder.

V. 1. Antarctica is the coldest place in the


world.
2. Manchester is the friendliest city in
England
3. The Manhattan is the most expensive
restaurant in New York.
4. The Nile is the longest river in the world.
5. Granada is the most beautiful town in
Spain
6. The Mona Lisa is the most famous
painting in the world.
7. Mont Blanc is the highest mountain in
Europe.

VI. 1. It’s the biggest ship I’ve ever seen


2. He’s the richest man I’ve ever met.
3. It’s the most difficult exam I’ve ever
done.
4. It’s the saddest film I’ve ever seen.
5. She’s the happiest person I’ve ever met.
6. It’s the most modern flat I’ve ever seen.
7. It’s the hottest country I’ve ever visited.
8. It’s the smallest dog I’ve ever seen.

VII. 1. easier than


2. better than
3. more successful than
4. luckier than
5. more powerful than
6. more useful than

VIII. 1. the worst


2. the funniest
3. the tallest
4. the best
5. the most expensive
6. the most beautiful

IX. 1. as quickly as
2. as angry as
3. as expensive as
4. as big as
5. as good as
6. as hard as

X. 1. as much (money) as
2. as many countries as
3. as many jobs as
4. as much luggage as
5. as many questions as
6. as much (money) as

XI. excited, surprised, interesting, tiring,


surprised, bored, exciting, boring.

XII. too dark, enough information, too late,


enough food, too nervous, too fast, good
enough, enough clothes, well enough, strong
enough, too cold, enough stamps.

7. Self-Test

I. Decide if the following statements are


TRUE (T) or FALSE (F).Circle the
correct answer.

1. When a sailor gets on a ship he goes


aboard. T/F
2. Fore and aft means from side to side.
T/F
3. Athwartships means along the ship.
T/F
4. The right side of the ship is called
starboard side. T/F
5. Anything in the centre of the ship is
located amidships. T/F
6. A sailor looking to either side of the ship
from amidships is facing
Inboard.
T/F
7. If something is very high, such as on a
mast, it’s aloft. T/F
8. Something away from the wind is leeway.
T/F
9. If something moves in a lee direction, it
goes close aboard. T/F
10. The lifeboat is abaft the funnel.
T/F

10p
II. Give General English equivalents to the
following terms used at sea.
Example: aft – at the after end of the ship/at
the back of the ship

Abaft; forward of; amidships;


athwartships; fore and aft; port side;
Starboard side; fore; right forward; right af

10p
III. Fill in the blanks with the appropriate
term(s).

In a modern tanker, the hull is divided up


into a number of watertight compartments by
decks and steel bulkheads. At the---and---ends
of the hull are the ---peak tanks and the ---peak
tanks. The engine room is situated at the ---end
of the ship to leave more room for cargo.
Between the engine room and the cargo space
is the coffer dam. The cargo space is divided
up into a number of tanks. --- the main deck is
the superstructure. At the --- end is the
forecastle. At the --- end the bridge
superstructure and the poop are combined.

8p.
Put the adjectives in brackets in the
correct position

1. a beautiful table (wooden/round)………a


beautiful round wooden table
2. an unusual ring (gold)
……………………………………………
………
3. a new pullover (nice)
……………………………………………
……….
4. an old house (beautiful)
……………………………………………
…….
5. black gloves (leather)
……………………………………………
………
6. an American film (old)
……………………………………………
…………
7. a long face (thin)
……………………………………………
………………..
8. a sunny day (lovely)
……………………………………………
…………….
9. big clouds (black)
……………………………………………
……………….
10. A wide avenue (long)
……………………………………………
……………
11. A little village (old/ lovely)
……………………………………………
……..
12. An old painting (interesting/French)
…………………………………………
13. An enormous umbrella (red/yellow)
12p

V. Complete the sentences. Use a


superlative (-est or most…) or a
comparative
(-er or most…)

1. We stayed at the cheapest hotel in the town.


(cheap).
2. Our hotel was cheaper than all the others in

the town. (cheap)


3.The United States is very large but Canada
is………….(large)
4.What’s……………..river in the world?
(long)
5.He was a bit depressed yesterday but he
looks…….today.(happy)
6.It was an awful day. It was…….day in my
life.(bad)
7.What is…..sport in your country ? (popular)
8.Everest is…….mountain in the world. .It is
….than any other mountain.(high)
9.We had a great holiday. It was one of
the….holidays we’ve ever had. (enjoyable)
10. I prefer this car to the other one.
It’s………….(comfortable)
11. What’s ……….way of getting from here
to the station? (quick)
12. Mr and Mrs Brown have got three
daughters……..is 14 years old. (old)
1
0
p

8. Self-Test Answer Key

I. 1.T; 2.F; 3.F; 4.T; 5.T; 6.F; 7.T; 8.F; 9.F;


10.T.

II. abaft=behind
forward of =before/in front of
amidships =in the middle/centre
athwartships =across
fore and aft =along
port side =left side
starboard right side
fore = t/towards the front of the ship
right forward =the extreme front end of
the ship
right aft=the extreme back end of the ship

at the fore and after ends


fore peak tanks and the after peak tanks
at the after end
above
at the fore end
at the after end

IV.an unusual gold ring


a nice new pullover
a new green pullover
a beautiful old house
black leather gloves
an old American film
a long thin face
big black clouds
a lovely sunny day
a long wide avenue
a lovely little old village
an enormous red and yellow umbrella

3. larger
4 .the longest
5. happier
6 the worst
7. the most popular
8. the highest….higher
9. most enjoyable
10. more comfortable
11. the quickest t
12. the oldest or the eldest
Unit 4.

PROPULSION, STEERING
AND THE BRIDGE

Objectives: After studying the topic in the


course book the learners should be able to
describe the component parts of the
propulsion system and steering gear; identify
and state the functions of different navigation
instruments housed on the navigation bridge;
formulate and understand standard wheel and
engine orders.

1. Ships are pushed through the water by


screws (propellers). This process is known as
propulsion, which means to be driven forward.
A ship with one propeller is known as a
single-screw ship. One with two propellers is
known as a twin-screw ship. Some have four
propellers and are known as four-screw ships.
The screws are connected to the main
propulsion engine by a shaft. The main
propulsion engine, often called the main
engine, provides a ship with power to move. A
shaft is a long cylinder that transmits power by
rotation. The power for a ship’s engine is
usually from a turbine engine. This is a type of
motor with blades that rotate inside and are
moved by a steam, electric, diesel, diesel-
electric, or nuclear source.

1.1. A ship is steered by its rudder and screws.


A rudder is a flat, vertical structure at the stern
of the ship that moves from side to side
causing the ship to change direction. One or
more screws can work separately or together
with the rudder during a turn. If the rudder
moves right, the ship turns right. If the rudder
moves left, the ship turns left. Rudders are
turned in the water by steering engines, and
the combination of equipment used to turn and
power them is the steering gear. The steering
engines, located in the rear of the ship are
controlled by the wheel. The wheel is found on
the bridge and is turned by the helmsman. This
is the customary name for the sailor who has
the job of steering.

1.2. The bridge, mentioned in the unit on ship


structure, is the main point and nerve center of
any ship. All orders and commands come from
there, while the ship is underway. The master
and the officer of the deck have their main
places of duty on the bridge, which is also
called the conn. The officer of the deck is the
officer on the bridge who is in charge of the
ship for a special period of duty. This is also
where the helm is found. Helm is another word
for the wheel used to steer the ship. One of the
main tasks performed on the bridge is
navigation. This is finding the position, course
(direction), and distance travelled. Because of
this, the equipment on the bridge includes the
binnacle, which holds the magnetic compass
giving the magnetic direction. There is also a
gyro-repeater, connected to the gyrocompass
below the main deck, to give readings on true
direction. The gyrocompass operates by means
of gyroscopes, which are wheels free to spin,
free to separately rotate about one or both of
two axes. There is also a radar repeater
which gives readings from the ship’s radar
system to locate objects outside of the ship.
Communications equipment on the bridge
includes an engine order telegraph for
transmitting engine orders to the engineers.
There are also telephones, and
intercommunication sets commonly called
squawk boxes. These are used for
communication to various parts of the ship.
There is also a fathometer, which measures the
depth of the water. Around the enclosed bridge
there is usually an open platform from which
lookouts(observers) and the officer of the deck
may determine the position of other ships and
objects of interest.

2. On-board communication phrases


2.1. Standard wheel orders
All wheel orders given should be repeated
by the helmsman and the officer of the watch
should ensure that they are carried out
correctly and immediately. All wheel orders
should be held until countermanded. The
helmsman should report immediately if the
vessel does not answer the wheel.

ORDER MEANING
1. Midships Rudder to be held in the fore
and aft position = mijloc carma
2. Port five 5°of port rudder to be held
= babord cinci
3. Port ten 10° of port rudder to be held
= babord zece
4. Port fifteen 15° of port rudder to be
held = babord cincisprezece
5. Port twenty 20° of port rudder to be
held = babord douazeci
6. Port twenty-five 25° of port rudder to be
held = babord douazeci si cinci
7. Hard-a-port Rudder to be held fully
over to port= banda stinga
8. Starboard five 5° of starboard rudder to
be held = tribord cinci
9. Starboard ten 10° of starboard rudder to
be held = tribord zece
10.Starboard fifteen 15° of starboard
rudder to be held = tribord cincisprezece
11.Starboard twenty20° of starboard rudder to
be held = tribord douazeci
12.Starboard twenty-five25°of starboard
rudder to be held = tribord douazeci si cinci
13.Hard-a-starboard Rudder to be held fully
over to starboard= banda dreapta
14.Ease to five Reduce amount of rudder
to 5°and hold = redu la cinci
15.Ease to ten Reduce amount of rudder
to 10°and hold=redu la zece
16.Ease to fifteen Reduce amount of rudder
to 15°and hold=redu la cincisprezece
17.Ease to twenty Reduce amount of rudder
to 20°and hold=redu la douazeci
18.Steady Reduce swing as rapidly as
possible. =drept asa
19.Steady as she goes Steer a steady course
on the compass
heading indicated at the time of
the order=tine-o drept asa
20.Keep the buoy/mark/beacon…on port side
= tine geamandura/semnul/baliza..in babord
21.Keep the buoy/mark/beacon on starboard
side=tine geamandura/semnul/baliza in tribord
22.Report if she does not answer the wheel
=raporteaza daca nu raspunde la cirma

When the officer of the watch requires a


course to be steered by compass, the direction
in which he wants the wheel turned should be
stated followed by each numeral being said
separately, including zero, for example:

ORDER COURSE TO
BE STEERED

“Port, steer one eight


two”(Babord,guverneaza un opt doi) 182°
“Starboard, steer zero eight
two”(Tribord,guverneaza zero opt doi)082°
“Port, steer three zero
five”(Babord,guverneaza trei zero cinci) 305°

On receipt of an order to steer, for


example, 182°, the helmsman should repeat it
and bring the vessel round steadily to the
course ordered. When the vessel is steady on
the course ordered the helmsman is to call out:
“Steady on one eight two”(Stabil pe unu
opt doi)
The person giving the order should
acknowledge the helmsman’s reply.If it is
desired to steer on a selected mark the
helmsman should be ordered to:
“Steer on..buoy../mark/…beacon”.
(Guverneaza pe…geamandura/…
semnul/..baliza)

2.2. Standard engine orders


Any engine order given should be
repeated by the person operating the bridge
telegraph and the officer of the watch should
ensure the order is carried out correctly and
immediately.
ORDER

1.Full ahead = Toata(viteza) inainte


2.Half ahead= Jumatate (viteza) inainte
3.Slow ahead= Incet inainte
4.Dead slow ahead=Foarte incet inainte
5.Stop engine(s)=Stop masina
6.Dead slow astern=Foarte incet inapoi
7.Slow astern=incet inapoi
8.Half astern=jumate(viteza) inapoi
9.Full astern = Toata (viteza) inapoi
10. Emergency full ahead = Toata viteza
inainte(de urgenta)
11. Emergency full astern = Toata viteza
inapoi (de urgenta)
12. Stand-by engine = Masina pe
atentiune
13. Finished with engines = Liber la masina

In vessels fitted with twin propellers, the word


“both’ should be added to all orders affecting
both shafts, e.g. “Full ahead both”, and “Slow
astern both”, except that the words “Stop all
engines” should be used, when appropriate.
When required to manoeuvre twin propellers
independently, this should be indicated, i.e.
“Full ahead starboard”, “Half astern port”, etc.
Where bow thrusters are used, the following
orders are used:

14.Bow thrust full (half) to port =


Propulsor prova, toata/jumatate (viteza)babord
15.Bow thrust full ( half) to
starboard=Propulsor prova,
toata/jumatate(viteza)tribord
16.Stern thrust full ( half) to port
=Propulsor pupa, toata/jumatate(viteza)babord
17.Stern thrust full (half) to
starboard=Propulsor pupa,
toata/jumatate(viteza)tribord
18. Bow (stern) thrust stop =
propulsor prova/pupa, stop.

3. Adverbs

Adverbs are words that modify a word, a


phrase or a whole sentence. Some adverbs
have their own form which is not related to
other words: always, soon, very etc. Many
adverbs are formed from adjectives by adding
–ly e.g. quick – quickly etc. There are some
spelling rules for adverbs formed with –ly:
• y is changed into i: easy – easily;
• le after consonant is changed into ly:
probable – probably;
• ally must be added after -ic: automatic –
automatically.

Some adverbs have the same form as


adjectives: fast, long, early etc.
I had an early night. (adjective)
I went to bed early. (adverb)

Sometimes the adverb can appear with or


without –ly, and the most common adverbs of
this type are: cheap/cheaply, loud/loudly,
quick/quickly, slow/slowly, direct/directly,
tight/tightly, fair/fairly. However the form
without –ly is more informal.
Do you have to talk so loud/loudly?

There are some pairs of adverbs with


different meanings: hard – hardly, near –
nearly, late – lately, high – highly, deep –
deeply, free – freely, most – mostly.
You’ve worked hard. I’ve got hardly
any money (almost no).
I wake up late. I haven’t heard from
him lately (recently).
There is a bank near. We’ve nearly
finished (almost).
Submarines can go very deep. He was
deeply offended (serious).
If you win, you can travel free. Animals can’t
move freely on board (uncontrolled).
The plane flew high. The theory is
highly controversial (very).
This leg hurts the most. We mostly stay in
the engine room (usually).

Some time adverbs are related to nouns and


they can be both adjectives and adverbs: day –
daily, hour – hourly, week – weekly, year –
yearly:
It’s a monthly magazine (adjective).
It comes out monthly (adverb).
There are several types of adverbs: adverbs
of time, adverbs of frequency, adverbs of
place, adverbs of manner, adverbs of degree,
linking adverbs, sentence adverbs, negative
adverbs.

3.1. Adverbs of manner

Adverbs of manner give more information


about the way in which an event or action
takes place. They modify verbs and most of
them are formed from adjectives. They are
usually placed after the verb or after the
object.
He speaks English fluently.
He smelled the fuel suspiciously.
Here is a list of the most common adverbs
describing the way in which something is
done.

abruptly economic peacefull steadily


accuratel ally y steeply
y effectivel peculiarl stiffly
awkwardl y y strangely
y efficientl perfectly subtly
badly y plainly superbly
beautifull evenly pleasantl swiftly
y explicitly y systemati
brightly faintly politely cally
brilliantly faithfully poorly tenderly
briskly fiercely professio thickly
carefully finely nally thinly
carelessly firmly properly thoroughl
casually fluently quietly y
cheaply formally rapidly thoughtfu
clearly frankly readily lly
closely freely richly tightly
clumsily gently rigidly truthfully
comforta gracefull roughly uncomfor
bly y ruthlessly tably
consisten hastily securely urgently
tly heavily sensibly vaguely
convenie honestly sharply vigorousl
ntly hurriedly silently y
correctly intently simply violently
dangerou meticulo smoothly vividly
sly usly softly voluntaril
delicately neatly solidly y
differentl nicely specifical warmly
y oddly ly widely
discreetly patiently splendidl willingly
distinctly y wonderfu
dramatica lly
lly
easily
3.2. Adverbs of degree

Adverbs of degree are used when we want to


give more information about the extent of an
action or the degree to which an action is
performed. They can modify an adjective, an
adverb or a verb. They are usually placed
before the word they modify:
I had almost forgotten about maintenance.
A change of one word can radically alter
the meaning of the statement.
I’m so tired.
I saw him quite recently.

Enough follows the adjective or adverb:


He didn’t work quickly enough.

Some common adverbs of degree are:


• full degree: completely, totally,
absolutely, entirely, quite;
• large degree: very, extremely, really,

awfully, terribly;
• medium degree: rather, fairly, quite,

pretty, somewhat;
• small degree: a little, a bit, slightly;

• negative: hardly, scarcely;

• others: so, as, too, more, most, less, least.

We use so and such for emphasis. So is


used with adjectives and adverbs. Such a is
used with adjective + singular noun. Such/so
many/so few are used with plural nouns.
Such/so much/so little are used with
uncountable nouns:
The meeting finished so quickly.
It was such a quick meeting.
You have so many friendly colleagues.
It was such good advice.

3.3. Adverbs of place

Adverbs of place give information about


place, position, destination and direction. They
can be placed after the verb e.g. He lives
abroad; after an object e.g. I looked for it
everywhere; at the beginning of the sentence
e.g. Here it comes.
Here is a list of words that are used as adverbs
to indicate position.

abroad downst inland out of underw


ahead ream midwa doors ater
aloft downto y overhe upstairs
ashore wn nearby ad upstrea
away downw next oversea m
close to ind door s uptown
downst eastwar northw southw upwind
airs d ard ard westwa
halfwa offshor there rd
y e underf
here outdoo oot
indoors rs underg
round

Some adverbs indicate destination or


direction in relation to a particular position of
the person or thing you are talking about:
ahead, along, back, backward, forward, left,
on, right, sideways etc.
Other adverbs can indicate movement:
• in different directions: back and forth,

backwards and forwards, from side to


side, in and out, round and round, to
and fro, up and down;
• away from someone or something: aside,

away, off, out, outward;


• across or past something: across, by,

over, overhead, past, round, through.

3.4. Adverbs of time

Adverbs of time give information about the


duration or the moment an action takes place.
The most common adverbs of time are:
afterwards, before, eventually, immediately,
lately, now, recently, since, soon, then,
today, tomorrow, yet. They can be placed
either in end position or initial position.
The office is closed for two weeks.
Yesterday the main generator failed.

Still is placed after the verb be but before


other verbs:
He is still in the engine room.
He still doesn’t understand.
Most adverbs of time are used with certain
verb tenses and they are going to be mentioned
when discussing about tenses.

3.5. Adverbs of frequency

Adverbs of frequency indicate approximately


how many times something happens. Their
position in the sentence is different according
to the adverb and the meaning, however they
can be placed in mid position, at the beginning
or at the end.
She never goes abroad.
Normally I tip taxi-drivers.
I go on long trips sometimes.

Here is a list of adverbs and adverbial


expressions:

again ever never regularly


and frequentl normally repeatedl
again y occasion y
a lot from ally seldom
all the time to often sometim
time time once es
always hardly periodica sporadica
constantl ever lly lly
y infreque rarely twice
continual ntly usually
ly intermitt
continuo ently
usly much

Adverbs like: hardly ever, rarely,


scarcely ever can be placed at the beginning
of a sentence, but inversion of the following
main verb then becomes necessary:
Hardly ever did they manage to meet
unobserved.

3.6. Sentence adverbs

Sentence adverbs (truth or comment adverbs)


modify the whole sentence/clause and
normally express the speaker’s opinion. Some
sentence adverbs express degrees of certainty:
actually, apparently, certainly, clearly,
definitely, evidently, obviously, perhaps,
possibly, presumably, probably, surely,
undoubtedly. They can be placed after be,
before simple tenses of the other verbs, after
the first auxiliary in a compound verb, at the
beginning or at the end of a sentence.
He is obviously intelligent.
They certainly work hard.
Surely you could pay $ 2,000?

Other sentence adverbs are: admittedly,


fortunately, frankly, honestly, luckily,
naturally, officially, unfortunately,
unluckily etc. They are usually placed in
initial position though the end position is also
possible. They are normally separated from the
rest of the sentence by a comma. Many of
them can also be adverbs of manner:
Honestly, he didn’t get the money.

3.7. Linking adverbs

A linking adverb relates to the previous


clause or sentence. Most often it goes in front
position but it can go in mid or end position.
The linking adverbs are: also, as a result, as
well, consequently, furthermore, however,
instead, in addition, likewise, nevertheless,
on the other hand, otherwise, therefore, too:
He was forced to work to support himself.
However, he still found time to review for
his exams.

4. Vocabulary Practice

! In order to be able to do the following


tasks you’ll have to revise unit 4.
Propulsion and Steering, for the first two
tasks and The Bridge for the following ones.
When you finish turn to the key to check
your answers and then do the test to
evaluate your performance. You will be
awarded one point for each correct answer.
If your score is under 30 points, you’ll have
to turn back to the vocabulary and
grammar problems you failed in your
answers. Afterwards try the test again. If
your score is over 30 points, you may pass
on to the next unit. Good luck!

I. Answer the following questions relating


to propulsion and steering.
1. Ships are pushed through the water by
propellers. What’s another word for
propeller?
2. What is the action of being driven forward
called?
3. What is a ship with one propeller called?
4. What is a ship with two propellers called?
5. What is a ship with four propellers called?
6. Which engine drives the ship?
7. What is a turbine engine?
8. How are main engines powered?
9. What is the flat, vertical structure at the
stern that causes a ship to turn?
10. What is the source of power to turn
rudders?
11. What are the motors and control
equipment used to turn and power the
rudder called?
12. What controls the steering engines?
13. Who turns the wheel?

II. Complete the following sentences with


the appropriate term(s)

1. Another word for propellers


is…………………………………….
2. The process of being driven forward is
called……………………..
3. A ship with one propeller is a…………..
………………….ship.
4. A ship with two propellers is a ………..
………………….ship.
5. A ship with four propellers is a…………
………………….ship.
6. The screws are connected to the……
……. …..by a……………
7. An engine with blades that rotate inside is
called a………engine.
8. Modern ships are powered by …,…,…,
…………………………
9. A ship is steered by
its………………………..and screws.
10. The power for a rudder is provided by
its…………. ……………
11. The combination of equipment used to
turn and power a ship is called its…. …..
12. The steering engines are controlled by
the…. Which is turned by a sailor known
as the……….

III. Answer the following questions relating


to the Bridge.
1. What do we say about a ship when it’s
free to move in the water?
2. What is another word for the bridge of a
ship?
3. What is another word for the wheel used
to steer a ship?
4. What is the science of finding the position,
course, and distance travelled by a ship
called/
5. What is the course of a ship?
6. What is a binnacle?
7. What is a gyrocompass?
8. What is a gyro-repeater?
9. What is the wheel within a gyrocompass
called?
10. What is an engine order telegraph?
11. What are intercommunication sets?
12. What is another word for
intercommunication sets?
13. What is a fathometer/
14. What is a radar repeater?
15. What is a platform?
16. What is a lookout?

IV. Complete the following sentences with


the appropriate term(s)
1. The course of a ship is
its………………………………………….
.
2. The magnetic compass is housed in
the…………………………….
3. A gyrocompass is used to
determine………………………………..
4. Gyrocompasses
contain……………………………………
………..
5. The gyrocompass reading is seen on the
bridge on the……………..
6. Another word for engine order telegraph
is…………………………
7. Intercommunication sets are commonly
called……………………...
8. The radar reading is seen on the bridge on
the………………………
9. A fathometre measures the……of the
water.
10. A raised floor around the bridge used for
observation is a…………..
11. A seaman who observes the sea from the
bridge is called the……….

V. Give Romanian equivalents to the


following standard wheel orders.
Midships; port twenty; hard-a-port;
starboard ten; ease to five; steady;
Steady as she goes; keep the
buoy/mark/beacon…on port side

VI. Give English equivalents to the


following standard engine orders.

Toata viteza inainte; incet inainta; foarte


incet inapoi; jumatate inapoi;
Toata inapoi; toata viteza inapoi (de
urgenta); liber la masina;propulsor prova
jumatate babord

5. Vocabulary Practice-Answer Key

I.

1. Screws
2. Propulsion
3. A single-screw ship
4. A twin-screw ship
5. A four screw ship
6. The main propulsion engine
7. One with blades that rotate inside the engine
8. By steam, electric, diesel, diesel-electric, or
nuclear power
9. The rudder
10. Steering engines
11. Steering gear
12. The wheel
13. The helmsman

II.
1. screw
2.propulsion
3.single-screw
4.twin-screw
5.four-screw
6.main propulsion engine; shaft
7.turbine
8.steam, electric, diesel, diesel electric,
nuclear
9.rudder
10. steering engines
11. steering gear
12. wheel, helmsman

III. Answer the following questions relating


to the Bridge.

1.It’s underway
2.The conn
3.The helm
4.Navigation
5.Its direction
6.A stand used to house a magnetic compass
7.An instrument used to determine true
direction on a ship.
8.An instrument on the bridge from which the
gyrocompass is read.
9.A gyroscope.
10. A communications device for transmitting
orders to the engineers.
11. It’s also called an annunciator.
12. Communication devices which can be
heard in wide areas for sending orders to
various parts of a ship.
13. Squawk boxes
14. A device for measuring the depth of water.
15. A device used to read the ship’s radar
system from the bridge.
16. A raised floor area around the bridge used
for observation of the sea.
17. A seaman who observes the sea for
anything of interest.

IV. Complete the following sentences with


appropriate term(s)
1.direction
2.binnacle
3.true direction
4.a gyroscope
5.gyro-repeater
6.annunciator
7.squawk boxes
8.radar repeater
9.depth
10. platform
11. lookout

V. Give Romanian equivalents to the


following standard wheel orders.

Mijloc cârma; babord 20; banda stânga;


tribord 10; redu la 5; drept aşa; ţine-o drept
aşa;
Ţine geamandura/semnul/baliza….în babord

VI. Give English equivalents to the


following standard engine orders.

Full ahead; slow ahead; dead slow astern;


half astern; full astern; emergency full
astern;finished with engines; bow thrust half
to port.

6. Grammar Practice: The Adverb

1. Rewrite these sentences using an adverb


instead of an adjective.

1. Peter is a bad tennis player. Peter


plays tennis badly.
2. He’s a dangerous driver. He
drives.....................
3. She’s a fast swimmer. She
swims...................
4. Martin is a good
cook. ...................................
5. I’m a slow
writer. ...................................
6. She’s a wonderful
dancer ...................................
7. Sheila is a hard
worker. ....................................
8. They aren’t quick
learners. ....................................

II. Complete the sentences. Put in the


adverb form of the adjective in brackets ( ).
1. She read the message quickly (quick).
2. Read the instructions ...............(careful).
3. He looked at her.....................(angry), but
he didn’t say anything.
4. She passed all her exams....................
(easy).
5. Iran as ....................(fast) as I could.
6. He thinks that he did the test.................
(bad) and that he’ll fail.
7. I’ve been studying very..................(hard)
recently.
8. She was working.................(busy) when I
arrived.
9. She sang the song..................(beautiful)
10. He was playing................(happy) when I
came into the room.
11. He was concentrating...............(hard) on
his work.
12. Have I filled this form in ................
(correct)?
13. I wasn’t in a hurry, so I walked...................
(slow) through the park.
14. I closed the door................(quiet) when
left.
III. Complete the dialogues by putting a
suitable adverb into the gaps. Use an
adjective from the following ones: slow, fast,
hard, good (x2), easy, bad.

1. A: Were the questions difficult?


B: No, I answered them easily.
2. A: Does she speak English.....................?
B: No, she only knows a few words of
English.
3. A: Hurry up! I’m waiting!
B: Just a minute. I’m coming
as .....................as I can.
4. A: Did you lose at tennis again?
B: Yes, I played.......................and I lost.
5. A: Have you been working.................today?
B: No, I’ve done nothing all day!
6. A: Have you finished that book yet?
B: No, I always read very...................It
takes me a long time to finish a book.
7. A: Is he a bad student?
B: No, he does all his work
very......................

IV. Put in the comparative adverb form of


the adjective in brackets.
1. You must do your work more carefully
(careful) in future.
2. He has run the 100 metres......................
(fast) than any other athlete in the world this
year.
3. Everyone else did the test....................
(good) than me.
4 You can travel......................(cheap) at
certain times of the year.
5. He plays.................(confident) than he did
in the past.
6. I’m sorry I’ve made so many mistakes. I’ll
try...............(hard) in future.
7. You will be able to sit...................
(comfortable) in this chair.

V. Complete these sentences using really or


quite.

1. The film was really good. I enjoyed it a lot.


2. It’s....................cold outside, but not very
cold.
3. It isn’t a wonderful book, but
it’s..................good.
4. The tickets were...............expensive – they
cost much more than I expected.
5. The programme is................popular in my
country; millions of people watch it.
6. He’s..............good at his job, but sometimes
makes bad mistakes.
7. The meal was..............nice, but it wasn’t
very good.
8. It’s.............dangerous to drive fast in such
terrible weather conditions.
9. I’m not a very good tennis player, but I
am.................good.
10. They’re all..............intelligent students,
and they will all pass their exams easily.
11. The company that I work for
is.................big, but it’s not enormous.

VI. Put the words in brackets ( ) in the right


place in these sentences

1. I work late at the office.


(often) I often work late at the office.
2. You must lock the front door when you
leave.
(always)...............................
3. Steve and Jill play golf.
(twice a month)...................
4. I eat a sandwich for lunch.
(usually).............................
5. I go to jazz concerts at the weekend.
(sometimes)....................
6. My teacher gives me a lot of homework.
(every day)..........................
7. We see our Mexican friends.
(hardly ever).......................
8. They go to Morroco for their holidays.
(often).................................
9. Bill and Marie go to the theatre.
(four times a year)...............
10. They are at home in the evening.
(rarely).................................

VII. Complete the sentences by choosing an


ending from the following ones:

- the road carefully,


- their homework well,
- the piano badly,
- his car fast,
- her breakfast slowly,
- Arabic perfectly,
- an hour late

1. He drives.................................
2. She plays.................................
3. Maria ate.................................
4. They speak..............................
5. You must always cross...........
6. They all did.............................
7. The plane arrived....................

Miscellaneous

I. In these dialogues underline the


adjectives and circle the adverbs

1. A: I think he’s a good worker. What do you


think?
B: I’m not sure. He works carefully, but he
makes some bad mistakes.
2. A: He’s a wonderful skier. He skis quickly
and beautifully.
B: In my opinion, he skis dangerously. He’s
a stupid skier.
3. A: He’s a rich and powerful man. He lives
expensively.
B: Yes, but he spends money carefully. He
buys valuable objects.
4. A: Paul, Jane, Diana and Mark live in a big,
old house in Scotland. They live happily
together.
B: I know they are happy, but the house is
expensive and so they live cheaply
5. A: This bread tastes awful. Did you cook it
correctly?
B: If you think it’s horrible, why are you
eating it so hungrily?
6. A: She’s very young, but she sings and
dances beautifully.
B: She’s a wonderful singer, but she dances
badly in my opinion.

II. Put in the adjective or adverb in


brackets ( ).

1. The train was very slow (slow/slowly) and


I arrived late.
2. The journey took a long time because the
train went very...............(slow/slowly).
3. Mrs. Green went..................(quick/quickly)
back to her office.
4. I’m afraid I can’t give you an ................
(immediate/immediately) answer; I need to
think about it first.
5. The work that the builders did for us was
very.................(bad/badly).
6. The builders did the work for us
very....................(bad/badly)
7. She organized the party...............
(good/well), and everybody enjoyed it.
8. Everybody said that the party was
very................(good/well).
9. She wrote a ..............(polite/politely) letter
asking the company to give her the money
back.
10. She wrote the company and asked
them ..............(polite/politely) to give her the
money back.

7. Answer Key: THE ADVERB

I. 1. dangerously
2. fast
3. Martin cooks well.
4. I write slowly.
5. She dances wonderfully.
6. Sheila works hard.
7. They don’t learn quickly./ They learn
slowly.

II. carefully, angrily, easily, fast, badly, hard,


busily, beautifully, happily, hard, correctly,
slowly, quietly.

III. well, fast, badly, hard, slowly, well.


IV. faster, better, more cheaply, more
confidently, herder, more comfortably.

V. quite, quite, really, really, quite, quite,


really, quite, really, quite.

VI. 1. You must always lock the front door


when you leave.
2. Steve and Jill play golf twice a month.
3. I usually eat a sandwich for lunch.
4. I sometimes go to jazz concerts at the
weekend.
5. My teacher gives me a lot of homework
every day.
6. We hardly ever see our Mexican friends.
7. They often go to Morroco for their
holidays.
8. Bill and Marie go to the theatre four
times a year.
9. They are rarely at home in the evening.

VII. 1. his car fast


2. the piano badly
3. her breakfast slowly
4. Arabic perfectly
5. the road carefully
6. their homework well
7. an hour late

Answer Key: MISCELLANEOUS

I.1 good, carefully, bad


2. wonderful, quickly, beautifully,
dangerously, stupid
3. rich, powerful, expensively, carefully,
valuable
4. big, old, happily, happy, expensive,
cheaply
5. awful, correctly, horrible, hungrily
6. young, beautifully, wonderful, badly

II. slowly, quickly, immediate, bad, badly,


well, good, polite, politely.

8. Self-Test

I. Fill in the blanks with appropriate


term(s).

1. Ships are pushed through the water


by……..
2. A ship with one propeller is known as
a…….
3. The screws are connected to the main
propulsion engine by a …….
4. The power for a ship’s engine is usually
from a ….engine.
5. A ship is steered by its……..and screws.
6. Rudders are turned in the water by…. …..
7. The combination of equipment used to
turn and power the steering engines is
the… ….
8. The steering engines, located in the rear of
the ship are controlled by the….
9. The wheel is found on the bridge and is
turned by the …….
10. Another word for propeller is………

II. Give Romanian equivalents to the


English maritime terms:

Conn; course; binnacle; fathometer;


gyrocompass; lookout; underway; gyro-
repeater; OOD; engine order telegraph
10p

III. Answer the following questions and


statements with complete sentences.
1. What does the term “the ship is underway”
mean?
2. What is a helm?
3. What is navigation?
4. What is the conn of the ship?
5. What is the course of a ship?
5
p
IV. Complete the following sentences with
appropriate terms.

1. The magnetic compass is housed in


the…………………
2. A gyrocompass is used to
determine………………….
3. Gyrocompasses
contain…………………………………..
4. Another word for engine order telegraph
is………………
5. A fathometer measures the…..of the
water.
5
p
V. Put in the right word.
1.The driver of the car
was…..injured(serious/seriously}
2.The driver of the car had ….injuries
(serious/seriously)
3.I think you behaved very…(selfish/selfishly)
4.Rose is….upset about losing her job
(terrible/terribly)
5.There was a …change in the weather
(sudden/suddenly)
6.Everybody at the party was….dressed
(colourful/colourfully)
7.Linda likes wearing…clothes
(colourful/colourfully)
8.He says he didn’t do well at school because
he was….taught (bad/badly)
9.She fell and hurt herself quite….(bad/badly)
10. He looked at me…when I interrupted him
(angry/angrily) 10p

VI. Complete each sentence using a word


from the list.

Careful(ly); complete(ly);
continuous(ly); financial(ly);fluent(ly)
Happy/happily; nervous(ly); perfect(ly);
quick(ly); special(ly)
1. Our holiday was too short. The time
passed very…….
2. Tom doesn’t take risks when he’s driving.
He’s always……….
3. Sue works…..She never seems to stop.
4. Alice and Stan are very…..married.
5. Monica’s English is very……although she
makes a lot of mistakes.
6. I cooked this meal….for you, so I hope
you like it.
7. Everything was very quiet. There
was….silence.
8. I tried on the shoes and they fitted me….
9. Do you usually feel…..before
examination?
10. I’d like to buy a car but it’s……
impossible at the moment.

1
0
p
Self-test- Answer key
I.

1. screws(propellers)
2. single-screw ship
3. shaft
4. turbine
5. shaft
6. steering engines
7. steering gear
8. wheel
9. helmsman
10. screw

II.
Punte de comandă; drum;
habitaclu; sondă ultrasonoră; girocompas; om
de veghe/observator; in marş; repetitor
girocompas; ofiţer de cart; telegraf de maşină.

III.

1. Free to move in water.


2. The conn of a ship is the bridge from
where the ship is controlled.
3. A helm is a wheel used for steering the
ship
4. The science of finding the position, course
and distance travelled by a ship.
5. A course of a ship is its direction.

IV.
1. seriously
2. serious
3. selfishly
4. terribly
5. sudden
6. colourfully
7. colourful
8. badly
9. badly
10. angrily

V.

1. quickly
2. careful
3. continuously
4. happily
5. fluent
6. specially
7. complete
8. perfectly
9. nervous
10. financially
Unit 5.

NAVAL EQUIPMENT: GROUND


TACKLE

Objectives: After studying the topic in the


course book the learner should be able to:
identify pieces of equipment used for
anchoring and mooring; label the items studied
correctly on a diagram; match the term with
the illustration; recognise definitions of ground
tackle items.

1. Ground tackle is the term used to


include all equipment used for mooring and
anchoring ships. Mooring means to tie or
make fast a boat or ship to the land or a
mooring buoy.
Anchoring means to keep a ship in place at
sea by a heavy metal object on the end of a
rope. Ground tackle includes the anchors,
chains, shackles, and stoppers necessary for
these operations.

An anchor is hoisted (raised) and lowered


by a windlass.
This is a motor that turns a shaft on which
is mounted a wildcat or chain grab, which is
the wheel that takes up the chain. This
equipment is located in the windlass room.
Below the windlass room is the chain locker
where the chain is kept. The chain travels
below through a hawsepipe.

When a ship is anchored, the chain is held


with one to three stoppers consisting of a
pelican hook and a turnbuckle in a short length
of chain. The stopper helps the chain to hold.
A pelican hook is a hinged hook held in place
by a ring. The turnbuckle can be set to make
the stopper tight or loose.

Among the deck fittings (tools and


machinery found on the deck) are capstans
and winches. The capstan is a powered item of
equipment used for handling mooring lines
(ropes and chains) and for other functions
requiring strong power. Winches are pulling
machines, mainly used to handle cargo which
consists of supplies and materials being
transported.

2. Vocabulary

Ground tackle = instalatie de ancorare


Mooring = ancorare, legare la cheu, acostare
To make fast = a volta, a lega o nava la cheu, a
amara
Mooring buoy = geamandura de legare
Chain = lant de ancora, a lega cu lant
Shackle = cheie de lant (unitate de lungime
pentru lantul de ancora); cheie de
impreunare/tachelaj
Stopper = stopa; a bloca, a zavori
Windlass = vinci de ancora
Wildcat = barbotin
Chain grab = barbotin
Chain locker = put al lantului de ancora;
magazie de lanturi
Windlass room = compartiment al vinciului de
ancora
Hawsepipe = manson al narii de ancora
Pelican hook = cirlig cu cioc de papagal
Turnbuckle = intinzator metalic/cu filet
Deck fittings = instalatii/mecanisme de punte
Winch = vinci
Capstan = cabestan
Mooring lines = parime de acostare/legare,
legatura
Cargo = marfa

3. Deck fittings
Deck fittings include a number of devices
that lines or wires can be belayed (attached or
secured) to. Deck fittings are attached to ships’
decks and bulkheads, or to piers (landing
places), depending on their functions.
Figure 1 shows a cleat. Cleats are found
throughout ships on decks and bulkheads, and
on piers. On modern ships, they are made of
metal, usually steel. Wires and lines used for
many purposes are belayed to them.
Figure 2 shows a pair of bitts. These are
cylindrical fittings made of iron or steel. Each
pair is mounted on a footing (base). The
footing is attached to the deck by bolts, or by
welding (united metals by heat). The
shipboard (on the ship) ends of mooring lines
are

attached to the bitts.


Figure 1. – Cleat Figure
2. – Bitts

Figures 3, 4, and 5 show a series of


chocks. Chocks are heavy fittings with smooth
surfaces through which mooring lines are led.
Mooring lines are run from bitts on deck
through chocks to the pier. There are three
types. Figure 3 shows an open chock, which is
open at the top. Figure 4 is of a closed
chock .It is closed by metal at the top. Figure 5
is a roller chock. Roller chocks contain round
cylinders to reduce friction.

Figure 3 – Open chock

Figure 5 – Roller chock


Figure 4 – Closed chock

Figure 6 is of a bollard. This is a strong


fitting which is found on piers. This mooring
line from the ship is attached to it.
Figure 7 shows a padeye. Padeyes are
metal fittings welded to decks and bulkheads.
They are used for attachments which will
require great strength such as towing (ship
pulling)
operations. They are also used with chain
stoppers, and cargo blocks and tackles.
A seaman needs to be able to recognise
and know the functions of all of these fittings.
Much of his work will involve them.

Figure 6. – Bollard Figure 7. – Padeye

4. Vocabulary

deck fittings = instalatii/mecanisme de punte


to belay = a lua volta (la tachet sau cavila); a
amara
pier = mol, dig spargeval
cleat = tachet, pană
bitt = bintă, baba de lemn; binta de lanţ
footing = suport
welding = sudură
shipboard = la bordul navei
chock = ureche de ghidare; nară de parâmă;
cavalet de barcă; şpraiţ ( de fixare a
încărcăturii);tac; pană;colţar scurt de stringher
open chock = ureche de ghidare deschisă
closed chock î ureche de ghidare închisă
roller chock = ureche de ghidare cu turnichet/
şomar (la barcă)
bollard = baba de cheu, bolard
padeye = placă cu ochi
towing = remorcare
block = macara ( scriprte )
tackle = greement; palanc;tachelaj

5. PRESENT SIMPLE AND


CONTINUOUS

In this section we are going to talk about


tenses usually referred to as “present” in
grammars and reference books, the present
simple and the present continuous. These
tenses are discussed in their relation to present
time. Another form of present tense is the
present emphatic and is important to make the
distinction between this and the normal form
of the present simple.

Present simple - full form: I walk; negative


form: I do not walk; question form: Do you
walk to school?/ Don’t you walk to school?;
tag question: You walk to school, don’t you?/
You don’t walk to school, do you?
Meaning and function- this tense is a
timeless tense for actions which are always,
repeatedly, or generally true, or actions
encapsulated in a single instant (with no
reference to past or future).
This tense is used to denote truths:
• Habitual truth: He smokes forty cigarettes

a day.
• Eternal truth: Jesus lives/ The Koran says…

• Recurrent truth: The sun rises in the east.

• Permanent human truth: I like sweets.

• General truth: English people drink a lot of

tea.
• Mathematical and scientific truth: Two and

two make four/ Water boils at 100C.


It is used for giving instructions, directions,
demonstrations (often with the impersonal
you): (You) beat the eggs and then (you) add
the flour/ (You) turn to the left and walk
straight ahead.
It is used as a narrative device for dramatic
effect in certain situations:
• In commentaries: He passes the ball to

Clark, aims and scores.


• In headlines and captions: Putin meets G.

Bush
In describing feelings and senses (sudden
ones): I feel sick (suddenly)/ I hear bells.
With a future time marker the tense gives a
timetable future usually for schedules:
My bus leaves at 3.00 p.m.
It is used after when to form a time clause:
When I get home, I’ll make tea.
Habitual present tense with adverbs of
frequency (always, sometimes, often, never,
usually): They never smoke when they are
aboard ship/ He always sings when he takes a
shower.
In formal speech it is possible to use what we
call the “historic present” to describe past
events, especially to make the narration seem
more immediate and dramatic: “…so then the
second man asks the first one why he has a
banana in his ear and the first one says…”

Present continuous- full form: I’m looking;


negative form: I am not looking; question
form: Are you looking?/ Aren’t you looking?;
tag question: You are looking, aren’t you?/
Aren’t you looking, are you?/ I’m looking,
aren’t I?
State and dynamic verbs- some verbs rarely
take the present continuous form at all: these
are verbs that describe a state of affairs beyond
the person’s immediate active control (If
someone is a man, has a car, knows French,
hears music, or like apples-there is little he
can do to change this at the moment). These
verbs are often called state verbs, as distinct
from dynamic ones, where the person is
actively doing something. Even verbs which
are usually state, can take the present
continuous, but they mean something
different. The most common state verbs are
the following:
• To be- rarely occurs in the present
continuous form except with adjectives of
behaviour: You are being silly (suggests a
temporary and deliberate action)
• To have- I’m having a bath/ a drink (it
implies present enjoyment or experience)
• Verbs describing involuntary sensations

(smell, hear, see)- are usually in the present


simple, but they also take the present
continuous for particular effect:
I’m seeing him to the station (change of
meaning); I’m smelling roses (pretence).
• Emotion and wishing verbs (intend, hope,

wish, like, dislike) can sometimes occur


with the present continuous for a polite and
tentative meaning: I am hoping that you
will take the part of Hamlet.
• Thinking verbs (think, expect) sometimes

take the continuous form when thinking is


an activity, not a passive state of mind: Be
quiet! I am thinking / The police are
expecting trouble, but I think he is at home
now (think = believe)
• Other state verbs (belong to, concern,

contain, cost, matter, resemble, keep on)


are usually in the present simple, but again
there are some exceptions where the
continuous form is used, for example to
emphasize temporary meaning:
God knows what this meal is costing
me! / He is resembling his father more and
more.
Meaning and function:
a) Temporary action- that began before the

time of speaking, is continuous across it,


and is not yet complete: I’m walking at
this moment.
b) Temporary habit- not necessarily engaged

in at the moment of speech, but


temporarily contracted for: I’m watering
his plants while he is away.
c) Regrettable habit (always): I’m always

losing my keys (the speaker is constantly


in a state of having lost the keys).
d) Future action- for plans and arrangements:

I’m picking her up at 6.00, we’re leaving


tomorrow.

Present emphatic- used to express


contradiction, surprise or insistence and
rely on stress and intonation for their
function. It is created as the ordinary tense,
with the addition of stress on the auxiliaries.
Meaning and function
a) To express reassurement of reaffirmation

that action occurs: I do turn off the lights./


He does live here.
b) To express contradiction: You do break
the speed limit./ I do like icecream.
c) To express enthusiasm, strong feeling: I
do hope I can come./ I do love Chopin./ I
do want to see that film.
d) To express enthusiastic reinforcement: I
do like your hat.
e) To express invitation: Do you play chess?/
I do want to see that film.

6. Vocabulary Practice

! In order to be able to do the following tasks,


you’ll have to revise the information in Unit
5,course book.Pay special attention to the
terms relating to the ground tackle and deck
fittings.In order to assess your performance
turn to the self-test and key to check your
answers. Good luck!

I. Answer the following questions.

1. What is ground tackle?


2. What is mooring?
3 What is anchoring?
4. What does make fast mean?
5. What is a mooring buoy?
6. What does hoist mean?
7. What is a windlass?
8. What is a chain grab?
9. What is a windlass room?
10. What is a wildcat?
11. What is a chain locker?
12. What is a hawsepipe?
13. What are deck fittings?
14. What is a capstan?
15. What are mooring lines?
16. What are winches?

II. Complete the following sentences by


filling in the blank spaces with the
appropriate term(s):

1. The equipment known as _______


_______is used for mooring and
anchoring ships.
2. Tying a ship to the land or a buoy is
known as_________________________
3. Keeping a ship in place at aea with a
weight and chain is_________________
4. Another word for tying is
to________________________________
________
5. A heavy weight at the end of a chain to
keep a ship in place is called an______
6. A series of metal rings joined together
form a __________________________
7. A U-shaped metal ring for connecting
tackle is a________________________
8. A short length of rope or chain used for
holding a line or chain is a_________-
9. To raise or lift is
to________________________________
_______________
10. A motor that pulls in an anchor is a
__________________________________
11. A wheel on the windlass that takes the
anchor chain up is the______________
12. Another word for wildcat
is_________________________________
________
13. The compartment in which the windlass is
located is the__________________
14. The anchor chain is kept in
the________________________________
______
15. The part of a stopper consisting of a
hinged hook held in place by a ring is
called
a_________________________________
_______________________
16. The opening through which the anchor
chain moves is the________________
17. The metal device used to make a stopper
tight or loose is the______________
18. Tools and machinery found on the deck
are known as____________________
19. The powered equipment used to handle
mooring lines is the_______________
20. Ropes and chains used to moor a ship are
called_______________________
21. Pulling machines used to handle cargo
are_____________________________

III. Answer the following questions:

1. What are deck fittings?


2. What does belay mean?
3. What does shipboard mean?
4. What is welding?
5. What is towing?
6. What devices do deck fittings include?
7. How would you say that the sailor
attached a line to a cleat?
8. What would you call the end of mooring
line that is on a ship?
IV. Identify the following objects.
A is
a____________________________________
________________________
B is
an___________________________________
________________________
C is
a____________________________________
________________________
D is a
_____________________________________
______________________
E is
a____________________________________
________________________
F is
a____________________________________
________________________
G is
a____________________________________
________________________
7. Vocabulary Practice- Answer key

I.

1.All equipment used for anchoring or


mooring ships.
2.Tying a ship to the land or mooring buoy.
3.Keeping a ship in place at sea with a chain
and heavy weight called an anchor.
4.To tie one thing to another.
5.A large floating device to tie a ship to.
6.To raise or lift.
7.A motor used to pull in (hoist) or drop the
anchor.
8.Another word for wildcat.
9.The compartment in which the windlass is
located.
10. A wheel on the windlass that takes the
anchor chain in and out.
11. The compartment below the windlass
room where the anchor chain is kept.
12. The opening through which the anchor
chain goes between the chain locker and the
deck.
13. Tools and machinery found on the deck.
14. An item of powered equipment used to
handle mooring lines.
15. Ropes and chains used to moor a ship.
16. Pulling machines mainly used to handle
cargo.
II. Complete the following sentences by
filling in the spaces with appropriate
term(s)

1.ground tackle
2.mooring
3.anchoring
4.make fast
5.anchor
6.chain
7.shackle
8.stopper
9.hoist
10. windlass
11. wildcat
12. chain grab
13. windlass room
14. chain locker
15. pelican hook
16. hawswpipe
17. turnbuckle
18. deck fittings
19. capstan
20. mooring lines
21. winches

III. Label the following items correctly.

a)shackle; b) chain; c)turnbuckle; d) pelican


hook; e)anchor; f) stopper

IV. Answer the following questions.

1. Devices that lines or wires can be attached


to.
2. To attach a line or wire.
3. On the ship.
4. Uniting metals by heat,
5. Pulling another ship.
6. Deck fittings include cleats, bitts,
chocks,bollards, and padeyes.
7. He belayed it. To the cleat.
8. Shipboard ends.

V. Identify the following objects.

a) bitts; b) open chock; c)roller chock; d)


closed chock e) padeye; f) cleat; g) bollard

8. Grammar Practice: Present Simple and


Present Continuous
Exercise I. Complete the sentences. Use am/
is/ are + one of these verbs

building coming cooking playing


standing studying swimming

1. Listen! Pat is playing the piano.


2. They………….a new hotel downtown
3 Look! Somebody ……….. … in the river.
4. ”You……………on my foot”. “Oh, I ‘m
sorry”.
5. Hurry up! The bus …………..
6.”Where are you Sam?” “In the kitchen . I
……….. dinner.”
7. (on the phone) “ Hello. Can I speak to Ann
please?” “ She ……….for an exam right now.
Can she call you back later?”

Exercise II. What’s happening right now?


Write true sentences.

1.(I/ wash/ my hair). I’m not washing my hair.


2.(it / snow)
3.(I / sit / on a chair)
4.(I / eat)
5.(it / rain )
6.(I / do /this exercise).
7.(I / listen / to the radio)
8.(the sun / shine)
9.(I /wear / shoes )
10. (I / read / a newspaper)

Exercise III. Write positive or negative short


answers (Yes, I am / No, it isn’t, etc.)

1. Are you watching TV? No, I’m not.


2. Are you wearing shoes?
3. Are you wearing a hat?
4. Is it raining?
5. Are you eating something?
6. Are you feeling all right?
7. Is the sun shining?
8. Is your teacher watching you?

Exercise IV. Write the he / she / it form of


these verb:
1. read …..reads
2. repair…….
3. watch……….
4. listen………..
5. love……….
6. have……….
7. push……….
8. do……….
9. think……….
10. kiss……..
11. buy……….
12. go…..

Exercise V. Complete the sentences. Use the


correct form of these verbs.

boil close cost cost drink go have


have like meet open speak teach
wash

1.She’s very smart. She speaks four languages.


2.Steve …………. four cups of coffee a day .
3.We usually…………. Dinner at 7 o’ clock.
4.I …………..movies. I often ……………. to
the movies with friends.
5.Water …………… at 100 degrees Celsius.
6.In my home town the banks ……………. at
9:00 in the morning.
7.The City Museum ……………. at 5 o ‘
clock on Saturdays.
8.Food is expensive. It …………….. a lot of
money.
9.Shoes are expensive. They ……………. a
lot of money.
10. Sue is a teacher. She ………… math to
young children.
11. Your job is very interesting. You
………… a lot of people.
12. Peter …………. his hair every day.
13. An insect ………. six legs.

Exercise VI. Write the opposite. (positive or


negative).
1. I understand. I don’t understand.
2. She doesn’t drive. She drives.
3. They know. They ………..
4. He loves her. ………..
5. They speak English. ………….
6. I don’t want it. …………….
7. She doesn’t want them. ………..
8. He lives in Taiwan. ………………

Exercise VII. Complete the sentences. All of


them are negative. Use don’t/ doesn’t + one
of these verbs.

cost drive go have know play


see sell smoke wash wear
1.” Have a cigarette”. “ No, thanks.” I don’t
smoke.
2. They ………… newspapers in that store.
3. She has a car, but ………….. very often.
4. I like plays, but I ………..to the theatre
very often.
5.My car is usually dirty because I …………..
it very often.
6. It’s a cheap hotel. It ………….. much to
stay there.
7. He likes soccer, but he ………… very
often.
8. I …………….. much about politics.
9. She’s married, but she …………….. a ring.
10. He lives next door, but we………….. him
very often.
11. “Can you lend me five dollars?” “Sorry, I
…………..any money.”

Exercise VIII. You are asking somebody


questions. Write questions with Do/ Does….?
Example: I work hard . How about you? Do
you work hard?
1. play tennis .How about you? ……. you
……………..?
2.I play tennis. How about Ann? …….. Ann
…………. ?
3.I know the answer. How about you?
……………….. the answer?
4.I like hot weather. How about you?
……………………….?
5.My father drinks coffee. How about your
father ? ………………?
6.I exercise every morning. How about you?
…………………..?
7.I speak English. How about your friends?
……………..?
8.I want to be famous. How about you?
……………..?

Exercise IX. These questions begin with


Where/ What/How ……?
1. I wash my hair every day. ( how
often/you ?) How often do you wash your
hair?
2. I live in Mexico City. (where /you?) Where
………………….?
3. I watch TV every day. (how often/you?)
How …………..?
4. I have lunch at home.(where/ you ?)
…………………….?
5. I get up at 7:30.(what time/ you?)
………………….?
6. I go the movies a lot. (how often/ you?)
……………?
7. I go to work by bus. (how/you?)
……………..?
8. I always have eggs for breakfast. (what/
you?) …………………….?

Exercise X. Put the verb in the present


continuous (I am doing) or simple present (I
do)
1. Excuse me, do you speak …….. (you/
speak) English?
2. Tom (is taking) …… (take) a shower at the
moment.
3. They don’t watch …. (not/ watch) television
very often.
4. Listen! Somebody …………….. (sing).
5. She’s tired. She …………….. (want) to go
home now.
6. How often …………. (you/ read) the
newspaper.
7. “Excuse me, but you ………. (sit) in my
place.” Oh, I’m sorry.”
8. I’m sorry, I ……….. (not/ understand).
Please speak more slowly.
9. “Where are you Dan?” “ I’m in the living
room. I ………. (read).
10. What time …………. (she/ finish) work
every day?
11. You can turn off the radio. I…………..
(not /listen) to it.
12. He……………… ( not/ usually/ drive) to
work.. He usually ………… (walk).

Exercise XI. Complete the sentences with the


Present Simple (I do) or the Present
Continuous (I am doing)`.
1. I leave (leave) home at 7 o’ clock every
morning.
2. She usually ……………….. (work) in
the sales Department in London, but at the
moment she (do) a training course in Bristol.
3.He ……………. (try) very hard in every
game that he (play).
4. Excuse me. I think you ………… (sit) in
my seat.
5. ………. (you/ listen ) to the radio very
often?
6. Don’t talk to me now. I ……. (write) an
important letter.
7. Why ………….. (they/ drive) on the left in
Britain?
8. It …………… (not/ get) dark at this tome
of year until about 10 o’ clock.
9. It usually ………….. (rain) here a lot, but it
……………. (not/ rain) now.
10. A: What are you doing?
B: …………. (bake) a cake.
Why…………..(you/ smile) ?……….(I/do)
something wrong?

Present Simple and Present Continuous-


Answer Key

Exercise I. 2.are building 3.is swimming 4.are


standing 5.is coming 6.are cooking 7.is
studying

Exercise II. 2.It is/it is not snowing 3.I am /I


am not sitting 4. I am /I am not eating 5.
It is/ it is not raining 6. I am / I am not
doing the exercise 7. I am / I am not
listening to the radio 8. The sun is/ the
sun isn’t shining 9. I am / I am not
wearing shoes 10.I am / I am not
reading a newspaper

Exercise III. 2. Yes, I am / No, I’m not. 3.


Yes, I am / No I ‘m not. 4. Yes, it is /
No it isn’t. 5.Yes, I am / No, I’m not. 6.
Yes, I am / No I’m not. 7. Yes, it is/ No
it isn’t. 8. Yes, she is/ No she isn’t.

Exercise IV. 2. repair; 3.watches; 4. listens; 5.


loves; 6. has; 7.pushes; 8. does; 9.
thinks; 10. kisses; 11. buys; 12. goes.

Exercise V.2. drinks; 3. have; 4. like; 5. go; 6.


open; 7. closes; 8. costs; 9. cost. 10.
teaches; 11. meet; 12. washes; 13. has.

Exercise VI. 3. they don’t know 4. He doesn’t


love 5. They don’t speak English 6. I
want it 7. She wants them 8. She
doesn’t live in Taiwan

Exercise VII. 2. don’t sell 3. doesn’t drive 4.


don’t go 5. don’t wash 6. doesn’t cost
7. doesn’t play 8. don’t know 9. doesn’t
wear 10. don’t have
Exercise VIII. 2. do you live? 3. often do you
watch TV? 4. Where do you have
lunch? 5. What time do you get up? 6.
How often do you go to the movies?
7. How do you go to work? 8. What do
you usually have for breakfast?
Exercise IX. 4. is singing 5. wants 6. do you
read 7. are sitting 8. don’t understand 9.
are reading 10. does she finish 11.am
not listening 12.He doesn’t usually
drive

Exercise X. 2. Works; is doing3. 3. tries; plays


4. tries; are sitting 5. Do you listen 6. Am
writing 7. Do they drive 8. Doesn’t get 9.
Rains; is not raining 10. I’m baking; are you
smiling; Am I doing

10. Self-Test

I. Fill in the blanks with appropriate


term(s)

1. …. ….. is the term used to include all


equipment used for….and….ships.
2. Mooring means to tie or… … a ship to the
land or…… ………………..
3. ….means to keep a ship in place at sea by
a heavy metal object on the end of a rope.
4. Ground tackle includes the…,….,…..,
and….necessary for these operations.
5. An anchor is…. And lowered by
a…………………………………………

6. Below the windlass room is the…… ……
where the anchor chain is kept.
7. The chain travels below through
a…………………………………………
….
8. When a ship is anchored, the chain is held
with one or three stoppers consisting of
a…. …..and a …… in a short length of
chain.
9. … ….include a number of devices that
lines or wires can be……..to.
10. There are three types of chocks: open
chock,……chocks and …chocks.
2
0
p
II. Answer the following questions.

1. Where can you find cleats?


2. What are bitts?
3. What do we attach to the bitts/
4. What are chocks?
5. What is a bollard?
6. What are padeyes?
7. What are padeyes used for?
8. What is welding?
9. What is footing?
10. Why do roller chocks contain round
cylinders?
1
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p
III. Put in am/is/are/do/don’t/does/doesn’t.

1. Excuse me,……you speak English?


2. “Have some coffee,” “No, thank you,
I……drink coffee.”
3. Why……..you laughing at me?
4. “What ……she do?” “She’s a dentist.”
5. I…..want to go out. It…..raining.
6. “Where…..you come from?” “From
Canada”
7. How much…..it cost to send a letter to
Canada.
8. I can’t talk to you right now. I…..working.
9. Bob is a good tennis player, but he….play
very often.
1
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p
IV. Put the verb in the present continuous (I
am doing) or simple present (I do)

1. Excuse me, do you speak……………….


(you /speak) English?
2. Tom…is taking…………………(take) a
shower at the moment.
3. They…don’t
watch…………………………(not/
watch) television very often.
4. Listen! Somebody………………….(sing).
5. She’s tired. She…………………….(want)
to go home now.
6. How often………………………..
(you/read) the newspaper?
7. “Excuse me, but you…………….(sit) in
my place.” “Oh, I’m sorry”
8. I’m sorry, I……………………..
(not/understand).Please speak more
slowly.
9. “Where are you, dan?” “I’m in the living
room. I…………….(read)
10. What time……………….(she/finish)
work every day?
11. You can turn off the radio. I…………..
(not/listen) to it.
12. He…………(not/usually/drive) to work.
He usually…………(walk)
1
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p
11. Self-test-Answer Key

I.
1. Ground tackle; mooring; anchoring
2. make fast; mooring buoy
3. anchoring
4. anchors; chains; shackles, and stoppers
5. hoisted; windlass
6. chain locker
7. hawsepipe
8. pelican hook; turnbuckle
9. belayed
10. closed; roller

II.

1. Throughout ships on decks and bulkheads


and on piers.
2. They are cylindrical fittings made of iron or
steel
3. The shipboard ends of mooring lines are
attached to the bitts.
4. Chocks are heavy fittings with smooth
surfaces through which mooring lines are led.
5. This is a strong fitting which is found on
piers.
6. Padeyes are metal fittings welded to decks
and bulkheads.
7. Padeyes are used for attachments which will
require great strength such as towing
operations.
8. United metals by heat.
9. Base.
10. Roller chocks contain round cylinders to
reduce friction.

III.

1. do
2. don’t
3. are
4. does
5. don’t; It’s
6. are
7. does
8. am
9. doesn’t
IV.
4. is singing
5. wants
6. do you read
7. are sitting
8. don’t understand
9. am reading
10. does she finish
11. don’t listen
12. doesn’t usually drive. He usually walks
Unit 6.
NAVAL EQUIPMENT: SIGNAL
LIGHTS, FLAGS, AND BELLS

Objectives: After studying the topic in the


course book the learner should be able to:
identify the equipment on the signal bridge
and explain the functions of the items
identified; discriminate between the signal
flags and pennants and their functions within
the International Code of Signals

1. Most of the equipment for signalling short


distances is located on or near the signal
bridge on the superstructure of the ship. Lines
called halyards extend from the yardarm. On
them are found signal flags. These are flags
representing letters of the alphabet, numbers,
or complete meanings. If they are not square
they are called pennants. They are read from
top to bottom. They are bent on (attached) to
the halyards and hoisted to the yard.
On or near the signal bridge are signal
searchlights. These are hand-operated blinking
lights which send code messages.
On the outboard end of the yard are two
small lights called yardarm blinkers used for
sending messages over short distances. These
are operated by a special switch called a key
similar to a telegraph key.
1.1. Another signalling device is the ship’s
bell. This is mainly used to notify personnel on
the ship of the time. Using the bell is an old
navy custom. Time is, to this day, expressed in
“bells” on a ship. Traditionally time at sea is
divided into 4-hour periods called watches.
There are six watches.

Midnig Middle Noon- Afterno


ht – Watch 1600 on
0400 Mornin 1600- watch
0400- g Watch 2000 Evening
0800 Forenoo 2000- Watch
0800- n Watch midnigh First
noon t Watch

The evening Watch can be divided into


two short watches.

1600-1800 First dog watch 1800-2000


Second Dog Watch
Each watch is in the charge of an officer.
The traditional pattern is as follows:

12-4 4-8 8-12


a.m. Middle Morning Forenoon
p.m. Watch Watch Watch
Deck Afternoon Evening First
Engine Watch Watch Watch
Second Chief Third
Officer Officer Officer
Third Second Fourth
Engineer Engineer Engineer

Traditionally the passage of time at sea is


marked by bells. Bells are struck throughout
each watch as follows:

After ½ hour 1 bell After 2 hours 4


bells After 3½ hours 7 bells

After 1 hour 2 bells After 2½ hours 5


bells After 4 hours 8 bells

After 1½ hours 3.bells After 3 hours 6


bells
During the Second Dog Watch the bells
strike 1 2 3 8,
1 bell is struck 15 minutes before each
watch is due to change.
1.2. For safety during peacetime, all ships that
go to sea are required by international law to
have running lights. These consist of a white
masthead light usually on the upper part of the
bridge superstructure or on an area forward of
the foremast. Abaft and above the masthead
light is a white range light located either on
the foremast or mainmast. To either side side
lights are found. There is a green one on the
starboard side, and a red one on the port side.
Often a searchlight used to view nearby
objects is found in the signal bridge area. It
should not be confused with signalling
equipment. It’s important for the seaman to
become familiar with all of these items.

2. Vocabulary

Signal bridge = punte de semnalizare


Halyard = funga, saula de pavilion
Yardarm = capat de verga
Signal flags = pavilion de semnalizare
Pennant = flamura
To bend on = a fixa, a atasa
Yard = verga
Running lights = lumini de mars/navigatie
Masthead light = lumina de catarg(la navele cu
propulsie mecanica)
Foremast = catarg prova, arborele trinchet
Range light = lumina de aliniament, lumina de
catarg pupa
Sidelights = lumini distinctive din borduri
(rosie sau verde)
Searchlight = proiector cu fascicul dirijat
Mainmast = arbore mare, catarg principal

3. PRESENT PERFECT AND PRESENT


PERFECT CONTINUOUS

! The present perfect tense is one of the most


difficult English tenses to use well or even
correctly. The explanations presented here
aims to provide the student with a clear guide
to when to use, and when not to use this tense,
in both the simple and continuous form.

Present perfect simple – is formed with the


auxiliary verb have in the corresponding form
for the subject of the sentence, followed by the
participle of the main verb.
full form: I have walked/ drunk/run/ I
haven’t walked; question form: Have you
walked?/ Haven’t you walked?; tag question:
You have walked, haven’t you? You haven’t
walked, have you?
Meaning and function- shows the present
situation in relation to past action, how the
past is relevant to now.
a)For uncompleted action where both action
and results remain/unfinished past/ with a
time marker showing past reference:
London has stood beside the Thames for
hundreds of years/ My mother has
always played tennis.
b) For an action which took place in an

identified period of time which is not yet


over: I’ve read a book this morning./ I
read a book this morning.
c)For an action which took place in the past,
but whose results are still present
(present perfect of result): I’ve spilt the
milk (it is still on the floor).
d) For an action(single or repeated)
which took place in the past, but still
relates
to the present: I’ve studied French.(and
remember it).
e) With the time markers just, yet, already,
still, this can also indicate the attitude of
the speaker:
I have just washed the floor. (so it’s still
wet)
He has just left. (so you are too late to
speak to him)
Have you painted my fence yet?
(questions)
I haven’t painted the fence yet.(negatives)
He has already eaten it.(there is none left)
Hasn’t the train gone already? (that is
surprising)
He still hasn’t left.(negatives)
Have you still got that hat? (Amer.
English prefers the present simple with
still)
Have you ever lived in London? (present
perfect of experience)
I have never lived in Paris.(remembered
experience)
f) Future uses- when clauses: I’ll come when
I have written this letter. (I’ll write this
letter first and when that is complete, I’ll
come)
Present perfect continuous – is formed
with the auxiliary verb have in the
corresponding form for the subject of the
sentence, followed by the participle been of
the auxiliary verb be, followed by the –ing
form of the main verb.
full form: I have been eating/ He has
been eating; question form: Have you been
eating?/ Haven’t you been eating?; tag
questions: You have been eating, haven’t
you?/ You haven’t been eating, have you?
Meaning and function- this tense focuses on
continuous or repeated activity engaged in
before the present, but relevant to it and on the
continuous duration of that action. The action
is seen as temporary and may or may not have
completed at the time of speaking.
a)used as an explanation for the present
situation or the appearance of the speaker-
caused by the recent and ongoing nature of
the activity, which may or may not be
completed:
I won’t shake hands, I’ve been baking.
(my hands are covered in flour);
I have been repairing the car all
morning. (I’m exhausted)
b) to account for a period of time now
finishing-the tense indicates that the
action filled the time:
I didn’t iron your shirt, I’ve been cooking
all morning. (excuse for failure)
c) it is used to draw attention to the
repeated or continuous nature of an action or
habit resulting in present expertise or
knowledge:
I have been learning French for 10
years /I have been living here since1970.
d) it is used for new, temporary habits,
which have become constant or
continuous:
He has been seeing a lot of her lately.
e) it is often used in talking about health to
describe new and developing
symptoms:
I have been getting/having headaches.
f) with verbs of wishing/hoping-the tense
is a polite device, suggesting that the
wish or thought was constantly in the
speaker’s mind:
I have been looking forward to meeting
you.
g) with mean/intend, the tense shows a
recognition that the speaker has failed in
his duty:
I have been meaning to visit you.

Important – it is important to remember


that non-continuous verbs cannot be used
in any continuous tenses. To express the
idea of present perfect continuous with these
exception verbs, you must use present
perfect.
Examples: Tom has been having his car for
two years. Not correct
Sam has had his car for two
years. Correct

* Comparison between the present perfect


simple and the present perfect continuous:
• The present perfect simple: He has
painted the room. (we are interested in the
result of the action, not in the action itself)
• The present perfect continuous: He
has been painting the room.(we are
interested in the action, it does not matter
whether something has been finished or
not).
• We use the simple to ask or say how much,

how many or how many times:


How many pages of that book have you read?/
Mary has written 10 letters today./
They have played tennis three times this week.
• We use the continuous to ask or say how

long (for an activity still happening):


How long have you been reading that book?/
Mary has been writing letters all day./
They have been playing tennis since two
o’clock.
• We can use for and since with both
present perfect simple and continuous: He
has talked about her for years/ He’s been
talking about her for years./I’ve played
volleyball since 9 o’clock/ I’ve been
playing volleyball since 9 o’clock.6.7.

4. Vocabulary Practice

! Please revise Unit 6 in your course book


and then do the following tasks. To evaluate
your performance, turn to the self-test and
answer key at the end of this unit. You will
be awarded one point for each correct
answer. If you score below 30 points you’ll
have to go back to Unit 6 and revise the
vocabulary or grammar problems you have
failed in your test If your score is above 30
points you may pass on to the next Unit.
Good luck!

I. Answer the following questions.

1. Where is most of the equipment for


signalling short distances located?
2. What are the lines extending from the
yardarm called?
3. What are the square flags called which are
used to send messages?
4. What are the flags that are not square?
5. What’s another word for bend on?
6. What are the signal lights located on the
signal bridge called?
7. What are the signal lights located on the
end of the yard called
8. What are the switches used to operate
yardarm blinkers?
9. What is the signalling device used to
sound out the time?
10. What is the general term for safety lights
found around the signal bridge?
11. What is the running light called which is
usually found on the upper part of the
bridge superstructure?
12. What running light is found above and
abaft the masthead light?
13. What are the red and green lights found on
the starboard and port sides called?
14. What is a searchlight?

II. Identify all numbered equipment on the


signal bridge and explain the functions of
the items you list. Write your answers in
the lettered spaces:

a.____________________________________
_______________________________
b.____________________________________
_______________________________
c.____________________________________
_______________________________
d.____________________________________
_______________________________
e.____________________________________
_______________________________
f.____________________________________
_______________________________
g.____________________________________
_______________________________

III. Complete the following sentences with


the appropriate term(s

1. Most of the equipment for signalling


short distances is located on the___ ___
2.Lines called _____ extend from the
yardarm.
3. Signal flags
represent____,____,or_________
4.On or near the signal bridge are
________ _____________
5.On the outboard end of the yard are two
small lights called______ _________
6._____ ______is mainly used to notify
personnel on the ship of the time.
7.All ships that go to sea are required by
international law to have____ _______
8. Running lights consist of a white____
____ usually on the upper part of the bridge
superstructure.
9.Abaft and above the masthead light is a
white ____ ____ located either on the
foremast or mainmast.
10. There is a green light on the starboard
side, and a red one on the port side. They
are
called_______________________________
________________

5. Vocabulary Practice-Answer key

I.
1. On the signal bridge.
2. Halyards
3. Signal flags
4. Pennants
5. Bend on
6. Signal searchlights
7. Yardarm blinkers
8. Keys
9. The ship’s bell.
10. Running lights
11. A masthead light
12. The range light.
13. Sidelights.
14. It’s a light used to locate nearby objects at
night.

II.
a)yardarm blinker lights-used for sending
messages over short distances
b) signal halyards-lines which extend
from the yardarm. On them are found
signal flags
c)signal searchlight-These are hand-
operated blinking lights which send code
messages’
d) ship’s bell-another signalling device
used to notify personnel on the ship of
the time.
e)searchlight-used to view nearby objects
at night.It shouldn’t be confused with
signalling equipment,
f) green sidelight-is placed on the
starboard side and must be exhibited at
night whether the vessel is underway or
at anchor.
g) Masthead light-it’s a white light on the
upper part of the bridge superstructure
or on an area forward of the foremast.
This light must be exhibited at night.

III.

1. signal bridge
2. halyards
3. letters of the alphabet, numbers or
complete meanings
4. signal searchlights
5. yardarm blinkers
6. ship’s bell
7. running lights
8. masthead
9. range light
10. sidelights

6. Grammar practice. The present perfect


and the present Perfect continuous

.You are writing a letter to a friend. In the letter


you give news about yourself and other people.
Use the words to make sentences. Use the present
perfect.

Dear Chris,
Lots of things have happened since I last wrote
to you.
1.I/ buy/ a new car….I’ve bought a new car.
2. my father / start/ a new job………….
3. I / give up/ smoking……………
4. Charles and Sarah/ go / to Brazil………..
5. Suzanne/ have/ a baby…………….

II.Complete the sentences. Use already+


present perfect simple

1. What time is Paul arriving?


He’s already arrived.
2. Do Sue and Bill want to see the film?
No, they………………..
3. Don’t forget to phone Tom.
I………………………..
4. When is Martin going away?
He……………………….
5. Do you want to read the newspaper?
I…………………………
6. When does Linda start her new job?
She ……………………..

III. You are asking Helen questions


beginning Have you ever……?Write
questions.

1.(London?)….Have you ever been to


London? No, never.
2. (play/ golf?) ..Have you ever played golf?
Yes, many times.
3. (Australia?).. Have………………
No, never.
4.(lose /your passport?) ………………..
Yes, once
5. ( fly/ in a helicopter?)……………………..
No, never.
6. (eat/ Chinese food?)…………………..
Yes, a few times.
7. (New York?)………………………….
Yes, twice.
8. (drive / a bus?)…………………..
No, never.
9. (break/ your leg?)……………………….
Yes, once.

IV. Write sentences about Helen. (Look at


her answers in exercise III )

1.(New York) ……..Helen has been to New


York twice.
2.(Australia)…
Helen………………………………
3.(Chinese food)……………………………
4.(drive /a bus)………………………….

Now write about yourself. How often have


you done these things?

5.(New York) I…………….


6.(play /tennis)…………………
7.(fly/ in a helicopter)……………..
8.(be / late for work or school)……………..

V. Complete the sentences.


1. Jill is in hospital. She…has been… in
hospital since Monday.
2. I know Sarah. I …have known…her for a

long time.
3.Linda and Frank are married.
They……………married since 1989.
4.Brian is ill. He……………….ill for the last
few days.
5.We live in Scott Road. We…………there
for ten years.
6.Catherine works in a bank.
She…………….in a bank for ten years.
7.Alan has a headache. He ……………..a
headache since he got up this morning.
8.I’m learning English. I………….English for
six months.

VI. Which is right?

1. Mark is / has been in Canada since April.


has been is right
2. Jane is a good friend of mine. I know / have
known her very well.
3. Jane is a good friend of mine. I know / have
known her for a long time.
4. “Sorry, I’m late. How long are you/ have
you been waiting?”
5. Martin works / has worked in a hotel now.
He likes his job very much.
6. Tom is / has been in Spain at the moment.
He is / has been there for the last three days.

VII. Read the situations and write sentences


with just, already, or yet.

1.After lunch you go to see a friend at her


house. She says “Would you like something to
eat?”
You say: No, thank you. ..I’ve just had
lunch….(have lunch)
2. Joe goes out. Five minutes later, the phone
rings and the caller says” Can I speak to Joe?”
You say: I’m afraid ……………………….(go
out)
3. You are eating in a restaurant. The waiter
thinks you have finished and starts to take
your plate away. You say :Wait a minute!
………………(not /finish)
4. You are going to a restaurant this evening.
You phone to reserve a table. Later your friend
says “Shall I phone to reserve a table”? You
say: No,……………..it.(do).
5.You know that a friend of yours is looking
for a job. Perhaps she has been successful. Ask
her: You say:…………….? (find)
6. Ann went to the bank, but a few minutes
ago she returned. Somebody asks “Is Ann still
at the bank?” You say: No, …………..(come
back).

VIII .Put in been or gone .

1.Jim is on holiday. He’s gone to Italy.


2.Hello. I’ve just ………..to the shops. I’ve
bought lots of things.
3.Alice isn’t here at the moment. She’s
…………to the shop to get a newspaper.
4.Tom has…………..out. He’ll be back in
about an hour.
5.“Are you going to the bank?” “No, I’ve
already ………..to the bank.

IX. Complete these sentences using today/


this year/ this term etc

1. I saw Tom yesterday but ………. I haven’t


seen him today.
2.I read a newspaper yesterday but
I…………………………today.
3.Last year the company made a profit but this
year………………. .
4.Tracy worked hard at school last term
but………………….. .
5.It snowed a lot last winter but
………………………… .
6.Our football team won a lot of games last
season but we…………….

X. Read the situations and write sentences


as shown in the examples.

1.Jack is driving a car but he’s very nervous


and not sure what to do .
You ask: : ….Have you driven a car
before?
He says :….. No, this is the first time I’ve
driven a car.
2.Len is playing tennis. He’s not very good
and he doesn’t know the rules.
You ask:
Have…………………………………………
……………….
He says: No, this is the first
…………………………………………….
3.Sue is riding a horse. She doesn’t look very
confident and comfortable.
You ask:
………………………………………………
…………………
She says:
………………………………………………
………………….
4.Maria is in London. She has just arrived and
it’s very new for her.
You ask:
………………………………………………
She says:
…………………………………………

XI .You are asking somebody questions


about things he or she has done. Make
questions for the words in brackets.

1.(ever/ ride /horse).. Have you ever ridden a


horse?
2. (ever/ be / California)……….
3.(ever / run / marathon )………
4.( ever / speak / famous person?)
…………………
5.( always / live / in this town ?)
…………………………..
6. ( most beautiful place / ever / visit ?)
What………………..

XII. Write a sentence with the present


perfect continuous and for to describe each
situation. Use these verbs: camp, play, read,
swim, talk, travel, work.

1.The video began two hours ago, and it hasn’t


finished yet. It’s been playing for two hours.
2. James went into the water ten minutes ago.
He doesn’t want to come out
yet…………………………..
3. Alice rang Peter half an hour ago, and
they’re still on the phone……………
4.Robert picked up a book an hour ago. He
hasn’t put it down
yet…………………………….
5.Ed and Jennifer started their journey around
the world three months ago. They’ve gone
about halfway
now…………………………………….
6.Sue got to the office early this morning. Ten
hours later she’s still there…………………
7.The Dobsons left on holiday four weeks ago
and they’re not back yet. They took their
tent……….
XIII. Add a sentence with the present
perfect continuous . Use the words in
brackets.

1.Mr Davis has a backache. (dig / the garden)


…..He’s been digging in the garden.
2. Joe has no money left. (shop )
………………….
3.The girls are tired. (work / hard )
……………………
4.The boys have got a suntan. (sunbathe )
5.Emma’s shoes are dirty. ( walk / in the
field )…………..
6.Jane and Neil look annoyed. ( argue )
…………….
7.The ground is wet. (rain )…………………
8.Tim has some washing up to do (bake /
cakes )………….

XIV. Read the situations and complete the


sentences.

1.The rain started two hours ago. It’s still


raining now. It .. has been raining … for two
hours.
2.We started waiting for the bus 20 minutes
ago. We’re still waiting now.
We……………….for 20 minutes.
3.I started Spanish classes in December. I’m
still learning Spanish now. I…………….since
December.
4.Ann began looking for a job six months ago.
She’s still looking now………………….for
six months.
5.Mary started working in London on 18
January. She’s still working there now.
………….since 18 January.
6.Years ago you started writing to a penfriend.
You still write to each other regularly now.
We…………….for years.

XV. Read the situations and write two


sentences using the words in brackets.

1.Tom started reading a book two hours ago.


He is still reading it and now he is on page 53.
( read/ for two hours ).. He has been reading
for two hours.
(read / 53 pages so far )
2. Linda is from Australia. She is travelling
round Europe at the moment. She began her
tour three months ago.
(travel / for three months ) She…………….
( visit / six countries so far )……………….
3.Jimmy is a tennis player. He began playing
tennis when he was ten years old. This year he
is national champion again – for the fourth
time.
( win / the national championship four times )
……………………..
( play / tennis since he was ten )
4.When they left college, Mary and Sue started
making films together. They still make films.
( make / ten films since they left college ).
They…………………….
( make / films since they left college )

XVI. Put the verb into the more suitable


form, present perfect simple( I have done )
or continuous ( I have been doing )

1.Where have you been? ..Have you been


playing…..( you / play) tennis?
2. Look!. Somebody…………………{break )
that window.
3.You look tired. …………………( you /
work ) hard ?
4.”………………..( you / ever / work ) in a
factory?” “ No, never “
5.“ Jane is away on holiday.” “ Oh, is she ?
Where …………… ( she / go ) ?
6.My brother is an actor. He……………..
( appear ) in several films.
7.“Sorry I’m late.”” That’s all right.
I………………….( not / wait ) long”.
8.“Is it still raining?” “ No, it ……………….(
stop )”
9.I……….(lose ) my address book.
…………..( you / see ) it anywhere?
10.I………………….(read) the book you lent
me but I ………………(not / finish ) it yet.
11.I …………..( read ) the book you lent me ,
so you can have it back now.

XVII. For each situation, ask a question


using the words in brackets.

1.You have a friend who is learning


Arabic.You ask: (how long / learn / Arabic?).
How long have you been learning Arabic?
2.You have just arrived to meet a friend. She is
waiting for you. You ask : ( how long / wait ?)
3.You see somebody fishing by the river. You
ask: ( how many fish / catch ?)
4.Some friends of yours are having a party
next week. You ask: ( how many people /
invite ?)
5.A friend of yours is a teacher. You ask:
( how long / teach ?)
6.You meet somebody who is a writer. You
ask : ( how many books / write ?) , ( how
long / write books ?)
7.A friend of yours is saving money to go on
holiday. You ask: ( how long / save ?)

XVIII.Use the words given to complete the


sentences. Put the verbs in the present
perfect simple or continuous.

1.John’s terribly upset. …He’s broken … ( he /


break ) off his engagement to Megan.
Apparently …she’s been seeing…( she / see )
someone else while ..he’s been …(he / be ) in
Africa.
2.Can you translate this note from Stockholm?
I understood Swedish when I was a child, but
……( I / forget ) it all.
3.What’s that dent in the side of the car?
…………..( you / have ) an accident?
4. I’m sorry, John’s not here; ……..(he / go )
the dentist…………( he / have ) trouble with a
tooth.
5.This cassette recorder is broken. ………
( you/ play about ) with it?
6.Your Italian is very good ( you / study ) it
long?
7.Do you mind if I clear the table? …………
( you / have ) enough to it ?
8.I’m not surprised………….( he / fail ) that
exam.
PRESENT PERFECT SIMPLE AND
CONTINUOUS, AND SIMPLE PAST
I. Rewrite each of the following sentences
without changing the meaning, beginning in
the way shown. You may need to use the
present perfect or the simple past.
1.We haven’t been to a concert for over a year.
The last time ..we went to a concert was over
a year ago.
2.Your birthday party was the last time I really
enjoyed myself.
I………………………………………………
………………….
3.It’s nearly twenty years since my father saw
his brother.
My
father…………………………………………
……….
4.James went to Scotland last Friday and is
still there.
James
has……………………………………………
….
5.When did you last ride a bike?
How long is it
………………………………….?
6.The last time I went swimming was when we
were in Spain.
I haven’t
………………………………………………
……….
7.You haven’t tidied this room for weeks.
It’s
………………………………………………
……..

II Are the underlined parts of these


sentences right or wrong? Correct the ones
that are wrong.
1. Do you know about Sue? She’s given up her
job.RIGHT
2. The Chinese have invented
printing.WRONG: The Chinese
invented……
3. How many plays has Shakespeare written?.
4. Have you read any of Shakespeare’s plays?
5. Aristotle has been a Greek philosopher.
6. Ow! I’ve cut my finger. It’s bleeding.
7. My grandparents have got married in
London.
8. Where have you been born?
9. Mary isn’t at home. She’s gone shopping.
10.Albert Einstein has been the scientist who
has developed the theory of relativity.
8. The Present Perfect Simple and
Continuous –Answer Key

2. has started
3 .have given up
4 have gone
II.
2. have already seen it
3. have already phoned
4. He has already gone
5. I have already read it
6. She has already started

III.
3. Have you ever been to Australia?
4. Have you ever lost…
5. Have you ever flown….
6. Have you ever eaten..
7. Have you ever been to…
8. Have you ever driven…
9. Have you ever broken…

IV.
2. Helen has never been to Australia
3. Helen has eaten Chinese food a few times
4. Helen has never driven a bus
5.I have /I have never been to New York.
6.I have / I have never played tennis.
7.I have / I have never flown in a helicopter.
8.I have / have never been late for work or
school.

V.
3. have been
4. has been ill
5.has been living
6.has been working
7.has had
8.have been living

VI.
2. know
3. have known
4.have you been waiting
5.works
6.is; has been

VII.
2. he has just gone out
3. I have not finished yet
4. I have already done it
5.Have you found a job yet?
6.She has just come back

VIII.
2. been
3. gone
4. gone
5.been

IX.
2. haven’t read one
3. it hasn’t made a profit / it has made a loss
4. she hasn’t worked very hard this term
5.it hasn’t snowed much
6.haven’t won many / any games this season

X.
2. Have you ever played tennis before?
No, this is the first time I’ve played tennis
3. Have you ever ridden a horse before?
No, this is the first time I’ve ridden a horse.
4.Have you ever visited London before.
No, this is the first time I’ve visited London.

7. Self-Test

I. Fill in the blanks with appropriate


term(s)

1.Most of the equipment for signalling short


distances is located on or near the….
2.Lines called…..extend from the yardarm.
3.… ….represent letters of the alphabet,
numbers, or complete meanings.
4.Flags and pennants are….. ….to the halyards
and hoisted to the yard.
5.On or near the signal bridge are
signal………………………………….
6.On the outboard end of the yard are two
small lights called yardarm….
7.All ships that go to sea are required by
international law to have …. ….
8.A white ….light is usually placed on the
upper part of the bridge superstructure or on
an area forward of the foremast.
9.Above and abaft the masthead light is a
white…. ….located either on the foremast or
mainmast.
10. To either side of the ship …. ….are
found.
1
0
p
II. Give Romanian equivalents to the
following maritime terms.

Signal flags; pennants; signal searchlights;


halyards; signal bridge;
yardarm blinkers; running light; masthead
light; range lights; side lights 10p

III. Give complete answers to the following


questions.

1.Where is located most of the equipment for


signalling short distances?
2.Where can you find signal flags?
3.How are signal searchlights operated?
4.How do you call the two small lights on the
outboard end of the yard?
5.What device do you use to tell the time at
sea?
6.What lights must be exhibited according to
the international laws?
7.Where is the range light located?
8.Is the searchlight a signalling equipment?
9.What colour is the masthead light?
10. What colour is the starboard side light?
What about the port side light?

10p

IV. Read the situations and write two


sentences using the words in brackets.

1.Tom started reading a book two hours ago.


He is still reading it and now he is on page
53.
(read /for two hours) He has been reading
for two hours.
(read/53 pages so far) He has read 53 pages
so far.
2.Linda is from Australia. She is travelling
round Europe at the moment. She began her
tour three months ago.
(travel/for three months)She……..
(visit /six countries so far)
3.Jimmy is a tennis player. He began playing
tennis when he was ten years old. This year
he is national champion again-for the fourth
time.
(win/the national championship four times)
…………………………………………….
(play/tennis since he was ten)
………………………………………………
……………
4.When they left colledge, Mary and Sue
started making films together. They still
make films.
(make/ten films since they left
college)They………………………………
………………
(make/films since they left college)
………………………………………………
………..

6p
V. For each situation, ask a question using
the words in brackets.
1.You have a friend who is learning Arabic.
You ask:
(how long/learn/Arabic?) How long have
you been learning Arabic?
2.Your friend is writing letters. You ask:
(how long/write letters)
………………………………………………

3.You have just arrived to meet a friend. She
is waiting for you.You ask:
(how long/wait)
………………………………………………
…………
4.You see somebody fishing by the river. You
ask:
(how many fish/catch)
………………………………………………
…..
5.Some friends of yours are having a party
next week. You ask:
(how many people/invite?)
………………………………………………
.
6.A friend of yours is a teacher. You ask:
(how long/teach)
………………………………………………
…………..
7 You meet somebody who is a writer. You
ask:
(how many books/write?)
………………………………………………
….
(how long/write/books?)
………………………………………………
…...

8. Self-Test-Answer Key

I.

1. signal bridge
2. halyards
3. signal flags
4. bent on
5. signal searchlights
6. blinkers
7. running lights
8. masthead
9. range
10. side lights
II.

Pavilion de semnalizare; flamură;


proiector de semnalizare; fungă, saulă de
pavilion
Punte de semnalizare; eclipsă de
catarg,lumină cu licăriri; lumină de marş;
lumină de catarg;lumină de aliniament, de
catarg pupa; lumini distinctive din borduri.

III.

1. Most of the equipment for signalling is


situated/located on the signal bridge.
2. Signal flags are bent on halyards
3. Signal searchlights are hand-operated.
4. The two small lights on the outboard end
of the yard are called yardarm blinkers.
5. To tell the ti me at sea we use the ship’s
bell.
6. Running lights must be exhibited
according to international laws.
7. Range lights are placed/located either on
the foremast or mainmast.
8. A searchlight is not a signalling light.It is
used to view/ locate nearby objects at
night.
9. The masthead light is white.
10. The starboard side light is green and the
portside light is green.

IV.

2. She has been travelling for three months


She has visited six countries so far.
3. He has won the national championship
four times
He has been playing tennis since he was
ten
4. They have made ten films since they left
college
They have been making films since they
left college.

V.

2. How long have you been writing letters?


3. How long have you been waiting?
4. How many fish have you caught?
5. How many people have you invited?
6. How long have you been teaching?
7. How many books have you written?
How long have you been writing books?

Unit.7

SEAMANSHIP. DIFFERENT TYPES OF


ROPE
Objectives: After studying the topic in the
course book, the learner should be able to:
classify different types of rope according to
their nature, characteristics and use; identify
the mooring ropes on a diagram.

1. A large number of different types of rope


are used on board ship, and it is important for
every sailor to know their characteristics so
that the right rope can be used for the right job.
Ropes can be divided into three basic types:
natural fibre rope, which is made from the
fibres of different plants; synthetic fibre rope,
which is made from materials such as nylon;
and wire rope, which is made from strands of
steel wire.
First let us look at the different types of
natural fibre rope. A well-known rope of this
type is Manila. Manila rope is made from the
fibres of a plant which grows in the Philippine
Islands of the Pacific. It is strong and flexible,
but rather expensive. It is used for a number of
jobs connected with cargo-handling and
mooring. Because manila rope is expensive,
sisal rope is often used in its place. Sisal
comes from a plant which grows in the USA
and Russia. It is less strong and less flexible
than manila rope, but it is cheaper. It is used
for moorings and lashings. Another type of
rope is hemp rope .Hemp comes from a plant
which grows in Russia, Europe and North
America as well as in China and India. It is
strong and flexible and does not shrink or
swell after contact with water. Because of this
it is used on sailing boats. Coir ropes are made
from coconut fibres. They are very buoyant
and very elastic, but they rot very easily when
they are wet. They are sometimes used for
mooring and towing lines. The cotton plant
grown in the southern part of North America..
Cotton rope is both strong and flexible, but it
is very expensive and therefore not used on
merchant ships. Because it looks nice, it is
often used on yachts and pleasure boats.
Natural fibre ropes have now largely been
replaced by synthetic fibre ropes. Synthetic
ropes have many advantages. They are strong
and elastic and they are resistant to the action
of water. Nylon rope is the strongest and the
most elastic of all the synthetic fibre ropes. It
is used for mooring and handling cargo.
Terylene rope has the highest melting point. It
melts at a temperature of 260° C. It is also
strong and elastic. It is mainly used on yachts.
Another type of synthetic fibre ropes is
polypropylene rope. It has the lowest melting
point of all synthetic fibre ropes and is used
for log lines and halyards.
Wire rope is made of steel. It is usually
galvanized to stop it from rusting. It is very
strong and elastic, but not as flexible as other
types of rope. Large wire ropes are very
heavy. Wire rope has many uses on board
ship, particularly for standing rigging, mooring
lines and cargo-handling.

2. Mooring Ropes

A ship is made fast to the quayside by


mooring line. The standard mooring lines are
shown below. They consist of a headline, a
breastline and a backspring forward, a stern
line, a breastline, and a backspring aft. Any of
these lines may be doubled. Each line has a
large eye spliced in the end. The eye is placed
over a bollard on the quayside. If there is
another line already on the bollard, the eye of
the second line should be taken up through the
eye of the first line before placing it over the
bollard. This makes it possible for either line
to be let go first.
Identify the mooring ropes described above in
the diagram below:
3. Vocabulary

ropes = parime
lines =parime
cargo-handling =manipularea marfii
mooring =acostare, amarare, legare
lashing =amarare (a marfii)
hemp rope =parima din cinepa
to shrink-shrank-shrunk =a intra la apa
to swell = a se umfla
coir ropes = parime din nuca de cocos
buoyant = plutitor, flotabil, care
pluteste
to rot = a putrezi
towing lines = parime de remorcaj
merchant ships = nave comerciale
melting point = punct de topire
mainly = in special
log lines = saula de loch(cu gradatii
speciale)
halyards = funga, saula de pavilion
to rust = a rugini
wire ropes = parime metalice
standing rigging = manevre fixe
headline = parima prova
breastline = traversa
backspring forwrds = spring prova
stern line = parima pupa
backspring aft = spring pupa
spliced = matisat (despre parime)
bollard = baba
quayside = cheu

4. Past Tense and Past Tense Continuous

5. Vocabulary Practice

! In order to do the following tasks


successfully, you’ll have to revise unit 7 in
your course book. To evaluate your
performance, turn to the self-test and
answer key at the end of this unit. You’ll be
awarded one point for each correct answer.
If you score under 30 points you’ll have to
go back to unit 7 and revise the vocabulary
and/or grammar problems you have failed.
If you score above 30 points you may pass
on to the next unit. Good luck!
1.Read carefully the text on different types
of rope in your course book and then fill
in the table below with appropriate
information.

Basic Names Charact Uses


types eristics
1. (a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

(e)
2. (a)

(b)

(c)

3. (a)

II. Give Romanian equivalents to the


following maritime terms.Then use these
terms in sentences of your own.

Make fast; quayside; mooring lines;


headline; sternline; breastline;
backspring forward; backspring aft;
bollard; to let go

III. Decide if the following statements are


TRUE(T) or FALSE(F).Circle the correct
answer.
1. Manila rope is strong and flexible, but
rather expensive. T/F
2. Sisal rope is less flexible and less strong
than manila rope. T/F
3. Hemp rope is used for s and lashings.
T/F
4. Coir ropes do not shrink or swell after
contact with water. T/F
5. Cotton rope is used on yachts and pleasure
boats. T/F
6. Nylon rope is the most elastic of all
synthetic fibre ropes. T/F
7. Terylene rope has the lowest melting point.
T/F
8. Polypropylene rope is used for log lines and
halyards. T/F
9. Wire rope is made of steel.
T/F
10.Wire ropes rot easily when they are wet.
T/F

IV. Answer the following questions.

1.Why is it important for every sailor to know


the characteristics of different types of
rope?
2.What are the characteristics and uses of
manila rope?
3.Why is sisal rope often used in place of
manila rope ?
4.Why is hemp rope mainly used on sailing
boats?
5.What is the disadvantage of coir ropes?
6.Why is cotton rope mainly used on pleasure
boats?
7.Why have natural fibre ropes been replaced
by synthetic ropes?
8.What is special about the terylene and
polypropilene ropes?
9.Why are wire ropes galvanised?
10. What are the uses of wire ropes?

6. Vocabulary Practice-Answer Key

I.:

Basic Names Charact Uses


types eristics
1.natural (a)manila Strong cargo-
and handling
flexible and
but mooring
Basic Names Charact Uses
types eristics
rather
expensive
(b)sisal Less Moorings
strong and
and less lashings
flexible
but
cheaper
(c)hemp Strong, On sailing
flexible, boats
does not
shrink or
swell
after
contact
with
water
(d)coir Buoyant, Mooring
very and
elastic, towing
but rot lines
easily
when
they are
wet
Basic Names Charact Uses
types eristics
(e)cotton Strong, On yachts
flexiblebu and
t very pleasure
expensive boats
2.syntheti (a)nylon The Mooring
c strongest and
and the handling
most cargo
elastic
(b)terylen Strong,el Mainly on
e astic,the yachts
highest
melting
point
(c)polypr The Log lines
opylene lowest and
melting halyards
point
3.wire (a) Strong, Standing
elastic, is rigging,
usually mooring
galvanize lines and
d to stop cargo-
it from handling
rusting
II.

A amara; a acosta; a se lega; cheu; parîme


de amarare; parîmă prova;
Parîmă pupa; traversă; spring prova;
spring pupa; babà; a mola

III.

1.T; 2.T; 3. F; 4.F; 5 T; 6.T; 7.F; 8.F; 9.T;


10.F.

IV

1. So that the right rope can be used for the


right job.
2. Manila rope is strong and flexible and it is
used for mooring and cargo-handling.
3. Because it’s cheaper.
4. Because it is strong, flexible and does not
shrink or swell after contact with water.
5. They rot easi;y when they are wet.
6. Cotton rope is used for pleasure boats
because it is strong, flexible, and looks
very nice.
7. Because synthetic ropes are strong, elastic
and resistant to the action of water.
8. The former has the highest melting point
and the latter has the lowest melting point.
9. Wire ropes are galvanized to prevent
rusting.
10. Wire ropes are used particularly for
standing rigging, mooring lines and for
cargo-handling.

7. Grammar Practice: Past Tense and Past


tense Continuous

Exercise I Put in was/ were or wasn’t/


weren’t
1. We weren’t happy with the hotel. Our
room was very small and it wasn’t very
clean.
2. George….at work last week because
he….ill. He’s better now.
3. Yesterday……a public holiday so the
shops….closed.
4. “….Sue and Bill at the party?”
“Sue….there but Bill………..”
5. “Where are my keys?” “I don’t know.
They…on the table but they’re not there
now.”
6. You….at home last night. Where…you?

Exercise II. Put the words in the correct


order to form questions.
1 late/ you/ this morning/ were/ why?
Why were you late this morning?
2. difficult/ your/ exam/ was?
3. last week/ Ann and Chris/ were/
where?
4. our new camera/ how much/ was?
5. angry/ you/ yesterday/ why/ were?
6. nice/ the weather/ last week/ was?

Exercise III. Write the past simple of these


words.
1. get……got
2. see
3. play
4. pay
5. visit
6. buy
7. go
8. think
9. copy
10. know
11. put
12. speak

Exercise IV. Read about Lisa’s journey to


Madrid. Put the verbs in the correct form.

Last Tuesday Lisa (1) (fly) flew from


London to Madrid. She (2) (get)….up at six
o’clock in the morning and (3) (have) a cup
of coffee. At 6.30 she (4) (leave) home and
(5) (drive) to the airport. When she (6)
(arrive), she (7) (park) the car and then (8)
(go) to the airport café where she (9) (have)
breakfast. Then she (10) (go) through
passport control and (11) (wait) for her
flight. The plane (12) (depart) on time and
(13) (arrive) in Madrid Finally she (14)
(take) a taxi from the airport to her hotel in
the centre of Madrid.

Exercise V. Put the verb in the correct


form-positive, negative or question.
1. We went to the cinema but the film
wasn’t very good. We didn’t enjoy it.
(enjoy)
2. Tim…..some new clothes yesterday-two
shirts, a jacket and a pullover. (buy)
3. “…..yesterday?” “No, it was a nice
day.” (rain)
4. The party wasn’t very good, so
we………long. (stay)
5. It was very warm in the room,, so
I……..a window. (open)
6. “Did you go to the bank this morning?”
“No, I….time.” (have)
7. “I cut my hand this morning.”
“How…..that?” (do)

Exercise VI. Where were these people at 3


o’clock yesterday afternoon/ And what
were they doing? Use the cues below and
write two sentences.

1. Ann/ home/ watch


TV………………..Ann was at home.
She was watching TV
2. Carol and Jack/ the cinema/ watch a
film.
3. Tom/ his car/ drive.
4. Catherine/ the station/ wait for a train.
5. Mr. and Mrs. Hall/ the park/ walking.

Exercise VII. Put the verb into the past


continuous or past simple

1. A: What were you doing (you/ do) when


the phone rang (ring)?
B: I was watching (watch) television.
2. A: Was Jane busy when you went to
see her?
B: Yes, she……….(study)
3.A: What time….(the post/ arrive) this
morning?
B: It…….(come) while I……(have)
breakfast.
4.A: Was Margaret at work today?
B: No, she……(not/ go) to work. She was
ill
5.A: How fast…..(you/ drive) when the
police…….(stop) you?
B: I don’t know exactly but I……..(not/
drive) very fast.
6.A: …….(your team/win) the football
match yesterday?
B: No, the weather was very bad, so
we…..(not play)
7. A: How…..(you/ break) the window/
B: We…..(play) football. I…..(kick)
the ball and it…..(hit) the window.
8. A: ………(you/ see)Jenny last night?
B: Yes, she…(wear) a very nice jacket.
9. A: What…..(you/ do) at 2 o’clock this
morning?
B: I was asleep.
10. A: I….(lose) my key last night.
B: How…..(you/ get) into your room?
A: I……(climb) in through a window.

Exercise VIII. Choose the correct form of


the verbs.

Thomas Edison (1) started/ was starting


work on the railway when he was twelve,
selling newspapers and snacks. There were
long periods with nothing for him to do so
he (2) build/ was building himself a little
laboratory in the luggage van where he
could carry out experiments when he (3)
didn’t/ wasn’t selling things to passengers.
Another way that he (4) occupied/ was
occupying himself was by reading. He
joined a library and (5) read was reading
every single book in it. One day, when he
(6) waited/ was waiting at a station he (7)
noticed/ was noticing a small boy who (8)
played/ was playing by the track, unaware
that a train (9) approached/ was
approaching. Edison (10) ran/ was running
out and (110 grabbed/ was grabbing the
child just in time. The child’s father was so
grateful that he (12) offered/ was offering to
teach Edison to be a telegraph operator.
Edison accepted the offer and soon he (13)
had/ was having regular lessons. After a
year, he was good enough to get a job in the
telegraph office. He continued to read and
experiment, whenever he (14) had/ was
having time. At twenty-one he (15) left/ was
leaving the telegraph office to devote all his
time to being an inventor. He (16) went/ was
going on to invent the electric light bulb, the
phonograph and the movie camera.

Exercise IX. Complete the description of the


life of a musician, using the verbs given. Use
either the past simple or the past
continuous.
Colin Boyle was born in 1973 near Dublin,
Ireland. In 1983 he became seriously ill.
While he (1) was recovering (recover) his
uncle (2) gave (give) him an old violin. He
enjoyed playing and practised at school
every day after lessons. One day in 1987,
John Leaf, the manager of several successful
musicians, (3),,,,,,,,,(have) a meeting with
the headmaster when he (4)……(hear) Colin
practising. He immediately (5)…..(contact)
Colin’s teacher and (6)…..(invite) Colin to
appear in one of the concerts he (7)……
(organize) that year. Colin, however, (8)…..
(refuse) Leaf’s invitation, because just then
he(9)….(prepare) for some important school
exams. Colin (10)…….(pass) his exams and
(11)….(go) to college to study engineering.
At college he (12)…..(meet) Kim O’Malley,
who (13)….(study) chemistry. Kim was also
a keen amateur musician. Being students,
they rarely (140…..(have0 much money and
they usually (15)…..(work) as waiters at
weekends. One evening in April 1992, while
Colin and Kim (16)….(serve) customers, the
manager (17)…(announce) that there would
be no live music in the restaurant that night
as regular band could not come. Colin and
Kim (180….(persuade) him to let them play
to the customers. Everyone (19)……(be0
amazed to hear how good they (20)……
(be).Six months later they (21)…..(decide0
to leave college because they (22)….(earn)
so much money as musicians. Their success
has continued ever since.

Exercise X. Choose the correct form of the


verbs.

ADAM: Hello, Mike. What (1) are you


doing/ do you do in this part of London?
MIKE: Well, actually, (2) I’m looking/ I
look at flats around here.
ADAM: Flats? (3) Are you wanting/ Do you
want to move?
MIKE: Yes, in fact, believe it or not,
Mandy and I (4) are getting/ get married.
ADAM: That’s great! Congratulations.
When (5) were you deciding/ did you
decide?
MIKE: Only last week. It was while we (6)
were staying/ stayed with her family in
Scotland. Now (7) we try/ we’re trying to
find a suitable flat.
ADAM: It’ll be great to have you as
neighbours. I hope you manage to buy one
soon.
MIKE; Oh we (8) aren’t looking/ don’t look
for one to buy. We (9) aren’t having/ don’t
have enough money yet. (10) We’re
wanting/ We want to find somewhere to
rent.
ADAM: Yes, of course. That’s what we (11)
did/ were doing at first. Actually, in the end,
my brother (12) was lending/ lent us some
money. That’s hoe we (13) were managing/
managed to buy ours.
MIKE: Really? Perhaps I’ll talk to my
family before (14) we choose/ we’re
choosing a flat.
ADAM: That’s not a bad idea. My family
(15) gave/ were giving us quite a lot of
helpful advice. Now, what about a coffee?
There’s a good place just round the corner.
MIKE: Oh, yes, I (16) looked/ was looking
for somewhere to sit down when I bumped
into you. Let’s go.

8. The Past tense Simple and Continuous


Answer Key
Exercise I. Put in was/ were or wasn’t/
weren’t
2. wasn’t…was 3.was…….were 4. Were…
was…wasn’t 5. were 6. weren’t…were

Exercise II. Put the words in the correct


order to form questions

2. Was your exam difficult?


3. Where were Ann and Chris last week?
4. How much was your new camera?
5. Why were you angry yesterday?
6. Was the weather nice last week?

Exercise III. Write the past simple of


these verbs
2. saw 3. played 4. paid 5. visited 6.
bought 7. went 8. thought 9. copied 10. knew
11. put 12 spoke

Exercise IV. Read about Lisa’s journey to


Madrid. Put the verbs in the correct form.
2. got 3.had 4. left 5. drove 6. arrived 7.
parked 8. went 9. had 10 went 11 waited 12
departed 13. arrived 14. Took
Exercise V. Put the verb in the correct
form-positive, negative or question.
2. bought 3. did it rain 4. didn’t stay 5.
opened 6. didn’t 7. did you do

Exercise VI.
2. Carol and Jack were at the cinema. They
were watching a film.
3. Tom was in his car. He was driving
4. Catherine was at the station. She was
waiting for a train.
5. Mr. and Mrs. Hall were in the park. They
were walking.

Exercise VII.
2. was studying 3. did the post arrive…
came….was having 4. didn’t go 5. were you
driving…stopped…wasn’t driving 6. did
your team win…didn’t play 7. did you break
the window…were playing…kicked…hit 8.
Did you see…was wearing 9. were you
doing
10 lost…did you get…climbed.

Exercise VIII.
2. built 3. wasn’t selling 4. occupied 5. read
6. was waiting 7. notice 8. was playing
9. was approaching 10 ran 11 grabbed 12
offered 13 was having 14 had 15 left 16
went

Exercise IX.
3. was having 4. heard 5. contacted 6.
invited 7. was organizing/organized 8.
refused 9 was preparing 10. passed 11. went
12 met 13. was studying 14. had 15. worked
16 were serving 17. announced 18.
persuaded 19. was 20. were 21 decided 22.
were earning/ earned

Exercise X.
3. Do you want 4. are getting 5. did you
decide 6. were staying 7. we’re trying 8.
aren’t looking 9. don’t have 10.We want 11.
did 12. lent 13. managed 14. we choose 15.
gave 16 was looking

9. Self-Test

I. Complete the following sentences with


appropriate terms:
1. ……rope is made from the fibres of a
plant which grows in the Philippines.
2. Manila rope is used for a number of jobs
connected with cargo-handling and…
3. Because manila rope is expensive,
…….rope is used in its place.
4. ….comes from a plant which grows in
Russia, Europe and North America as well
as China and India.
5. Sisal ropes are used for mooring
and………………………………………
………….
6. Coir ropes are very ……and elastic.
7. Coir ropes are used for mooring and …
…..
8. Terylene rope has the highest…..point
9. Polypropylene rope is used for log lines
and………………………………………
…..
10. Wire ropes are usually galvanised to
prevent them
from………………………………

10p
II. Translate into English.
O navă se leagă la cheu cu ajutorul
parîmelor de amarare. Ele constau dintr-o
parîmă prova, o traversă, un spring prova, o
parîmă pupa,o traversă si un spring
pupa.Oricare din aceste parîme poate să fie
dublată. Fiecare parîmă la capăt un ochi
matisat. Ochiul se trece peste o baba de pe
cheu.
10p
III. Give Romanian equivalents to the
following maritime terms.

Ropes; cargo-handling; mooring; lashing;


hemp rope;to shrink; to swell;log
lines;standing rigging; backspring aft
10p
IV. Put the verbs into the correct form, past
simple or past continuous.

1. Jane was waiting (wait) for me when I


arrived (arrive).
2. “What …………(you/do) this time
yesterday?” “I was asleep.”
3. “…………….(you/go)out last night?”
“No, I was too tired.”
4. “Was Carol at the party last night?” “Yes,
she……(wear) a really nice dress.”
5. How fast……(you/drive) when the
accident…….(happen)?
6. John…..(take) a photograph of me while
I…..(not/look).
7. We were in a very difficult position.
We….(not/know) what to do.
8. I haven’t seen Alan for ages. When I
last……(see) him, he…….(try) to find a
job in London.

10p

V. Use the words given to make sentences.


Do not change the order of the words.
Use only the past simple or past
continuous.

1. Cathy/phone/the post office/when the


parcel/ arrive
Cathy phoned the post office when the
parcel arrived.
2. when Don/arrive/we/have/coffee
When Don arrived we were having
coffee.
3. while he/walk/ in the mountains/ Henry/
see/ a bear
4. the students/ play/ a game/ when the
professor/arrive
5. Felix/ phone/ the fire brigade/ when the
cooker/ catch/ fire
6. when the starter/ fire/ his pistol/ the race/
begin
7. I/ walk/ home/ when it/ start/ to rain
8. when Margaret/ open/ the door/ the phone/
ring
9. Cora/ read/ a letter/ when Jimmy/ phone/
her
10. Andy/ come/ out of the restaurant/ when
he/ see/ Jenny
11. Charlie/ cross the street/ when he/ see
Mary
12. She/ leave/ the house/ when the phone/
start/ to ring.
10p.

10. Self-Test Answer Key

I.
1. manila
2. mooring
3. sisal
4. hemp
5. lashings
6. buoyant
7. towing lines
8. melting
9. halyards
10. rusting

II.
A ship is made fast to the quayside by
mooring lines. They consist of a headline,
a breastline and a backspring forward, a
stern line, a nreastline, and a backspring
aft. Any of these lines can be doubled.
Each line has a large eye spliced in the
end. The eye is placed over a bollard on
the quayside.

III..

Parîme; manipularea mărfii; acostare,


amarare, legare; amarare ( a mărfii);
parîmă de cînepă; to shrink; to swell; log
lines; standing rigging
IV.

1. Were you doing


2.Did you go
3.Was wearing
4.Were you driving….happened
5.Took…wasn’t looking
6. Didn’t know

7.Saw …was trying

V.

3. While he was walking in the mountains,


Henry saw a bear.
4. The students were playing a game when
the professor arrived.
5. Felix phoned the fire brigade when the
cooker caught fire.
6. When the starter fired his pistol, the race
began.
7. I was walking home when it started to
rain.
8. When Margaret opened the door, the
phone was ringing.
9. Cora was reading a letter when Jimmy
phoned her.
10. Andy came out of the restaurant when he
saw Jenny.
11. Charlie was crossing the street when he
saw Mary.
12. She was leaving the house when the
telephone started to ring.
Unit.8

MANNING
The Traditional Organization of a Ship’s
Crew
Objectives: After studying the topic in the
course book the learners should be able to:
enumerate the crew members of a traditional
cargo vessel; formulate correctly the functions
of the crew members; use correctly the
patterns expressing the functions of a person
as well as of an object.

1. The man in charge of a ship is the Master.


He is responsible for the ship, her cargo and
the safety of the crew. He must be well
qualified and an experienced navigator.
Although his correct title is the Master, he is
addressed as “Captain”. The Master is the
person who is in absolute charge of the vessel.
His duties and responsibilities are many,
varied and extensive. He is the owner’s
personal representative, and bears the ultimate
responsibility for the safe navigation of his
vessel and for the efficient loading, stowage
and discharge of cargo. Furthermore, he has
the power to act as lawyer, a doctor and even
to bury people. The Master may arrest
members of the crew or passengers, if they
constitute a nuisance during the voyage. In
certain circumstances, particularly if the
person is dangerous to other members of the
ship, the master may place the individual
under restraint. In the event of any mutiny, any
act of the master is regarded as one entirely of
self-defence, and he has the power to call on
persons on board to render assistance.
Similarly, if the ship is imperilled in any way,
the Master may call upon all persons on board
to give assistance. To hold the position of a
Master, especially on a large passenger liner,
is the culmination of years of sea experience.
The Master is required to hold a Master’s
Certificate, which is obtained by examination,
and issued by the Department of Transport.
Furthermore, in common with the deck
officers from which department he is
promoted, he must be thoroughly competent in
navigation matters including the use of such
navigational aids as the gyrocompass, radar,
direction finder, echo-sounding device, and
position-fixing device.

2. The traditional organisation of a ship’s


crew.
The organization of the crew of a cargo
ship is changing, but it is still customary to
find Deck, Engine, Catering and Radio
Departments in ships of a reasonable size.
Each department is made up of a varied
number of officers, petty officers and ratings.

2.1. The Chief Officer, or First Mate as


he is often called, is the Master’s chief
officer and head of the Deck
Department. He is assisted by a
Second Officer (Mate), a Third
Officer (Mate), and sometimes a
Fourth Officer (Mate). Several
companies employ a First Officer as
well as a Chief Officer. The Deck
Department includes a Boatswain
(Bosun), and a Carpenter, both petty
officers, and a number of ratings.
These are made up of Able Seaman
(AB), Ordinary Seaman (OS) and a
middle grade known as Efficient Deck
Hand (EDH). There are other grades
of seamen. On some ships Navigating
Cadets are carried for training
purposes.
2.2. The Engine Department is the charge
of the Chief Engineer, who is
responsible to the Master both for the
main propulsion machinery and for
auxiliaries comprising electrical plant,
cargo winches, refrigerating
machinery, steering gear, ventilating
system, etc. He is also responsible for
fuel, maintenance and repairs. He is
assisted by a Second, Third, Fourth
and sometimes Fifth Engineer. An
Electrical Officer may also be
carried. The engine room petty officers
are the Storekeeper and Donkeyman.
On tankers there is also a Pumpman.
He is also a petty officer. The engine
room ratings are Firemen and
Greasers. There may also be
Engineer Cadets.

2.3. The Catering Department is under


the control of the Chief Steward, or
Catering Officer, who is responsible
for catering and galley, for galley
stores and for the ship’s linen. He is
assisted by cooks, bakers and assistant
stewards. In deep sea passenger ships
and those engaged in multi –purpose
passenger tonnage in the short sea
trades, this is a very large and
important department. As such it is
usually in charge of the Purser. Many
passenger vessels are now manned as
floating hotels.

2.4. The Radio Department often consists of


only one man: the Radio officer. On ships
where continuous radio watches are kept there
may be three radio officers: a Chief, Second
and Third. Statutory provisions stipulate
under SOLAS 1974 that all cargo vessels of
300 tons gross and upwards must be fitted
with a radio station. For keels laid before
February 1995 the radio station should be
either a radio telephone station ( only
applicable for ships of 300 to 1599 gross
tonnage), a radio telegraph station or a Global
Maritime Distress and Safety System
(GMDSS) for operation in specific sea areas.
For keels laid after 31 January 1995 a GMDSS
must be fitted. The radio officer requirements
are contained in the Merchant Shipping (Radio
Installations) Regulations 1992.This outlines
the need for a valid certificate of competency.
Overall the role of the radio officer has
changed significantly following the emergence
of GMDSS.

3. The Deck Department.

The running of this department is the


responsibility of the First Mate who
supervises the handling of the cargo and is
responsible for the upkeeping of the ship and
her equipment, excluding the engine room and
auxiliary power gear. In addition, he also acts
as a semi-chief of staff to the Master. He is
assisted by two, three or more mates on larger
vessels. The Deck Department is responsible
for navigating the ship safely and
economically from port to port. The Second
Officer is responsible to the Master for
keeping the ship on course and for looking
after all the equipment used for navigation. It
is also the job of the Deck Department to see
that the cargo is stowed properly in the holds
and kept in good condition during the voyage.
The stowage of cargo is the responsibility of
the Chief Officer. He is helped by the Second
and Third Officers. In addition, when the ship
is not fully loaded, the First Mate must see
that the holds are cleaned and prepared for
their next cargo. In a tanker the cargo tanks are
washed out during ballast passages and freed
of gas. At sea, much of the Deck Department’s
time is spent maintaining the ship and her
equipment in good condition. This means
constant cleaning, painting and repair work.
This is done by ratings under the supervision
of the Boatswain (Bosun). A programme of
maintenance for each day is worked out by the
Chief Officer. He also looks after the general
day-to-day running of the department and
deals with any problems. The Third Officer
is in charge of the life-saving equipment. The
different appliances must be complete and in
good working order. The Boatswain and the
Carpenter are directly responsible to the
Chief Officer. The Bosun sees that his orders
and those of other deck officers are carried out
by the crew. He is a man with a lot of
knowledge and practical experience in
seamanship. The Carpenter is usually a
qualified shipwright. He no longer works only
with wood as his name suggests. His most
important regular job is to sound the tanks and
bilges in order to check the depths of liquid in
them. He also operates the windlass, when the
anchors are being raised or lowered. The Deck
Department is also responsible for keeping
watches. An officer is always on watch on the
bridge. He is the Master’s representative and
answers to him for the safety of the ship
during his watch. In ships where a Chief Mate
and a First Mate are carried, the First Mate
is the watch keeping officer.

4. FUNCTION

4.1. A person’s function, or what he/she does,


can be expressed in terms of his/her
responsibility.
Study these examples:

1. The Master is responsible for the safety of


the ship.
2. The safety of the ship is the responsibility of
the Master.
3. The Master is responsible to the company
for the safety of the ship.

• Read the text on the deck department again


and underline the patterns which are used to
express function. There are five examples.
Can you find them? When you find them try
to state the kind of pattern (1,2,or 3) used.

4.2. The function of a thing, or what it is


used for, can be expressed in a number of
ways:

1. By using the phrase: The function of…is


to….
e.g. The function of a crane is to lift heavy
objects.
2. By using the verb to use+for-ing

e.g. A crane is used for lifting heavy objects.


3.By using a verb expressing the function.
e.g. A crane lifts heavy objects.
4. By using a prepositional phrase introduced

by with.
e.g. We lift heavy objects with a crane.

• How would you express the function of a


thermometer by using the patterns above?
e.g. The function of a thermometer is to
measure time.
Now it’s your turn to use the other three
patterns.
5. Vocabulary

Captain/master = comandant de navă


comercială/pasager
Stowage = stivuire (a mărfii)
Nuisance = comportare necuvincioasă ;
faptă condamnabilă
To place under restraint = a pune sub
interdicţie
Mutiny = răscoală, răzvrătire
To be imperilled= a pune in pericol
Thoroughly competent = foarte competent
Direction finder = radiogoniometru
Boatswain (bosun)= nostrom/şef de
echipaj
Carpenter = maistru lemnar
Shipwright = lemnar constructor naval,
marangoz
To sound the tanks = a sonda, a măsura
adîncimea
Bilge = santina
Watchkeeping = serviciu de cart
Ordinary seaman = marinar
stagiar/necalificat
Able seaman = marinar brevetat
Efficient deck hand = marinar brevetat
Storekeeper = magazioner
Donkeyman = mecanic de auxiliare
Greaser = gresor
Fireman = fochist
Catering Department = compartiment
bucătărie-deservire
Purser = administrator (pasagere)
Lookout = veghe

THE PAST PERFECT SIMPLE AND


THE PAST PERFECT CONTINUOUS

The Past Perfect Simple is formed with the


past form auxiliary verb to have (had) + the
past participle of the main verb. The
meaning of this tense is “past-in-the-past”, the
point of reference is in the past and the event
takes place before this point in the past. It is
primarily used to describe one event following
another in the past; the earlier action has the
past perfect, the later action has the simple
past. The past perfect covers an area of
meaning equivalent to both the past and
perfect, being capable of referring to both
indefinite and definite time.
Sentences with a past perfect often contain
words like: after, before, when, as soon as to
indicate succession:
e.g. They elected him President, after his party
had nominated him.
Past perfect simple- full form: I had
walked/run; negative: I hadn’t walked/run;
question: Had you walked/run?; tag question:
You had walked, hadn’t you?/ You hadn’t
walk, had you?

Meaning and function:


a)used for actions previous to and affecting
a nominated time in the past:
By one o’clock he had cooked lunch.(it
was prepared but not eaten)
b) used to express sequence and
relationship of past actions with a time
marker:
It was Thursday before I had read it/ After
she had done the washing, she had a cup
of tea.
c)to show the sequence and relationship of
past actions with no time marker in
the past perfect clause: He had got
dressed before the post arrived.
d) to show causal relationship between
past actions (because, although):
I ran home because/since/as I had missed
the train.
e)used as a narrative device to give
background:
It had been a good year for Martin…
(setting for a story in the past simple)
f) conversation marker with verbs of
thinking, hoping-a request suggestion now
abandoned: I had wondered if you could
give me a lift.(I realize you can’t)
g) in reported speech and after if when direct

speech is in present perfect:


“Have you seen her?, I wondered./ I
wondered if you had seen her.

! Difference between the past tense and the


past perfect tense: the past tense is usually
used for one activity in the past. If there are
two activities in the past (one happened before
the other), the past perfect is used for the
oldest activity:
e.g. I phoned him yesterday/ I had phoned him
yesterday before I left the office.
The Past Perfect Continuous Tense is
formed from the past perfect of the auxiliary
verb to be (had been) + the present
participle of the main verb (-ing form). The
values of this tense are the same as for the
present perfect continuous, with the difference
that the time of reference is not the time of
speech, but some point in the past, as in the
case of the simple past perfect.
For example, imagine that you meet Ram at 11
am. Ram says to you:
“I’m angry. I have been waiting for two
hours.” Later you tell your friends: “ Ram
was angry. He had been waiting for two
hours.”
Past perfect continuous- full form: I had been
eating; negative: I hadn’t been eating;
question: Had you been eating?; tag question:
You had been eating, hadn’t you?/ You hadn’t
been eating, had you?

Meaning and function:


a)Relative to another past time and used
with a real or implied time marker. The
action took place in the time leading up to
the identified moment, and was temporary
or expected to be temporary.
• To explain the action of the main verb:
He could understand the film because he
had been studying French at school.
• To convey the ongoing, continuous
nature of an action, which led up to the
past moment in time:
He had been cleaning the car for over
an hour before he realized it was the
wrong one.
• To convey an action which was
ongoing but over when interrupted by the
main verb, but whose results were still
evident at that moment:
When he came I had been baking.
• In reported speech , when the direct

speech uses the present perfect


continuous: He said he had been
thinking about it.
b) With verbs of thinking/feeling-
introduces an idea now abandoned- it
suggests
that the idea was repeatedly in the mind:
I had been meaning to visit her.( I
thought many times about it, but now it’s
too late)
Important: If you do not include a duration
such as “for five minutes”, “for two
weeks” or “since Friday”, many English
speakers choose to use the Past
Continuous tense instead the Past Perfect
Continuous. There is also a difference in
meaning. Compare the examples below:
I was reading when my roommate returned.
(the reading will be interrupted)
I had been reading for an hour when my
roommate returned. (the reading stopped just
before my roommate returned)

Past perfect or past perfect continuous?


- When we state how often something had
happened we use the past perfect tense rather
than the past perfect continuous:
He had rung at least five times before they
arrived.
- Certain verbs are not usually used in the
continuous tense (verbs referring to mental
and emotional states, verbs of the senses,
verbs of reasoning, etc.).

7. Vocabulary Practice
! In order to be able to do the following
tasks successfully, you should revise unit 7
in your course book. To evaluate your
performance, turn to the self-test and
answer key at the end of this unit. You will
be awarded one point for each correct
answer. If your score is under 30 points,
you’ll have to turn back to Unit 8 and revise
the vocabulary and/or grammar problems
you failed to give a correct answer .If you
score over 30 points you don’t have to go
back to Unit 8. again. Good luck!

I .Read the carefully the text on the


traditional organisation of a ship’s crew in
your course book and use the information
to expand the diagram below. Your
diagram should show how each department
is made up. If personnel exist only on some
ships, put their names in brackets ( ).
II. Answer the following questions.

1.Who is in charge of a ship?


2.What are the four departments that are still
customary found in ships of reasonable size?
3.What is the structure of each of the four
departments?
4.What are the responsibilities of the deck
department?
5.Who is running the deck department?
6.What are the responsibilities of the Chief
Officer, Second Officer and Third Officer?
7.Who sees that the orders are carried out by
the crew?
8.Who sounds the tanks and bilges?
9.What are the grades of the deck ratings?
10. In ships where a Chief Mate as well as a
First mate are carried, who is the watch
keeping officer?

III. Link the following (do not change their


order), using whichever pattern is
appropriate.To do this task correctly you
should turn to unit 8, section 3 in your
course book.

1.Chief Officer-Master-the Deck Department.


2.Third Officer-the life-saving equipment.
3.The sounding of tanks and bilges-Carpenter.
4.Radio Officer-radio communications.
5.Chief Steward-Master-the Catering
Department.
6.The preparation of food-Ship’s Cook.
7.Chief Engineer-the efficient running of his
department.
8.The loading and unloading of oil-Pumpman.

IV. Rewrite the following sentences in the


three alternative ways.

1.The function of a thermometer is to measure


temperature.
2.A fire extinguisher is used for putting out
fires.
3.A windlass raises and lowers the anchors.
4.We measure time with a chronometer.

8. Vocabulary Practice-Answer Key


I.

II. Answer the following


questions(suggested answers)

1.The Master
2.The deck department, engine department,
catering department and radio department.
3.Officers, petty officers and ratings.
4.The responsibilities of the deck department
are:navigation, loading, stowing and
unloading the cargo; deck maintenance and
watchkeeping.
5.The Chief Officer/Mate
6.The Chief Officer is responsible for the
general day-to-day running of the deck
department. The Second Officer is
responsible to the Master for keeping the
ship on course and for looking after all the
equipment used for navigation.The third
Officer is in charge of the life-saving
equipment.
7.The boatswain
8.The carpenter.
9.AB(able seaman), EDH(efficient deck
hand), OS(ordinary seaman)
10. The First Mate.

III. Link the following using whichever


pattern is appropriate

1.The Chief Officer is responsible to the


Master for the Deck Department.
2.The Third officer is responsible for the life-
saving equipment.
3.The sounding of tanks and bilges is the
responsibility of the Carpenter.
4.The radio Officer is responsible for radio
communications.
5.The chief steward is responsible to the
Master for the Catering Department.
6.The preparation of food is the responsibility
of the Ship’s Cook’
7.The Chief Engineer is responsible for the
efficient running of his department.
8.The loading and unloading of oil is the
responsibility of the Pumpman.

IV. Rewrite the following sentences in the


three alternative ways.

(a) A thermometer is used for measuring


temperature.
A thermometer measures temperature.
We measure temperature with a
thermometer.

(b) A fire extinguisher puts out fires.


We put out fires with a fire extinguisher.
The function of a fire extinguisher is to put
out fires.
(c) We raise and lower the anchors with a
windlass.
The function of a windlass is to raise and
lower the anchors.
A windlass is used for raising and lowering
the anchors.

(d) The function of a chronometer is to


measure time.
A chronometer is used for measuring time.
A chronometer measures time.

9. Grammar Practice Past Perfect Simple


And Continuous

I. Underline all the 3rd forms of the verb in


the following passage.

The old man looked at the broken tree. There


was sadness in his eyes. There had been a very
bad storm during the night. The wind had
almost blown the tree down. Branches lay
around, the white wood like open wounds
without the blood. He thought back to the day
when he had planted it.......many years ago.
The tree had grown taller year by year until it
had reached almost as high as the roof. He
remembered the day his son had climbed up
and hidden in the branches – and wouldn’t
come down. He remembered how the war had
come and taken his wife and son from him.
The house had burnt down. But the tree had
survived. It had reminded him of all those
other things. Until last night. What could an
old man do now?

Now write the words you have underlined.


1.................................
7..................................
2.................................
8..................................
3.................................
9..................................
4.................................
10...................................
5.................................
11...................................
6.................................
12...................................

II. Complete these situations. Number 1 is


done for you.
1. I was nervous as I sat in the car waiting for
my driving instructor. (drive)
I had never driven before.
2. I was terrified as we waited for the plane.
(fly)
.............................................
3. My knees were knocking as I stood up at the
wedding. (give a speech)
.............................................
4. When I reached the top of the ski lift, I
wanted to die. (ski)
.............................................
5. As I changed into my tennis things, I wished
I’d never agreed to be Martin’s partner. (play
tennis)
.............................................
6. If only I had refused to go to the choir
practice! (sing in public)
.............................................

III.. Supply reasonable previous cases in the


past for these consequences, results, effects
or interest. Use the Past Perfect and try to
find more than one previous cause for each
sentence.

EXAMPLE:
She knew how to bake a cake because…
(a) her mother had taught her.
(b) she had learned at school.
(c) she had read about it in a book.

Use as and because as links where


necessary.
1.He gave his horse a lump of sugar…
2.She asked me to repeat my name…
3.We asked her to sing the song again…
4.They called the boy Moses…
5.Father tipped the waiter very well…
6.The man was out of breath…
7.I sent my watch to the watchmaker’s…
8.Our visitor was very tired…
9.It was very cold outside in the garden…
10. We gave the patient first aid…
11. We didn’t meet yesterday after all…
12. I couldn’t eat the food at lunchtime…
13. Peter didn’t know the answer to the
question…
14. John looked very smart at his sister’s
wedding…
15. The tramp had a three days’ beard…
16. The president arrived half an hour
late…
17. We called a doctor…
18. Peter wasn’t very happy when we met
him…
19. The Colonel had great experience of
men…
20. The children were late for school…

IV. Supply the Simple Past for the effect,


consequence, result or interest and the Past
Perfect for the previous cause.

1.They (spend) all their money and (not


know) where to find any more.
2.We (finish) our work so we (sit) down to
talk.
3.The sky (be) black for some time before
the rain (begin) to fall.
4.I (give) you the work to do again because
you(do)it badly.
5.When I (thank) my hostess I (leave) the
house and (go) home.
6.Yesterday my wife (tell) me about a
beautiful hat she (see) a few days earlier.
7.Dr. Brown (just return) so they (give) him
the message.
8.One of his patients (break) his leg and
(need) a doctor at once.
9.The doctor (hope) for a quiet night. He
(feel) disappointed.
10. After the children (go) to bed the house
(be) very quiet.
11. They always (live) in a small village
and (not understand) the city people.
12. I (can’t) read because I (forget) to fetch
my glasses.
13. Peter (have) dinner in town that evening
as his wife (go) to visit her mother.
14. We (never be) in Athens before so we
(want) to see the sights.
15. The child (lose) his money so he
(cannot buy) sweets.

V. Supply the Simple Past to show cause


and immediate effect or the Past Perfect to
show previous cause. The Simple past
expresses the later consequence.

1.He (press) the switch and the engine


(start).
2.Peter (forget) to fill up with petrol so his
car (stop) just outside the garage.
3.We (not eat) much for breakfast so we
(feel) hungry at lunchtime.
4.John (not arrive) by seven thirty, so Mary
(go) to the cinema alone.
5.Mr. Smith (misunderstand) the question
because he (not hear) it well.
6.Professor Smith (heat) a metal bar and it
(expand).
7.His firm (give) him a better position last
year because he (earn) it.
8.As we (miss) the express from London we
(travel) on a slow train.
9.Our host (introduce) me to Mrs. Brown
whom I (not meet) before.
10. Peter (sunbathe) too long and (get)
blisters on his back.
11. Mary (not be) abroad before so
everything (seem) strange to her.
12. …he (refuse) to see me because I (not
write) for an appointment?
13. She (not go) out in the rain because she
(not have) an umbrella.
14. … he (become) angry when you
(accuse) him for stealing?
15. As we (not have) notice of the general’s
arrival, naturally we (not expect) him.
16. Something heavy (strike) me on the
head and (knock) me out.
17. …she (find out) for herself or …
someone (tell) her?
18. We (wake up) late because the alarm
clock (not ring).
19. The policeman (put) up his hand and the
traffic (stop).
20. Susan’s dinner (go) cold so Alan
(warm) it up for her.

VI. Transate into English using one of the


following tenses: Past Simple; Past
Continuous; Past Perfect Simple and Past
Perfect Continuous

1. Vântul se mai domolise iar luna strălucea


deasupra mării liniştite.
2. Telefonul sună, în timp ce domnişoara
Marple se îmbrăca.
3. O auzi cum oftează în timp ce el citea.
4. Ultima dată l-am văzut acum zece ani.
5. Ca elev era un băiat timid şi sârguincios.
6. Deschise sertarul, scoase un plic vechi şi se
aşeză în fotoliu, examinându-l atent.
7. În zilele acelea venea să mă vadă în mod
regulat şi de fiecare dată îmi aducea un mic
dar.
8. Mereu mă suna noaptea târziu.
9. Când predam la şcoala aceea, mă lua în
fiecare dimineaţă cu maşina.
10. Ce s-a întâmplt după ce a plecat?
11. De trei ani locuia în satul acela mic de
lângă graniţă.
12. Îl aşteptam de o oră, când telefonul sună şi
o voce ciudată îmi spuse că Richard a avut un
accident.
13. Primise florile cu o oră în urmă, dar era
încă foarte emoţionată.
14. Ce făcuse oare în tot acest timp?
15. Despre ce vorbeau când i-ai întâlnit

10. Answer Key: Past Perfect Simple and


Continuous

I. 1 been 2 blown 3 planted 4 grown 5


reached 6 climbed 7 hidden 8 come 9 taken
10 burnt 11 survived 12 reminded

II.
1. I had never driven before.
2. I had never flown before.
3. I had never given a speech before.
4. I had never skied before.
5. I hadn’t played tennis before.
6. I had never sung in public before.
III. A variety of previous causes may be
produced for each item e.g.
1. because it had jumped so well/ because it
had a fright/ as it had always liked sugar
2. because she hadn’t heard it well/ because I
hadn’t spoken clearly/ because she had never
heard such a name before/as she had forgotten
to write it down…

IV.
1. had spent....did not know
2. had finished.....sat
3. had been....began
4. gave.....had gone
5. had thanked....left....went
6. told....had seen
7. had just returned....gave
8. had broken......needed
9. had hoped....felt
10. had gone....was
11. had always lived....did not undersatnd
12. could not....had forgotten
13. had....had gone
14. had never been....wanted
15. had lost....could not buy
V.
1. pressed....started
2. had forgotten....stopped
3. had not eaten....felt
4. had no arrived....went
5. misunderstood....had not heard
6. heated....expanded
7. gave.....had earned
8. had missed....travelled
9. introduced.....had not met
10. sunbathed....got
11. had not seen....seemed
12. Did he refused.....had not written
13. did he go.....did not have
14. Did he become .....accused
15. had no had......did not expect
16. struck.....knocked
17. Did she find out....did someone tell /had
someone tpld.
18. woke up.....had not rung
19. put.....stopped
20. had gone out....warmed.

VI.
1. The wind had fallen and the moon was
shining over the quiet sea.
2. The phone rang when Miss Marple was
dressing.
3. He heard her sigh as he was reading for
her.
4. She last saw him ten years ago.
5. As a pupil he was a timid hard-working
boy.
6. He pulled the drawer open, took out
an old envelope and sat down in the
armcahir inspecting it closely.
7. In those days he came to see me
regularly and every time he brought me a
small present.
8. He was always ringing me up late at
night.
9. When I taught at that school he gave me
a lift every morning.
10. What happened after he had left?
11. He had been living/had lived for three
years in that small village near the border.
12. I had been waiting for him for an
hour when the phone rang and a strange
voice told me that Richard had had an
accident.
13. She had got the flowers an hour before
but she was still very excited.
14. Whatever had he been doing all that
time?
15. What were they talking about when you
met them?

11. Self-Test

I.

1. The man in charge of a ship is


the………….
2. The master is the……..personal
.representative.
3. The master bears the ultimate
responsibility for the safe navigation of his
vessel, efficient loading, ….. and
discharge of the cargo.
4. The master has the power to act as a….., a
doctor, and even to bury people.
5. If a person is dangerous to other members
of the ship, the master may place the
individual under…..
6. If the ship is ……..in any way, the Master
may call upon all persons on board to give
assistance.
7. The master is required to hold a….
…..which is obtained by examination.
8. The Master must be….competent in
navigation matters including navigating
techniques and instruments.
9. The traditional organisation of a ship’s
crew consists of four departments:
…..,Engine, Catering, and Radio.
10. Each department is made up of a varied
number of officers, petty officers and
ratings.
1
0
p

II. Select the officers, petty officers and


ratings listed below and place them under
the appropriate heading hierarchically:

Third Officer; Second Engineer; Ship’s


Cook; Boatswain; Storekeeper; Third
Engineer; Electrical officer; Second
Steward; Carpenter; Fourth Engineer;
Donkeyman; Second Officer; AB;
Storekeeper; Firemen; Second Radio
Officer; Greasers; Fourth Engineer; OS;
Purser; EDH.
Deck Engine Catering Radio
Departme Departme Departme Departme
nt nt nt nt
Chief
Chief Chief Chief
Radio
Officer Engineer Steward
Officer

10p

III. Write the responsibilities of the officers


and petty officers belonging to the deck
department. Use whichever pattern for
expressing function you prefer.
1
0
p

Self-Test-Answer Key

I.

1. Master
2. Owner’s
3. Stowage
4. lawyer
5. restraint
6. imperilled
7. Master’s Certificate
8. Thoroughly
9. Deck
10. Petty officers
II.

Deck Engine Catering Radio


Departme Departme Departme Departme
nt nt nt nt
Chief Chief Chief Chief
Officer Engineer Steward Radio
Officer
Second Second Second
officer Engineer radio
Officer
Third Third Third
Officer Engine Radio
er Officer
Fourth
Engineer
Electrical
Officer
Boatswai Storekeep Second
n er steward
Carpente Donkeym The
r an purser
Pumpma
n
AB(able Firemen
seaman)
EDH(effic Greasers
ient deck
hand)
OS(ordin
ary
seaman)

III.

1.The Chief Officer is responsible to the


Master for the running of the Deck
Department.
2. The Third Officer is responsible for the life-
saving appliances.
3. The Boatswain is directly responsible to the
Chief Officer. He sees that his orders and
those of other deck officers are carried out by
the crew.
4. The sounding of tanks and bilges is the
responsibility of the Carpenter
5. Deck ratings are responsible for deck
operations.
6. The Second Officer is responsible to the
Master for keeping the ship on course and for
looking after all the equipment used for
navigation.
LIST OF IRREGULAR VERBS

arise arose arisen a se


ridica
awake awoke awoken a (se)
trezi
be was/were been a fi
bear bore borne a
purta
beat beat beaten a bate
become became become a
deveni
begin began begun a
începe
bend bent bent a (se)
îndoi
bet bet bet a paria
bid bid bid a ruga, a adresa (o
invitaţie)
bade bidden a porunci
bind bound bound a lega
bite bit bitten a muşca
bleed bled bled a
sângera
bless blest blest a
binecuvânta
blow blew blown a
sufla; a bate
break broke broken a (se)
sparge; a (se) defecta
breed bred bred a
creşte, a educa
bring brought brought a
aduce
broadcast broadcast broadcast a
emite (radio, TV)
build built built a
construi
burn burnt burnt a arde
burst burst burst a
izbucni; a năvăli; a crăpa
buy bought bought a cumpăra
cast cast cast a arunca
catch caught caught a
prinde
choose chose chosen a
alege
cling clung clung a se
agăţa
come came come a veni
cost cost cost a costa
creep crept crept a se
târî; a se furişa
cut cut cut a tăia
deal dealt dealt a
trata; a se ocupa de
dig dug dug a săpa
dive dove (Am.) dived a (se)
scufunda, a plonja
do did done a face
draw drew drawn a
trage, a desena
dream dreamt dreamt a visa
drink drank drunk a bea
drive drove driven a
conduce, a şofa
dwell dwelt dwelt a
locui
eat ate eaten a mânca
fall fell fallen a cădea
feed fed fed a hrăni, a
alimenta
feel felt felt a (se) simţi
fight fought fought a (se)
lupta
find found found a găsi
flee fled fled a fugi
fling flung flung a
arunca; a lansa
fly flew flown a zbura
forbid forbade forbidden a
interzice
forecast forecast forecast a
prevedea
foresee foresaw foreseen a
prezice
forget forgot forgotten a uita
forgive forgave forgiven a ierta
freeze froze frozen a
îngheţa
get got got (gotten Am.) a primi; a
obţine; a ajunge
give gave given a da
go went gone a merge
grind ground ground a
măcina, a şlefui
grow grew grown a
creşte, a cultiva
hang hung hung a
atârna
have had had a avea
hear heard heard a auzi
hide hid hidden a (se)
ascunde
hit hit hit a lovi
hold held held a ţine
hurt hurt hurt a lovi; a răni; a
durea
keep kept kept a ţine;
a păstra
kneel knelt knelt a
îngenunchea
knit knit knit a tricota
know knew known a şti,
a cunoaşte
lay laid laid a pune, a aşeza
lead led led a conduce
(oameni)
lean leant leant a (se)
apleca, a (se) sprijini
leap leapt leapt a sări
learn learnt learnt a
învăţa
leave left left a pleca, a lăsa
lend lent lent a da cu
împrumut
let let let a lăsa, a permite
lie lay lain a sta întins; a se
afla
light lit lit a aprinde
lose lost lost a pierde
make made made a face
mean meant meant a
însemna
meet met met a (se) întâlni
mislead misled misled a
induce în eroare
mistake mistook mistaken a
confunda
mow mowed mown a cosi
overcome overcame overcome a
depăşi
pay paid paid a plăti
put put put a pune
read read read a citi
rend rent rent a rupe, a
sfâşia
rid rid rid a se descotorosi
de
ride rode ridden a călări; a
merge cu…
ring rang rung a suna
rise rose risen a răsări, a
se ridica
run ran run a fugi
saw sawed sawn a tăia cu
ferăstrăul
say said said a spune
see saw seen a vedea
seek sought sought a
căuta
sell sold sold a vinde
send sent sent a trimite
set set set a potrivi; a monta;
a fixa
sew sewed sown a coase
shake shook shaken a
scutura; a tremura
shear sheared shorn a
tunde oi
shed shed shed a
vărsa (lacrimi, sânge)
shine shone shone a
străluci
shoe shod shod a
potcovi
shoot shot shot a
trage, a împuşca; a filma
show showed shown a
arăta
shrink shrank shrunk a
intra la apă, a se strânge
shut shut shut a
închide
sing sang sung a
cânta
sink sank sunk a (se)
scufunda
sit sat sat a sta jos
slay slew slain a ucide
sleep slept slept a
dormi
slide slid slid a aluneca
sling slung slung a
arunca
slit slit slit a despica
smell smelt smelt a
mirosi
sow sowed sown a semăna
speak spoke spoken a
vorbi
speed sped sped a
accelera
spell spelt spelt a
ortografia
spend spent spent a
cheltui, a petrece timp
spill spilt spilt a
vărsa
spin span/spun spun a se
învârti în jurul axei
spit spat spat a scuipa
spit spit (Am.)
split split split a
despica
spoil spoilt spoilt a
strica, a răsfăţa
spread spread spread a (se)
răspândi
spring sprang sprung a
izvorî; a (ră)sări
stand stood stood a sta
în picioare
steal stole stolen a fura
stick stuck stuck a (se)
lipi; a înfige
sting stung stung a
înţepa
stink stank/stunk stunk a
mirosi urât
stride strode stridden a
merge cu paşi mari
strike struck struck a lovi
string strung strung a
înşira
strive strove striven a se
strădui; a năzui
swear swore sworn a
jura; a înjura
sweep swept swept a
mătura
swell swelled swollen a se
umfla
swim swam swum a
înota
swing swung swung a (se)
legăna
take took taken a lua
teach taught taught a
învăţa (pe cineva)
tear tore torn a rupe, a sfâşia
tell told told a spune (cuiva), a
povesti
think thought thought a (se)
gândi; a crede
throw threw thrown a
arunca
thrust thrust thrust a
înfige
tread trod trodden/trod a
călca, a păşi
undergo underwent undergone a
suferi (schimbări)
understand understood understood a
înţelege
undertake undertook undertaken a
întreprinde
wake woke woken a (se)
trezi
wear wore worn a
purta
weave wove woven a ţese
wed wed wed a se
cununa
weep wept wept a
plânge
wet wet wet a (se) uda
win won won a câştiga
wind wound wound a
răsuci; a şerpui
withdraw withdrew withdrawn a (se)
retrage
wring wrung wrung a
stoarce; a răsuci
write wrote written a
scrie

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