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A Report on

Traffic Flow Capacity Analysis and Level of Service


determination of Selected Bridges across Tapi River in
Surat City

By

Bhoya Bhavinkumar Gulabbhai


(Enrollment No: - 160900713002)

Under the Guidance of

Prof. P. M. Shah
HOD Civil Department
Government Polytechnic
, Godhra-389001

A
A Thesis Submitted to Gujarat Technological University
In Partial Fulfilment of the Requirement For
The Degree of Master of Engineering in Civil
(Transportation) Engineering

May-2018

CIVIL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT


TATVA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGICAL STUDIES,
MODASA-383315, GUJRAT

I
CERTIFICATE
This is to certify that research work embodied in this thesis entitled “Traffic Flow Capacity
Analysis and Level of Service determination of Selected Bridges across Tapi River in
Surat City” was carried out by Mr. Bhoya Bhavinkumar Gulabbhai (Enrolment No.
160900713002) at Tatva Institute of Technological Studies, Modasa (090) for partial
fulfilment of Master of Engineering degree in Civil-Transportation Engineering to be
awarded by Gujarat Technological University. This research work has been carried out under
my supervision and is to my satisfaction.

Date: / /20
Place: Modasa

Guide Co- Guide


Prof. P. M. Shah Dr. H. R. Varia
Head of Department,
Civil Engineering Department, Tatva Institute of Technological Studies,
Government Polytechnic, Modasa-383315
Godhra-389001.

Principal

Tatva Institute of Technological Studies,


Modasa-383315

II
COMPLIANCE CERTIFICATE
This is to certify that research work embodied in this thesis “Traffic Flow Capacity
Analysis and Level of Service determination of Selected Bridges across Tapi River in
Surat City” was carried out by Mr. Bhoya Bhavinkumar Gulabbhai (Enrolment No.
160900713002) at Tatva Institute of Technological Studies, Modasa (090) for partial
fulfilment of Master of Engineering degree to be awarded by Gujarat Technological
University. He has complied with the comments given by the Dissertation phase-1 as well as
Mid Semester Thesis Reviewer to my satisfaction.

Date: / / 20
Place: Modasa

Guide Co-Guide
Bhoya Bhavinkumar G. Prof. P. M. Shah Dr. H. R. Varia
(160900713002) Head of Department, TITS,
Government Polytechnic, Modasa-383315
Godhra-389001

III
PAPER PUBLICATION CERTIFICATE
This is to certify that research work embodied in this thesis entitled “Traffic Flow Capacity
Analysis and Level of Service determination of Selected Bridges across Tapi River in
Surat City” was carried out by Mr. Bhoya Bhavinkumar Gulabbhai (Enrolment No.
160900713002) at Tatva Institute of Technological Studies, Modasa (090) for partial
fulfilment of Master of Engineering degree to be awarded by Gujarat Technological
University has published Research paper entitiled “Evaluation of Level of Service and
Traffic Capacity for congested River Bridges of Surat City”, (Apr-2018), International
Journal of Advance Research in Engineering Science and Technology(IJAREST).
(ISSN: 2393-9877) Vol. 05, Issue 04, Apr-2018.

Date: / /20
Place: Modasa

Guide Co-Guide
Bhoya Bhavinkumar G. Prof. P. M. Shah Dr. H. R. Varia
(160900713002) Head of Department, TITS,
Government Polytechnic, Modasa-383315
Godhra-389001

Principal

TITS, Modasa-383315

(Seal of the Institute)

IV
DECLARATION OF ORIGINALITY
I hereby certify that I am the sole author of this thesis and that neither any part of this thesis
nor the whole of the thesis has been submitted for a degree to any other University or
Institution.

I certify that, to the best of my knowledge, the current thesis does not infringe upon anyone‟s
copyright nor violate any proprietary rights and that any ideas, techniques, quotation or any
other people include in my thesis, published or otherwise, are fully acknowledged in
accordance with the standard referencing practices. I declare that this is a true copy of thesis,
including any final revision, as approved by thesis review committee.

I have checked write up of the present thesis using anti-plagiarism database and it is in
allowable limit. Even though later on in case of any complaint pertaining of plagiarism.

I am sole responsible for the same and I understand that as per UGC norms, University can
even revoke Master of Engineering degree conferred to the student submitting this thesis.

Date: / / 20

Signature of Student: Signature of Guide: Signature of Co-Guide:


Bhoya Bhavinkumar G. Prof. P. M. Shah Dr. H. R. Varia
Enrolment No: 160900713002 Institute Code: 618 Institute Code: 090

V
Dedicated to my,
Sweet Family
Acknowledgement
It is indeed a pleasure for me to express my sincerity gratitude to who have always helped me
for the thesis work.

First of all, I am humbly express thanks to my respected guide Prof. P. M. Shah(HOD Civil
Department Government Polytechnic College, Godhra) and co-guide Dr. H. R. Varia
(Principal, TITS Modasa) for his valuable time and constant help given to me. He has been a
pillar of support and inspired me throughout this study, without him this would not have been
possible. I also express my thanks to Prof. Y. G. Zaz (HOD, Civil) and Prof. J. R. Puwar
(Campus Director) of T.I.T.S. Modasa for their continuous support.
I am thankful to My Parents, my lovely Sister & Brothers and all my family members for
their unconditional love, understanding and moral support they rendered me throughout my
life. Today, whatever I have achieved it would not have been possible without them.

I would like to thanks Sir. Snehal Kania (SMC: Bridge cell) for providing me permission for
videography in my study area.

Thanks to all my friends Rahul Pandya, Hardik Solanki, Viral Gosai, Jatin Panchal,
Archit Shah, Parth Patel, Samir Sutariya, Vishal Makvana, Indrajit Parmar, Kalpesh
Solanki, Kapil Patel, Dhananjay Chauhan, Shashank Patel, Aashis Patel, Gurjar Jigar,
who directly and indirectly support me to complete my work.

Above all I am thankful to almighty God for everything.

Bhoya Bhavin G.
(160900713002)

VII
List of Content
Sr. No. Description Page No.
Title Page i
Certificate ii
Compliance Certificate iii
Paper Publication Certificate iv
Declaration of Originality v
Dedication Page vi
Acknowledgement vii
List of Content viii
List of Figures xi
List of Tables xiii
Abstract xvi
1 Chapter-1: Introduction 1
1.1 General 1
1.2 Transportation Scenario in India 1
1.3 Factor affecting on traffic flow characteristics 7
1.3.1 Traffic stream characteristics 7
1.3.2 Vehicular characteristics 7
1.3.3 Roadway characteristics 7
1.4 Problem Statement 7
1.5 Aim of Study 8
1.6 Objective of Study 8
1.7 Scope of Study 8
1.8 Structure of Report 8
2 Chapter-2: Literature Review 10
2.1 General 10
2.2 Time Space Diagram 10
2.3 Fundamental Diagram of Road Traffic 11
2.3.1 Flow-density curve 11
2.3.2 Speed-Density curve 11
2.3.3 Speed-Flow curve 12
2.4 Level of Service 13

VIII
2.4.1 Factor affecting of level of service 13
2.5 Research papers 14
3 Chapter-3: Methodology 19
3.1 General 19
3.2 Technical Terminologies related to Traffic Flow 19
3.3 Field Survey method 20
3.3.1 Traffic volume count survey(Videography) 20
3.3.2 Spot Speed Survey 21
3.3.3 Licence Plate Survey 22
3.4 Methodology chart 24
4 Chapter-4: Study Area and Data Collection 25
4.1 General 25
4.2 Introduction of Surat City 25
4.2.1 Population of Surat city in 2017 27
4.2.2 Physical Geography 27
4.2.3 Demographics 27
4.3 Location Map of Study Area 29
4.4 Details of Selected Bridges 30
4.4.1 Savjibhai Korat Bridge 30
4.4.2 Sardar Bridge 31
4.4.3 Amroli Bridge 32
4.5 Data Collection 34
4.5.1 Classified Traffic Volume Count 34
4.5.2 Spot-Speed study 50
4.5.3 Density Calculation 57
4.5.4 Travel time Calculation 64
4.5.5 Speed Calculation 75
4.5.6 V/C Ratio Calculation 79
5 Chapter-5: Results and Conclusion 83
5.1 Results 83
5.1.1 Traffic Flow Count 83
5.1.2 Spot-Speed Study and Density 83
5.1.3 Travel Time of Different vehicles 83

IX
5.1.4 Comparison of Spot-Speed and Speed 85
5.1.5 L.O.S Calculation 85
5.2 Conclusion 86
5.2.1 Suggested Measures 86
References
Annexure
Review Card
Paper Publication Certificate
Turnitin Digital Receipt
Turnitin Percentage Report

X
List of Figure
Sr. No. Name of Figure Page No.
1 2.1: Time-Space Diagram 10
2 2.2: Speed-Flow-Density curves 12
3 3.1: Spot Speed Relative Frequency curve 22
4 3.2: Spot speed cumulative frequency curve 22
5 3.3: Methodology Chart 24
6 4.1: Map of Surat city (Map of India) 26
7 4.2: Map of Surat city (Google Map) 26
8 4.3: Demographic Map of Surat city 28
9 4.4: Location Map of Study Area 29
10 4.5: Savjibhai Korat Bridge(Google) 30
11 4.6: Savjibhai Korat Bridge 30
12 4.7: Traffic Flow on Savjibhai Korat Bridge 31
13 4.8: Sardar Patel Bridge(Google) 31
14 4.9: Traffic Flow on Sardar Patel Bridge 32
15 4.10: Amroli Bridge(Google) 32
16 4.11: Amroli Bridge 33
17 4.12: Traffic Flow on Amroli Bridge 33
18 4.13: Graph of PCU/15min (Nana Varachcha to Mota 37
Varachcha)
19 4.14: Graph of PCU/15min (Mota Varachcha to Nana 38
Varachcha)
20 4.15: Cumulative Traffic Flow (Nana Varachcha to Mota 38
Varachcha)
21 4.16: Cumulative Traffic Flow (Mota Varachcha to Nana 39
Varachcha)
22 4.17: Graph of PCU/15min (Athwa Gate to Adajan) 41
23 4.18: Cumulative Traffic Flow (Athwa Gate to Adajan) 41
24 4.19: Graph of PCU/15min (Adajan to Athwa Gate) 44
25 4.20: Cumulative Traffic Flow (Adajan to Atwa Gate) 44
26 4.21: Graph of PCU/15min (Katargam to Amroli) 47
27 4.22: Cumulative Traffic Flow (Katargam to Amroli) 47

XI
28 4.23: Graph of PCU/15min(Amroli to Katargam) 49
29 4.24: Cumulative Traffic Flow(Amroli to Katargam) 50
30 4.25: Entry Time of Vehicles 66
31 4.26: Exit Time of Vehicles 66

XII
List of Table
Sr. No. Table Name Page
No.
1 1.1: The total registered Motor Vehicles in India (State wise) 3
2 1.2: Category-Wise Automobile Production ( In Numbers) 5
3 2.1: LoS of Urban road based on Stream Speed, V/C Ratio and FFS 13
4 4.1: Total classified Traffic Volume: Nana Varachcha to Mota 34
Varachcha
5 4.2: Total classified Traffic Volume: Mota Varachcha to Nana 35
Varachcha
6 4.3: PCU values for Rural/Urban condition (IRC: SP-41:1994) 36
7 4.4: PCU/15min (Nana Varachcha to Mota Varachcha) 36
8 4.5: PCU/15min (Mota Varachcha to Nana Varachcha 37

9 4.6: Total classified Traffic Volume: Athwa Gate to adajan 39

10 4.7: PCU/15min(Athwa Gate to Adajan) 40

11 4.8: Total classified Traffic Volume: Adajan to Athwa Gate 42

12 4.9: PCU/15min(Adajan to Athwa Gate) 43

13 4.10: Total classified Traffic Volume: Katargam to Amroli 45

14 4.11: PCU/15min(Katargam to Amroli) 46

15 4.12: Total classified Traffic Volume: Amroli to Katargam 47

16 4.13: PCU/15min(Amroli to Katargam) 48

17 4.14: Sample Spot Study data of Direction: Katargam to Amroli 50

18 4.15: Sample Spot Study data of Direction: Amroli to Katargam 51

19 4.16: Sample Spot Study data of Direction: Athwa Gate to Adajan 53

20 4.17: Sample Spot Study data of Direction: Adajan to Athwa Gate 54

21 4.18: Sample Spot Study data of Direction: Nana Varachcha to 55


Mota Varachcha
22 4.19: Sample Spot Study data of Direction: Mota Varachcha to 56
Nana Varachcha
23 4.20: The LOS of Mid-Block Section 58

XIII
24 4.21: Flow-Speed-Density: Katargam to Amroli 58

25 4.22: Flow-Speed-Density: Amroli to Katargam 59

26 4.23: Flow-Speed-Density: Athwa Gate to Adajan 60

27 4.24: Flow-Speed-Density: Adajan to Athwa Gate 61

28 4.25: Flow-Speed-Density: Nana Varachcha to Mota Varachcha 62

29 4.26: Flow-Speed-Density: Mota Varachcha to Nana Varachcha 63

30 4.27: Travel Time Calculation: Athwa Gate to Adajan 64

31 4.28: Travel Time Calculation: Adajan to Athwa Gate 67

32 4.29: Travel Time Calculation: Katargam to Amroli 68

33 4.30: Travel Time Calculation: Amroli to Katargam 70

34 4.31: Travel Time Calculation: Nana Varachcha to Mota Varachcha 72

35 4.32: Travel Time Calculation: Mota Varachcha to Nana Varachcha 74

36 4.33: Speed Calculation: Katargam to Amroli 76

37 4.34: Speed Calculation: Amroli to Katargam 76

38 4.35: Speed Calculation: Athwa Gate to Adajan 77

39 4.36: Speed Calculation: Adajan to Athwa Gate 77

40 4.37: Speed Calculation: Nana Varachcha to Mota Varachcha 78

41 4.38: Speed Calculation: Mota Varachcha to Nana Varachcha 78

42 4.39: V/C Ratio Calculation: Katargam to Amroli 79

43 4.40: V/C Ratio Calculation: Amroli to Katargam 79

44 4.41: V/C Ratio Calculation: Athwa Gate to Adajan 80

45 4.42: V/C Ratio Calculation: Adajan to Athwa Gate 80

46 4.43: V/C Ratio Calculation: Nana Varachcha to Mota Varachcha 81

47 4.44: V/C Ratio Calculation: Mota Varachcha to Nana Varachcha 81

48 5.1 Result of Traffic flow count 83

49 5.2 Result of Traffic flow count 83

XIV
50 5.3 Result of Travel Time of different Vehicles 84

51 5.4 Comparison of Spot-Speed and Speed 85

52 5.5 L.O.S of Urban road based on stream speed, v/c Ratio and FFS 85

53 5.6 L.O.S Calculation 85

XV
Abstract
India is developing country in the world. There are many complex problems related to
transportation system is observed in the country. These include ever increasing population,
vehicular growth and traffic congestion. Gujarat is the one of the top five fastest developing
state of our country. Surat city is developing city. The city is 2nd biggest city in Gujarat and
9th biggest city in India. In Surat city- the fourth fastest developing city of the world-at many
places the bottleneck conditions on the roads occurs due to limited availability of road space.
Due to bottleneck condition at the bridges across Tapi river, traffic congestion is occurring.
Out of the 10 bridges across the Tapi River in Surat city, some of the bridges which is
connecting the commercial and residency area in the city are witnessing heavy amount of
traffic during pick hours which leads to traffic jam and bottlenecks condition at some places.
After reckoning survey the three bridges namely Sardar Bridge, Amroli Bridge and Savjibhai
korat Bridge are selected for Traffic flow capacity and level of Service analysis. Therefore, it
is necessary to quantify the Traffic characteristics in existing traffic conditions on selected
bridges and understand the responsible factors for suggesting improvement in existing Traffic
congestion over selected bridges. In this study, it is proposed to find traffic flow capacity and
Level of Service by measuring traffic speed, flow and density parameters on the selected
bridges during peak hours. This may be helpful to check whether existing bridges are capable
to handle existing as well as future increased traffic flow safety or not. As per data analysis
the level of service for the selected two bridges were found was LOS F while for one bridge it
is evaluated as LOS E. Accordingly suggested measures for improving the LOS of selected
bridges are given in the last chapter.

XVI
INTRODUCTION

Chapter-1
Introduction
1.1 General
In developing country like India, Traffic congestion has been one of major issues that most
metropolises are facing and thus, many measures have been taken in order to mitigate
congestion. Identification of congestion characteristics is the first step for such efforts since it
is an essential guidance for selecting appropriate measures. Basic knowledge of traffic flow
characteristics like traffic volume under such Traffic conditions is fundamental traffic volume
is basic variable in planning, designing, and operation of roadway systems. Congestion - both
in perception and in reality - impacts the movement of people and freight and is deeply tied to
the history of high levels of accessibility and mobility. Traffic congestion wastes time and
energy, causes pollution and stress, decreases productivity and imposes costs on society.
Transportation plays important role in development and growth of any nation. Transportation
is significant for trade, organization and social interaction, while consuming considerable
time and resource. Transportation sector in India is a very extensive system, comprising
different modes of transport like Road, Railway, Aviation, Waterway and Shipping, which
facilitate easy and different conveyance of goods and people across the nation. The backbone
of economic development of the India is largely depends on its transportation. Road transport
is primary mode of transport which plays an important role in conveyance of goods and
passengers and linking the centres of production, consumption and distribution.

1.2 Transportation Scenario in India


India's transport sector is a rapidly growing sector and contributes 6.4 % to the GDP of the
country. The sector is largely oil dependent and accounts for 13 % of the country's energy-
related CO2 emissions (MoEF 2010). Crude oil imports have been increasing steadily and
making India the third largest oil importer globally. Nearly 80 % of India's current crude oil
consumption comes from imports raising challenges of national energy security.
Intercity transport is mainly met by road (88 %), rail (11 %), and a limited share of air
transport. Indian railways are among the largest rail networks globally and transport 23
million passengers and 3 million tonnes of freight daily (GoI 2015). Despite its extensive
network, railways are faced with issues of capacity constraints and poor infrastructure. The
share of rail has dropped from over 40 % in 1970 to 11 % in 2010 due to high competition

GUJARAT TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY, AHMEDABAD 1


INTRODUCTION

from road transport. Similarly, rail dominated freight transport in India; however, this share is
on the decline in recent years.
In urban areas, road transport dominates. Present status of urban transport is characterized by
increasing trip distances, increasing share of private motorized transport, and declining share
of public and non-motorized transport. These trends are leading to increasing problems of
poor air quality, road safety, noise, and congestion.
India is also one of the rapid developing Nations. So, it is necessity to have adequate
transportation facility so it meets existing future transportation demand. India has
experiencing tremendous growth rate in vehicle growth (Fig. 1.1), an average growth rate of
9% per year in country.

The total registered Motor Vehicles in India (State wise) are shown in below table 1.1 and
Category-Wise Automobile Production ( In Numbers) are shown in table 1.2.

GUJARAT TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY, AHMEDABAD 2


INTRODUCTION

Table 1.1: Total registered Motor Vehicles in India (State-Wise)


(In Thousand)
State/Union
2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015
Territory
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16
State
Andhra
Pradesh 3966 4389 5002 5720 6458 7218 6367 7208 8059 8923 10189 12424 6286(R) 7002 7882
Arunachal
Pradesh 21* 21* 21* 21* 22 * 22 * 22 * 22* 22* 22* 145 151 151# 151# 151#
Assam 542 596 657 727 815 914 1021 1116 1235 1384 1582 1807 1878 2217 2510
Bihar 949 1024 1121 751 1352 1432 1577 1739 1960 2357 2673 3113 3617 4163 4778
Chhatisgarh 857 948 1076 1216 1375 1541 1734 1935 2115 2436 2766 3104 3437 3871 4314
Goa 341 366 397 436 482 529 579 624 674 727 790 866 938 1009 1084
Gujarat 5576 6008 6508 7087 7817 8622 9497 10289 10999 11873 12993 14414 15772 17092 18721
Haryana 1949 2122 2279 2548 2854 3087 3528 3973 4425 4792 5377 5978 6600 7239 7928
Himachal
Pradesh 217 244 269 289 301 334 342 371 494 538 622 737 876 974 1077
Jammu &
Kashmir 330 364 399 439 478 524 570 620 668 739 927 917 1021 1133 1244
Jharkhand 909 984 1101 1217 1357 1505 1686 1850 2038 2767 3113 3158 3417 1719 2066
Karnataka 3537 3636 3738 3977 5436 6220 5486 6217 6953 9044 9930 10910 12064 13335 14785
Kerala 2112 2315 2552 2792 3122 3559 3957 4430 4860 5398 6072 6893 7858 8775 9648
Madhya
Pradesh 3095 3173 3459 3804 4188 4609 5047 5523 6011 6591 7356 8144 8760 9722 11141
Maharashtra 6760 7414 8134 8969 9936 10966 12171 13335 14451 15768 17434 19432 21488 23394 25562
Manipur 77 $ 90 97 106 114 124 133 147 147 194 207 215 296 395 307
Meghalaya 62 67 73 73 92 104 117 128 142 158 176 198 220 248 267
Mizoram 31 34 37 42 47 52 61 66 70 80 93 102 121 137 151
Nagaland 160 177 162 172 172 184 210 226 240 254 273 291 311 318 334
Orissa 1096 1215 1359 1525 1715 1932 2148 2370 2607 2932 3338 3759 4216 4702 5219
Punjab 2910 3103 3308 3529 3876 4035 4294 4573 4832 5274 5,274 & 6263 6263# 6263# 6263#
Rajasthan 2943 3197 3487 3834 4261 4754 5336 5902 6490 7166 7986 8985 10072 11133 12379

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INTRODUCTION

Sikkim 12 13 15 17 20 22 25 26 29 34 39 43 36 40 43
Tamil Nadu 5162 5658 8005 8575 9257 10054 10981 11930 12891 14062 15638 17412 19232 20864 22519
Telangana 6376 7073 7845
Tripura 50 57 66 76 73 106 120 131 144 160 188 204 245 256 282
Uttarakhand 364 406 457 516 573 643 643 731 787 831 997 1244 1460 1640 1827
Uttar Pradesh 4921 5171 5928 6460 7344 7989 9086 9826 10779 11988 13287 15445 17048 19115 21636
West Bengal 1690 $ 1690 $ 2366 2548 2681 2872 3198 2762 3044 2747 3261 3861 6111 6745 7403
TOTAL
STATES 50639 54482 62073 67466 76218 83953 89936 98072 1,07,163 1,19,240 1,32,725 1,50,070 1,66,171 180725 199365
Union
Territory:
A. & N. Islands 25 28 28+ 28 + 37 41 48 53 60 62 69 77 85 94 102
Chandigarh 386** 386** 562 586 617 647 678 712 747 949 1008 1058 1106 631 676
D. & N. Haveli 13* 13* 31 35 40 45 51 58 63 69 76 85 93 103 112
Daman & Diu 37 41 44 48 51 55 62 68 70 72 78 85 92 95 100
Delhi 3635 3699 3971 4237 4187 4487 5492 5899 6302 6747 7228 7350 7785 8293 8851
Lakshadweep 4 5 5 5 5 6 7 7 7 8 9 10 11 13 14
Puducherry 252 270 293 313 347 384 432 484 538 599 673 755 700 751 803
TOTAL UTs 4352 4442 4934 5252 5283 5665 6771 7281 7788 8506 9140 9420 9873 9979 10658
GRAND
TOTAL 54991 58924 67007 72718 81502 89618 96707 1,05,353 1,14,951 1,27,746 1,41,866 1,59,491 1,76,044 1,90,704 2,10,023
Source :Ministry of Road
Transport and Highways
* : Data relates to 1997. + :Data relates to 2002 .
** :Data relates to 1998.
&: Data relates
$ :Data relates to 2000. to 2010
#:Data relates to
R:Revised 2012

(Source: Ministry of Road Transport and Highways)

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INTRODUCTION

Table 1.2: Category-Wise Automobile Production ( In Numbers)

2001- 2002- 2003- 2004 2005 2006- 2007- 2008- 2009- 2010- 2011- 2012- 2013- 2014- 2015-
Category 02 03 04 -05 -06 07 08 09 10 2011 12 13 14 15 16
(Segment)
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16

Passenger Vehicles
(PVs)
78256 96048 10461 12380 14262 15169 19326 245311 27751 26686 25192 25951 27020
Passenger Cars* 500301 557410 2 7 33 32 12 67 20 3 24 33 81 23 29
20699 24938 26316 30720 35137 32162 42479 37094 56492 56869 62629 71183
Multi-Utility Vehicles 169418 165920 8 9 7 2 1 6 1 534183 5 8 2 6 0
Total Passenger Vehicles 98956 12098 13093 15452 17775 18385 23574 298729 31460 32335 30879 32214 34138
(PVs) 669719 723330 0 76 00 34 83 93 11 6 69 61 73 19 59

Commercial Vehicles
(CVs)
M & HCVs
Passenger Carriers 20283 21156 27628 30419 28982 32828 46542 40995 46026 54552 54156 50024 41175 49365 54187
13849 18438 19031 26143 24841 15128 20414 33064 22853 18038 21919 28699
Goods Carriers 76469 99346 5 8 3 8 5 8 5 289990 5 6 1 3 4
16612 21480 21929 29426 29495 19228 25017 38480 27856 22155 26855 34118
Total M & HCVs 96752 120502 3 7 5 6 7 3 1 344542 1 0 6 8 1

LCVs
Passenger Carriers 14977 19821 20962 22619 25395 29443 33882 28635 34751 38008 50017 51376 45136 46585 50654
11627 14639 19629 22016 19595 28168 49431 50180 43234 38315 39097
Goods Carriers 50779 63374 87955 7 3 1 7 2 6 370185 8 8 3 5 9
10891 13889 17178 22573 25404 22458 31643 54433 55318 47747 42974 44163
Total LCVs 65756 83195 7 6 8 4 9 7 7 408193 5 4 9 0 3

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INTRODUCTION

Total Commercial 27504 35370 39108 52000 54900 41687 56660 92913 83174 69903 69829 78281
Vehicles (CVs) 162508 203697 0 3 3 0 6 0 8 752735 6 4 5 8 4

Three Wheelers
24508 23741 28698 38544 37106 41743 53020 76868 74068 73324 84537 83413
Passenger Carriers 170013 210454 4 3 7 3 0 4 3 698811 7 9 4 2 4
11113 13703 14743 17068 12960 11060 10364
Goods Carriers 42735 66265 9 2 6 1 0 79586 88890 100742 2 99053 96864 7 99816

35622 37444 43442 55612 50066 49702 61909 87928 83974 83010 94901 93395
Total Three Wheelers 212748 276719 3 5 3 4 0 0 3 799553 9 2 8 9 0

Two wheelers
93527 98749 10210 94397 10749 11612 14944 214476 26593 30250 36762 47227 52758
Scooter/Scooterettee 937506 848434 9 8 13 4 33 76 09 5 40 14 13 47 88
Motorcycles/Step- 290632 387617 43551 51938 62076 71122 65035 67981 84448 105271 11982 11904 12474 13011 12816
Throughs 3 5 68 94 90 25 32 18 57 11 669 212 626 219 012
33229 34843 37999 37998 43082 43621 57107 78552 79195 73221 75534 73788
Mopeds 427498 351612 4 7 4 7 7 9 0 704575 3 4 0 5 6
Electric Two Wheelers - - - - - 30454 17389 24179 2567 - - - - - -

427132 507622 56227 65298 76086 84666 80266 84197 10512 133764 15427 15721 16883 18489 18829
Total Two wheelers 7 1 41 29 97 40 81 92 903 51 532 180 049 311 786

531630 627996 72435 84678 97435 11087 10853 11172 14056 179160 20382 20626 21500 23358 23960
Grand Total 2 7 64 53 03 998 930 275 015 35 026 227 165 047 409
Source :Society of Indian Automobile
Manufacturers, New Delhi
* Vans are included in Passenger
Cars

(Source: Society of Indian Automobile Manufactures, New Delhi)

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INTRODUCTION

1.3 Factor affecting on traffic flow characteristics


1.3.1 Traffic stream characteristics
The various characteristics of the traffic stream are as under,
1. Traffic volume
2. Traffic stream composition
3. Speed characteristics of the stream
1.3.2 Vehicular characteristics
The physical and mechanical characteristics of a vehicle that include,
1. Overall length of vehicle
2. Overall width of vehicle
3. Engine Power
4. Weight of vehicle
5. Acceleration
6. Deceleration and braking and other characteristics of vehicle.
1.3.3 Roadway characteristics
The various roadway characteristics are as under,
1. Pavement width
2. Type of road (rural, urban)
3. Pavement type and structural condition
4. Pavement surface condition and skid resistance
5. Horizontal and vertical alignment
6. Magnitude of grades and its length
7. Roadway elements (e.g. mid-block, rotary, uncontrolled and signalized
Intersections, ice land etc.)

1.4 Problem statement


In India, traffic congestion is a problem accelerated due to ceaseless urbanisation continuous
increase in number of private vehicles heterogeneous nature of traffic, traffic flowing without
lane discipline, illegal encroachments on the urban streets, and many other factors. Which is
responsible for increase in vehicle operational cost (VOC). In Surat city- the fourth fastest
developing city of the world-at many places the bottleneck conditions on the roads occurs due
to limited availability of road space. Due to bottleneck condition at the bridges across Tapi

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INTRODUCTION

river, traffic congestion is occurring. Out of the 10 bridges across the Tapi River in Surat city,
some of the bridges which is connecting the commercial and residency area in the city are
witnessing heavy amount of traffic during pick hours which leads to traffic jam and
bottlenecks condition at some places. After reckoning survey the three bridges namely Sardar
Bridge, Amroli Bridge and Savjibhai korat Bridge Are selected for Traffic flow capacity and
level of Service analysis. So, it is interesting to determine traffic flow capacity by measuring
traffic speed, flow and density parameters on the selected bridges during peak hours in Surat
city.

1.5 Aim of Study


The aim of this study is to find traffic flow capacity and Level of Service by measuring traffic
speed, flow and density parameters on the selected bridges across Tapi River during peak
hours of Surat city. The study aims to Find Remedial measures for easing of traffic
congestion at selected Bridges.

1.6 Objectives of Study


 To quantify Traffic capacity Parameters such as traffic volume, Traffic composition,
Traffic Speed and Traffic density and Travel time on the selected Bridges.
 To Find Level of Service of the selected bridges.
 To suggest remedial measures for reliving traffic congestion on the selected bridges

1.7 Scope of Study


This study is limited to selected Bridges of Surat city. This study may be helpful to ascertain
whether existing bridges are capable to handle existing as well as future increased traffic flow
safely and effectively or not. The study aims to Find Remedial measures for easing of traffic
congestion at selected Bridges.

1.8 Structure of the report


This report is structure into six chapters. The chapter wise details are described below:
1. First chapter includes introduction of the topic. It contains transportation scenario in
India, Problem statement, Aim, Objectives and Scope of Study.
2. Second chapter of this report literature review organized under various major
Categories focused on the traffic speed-flow-density relation and them various
Studies.
3. Third chapter provides methodology adopted for the study work.
4. Fourth chapter includes study area and Data Collection and analysis.

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INTRODUCTION

5. Fifth chapter include future action plan of study

Summary
This chapter contains Introduction, Transportation in India, Factor affecting on traffic flow
characteristics, Problem Statement, Aim of study, Objectives of study and Scope of study.

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LITERATURE REVIEW

Chapter-2
Literature Review
2.1 General
In General, some content including in literature review:
 Provide an overview of the subject, issue, or theory under consideration.
 Divide outside works into categories and concepts (in support or against a particular
position).
 Connect the works to what has come before your work and ideas.
 Provide conclusion about those works that make the greatest contribution to the
understanding and development of the subject.
In this chapter, consist of some review of literature that has studied by varies researchers to
get some innovative idea related to this research and also to get guideline for this study.

2.2 Time Space Diagram


Time-space diagrams are commonly used to solve a wide variety of transportation problems.
Typically, we use the variable “x” to denote the distance travelled along a guide-way from
some arbitrary reference point, and another variable “t” to denote the time elapsed from an
arbitrary instant. By studying how the position of a vehicle changes over time, we can better
understand the performance characteristics of the transportation system under analysis.

Fig. 2.1: Time-Space Diagram

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LITERATURE REVIEW

Here it is a typical plot of time space diagram of three vehicles at particular trajectory.
Inverse of slope of trajectory gives speed while curvature its acceleration. An increasing
slope indicates that the vehicle is decelerating while decreasing slope shows that vehicle is
accelerating. A vertical line in diagram indicate that the time at which successive vehicle pass
a stationery observer, while horizontal line vehicle position at given time. The time between
consecutive vehicle observation at fixed location are called Headway (H bc in fig. 2.1) and
distance separation between consecutive vehicles at a given instance, Spacing (Sbc in fig. 2.1).
A vertical line for a at position X1 shows that the vehicle a has come to a complete stop.
When trajectories intersect as c does with b at position X2, it means that vehicle c has
overtaken vehicle b. The horizontal distance Sbc between trajectories b and c at time t1 tells us
the spacing while the vertical distance Hbc between b and c at position X3, the headway.

2.3 Fundamental diagram of road traffic


The relation between flow and density, density and speed, speed and flow, can be represented
with the help of some curves. They are referred to as the fundamental diagrams of traffic
flow. They will be explained in detail one by one below.
2.3.1 Flow-density curve
The flow and density varies with time and location. The relation between the density and the
accordingly flow on a given stretch of road is referred to as one of the fundamental diagram
of traffic flow. Some characteristics of an ideal flow-density relationship is listed below:
1. When the density is zero, flow will also be zero, since there is no vehicle on the
road.
2. When the number of vehicles gradually increases the density as well as flow
increases.
3. When more and more vehicles are added, it reaches a situation where vehicles
cannot move. This is referred to as the jam density or the maximum density. At jam
density, flow will be zero because the vehicles are not moving.
4. There will be some density between zero density and jam density, when the Flow is
maximum. Flow-density relation graph show in fig 2.2
2.3.2 Speed-density curve
Similar to the flow-density relationship, speed will be maximum, referred to as the free flow
speed, and when the density is maximum, the speed will be zero. Corresponding to the zero
density, vehicles will be owing with their desire speed, or free flow speed. When the density

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LITERATURE REVIEW

is jam density, the speed of the vehicles becomes zero. It is also possible to have non-linear
relationships as shown by the dotted lines. These will be discussed later. Speed -density
relation graph shows in fig 2.2
2.3.3 Speed-Flow curve
Relationship between the speed and flow can be postulated as follow. The flow is zero either
because there is no vehicle or there are too many vehicles so that they cannot move. At
maximum flow, the speed will be in between zero and free flow speed. The maximum
flow(q) max occurs at speed u. It is possible to have two different speeds for a given flow.
Speed-Flow relation graph show in fig 2.2.

Fig. 2.2: Speed-Flow-Density curves

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LITERATURE REVIEW

2.4 Level of Service

A term closely related to capacity and often confused with it is service volume. When
capacity gives a quantitative measure of traffic, level of service or LOS tries to give a
qualitative measure. A service volume is the maximum number of vehicles, passengers, or the
like, which can be accommodated by a given facility or system under given conditions at a
given level of service.

The intention of LOS is to relate the traffic service quality to a given flow rate of traffic. It is
a term that designates a range of operating conditions on a particular type of facility. In this
study, Indian Highway Capacity Manual (INDO-HCM) used for determine LOS. It divides
the quality of traffic into six levels ranging from level A to level F. A represents the best
quality of traffic where the driver has the freedom to drive with free flow speed and level F
represents the worst quality of traffic. Level of service is defined based on the measure of
effectiveness or (MOE). Typically three parameters are used under this and they are speed
and travel time, density, and delay. Table no. 2.1 contains urban street LOS, which are based
on average travel speed over the segment being considered.

Table 2.1: LoS of Urban road based on Stream Speed, V/C Ratio and FFS
Level of Range of Average V/C Ratio (Volume/ Percentage of
Service(L.O.S) Stream Speed Capacity Ratio) Free flow Speed
LoS A > 64 < 0.15 > 84
LoS B 64-58 0.15-0.45 84-76
LoS C 58-45 0.45-0.75 76-59
LoS D 45-31 0.75-0.85 59-41
LoS E 31-17 0.85-1.0 41-22
LoS F <17 >1 < 22
(Source: INDO-HCM-2018)
One of the important measures of service quality is the amount of time spent in travel.
Therefore, speed and travel time are considered to be more effective in defining LOS of a
facility. Density gives the proximity of other vehicles in the stream. Since it affects the ability
of drivers to maneuver in the traffic stream, it is also used to describe LOS.
2.4.1 Factors affecting level of service
The level of service can be derived from a road under different operating characteristics
and traffic volumes. The factors affecting level of service (LOS) can be listed as follows:
1. Speed ,volume of traffic flow and Travel time

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LITERATURE REVIEW

2. Traffic interruptions/restrictions
3. Freedom to travel with desired speed
4. Driver comfort and convenience
5. Operating cost.

2.5 Research papers


Todd Litman (2017) has been prepared this paper which defines types of generated traffic, discusses
generated traffic impacts, recommends ways to incorporate generated traffic into evaluation, and
describes alternatives to roadway capacity expansion. In this study, Roadway volume to capacity
ratios are used to calculate peak-period traffic speeds, which are then used to calculate travel time and
vehicle operating cost savings.

Amaliyar and Varia (2017) carried out the speed-volume relationship is used to find the
capacity of Roads and obtained the speed flow density curves of selected stretches of
Ahmedabad city. It is concluded that existing equation of traffic stream are suitable for this
Heterogeneous traffic. According to their complete analysis they found the traffic stream
parameters. They got standard relationship between traffic stream parameters and a equation
for heterogeneous traffic of Ahmadabad city.
Sang-Hyo Kim et al. (2017) carried out evaluation vehicle loads for bridge safety assessment
based on the extreme load effects that may occur during the remaining service life. Realistic
probabilistic traffic models were used to reflect the actual traffic environment. The presented
model was used to analyse the extreme load effect on pre-stressed concrete (PSC) and steel
box girder bridges, which are typical bridge types. A simulation technique is presented for
analysing the effects of extreme vehicle loads on the superstructures of highway bridges
based on the developed vehicle traffic models.
A. Hasabnis et. al. (2016) carried out traffic problems and alternative solutions in order to
reduce traffic congestion. The method adopted for evaluating the traffic density is Video
Image Detection. Cameras were installed at such locations such that it covered whole
junction. Cameras were installed for 12 hrs a day for two days. After capturing the data of
vehicle count vehicles were categorized into various types such as two wheelers, cars, LCV,
trucks, etc.
Olusina and Samson (2016) carried out identifying causes of congestion on some selected
routes in Lagos Metropolis. Traffic data were collected on some selected roads and analysed
in a Geographic Information Systems (GIS) environment. Models were derived to assist in
predicting volume of traffic along the selected roads within Lagos Metropolis at any time.

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LITERATURE REVIEW

When integrated with Intelligent Transport System (ITS), road infrastructure management,
up-to-date traffic incident management and traffic redistribution, to reduce congestion, can be
achieved through this work and its extension to other roads in Lagos Metropolis.s
Hemant Kumar Sharma et.al. (2016) carried out congestion models and speed-flow
analysis for urban roads with interrupted flow comprising of heterogeneous structure of
traffic. VISSIM uses the psychophysical driver behaviour model developed by Wiedemann.
The basic concept of this model is that the driver of a faster moving vehicle starts to
decelerate as he reaches his individual perception threshold to a slower moving vehicle. The
investigation and analysis presented in this paper gives more realistic values of speed,
capacity and congestion as the investigation is based on total performance of network and the
model captures both operational characteristics as well as volume characteristics of
interrupted heterogeneous flow through simulations.
E. Elangovan et. al. (2015) have been discuss on traffic flow characteristics at work zones
helps to plan traffic management and is a useful resource for planning future work zone
activities. Traffic flow at work zones were studied using videography and probe vehicles
(GPS fitted). Videography was used to record classified volume count of vehicles entering
the work zone and the speed of vehicles at work zones. GPS fitted probe vehicles were run
along the work zone sections to obtain the speed variations. To study the behaviour of
heterogeneous traffic, GPS fitted cars were run and the probe vehicles formed 1-3% of the
vehicular flow, Speed and capacity reduction at work zones on urban roads for heterogeneous
traffic was estimated.
Emmanue Segun Oguntade et. al. (2015) have been discussed about Queue performance
parameters is inevitable for efficient and effective congestion control and traffic free
networking system. This study assesses the efficiency and effectiveness of road traffic
systems, using the Atlas Hotel road intersection, Gwagwalada, Abuja Nigeria as a case study.
Queue theory analytic methodologies are applied and parameters such as average arrival and
service rate are calculated based on the data obtained. It was concluded that with reference to
the intersection studied, road traffic system performance within the Gwagwalada metropolis
is stable as Level of Service is A with Average Control Delay (seconds/vehicle) ≤ 10 seconds
per vehicle.
Pandya and Raval (2015) carried oud to develop speed- density relationship for selected
corridor of Ahmedabad city. Traffic data are collected on the corridor through videography.
The developed model can be used for the traffic condition similar to Ahmedabad city.

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LITERATURE REVIEW

Ebin Nirmal Joseph1 and Dr.M.S.Nagakumar(2014) carried out different parameters such
as capacity, level of service, vehicle to capacity ratio, average journey time, average delay in
each midblock, peak hour traffic and to provide necessary improvement measures in this
midblock. Speed and delay studies were conducted three times during peak and non-peak
hour and the average journey time was determined. Average delay of all these mid-blocks
were also determined using speed and delay studies. The traffic data collected from the field
shows that the mid blocks are congested during peak hours. The vehicle to capacity ratio
during peak hour was found to be exceeding 1. The level of service of the entire stretch was
found to F during the entire survey. The average time required to travel the entire 3.8km
stretch during peak hour was found to be 17min and the average travel speed was below
13kmph.
Polly Trottenberg et al. (2014) carried out Traffic Volumes of vehicles and classification
data for selected bridges of New York city. The bridges are monitored with automatic traffic
recording (ATR) machines. Hourly volumes by direction for each bridge are presented in
tabular form. Graphical presentations of the hourly volumes by direction are provided by
histograms. Hourly classification data identifies the volumes by vehicle type. In addition,
changes in the traffic volumes for all facilities over the past 66 years are shown in graphical
form. NYCDOT uses the averages of vehicular volumes from selected representative
weekdays. Publications from other sources may be based on alternative computation
methodologies for some facilities, notably the tolled bridges and tunnels, possibly yielding
different results for those facilities. Each bridge and tunnel is classified under a highway
functional classification system. Functional classification is the process by which streets and
highways are grouped into classes, or systems, according to the character of service each
roadway provides.

R S Dhapudkar (2014) has been prepared a macroscopic stochastic model of traffic


movements at signalized intersection. In this, traffic parameters were identified by using the
video recording technique at just after the signalized intersection. SPSS software is used to
define the relationship between the traffic parameters. It is concluded that existing equation
of traffic stream are not suitable for this Heterogeneous traffic. Thus, it need to create new
equation for this Heterogeneous traffic of Indian scenario. According to our complete
analysis we found the traffic stream parameters.
Gleave (2013) has been engaged to prepare investment grade traffic and revenue forecasts for
the Louisville-Southern Indiana Ohio River Bridges (LSIORB) Project. This information

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LITERATURE REVIEW

includes data collected from permanent automatic traffic recorders and short-term collection
units, which are typically collected for 48-hour periods. To help establish a thorough
understanding of the existing conditions of the study area and to help develop the toll
forecasting model, an extensive data collection effort was undertaken. This included the
collection of both desk and original data.

Gabriel Fadairo (2013) has been investigates traffic congestion which has become a
common sight in recent times in Akure, especially along Federal University of Technology
Akure Road / Oja-Oba Road. The primary source of data collection involves direct collection
of information on the field, using cameral to capture three-dimensional situation of traffic
jam, traffic counts, oral interview and observations. The secondary source of data collection
involves sourcing information from existing records. The study has also highlighted some
remedies to improve traffic congestion in Nigeria. Good road network, encouragement of
mass transport system, proper traffic planning/management, regular road maintenance,
construction of interchanges and regular education of road users are among the
recommendations to reduce traffic congestions.
Chetan R Patel and Joshi (2012) carried out investigation in the behaviour of mixed traffic
stream speed and flow rate on an access controlled urban arterial in Surat city in Gujrat of
India. Field traffic survey are carried out to capture the classified volume and speed data
through manual as well as video graphic technique. Threshold of level of service based on
volume to capacity ratio are established by cluster analysis approach. The result are very
helpful for evaluation of traffic quality for access controlled urban arterial in mixed traffic
condition.
Mohan Rao and Ramchandra Rao (2012) had discuss in this study to identify and measure
metrics for urban arterial congestion. A systematic review is carried out, based on
measurement metrics such as speed, travel time/delay and volume and level of service. The
review covers distinct aspects like definition; measurement criteria followed by different
countries/organizations. Data collection techniques can be broadly classified into two
categories, one-probe vehicles (mobile vehicles with data collection equipment), and others
that are making use of fixed sensors. The traffic congestion studies data can be collected by
both methods, point‟s data like traffic volume count, speed etc., using fixed sensors and travel
time, journey speed etc., using probe vehicles data like „floating car method‟. The strengths
and weaknesses of these measures are discussed. Further, a short critique of measurement
criteria is presented.

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LITERATURE REVIEW

Akintayo and Agbede (2012) have been discussed in this study, A simple traffic flow
simulator was developed and to simulate flow for different congestion scenarios by varying
the minimum and maximum headways of vehicles. Comparison of simulated and field values
for a heavily traffic highway in Ibadan metropolis produced an error of 35 % at high
vehicular interaction. The simulator could be used to generate flows on two-lane highways
characterised by heavy traffic and operating under non-ideal roadway, traffic and control
conditions in urban centres. Based on the preliminary traffic study on three heavily trafficked
two-lane roads (Total Garden-Agodi Gate, J Allen-Oke Bola and Odo Ona-Apata) in Ibadan
metropolis, different congestion scenarios were simulated with TRAFLOS by varying the
minimum and maximum headways between 1 and 18 seconds. The observation period was
set at 15 minutes (900 seconds) for each scenario. A total of 171 experimental runs were
carried out over a period of 2,565 minutes.
Summary
In this chapter, Time Space Diagram, Fundamental diagram of road traffic & Different types
of research papers related to the traffic capacity analysis study has been studied out.

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METHODOLOGY

Chapter-3
Methodology
3.1 General
In this chapter comprises of outline of whole study of including methods of data collection
and analysis. Speed, flow and density are the basic parameters of traffic flow. To study the
effect of moving vehicle on the traffic flow characteristics the traffic volume count survey is
carried out with the help of videography on selected Bridges of different lengths during time
period.

3.2 Technical terminologies related to Traffic flow


 Flow: Flow is defined as the number of vehicles passing a point in a given time
period.
 Speed: Speed is a vehicle's rate of motion.
 Density: traffic density defined as the number of vehicles occupying a unit length of
roadway at an instant in time.
 Spot speed: Spot speed is the instantaneous speed of a vehicle at a specified location.
 Running speed: It is the average speed maintained over a particular course while the
vehicle is moving and is found by dividing the length of the course by the time
duration the vehicle was in motion.
 Journey speed: It is the effective speed of the vehicle on a journey between two
points and is the distance between the two points divided by the total time taken for
the vehicle to complete the journey including any stopped time.
 Time mean speed: It is defined as the average speed of all the vehicles passing a
point on a highway over some specified time period.
 Space mean speed: It is defined as the average speed of all the vehicles occupying a
given section of a highway over some specified time period.
 Time headway: It is defined as the time difference between any two successive
vehicles when they cross a given point.
 Distance Headway: It is defined as the distance between corresponding points of two
successive vehicles at any given time.
 Travel Time (TT): The total elapsed time spent driving a specified distance.

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METHODOLOGY

 Average Speed (AS): The test vehicle‟s average speed (in km per hour) over a
distance.

3.3 Field survey method


To study the behaviour of the moving vehicle on traffic flow characteristics, video
photographic surveys are conduct at Traffic flow conditions over selected Bridges Across
Tapi river of Surat city. Corresponding to the observed flow ranges of vehicles, videography
survey are conduct Traffic Volume Count on selected Bridges of Surat city.
3.3.1 Traffic volume count survey (Videography)
As it is more convenient and accurate method for Classified Volume Count, videography was
commenced for the study. It do not require more man power and skilled person so it is carried
out for this study

To study the fluctuation of traffic volume per 5min videography were conducted at selected
bridges. Traffic Volume count survey carried out by videography on all selected Bridges
during peak hour. The camera was situated on the footpath of side of lane with suitable
visibility of lane. The height of camera may be a different for each road lane but not less than
1m on any lane.

In order to count classified volume per 5 min from videography excel sheet was prepared
(Annexure 1). Every five minute volume count record in it. This procedure has conducted to
each selected Bridges.

Advantages of videography for CVC:

 It requires small man power

 More accurate and easy than other method

 Recording may be analyzed at any time

In this method, on videography at determined location of selected Bridges the enumerators


carryout classified counts of the vehicles and record them on the prescribe record sheet forms
a desired time interval. This survey obtains details classification of different types of vehicle
and their counts at desired time intervals. An understanding of the traffic volume
characteristics with the following characteristics with the help following details will help in

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METHODOLOGY

planning a new Bridge project or up-grading existing Bridge facilities and for effective
management of traffic:
(a) Variation in volume during different hours of the day
(b) Average volume during different day of the week
(c) Average volume per day during different seasons of the year
(d) Variation in traffic volume on different lanes
(e) Directional distribution of traffic during different time periods and
(f) Annual average daily traffic (AADT)
The purpose and uses of traffic volume and studies are given below:
(a) To decide the priority for improvement and up-gradation of roads
(b) For geometric design of Bridge facilities
(c) For analysis of traffic patterns, trends and rate of growth of each vehicle
class and projecting future traffic volume along selected Bridges
(d) For computing Bridge capacity
(e) To plan traffic operation and control of existing facilities
(f) For planning of Bridge and other regulatory measures
(g) To plan and design new facilities

3.3.2 Spot Speed Study


This survey carried out to collect and analyse the data using videography Method at selected
Bridges. Spot Speed Study is the study of the speed of the traffic at one point on a traffic
way. It consists of a series of observation of the individual speed at which vehicles are
passing a point at a non-intersection location. These observations are used to estimate the
speed distribution of the entire traffic stream at that location under the condition prevailing at
the time of study.

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METHODOLOGY

Fig. 3.1: Spot Speed Relative Frequency curve

Fig. 3.2: Spot speed cumulative frequency curve

 Application of Spot Speed Study


1) For trends in the operating speeds of different vehicle type which are obtained by
collecting data through periodic sampling.
2) To determine the speed at problematic location.
3) For traffic operation (Regulation and control).
4) For accident analysis.
5) For before and after studies.

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METHODOLOGY

6) For geometric design feature.


7) To evaluate capacity in relation to desired speed.
8) As aids to enforcement.
9) Research studies.
3.3.3 Licence Plate Survey
This method gives the information of travel time only. In this Licence Plate survey method
used Videography. The timing and vehicle numbers are noted from Videos. From office
computation of travel time of each vehicle can be found. Travel times by matching vehicle
license plates between consecutive checkpoints with varying levels of instrumentation: Video
cameras, portable computers.

Advantages:

 Travel times from a large sample of motorists, very simple technique.


 Provides a continuum of travel times during the data collection period.

Disadvantages

 Travel time data limited to locations where observers or video cameras can be
positioned.
 Limited geographic coverage on a single day.
 Accuracy of license plate reading is an issue for manual and portable computer.

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METHODOLOGY

3.4 Methodology chart


Introduction

Problem Statement

Objective & Scope

Literature Review

Study Area Selection Geometry Details of Bridges

Data Collection

Primary Data Data Analysis Secondary Data


 Classified Traffic  Maps
Volume Count  PCU Estimation  Census Data
 Spot Speed Study  Density Measurement  Bridge Details
 Travel Time by  Spot speed From S.M.C
License Plate  Travel Time
Survey

Results

Level of Service

Conclusion

Fig. 3.3: Methodology Chart


Summary
This chapter contains the detailed methodology related to study and methods of data
collection. Next chapter will be study area in which brief history about the location of study
and Geometry details of study area will be carried out.

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STUDY AREA AND DATA COLLECTION

Chapter 4
Study Area and Data Collection
4.1 General
In this study, the Bridges are selected across Tapi river in Surat city. They are high level four-
lane way Bridges which are selected based on monitoring of travelling vehicles on bridges
before selection. Detail data collection is carried out on these selected bridges.

4.2 Introduction of Surat City


Surat is an Indian port city previously known as Suryapur. It is the economic capital and
former princely state in the Indian state of Gujarat. This city is 2nd biggest city in Gujarat and
9th biggest city in India. Surat is the 3rd "cleanest city of India" according to the Indian
Ministry of Urban Development, and 4th fastest growing city of the world. Surat is famous
for its food, textile, and diamonds. Surat polishes over 90% of the world's rough diamond.
It is the administrative capital of the Surat district. The city is located 284 km south of the
state capital, Gandhinagar; 265 km south of Ahmedabad; and 289 km north of Mumbai. The
city centre is located 22 km south of the Tapti River. A moat divides the older parts of the
city, with their narrow streets and historical houses, from the newer suburbs.
Surat had a population of 4.5 million at the 2011 census, making it the second largest city in
the state of Gujarat, after Ahmedabad. It is the eighth largest city and ninth largest urban
agglomeration of India. Surat is the 34th-largest city by area and 4th-fastest developing cities
in a study conducted by the City Mayors Foundation, an international think tank on urban
affairs. The city registered an annualized GDP growth rate of 11.5 per cent over the seven
fiscal years between 2001 and 2008. Surat was awarded "best city" by the Annual Survey of
India's City-Systems (ASICS) in 2013. Surat is selected as the first smart IT city in India
which is being constituted by the Microsoft City Next Initiative tied up with IT services
majors Tata Consultancy Services and Wipro. The city has 2.97 million internet users which
is about 65% of total population. Surat was selected in 2015 for an IBM (International
business Machine) Smarter Cities Challenge grant. Surat has been selected as one of twenty
Indian cities to be developed as a smart city under PM Narendra Modi's flagship Smart Cities
Mission.

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STUDY AREA AND DATA COLLECTION

Fig. 4.1: Map of Surat city (Map of India)

Fig. 4.2: Map of Surat city (Google Map)

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STUDY AREA AND DATA COLLECTION

4.2.1 Population of Surat city in 2017


As indicated by 2011 India evaluation, the number of inhabitants in Surat city is 4,462,002.
Talking about population, in order to check out the population of Surat in 2017, we need to
have a look at the population of the past 5 years. They are as per the following:
1. 2012 –4.8 Million
2. 2013 –5 Million
3. 2014 –5.4 Million
4. 2015 –5.7 Million
5. 2016 – 6.04 Million
6. 2017 – 6.288 Million
Taking a look at the population of Surat from the year 2012-17, it has been noticed that there
has been an increase of 1.24 Million in the past 6 years. Therefore, it has been seen that every
year the population increases by 0.248 Million. Hence, the population of Surat in 2018 is
forecasted to be 6.288 Million + 0.248 Million = 6.536 Million. So, the population of Surat in
the year 2018 as per estimated data = 6.536 Million.
Surat Population 2018 – 6.536 Million (Estimated)
4.2.2 Physical Geography
Surat is a port city situated on the banks of the Tapi river. Damming of the Tapi caused the
original port facilities to close; the nearest port is now in the Magadalla and Hazira area
of Surat Metropolitan Region. The city is located at 21°10′N 72°50′E. It has an average
elevation of 13 meters. The Surat district is surrounded by the Bharuch, Narmada, Navsari, to
the west is the Gulf of Cambay and the surrounding districts. The climate is tropical and
monsoon rainfall is abundant (about 2,500 mm a year). According to the Bureau of Indian
Standards, the town falls under seismic zone-III, in a scale of I to V (in order of increasing
vulnerability to earthquakes)

Surat has grown in area since the early 1700s. The oldest part of the city developed in the
area between the train station and the area known as Athwalines. Since the 1970s most of the
new development, including the most desirable location for the city's burgeoning middle and
upper class, is the area between Athwalines and the coast at Dumas.

4.2.3 Demographics
According to the 2011 India census, the population of Surat is 4,462,002. Surat has an
average literacy rate of 89%, higher than the national average of 79.5%: male literacy is 93%,

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and female literacy is 84%. Males constitute 53% of the population and females 47%.
Gujarati, Sindhi, Hindi, Marwari, Marathi, Tamil, Telugu, and Odia are the main languages
spoken in Surat. In Surat, 13% of the population is under 6 years of age. Surat also has
sizeable Parsi and Jewish populations.

Fig. 4.3: Demographic Map of Surat city

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4.3 Location Map of Study Area

Savjibhai Korat Bridg

Sardar Bridge Amroli Bridge

Fig. 4.4: Location Map of Study Area

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4.4 Geometry Details of selected Bridges


4.4.1 Savjibhai Korat Bridge
 Savjibhai Korat Bridge is high level bridge which Joining Nana Varachha to Mota
Varachha on Tapi River.
 It is 4-lane type Bridge. The construction year of this bridge is 2001.
 The Savjibhai Korat Bridge having length 544.6m (Between ends of Decking) and
width of bridge is 21.50m.
 The Bridge having span 13nos.
 The Carriageway of this bridge having 7.5m clear carriageway and 1.8m wide
footpath both side of bridge and central verge of 1.20 m.

Fig. 4.5: Savjibhai Korat Bridge(Google)

Fig. 4.6: Savjibhai Korat Bridge

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Fig. 4.7: Traffic flow on Savjibhai korat Bridge


4.4.2 Sardar Patel Bridge
 Sardar Patel Bridge is high level bridge which Joining Athwa - Adajan on Tapi river.
 It is 4-lane way bridge having length 772.23m and width of bridge is 22m.
 The Bridge having span 19nos of down-stream.
 The Carriageway of Bridge on both side 7.5m clear carriage way and 2.5m wide
footpath and 500mm Crash barrier with 480 mm central verge.

Fig. 4.8: Sardar Patel Bridge(Google)

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Fig. 4.9: Traffic Flow on Sardar Patel Bridge


4.4.3 Amroli Bridge
 Amroli Bridge is high level bridge which Joining Katargam – Amroli on Tapi river.
 Amroli Bridge is high level B
 ridge having length 655.20m (Between ends of Decking).
 It is 4 -lane ways bridge having span 15nos.
 The construction year of this bridge is 2010.
 The carriageway of this bridge having 7.5m clear carriageway and 2m wide footpath
on both side of bridge.

Fig. 4.10: Amroli Bridge(Google)

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Fig. 4.11: Amroli Bridge

Fig. 4.12: Traffic Flow on Amroli Bridge

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4.5 Data Collection


4.5.1 Classified Traffic Volume Count
Data collection of Traffic volume count from videography on Savjibhai Korat Bridge of both
side direction.
Following tables 4.1 and 4.2 show the traffic volume count data
Table 4.1: Total classified Traffic Volume: Nana Varachcha to Mota Varachcha
Time 2w 3w car Bus/Truck L.C.V N.M Total Veh/5min
9:00 to 9:05 290 110 145 2 9 2 558
9:05 to 9:10 300 102 140 1 3 3 549
9:10 to 9:15 298 110 144 0 5 4 561
9:15 to 9:20 280 115 140 1 5 3 544
9:20 to 9:25 288 121 149 0 6 0 564
Morning

9:25 to 9:30 301 114 144 1 8 0 568


9:30 to 9:35 299 116 142 1 4 2 564
9:35 to 9:40 305 109 149 0 2 1 566
9:40 to 9:45 311 112 148 1 9 2 583
9:45 to 9:50 312 108 138 0 14 3 575
9:50 to 9:55 288 113 139 0 6 3 549
9:55 to 10:00 290 121 140 0 6 0 557
12:00 to 12:05 301 125 150 2 3 0 581
12:05 to 12:10 299 122 162 0 6 0 589
12:10 to 12:15 308 120 152 1 5 0 586
12:15 to 12:20 321 112 149 2 0 1 585
12:20 to 12:25 312 115 148 0 4 0 579
Afternoon

12:25 to 12:30 309 119 152 1 6 1 588


12:30 to 12:35 310 130 153 1 4 0 598
12:35 to 12:40 312 128 160 0 0 0 600
12:40 to 12:45 311 127 162 1 0 0 601
12:45 to 12:50 313 123 164 0 6 0 606
12:50 to 12:55 320 111 157 1 4 0 593
12:55 to 1:00 321 110 155 1 3 1 591
4:30 to 4:35 326 126 139 1 3 3 598
4:35 to 4:40 333 122 149 0 2 0 606
4:40 to 4:45 331 112 149 2 0 3 597
4:45 to 4:50 328 115 146 0 0 4 593
Evening

4:50 to 4:55 324 127 150 0 6 3 610


4:55 to 5:00 316 131 138 1 4 1 591
5:00 to 5:05 328 130 142 0 3 1 604
5:05 to 5:10 330 128 144 0 0 2 604
5:10 to 5:15 319 129 145 0 2 1 596
5:15 to 5:20 312 130 150 1 1 0 594

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5:20 to 5:25 327 133 151 0 0 7 618


5:25 to 5:30 334 134 152 1 2 1 624

Table 4.2: Total classified Traffic Volume: Mota Varachcha to Nana Varachcha
Time 2w 3w car Bus/Truck L.C.V N.M Total Veh/5min
9:00 to 9:05 305 102 162 0 2 3 574
9:05 to 9:10 302 101 150 1 4 1 559
9:10 to 9:15 299 111 154 0 0 0 564
9:15 to 9:20 298 112 161 0 2 0 573
9:20 to 9:25 305 115 152 1 2 1 576
Morning

9:25 to 9:30 311 121 150 0 0 1 583


9:30 to 9:35 297 120 160 1 4 1 583
9:35 to 9:40 311 113 148 2 1 0 575
9:40 to 9:45 305 131 161 0 0 0 597
9:45 to 9:50 306 120 150 0 0 0 576
9:50 to 9:55 308 121 152 1 5 0 587
9:55 to 10:00 298 114 162 0 4 0 578
12:00 to 12:05 308 120 140 2 5 2 577
12:05 to 12:10 311 121 151 0 4 1 588
12:10 to 12:15 320 119 150 1 6 2 598
12:15 to 12:20 331 118 149 0 7 4 609
12:20 to 12:25 324 131 153 0 6 2 616
Afternoon

12:25 to 12:30 326 124 160 1 7 1 619


12:30 to 12:35 309 128 148 0 3 1 589
12:35 to 12:40 310 127 152 0 6 0 595
12:40 to 12:45 315 125 151 0 7 0 598
12:45 to 12:50 325 129 153 1 6 1 615
12:50 to 12:55 326 127 154 1 7 2 617
12:55 to 1:00 329 125 152 1 11 1 619
4:30 to 4:35 325 112 158 1 5 1 602
4:35 to 4:40 326 125 165 1 14 0 631
4:40 to 4:45 333 130 144 0 4 1 612
4:45 to 4:50 320 116 149 0 5 1 591
4:50 to 4:55 328 119 148 1 3 0 599
Evening

4:55 to 5:00 321 120 151 0 2 0 594


5:00 to 5:05 320 127 160 2 6 0 615
5:05 to 5:10 319 124 147 0 3 0 593
5:10 to 5:15 312 119 146 1 4 0 582
5:15 to 5:20 315 128 152 0 4 0 599
5:20 to 5:25 318 126 142 1 3 1 591
5:25 to 5:30 325 128 152 0 7 1 613

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Table 4.3: PCU values for Rural/Urban condition


Sr. No Category of Vehicles PCU value
1 Passenger car, tempo, auto-rickshaw and tractor (without trailer) 1.00
2 Cycle, motor/scooter 0.50
3 Lorry, Bus and Tractor-trailer unit 3.00
4 Cycle-Rickshaw 1.50
5 Horse Driven vehicle 4.00
6 Bullock cart(Big) 8.00
7 Bullock cart(Small) 6.00
(Source: IRC: SP-41:1994)
Table 4.4: PCU/15min (Nana Varachcha to Mota Varachcha)
Time PCU/15 min
9:00 9:15 1225.5
9:15 9:30 1244
9:30 9:45 1257
9:45 10:00 1233
10:00 10:15 1276.5
10:15 10:30 1248
10:30 10:45 1303.5
10:45 11:00 1283
12:00 12:15 1308
12:15 12:30 1286
12:30 12:45 1336.5
12:45 1:00 1316.5
4:30 4:45 1309
4:45 5:00 1308
5:00 5:15 1313.5
5:15 5:30 1349.5
5:30 5:45 1345
5:45 6:00 1326

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1400

1350

1300

1250

1200

1150
9:00 9:15 9:30 9:45 10:00 10:15 10:30 10:45 12:00 12:15 12:30 12:45 4:30 4:45 5:00 5:15 5:30 5:45
to to to to to to to to to to to to to to to to to to
9:15 9:30 9:45 10:00 10:15 10:30 10:45 11:00 12:15 12:30 12:45 1:00 4:45 5:00 5:15 5:30 5:45 6:00

Fig. 4.13: Graph of PCU/15min (Nana Varachcha to Mota Varachcha)


Table 4.5: PCU/15min (Mota Varachcha to Nana Varachcha)
Time PCU/15min
9:00 9:15 1244
9:15 9:30 1276
9:30 9:45 1304
9:45 10:00 1287
10:00 10:15 1280
10:15 10:30 1263
10:30 10:45 1273.5
10:45 11:00 1270.5
12:00 12:15 1297
12:15 12:30 1352
12:30 12:45 1314.5
12:45 1:00 1365
4:30 4:45 1356
4:45 5:00 1301
5:00 5:15 1320.5
5:15 5:30 1325
5:30 5:45 1304
5:45 6:00 1346

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1380
1360
1340
1320
1300
PCU/15min

1280
1260
1240
1220
1200
1180
9:00 9:15 9:30 9:45 10:00 10:15 10:30 10:45 12:00 12:15 12:30 12:45 4:30 4:45 5:00 5:15 5:30
to to to to to to to to to to to to to to to to to
9:15 9:30 9:45 10:00 10:15 10:30 10:45 11:00 12:15 12:30 12:45 1:00 4:45 5:00 5:15 5:30 5:45

Time

Fig. 4.14: Graph of PCU/15min (Mota Varachcha to Nana Varachcha)

Cumulative Traffic Flow(Nana Varachcha to Mota


1%
Varachcha)
0%
0%

25% 2w
3w

53% Car
Bus/Truck
L.C.V
21%
N.M

Fig. 4.15: Cumulative Traffic Flow (Nana Varachcha to Mota Varachcha)

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STUDY AREA AND DATA COLLECTION

Cumulative Traffic Flow (Mota Varachcha to Nana


Bus/Truck
0%
L.C.V Varachcha)
1% N.M
0%
Car
26% 2w
3w
Car
2w
53% Bus/Truck
L.C.V
N.M
3w
20%

Fig. 4.16: Cumulative Traffic Flow (Mota Varachcha to Nana Varachcha)

Data collection of Traffic volume count from videography on Sardar Patel Bridge of both
side direction.
Following tables 4.6 and 4.8 show the traffic volume count data
Date: 20/12/2017
Table 4.6: Total classified Traffic Volume: Athwa gate to Adajan
Time 2w 3w car Bus/Truck LCV NM Total Veh/5min

9:00 to 9:05 385 122 160 2 9 19 697


9:05 to 9:10 380 120 162 0 8 7 677
9:10 to 9:15 388 130 155 2 8 12 695
9:15 to 9:20 400 125 153 1 2 4 685
9:20 to 9:25 398 129 162 1 4 9 703
Morning

9:25 to 9:30 379 127 163 1 7 12 689


9:30 to 9:35 395 132 160 0 5 8 700
9:35 to 9:40 386 132 159 3 3 4 687
9:40 to 9:45 384 130 158 0 7 8 687
9:45 to 9:50 391 138 156 0 3 3 691
9:50 to 9:55 390 134 163 1 4 3 695
9:55 to 10:00 396 136 164 1 3 0 700
12:00 to 12:05 435 110 140 2 8 3 698
Afternoon

12:05 to 12:10 429 125 138 0 3 3 698


12:10 to 12:15 415 126 150 1 5 1 698
12:15 to 12:20 406 135 153 1 2 2 699

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12:20 to 12:25 424 139 152 0 3 3 721


12:25 to 12:30 412 128 149 0 4 4 697
12:30 to 12:35 436 134 148 1 0 4 723
12:35 to 12:40 426 139 155 1 7 6 734
12:40 to 12:45 417 140 156 1 2 6 722
12:45 to 12:50 417 144 159 2 0 8 730
12:50 to 12:55 406 150 160 0 3 4 723
12:55 to 1:00 416 151 157 1 2 2 729
4:30 to 4:35 445 109 154 0 6 2 716
4:35 to 4:40 450 102 159 0 7 1 719
4:40 to 4:45 445 94 139 1 7 4 690
4:45 to 4:50 460 99 139 0 5 5 708
4:50 to 4:55 458 100 135 2 3 9 707
Evening

4:55 to 5:00 469 106 145 0 0 9 729


5:00 to 5:05 468 101 129 0 0 4 702
5:05 to 5:10 457 97 130 2 2 3 691
5:10 to 5:15 459 110 155 0 0 11 735
5:15 to 5:20 449 105 148 2 2 6 712
5:20 to 5:25 468 94 150 0 5 7 724
5:25 to 5:30 462 102 171 2 2 5 744

Table 4.7: PCU/15 min (Athwa gate to Adajan)


Time PCU/15min
9:00 9:15 1481.5
9:15 9:30 1482
9:30 9:45 1487.5
9:45 10:00 1498.5
10:00 10:15 1490
10:15 10:30 1515
10:30 10:45 1509.5
10:45 11:00 1515
12:00 12:15 1457
12:15 12:30 1493.5
12:30 12:45 1537.5
12:45 1:00 1561.5
4:30 4:45 1453.5
4:45 5:00 1443

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5:00 5:15 1431


5:15 5:30 1489.5
5:30 5:45 1458.5
5:45 6:00 1492.5
6:00 6:15 1498
6:15 6:30 1502.5

PCU/15min
1600

1550

1500
PCU/15min
1450

1400

1350
10:30 to 10:45

12:15 to 12:30
9:45 to 10:00

12:45 to 1:00
10:00 to 10:15
10:15 to 10:30

10:45 to 11:00
12:00 to 12:15
9:00 to 9:15
9:15 to 9:30
9:30 to 9:45

4:30 to 4:45
4:45 to 5:00
5:00 to 5:15
5:15 to 5:30
5:30 to 5:45
5:45 to 6:00
6:00 to 6:15
6:15 to 6:30
12:30 to 12:45

Fig. 4.17: Graph of PCU/15min (Athwa gate to Adajan )

Cumulative Traffic Flow


0% 2w
1%
0%
3w
22% Car

Bus/Truck
17% 60%
L.C.V

N.M

Fig. 4.18: Cumulative Traffic Flow (Athwa Gate to Adajan)

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Table 4.8: Total classified Traffic Volume: Adajan to Athwa gate


Time 2w 3w car Bus/Truck LCV NM Total Veh/5min
9:00 to 9:05 556 90 135 1 2 5 789
9:05 to 9:10 485 101 145 3 4 3 741
9:10 to 9:15 513 89 131 0 0 5 738
9:15 to 9:20 544 95 138 0 3 4 784
9:20 to 9:25 525 98 132 1 2 6 764
Morning

9:25 to 9:30 525 80 133 2 4 0 744


9:30 to 9:35 538 89 132 0 2 4 765
9:35 to 9:40 540 98 139 1 2 2 782
9:40 to 9:45 522 96 144 2 6 1 771
9:45 to 9:50 523 84 149 2 2 2 762
9:50 to 9:55 518 87 150 0 0 5 760
9:55 to 10:00 525 88 152 0 8 0 773
12:00 to 12:05 385 130 160 0 2 4 661
12:05 to 12:10 396 112 145 1 3 2 659
12:10 to 12:15 401 105 155 1 5 2 669
12:15 to 12:20 387 115 152 1 4 3 662
12:20 to 12:25 402 120 156 0 1 1 680
Afternoon

12:25 to 12:30 389 112 162 1 3 1 668


12:30 to 12:35 394 111 165 0 1 0 671
12:35 to 12:40 405 106 162 2 4 0 679
12:40 to 12:45 399 108 163 0 2 0 672
12:45 to 12:50 398 114 158 1 1 2 674
12:50 to 12:55 406 119 159 2 2 2 690
12:55 to 1:00 397 115 162 3 3 4 684
4:30 to 4:35 455 110 150 3 4 3 725
4:35 to 4:40 440 115 152 3 4 8 722
4:40 to 4:45 445 120 160 0 3 6 734
4:45 to 4:50 456 109 158 1 0 5 729
4:50 to 4:55 470 112 162 2 5 4 755
Evening

4:55 to 5:00 465 109 149 2 6 5 736


5:00 to 5:05 439 108 152 0 4 8 711
5:05 to 5:10 452 114 158 0 4 1 729
5:10 to 5:15 460 113 159 1 2 4 739
5:15 to 5:20 462 108 162 0 5 2 739
5:20 to 5:25 458 116 163 1 3 2 743
5:25 to 5:30 455 107 160 0 6 4 732

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STUDY AREA AND DATA COLLECTION

Table 4.9: PCU/15 min (Adajan to Athwa gate)


Time PCU/15min
9:00 9:15 1492.5
9:15 9:30 1496
9:30 9:45 1520.5
9:45 10:00 1512.5
10:00 10:15 1604.5
10:15 10:30 1597.5
10:30 10:45 1610.5
10:45 11:00 1648.5
12:00 12:15 1418
12:15 12:30 1422.5
12:30 12:45 1427
12:45 1:00 1455.5
4:30 4:45 1514.5
4:45 5:00 1527.5
5:00 5:15 1499
5:15 5:30 1524.5
5:30 5:45 1548
5:45 6:00 1555
6:00 6:15 1552.5
6:15 6:30 1534

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STUDY AREA AND DATA COLLECTION

1700
1650
1600
1550
PCU/15min
1500
1450
1400
1350
1300
1250 9:45 to 10:00

12:15 to 12:30

12:45 to 1:00
10:00 to 10:15
10:15 to 10:30
10:30 to 10:45
10:45 to 11:00

12:30 to 12:45

4:30 to 4:45
9:00 to 9:15
9:15 to 9:30

4:45 to 5:00
5:00 to 5:15
5:15 to 5:30
5:30 to 5:45
5:45 to 6:00
6:00 to 6:15
6:15 to 6:30
12:00 to 12:15
9:30 to 9:45

Fig. 4.19: Graph of PCU/15min (Adajan to Athwa gate)

Cumulative Traffic Flow


0%
0% 1% 2w

21% 3w

Car
14%
64% Bus/Truck

L.C.V

N.M

Fig. 4.20: Cumulative Traffic Flow (Adajan to Athwa Gate)

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Data collection of Traffic volume count from videography on Amroli Bridge of both side
direction.
Following tables 4.10 and 4.12 show the traffic volume count data
Date: 21/12/2017
Table 4.10: Total classified Traffic Volume: Katargam to Amroli
Time 2w 3w car Bus/Truck LCV NM Total Veh/5min
9:00 to 9:05 379 120 145 1 5 40 690
9:05 to 9:10 399 115 155 1 4 51 725
9:10 to 9:15 395 119 160 0 3 43 720
9:15 to 9:20 395 125 160 2 2 24 708
9:20 to 9:25 389 126 158 0 2 40 715
Morning

9:25 to 9:30 388 124 159 0 2 46 719


9:30 to 9:35 385 120 162 0 2 38 707
9:35 to 9:40 386 119 168 1 2 51 727
9:40 to 9:45 380 118 164 0 1 55 718
9:45 to 9:50 375 110 163 0 2 46 696
9:50 to 9:55 394 114 158 0 1 48 715
9:55 to 10:00 397 123 157 0 3 51 731
12:00 to 12:05 402 112 149 1 8 45 717
12:05 to 12:10 399 125 154 0 4 25 707
12;10 to 12:15 411 129 148 0 5 7 700
12:15 to 12:20 425 124 150 3 4 13 719
12:20 to 12:25 439 128 161 0 3 17 748
Afternoon

12:25 to 12:30 425 131 160 0 5 9 730


12:30 to 12:35 422 120 157 0 3 7 709
12:35 to 12:40 419 137 152 0 4 17 729
12:40 to 12:45 413 125 148 0 2 5 693
12:45 to 12:50 398 134 150 1 3 1 687
12:50 to 12:55 395 135 158 0 4 5 697
12:55 to 1:00 412 128 162 0 1 1 704
4:30 to 4:35 425 129 160 1 7 5 727
4:35 to 4:40 439 134 165 1 6 22 767
4:40 to 4:45 428 120 153 1 6 18 726
4:45 to 4:50 413 119 157 0 9 0 698
4:50 to 4:55 427 113 149 2 3 6 700
Evening

4:55 to 5:00 435 109 152 0 3 1 700


5:00 to 5:05 450 110 150 0 6 3 719
5:05 to 5:10 420 124 148 0 3 20 715
5:10 to 5:15 422 116 153 0 3 6 700
5:15 to 5:20 421 113 160 0 3 14 711
5:20 to 5:25 435 108 159 2 6 12 722
5:25 to 5:30 430 115 157 0 7 11 720

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STUDY AREA AND DATA COLLECTION

Table 4.11: PCU/15 min (Katargam to Amroli)


Time PCU/15min
9:00 9:15 1485.5
9:15 9:30 1505
9:30 9:45 1506.5
9:45 10:00 1486.5
10:00 10:15 1489
10:15 10:30 1528.5
10:30 10:45 1502
10:45 11:00 1473
12:00 12:15 1481.5
12:15 12:30 1539
12:30 12:45 1489.5
12:45 1:00 1484
4:30 4:45 1557.5
4:45 5:00 1461
5:00 5:15 1473.5
5:15 5:30 1495.5
5:30 5:45 1516.5
5:45 6:00 1497.5
6:00 6:15 1572
6:15 6:30 1524

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STUDY AREA AND DATA COLLECTION

1600
1580
1560
1540
1520
PCU/15min1500
1480
1460
1440
1420
1400
9:45 to 10:00

12:45 to 1:00
10:00 to 10:15
10:15 to 10:30
10:30 to 10:45
10:45 to 11:00
12:00 to 12:15

12:30 to 12:45
9:00 to 9:15

4:30 to 4:45
4:45 to 5:00
5:00 to 5:15
5:15 to 5:30
5:30 to 5:45
5:45 to 6:00
6:00 to 6:15
6:15 to 6:30
12:15 to 12:30
9:30 to 9:45
9:15 to 9:30

Fig. 4.21: Graph of PCU/15min (Katargam to Amroli)

Cumulative Traffic flow


0% 1% 2w

22% 3w
3%

Car

57% Bus/Truc
17% k
L.C.V

N.M

Fig. 4.22: Cumulative Traffic Flow (Katargam to Amroli)


Table 4.12: Total classified Traffic Volume: Amroli to Katargam
Time 2w 3w car Bus/Truck LCV NM Total Veh/5 Min
9:00 to 9:05 523 120 140 2 3 133 921
9:05 to 9:10 509 116 145 1 1 63 835
Morning

9:10 to 9:15 554 121 150 0 2 68 895


9:15 to 9:20 509 123 139 0 2 61 834
9:20 to 9:25 529 128 135 0 3 50 845

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9:25 to 9:30 532 130 139 2 2 62 867


9:30 to 9:35 512 124 140 0 3 43 822
9:35 to 9:40 524 119 145 0 3 60 851
9:40 to 9:45 515 115 144 0 2 25 801
9:45 to 9:50 494 130 137 0 5 13 779
9:50 to 9:55 535 136 138 1 3 16 829
9:55 to 10:00 542 112 156 0 3 18 831
12:00 to 12:05 412 125 150 1 5 9 702
12:05 to 12:10 399 120 145 0 3 9 676
12;10 to 12:15 415 115 140 2 2 20 694
12:15 to 12:20 428 119 139 0 4 7 697
12:20 to 12:25 430 114 155 0 1 17 717
Afternoon

12:25 to 12:30 411 109 152 1 4 7 684


12:30 to 12:35 410 116 150 0 3 3 682
12:35 to 12:40 420 118 149 0 3 7 697
12:40 to 12:45 413 119 148 1 3 22 706
12:45 to 12:50 406 116 153 0 5 7 687
12:50 to 12:55 421 117 150 1 3 9 701
12:55 to 1:00 408 109 154 1 2 4 678
4:30 to 4:35 423 111 140 1 9 6 690
4:35 to 4:40 436 120 145 0 4 8 713
4:40 to 4:45 452 115 150 2 2 8 729
4:45 to 4:50 429 121 155 0 3 10 718
4:50 to 4:55 439 125 151 0 3 13 731
Evening

4:55 to 5:00 438 119 152 1 5 5 720


5:00 to 5:05 445 130 160 0 3 3 741
5:05 to 5:10 442 124 161 1 33 12 773
5:10 to 5:15 444 118 152 0 1 15 730
5:15 to 5:20 439 116 155 0 6 25 741
5:20 to 5:25 451 109 158 1 3 10 732
5:25 to 5:30 420 110 165 0 2 7 704

Table 4.13: PCU/15min (Amroli to katargam)


Time PCU/15min
9:00 9:15 1732
9:15 9:30 1678.5
9:30 9:45 1634.5
9:45 10:00 1632
10:00 10:15 1627
10:15 10:30 1663.5

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10:30 10:45 1537


10:45 11:00 1502
12:00 12:15 1446
12:15 12:30 1450
12:30 12:45 1449.5
12:45 1:00 1442.5
4:30 4:45 1471.5
4:45 5:00 1504
5:00 5:15 1565.5
5:15 5:30 1503
5:30 5:45 1549
5:45 6:00 1501.5
6:00 6:15 1476.5
6:15 6:30 1503

2000
1800
1600
1400
PCU/15min 1200
1000
800
600
400
200
0
12:15 to 12:30
9:45 to 10:00

12:45 to 1:00
10:00 to 10:15
10:15 to 10:30
10:30 to 10:45
10:45 to 11:00
12:00 to 12:15

12:30 to 12:45
9:30 to 9:45

4:30 to 4:45

5:00 to 5:15
5:15 to 5:30
5:30 to 5:45
5:45 to 6:00
6:00 to 6:15
6:15 to 6:30
9:00 to 9:15
9:15 to 9:30

4:45 to 5:00

Fig. 4.23: Graph of PCU/15min (Amroli to Katargam)

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Cumulative Traffic Flow


0% 1%
3% 2w
18%
3w
62% Car

16% Bus/Truck

L.C.V

N.M

Fig. 4.24: Cumulative Traffic Flow (Amroli To Katargam)

4.5.2 Spot Speed Study Data Analysis


Data collection of Spot Speed from videography on Amroli Bridge of both side direction.
Spot speed study: Distance 20m for both direction
Table 4.14: Sample Spot Study data of Direction: Katargam to Amroli
Time in Time in Sec Speed in
Sec 2w 3w car Bus LCV N.M kmph
09:00:30 3.9 4.6 4.1 4.6 4 3.8 4.3 7.2 6 15.92
4 5 4.2 5 3.5 4.5
3.5 4.5 5.1 4.6
4.5 4.1 4.5
09:01:00 3.8 4 4.6 5.8 3.8 7.9 8.1 14.27
3.9 4.5 4.5 7
3.4 5.7 4.1
3.8 5.9 5
09:01:30 4.5 3.7 3.9 4.8 3.7 3.9 4.1 6.9 7.5 16.42
3.8 4 4.6 4
4.2 4.3 3.8 4.1
3.8 4.4 3.7
09:02:00 3.9 3.6 4.6 3.9 4 17.91
3.5 3.4 4.5 3.8 4.1
3.9 4.6 4
4 4.5
09:02:30 3.1 5.2 4.9 6 4.1 5 6.2 15.57

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4.2 4.8 5 5.2 3.9 4


4.1 4.5 4.8 3.8
5 5.2 3.5
09:03:00 4.3 4.8 5.4 4.9 4 4 7.6 7 14.30
4.2 4.9 5.5 5 4.3 5
3.9 5.6 5
4.7 6 4.6
09:03:30 4.5 5.5 4.5 4.2 3.5 4 7.3 15.24
3.8 5.5 4.3 3.8 5 8.2
3.6 5.1 4.2 3.9
3.4 5.2 5
09:04:00 3.9 4 4.8 4 4.1 3.8 7.6 8 14.49
4.5 5.2 5.3 4.8 4.2 7.6
4.9 4.9 4.4
4.8 4 4.6
09:04:30 4.7 5 5 5.6 4.8 3.8 7.8 14.01
4 5.1 5.2 4.2 7.6
4.7 5.6 5
5 4.7 4.7
09:05:00 4.8 5.4 4.4 4.8 4.4 5 4.5 8 7.6 13.89
5.3 4.6 4.6 7
5.4 4.3 4
5.1 5 4.3

Space Mean Speed (9:00:30) =

= 15.92 kmph

Table 4.15: Sample Spot Study data of Direction: Amroli to Katargam


Time in Time in Sec Speed in
Sec 2w 3w car Bus LCV N.M kmph
09:00:30 5.2 5.1 5.5 5.5 4.6 5 7.6 14.19
5 4.9 4.6 4.8 4.1 7.5
4.8 4 4 5
4.6 4.8 4.9
09:01:00 5.4 4 4.9 5.7 4.7 4.6 4.6 7.9 13.76
5.1 5 4.7 5.5 5 4.8 7.9
4.8 5.2 5.6 5
4.6 5.3 4.8

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09:01:30 5.1 5 5.6 5 4.6 5.5 7.6 14.13


4.9 4.8 5.3 4.2
4 5.4 4.7
5 5.5 4.4
09:02:00 5.2 5.4 4.8 4.9 4.6 4.6 7.8 13.73
5.4 4.8 4.9 4.3 7.6
5 5.8 4.3
4.8 5.7 4.5
09:02:30 5.3 5.1 5.5 6 5 4.6 4.3 8.2 13.90
5.4 4.8 5.3 3.9 4 7.6
5.1 4.9 4
5.2 4.7 4.7
09:03:00 5 4.9 4.9 4.9 4.4 4.5 8 14.56
4.8 4 4 4.7 4.6 5 7.6
4.6 5 4.9 4.3 3.9
5.4 5.1 4.3
09:03:30 5.1 5 5.6 5 4.6 5 15.09
4.8 4.7 5.1 4.3 3.9
4.6 4.4 5.6 4.3
5.1 4.6 4.2
09:04:00 4.9 4.8 4.3 4.4 5 4.7 4.8 7.6 14.37
4 5 5 4.1 5 5.1 7.5
5.1 5.2 4.2
5 5.1 4.4
09:04:30 4 5.4 5.5 5.2 4.6 4.6 7.9 14.77
4.2 5 4.6 5.1 4.8
4.6 4.8 4 4.4
4.5 4.8 4.6
09:05:00 4.4 5.4 4.9 4 4.6 4.6 4.7 7.6 14.64
5.5 4.7 4.8 4.8
5.2 4.6 5.2
4.2 4.3 5

Space Mean Speed (9:00:30) =

= 14.19 kmph

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Data collection of Spot Speed from videography on Sardar Bridge of both side direction.
Spot speed study: Distance 20m
Table 4.16: Sample Spot Study data of Direction: Athwa Gate to Adajan
Time in Time in Sec Speed in
Sec 2w 3w car Bus LCV N.M kmph
09:00:3 4.6 3.9 4.6 4.1 3.8 4 8 15.25
0 5 4 5 4.2 4.5 7
3.4 5.1 4.6
3.9 5.2 4.8
09:01:0 4.5 3.8 4.8 4.6 5.2 3.8 8.1 15.20
0 4.9 3.9 5.3 5 4.5
4.8 4.9 4.7 4.1
4.7 4 4.4
09:01:3 4 4.5 5 3.9 4.6 3.7 4.1 16.29
0 4.7 3.8 5.1 4 4 4.6
5 5.6 4.3 4.3 3.8
4.8 4.7 4.3
09:02:0 5.3 3.9 4.4 4.6 4.5 3.9 8.2 14.72
0 5.4 4.6 4.5 5 3.8 7.6
5.1 4.3 4.6 3.9
5.2 5 4
09:02:3 5 3.1 5.2 4.9 3.8 4.1 4.1 7.9 15.37
0 4.8 4.2 5.1 5 3.9
4.6 5.5 4.8 4
4.9 4.6 4.2
09:03:0 4.8 4.3 5.2 5.4 3.8 4 7.5 15.23
0 4.9 4.2 5.1 4.2 4.3
4.5 5.5 4.6 5
4 4.6 3.9
09:03:3 5.5 4.5 4.7 4.5 5 4.2 15.34
0 5.2 3.8 4.6 5.5 4.9
4.2 5 4.7
4.9 4.6 4
09:04:0 4 3.9 4 4.8 3.8 4.1 4.8 6 15.33
0 5.2 4.5 4.8 5.3 3.9 4.2 8
4.6 4.9 4.9 4 4.4
5 4.7 4.2
09:04:3 5 4.7 5.6 5 3.8 4.8 4.1 8.1 14.57
0 5.4 4 5.3 5.1 4.2 5.2
4.8 5.4 4.6 5
4.3 5.5 3.9
09:05:0 5.4 4.8 4.8 4.4 5 4.4 14.54
0 5.1 5.3 4.9 4.6 4.9 4.6

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5.8 5.8 4.3 4.7


4.6 5.7 5

Space Mean Speed (9:00:30) =

= 15.25 kmph
Table 4.17: Sample Spot Study data of Direction: Adajan to Athwa Gate
Time in Time in Sec Speed in
Sec 2w 3w car Bus LCV N.M kmph
09:00:30 5.1 5.2 5.5 5.5 5 4.6 4.2 14.95
4.9 4.8 4.6 4.1
4 4.9 4.2
5.1 5.8 4.4
09:01:00 4 5.4 5.7 4.9 4.6 4.7 5.3 7.8 13.93
5 5.1 5.5 4.7 4.8 5
5.2 5.2 5
5.4 5.2 4.9
09:01:30 5 5.1 5 5.6 4.7 4.6 4.5 6 14.30
4.8 4.9 5.7 5.3 5 4.2
5 5.5 5 4.7
5 5.3 4.8
09:02:00 5.4 5.2 4.9 4.6 4.6 15.04
4.8 4.8 4.2 4.3
4.3 5.7 4.7 4.3
5.4 5 4.4
09:02:30 5.1 5.3 6 5.5 4.6 5 4.2 14.77
4.8 5.4 5.4 5.3 4 3.9
4.6 5.7 4.3
5.1 4.1 4.3
09:03:00 4.9 5 4.9 4.5 4.4 7.4 14.74
4 4.8 4.7 5 4.6 7.8
5.1 4.9 3.9
4 4 4
09:03:30 5 5.1 5 5.6 5 4.6 14.62
5.2 5.1 3.9 4.3
5.4 5.6 5 4.3
5 4.7 4.9
09:04:00 4.8 4.9 4.4 4.7 5 4.1 15.18
5 4.6 5 4.1
5 4.3 5

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5.2 5 4.8
09:04:30 5.4 4 5.2 5.5 4.6 4.6 7.3 14.66
5 4.2 5.1 4.6 4.2 4.8
4.8 5.5 4.7 4.4
5.3 4.6 4.4
09:05:00 5.4 4.4 4 4.9 4.6 4.6 15.22
5.1 5.5 4.8 4.7 4
5.2 4.9 4.3
5 4.7 4.3

Space Mean Speed (9:00:30) =

= 14.95 kmph
Data collection of Spot Speed from videography on Sardar Bridge of both side direction.
Spot speed study: Distance 20m
Table 4.18: Sample Spot Study data of Direction: Nana Varachcha to Mota Varachcha
Time in Time in Sec Speed in
Sec 2w 3w car Bus LCV N.M kmph
09:00:30 3.9 3.4 4.2 4.7 3.5 3.9 8.4 17.33
3.5 3 4.2 4.8 3.4
3.7 4.6 3.8
3.4 4.8 3.6
09:01:00 3.5 3.7 4.7 3.9 3.8 3.1 8.7 17.07
3.6 3.8 4.1 4.5 3.9 3.1 7.7
3.8 3.7 4.2 3.4
3.4 4.5 3.5
09:01:30 3.5 4.1 4.9 5.3 3.4 3.8 3.4 18.03
3.4 3.9 4.8 3.6
3.8 4.6 3.4
3.6 4.9 3.5
09:02:00 3.2 3.5 5.1 5.2 3.8 3.7 17.84
3.7 4.6 5.8 3.4 3.2
3.6 4.2 3.8
3.9 4.5 3.4
09:02:30 3 4.1 4.8 3.5 4.1 4.1 7.9 17.41
3.9 3.4 4.8 3.5
3.2 4.6 3.2
3.7 4.9 3.6
09:03:00 3.5 3.3 4.5 3.2 3.2 19.66
3 4.6 3.4

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3.6 4.5 3.2


3.7 3.9
09:03:30 3.5 4.5 4.2 4.6 3.7 3.6 18.43
3.7 4 4.6 3.5
3.2 4.3 3.6
3.4 4.7 3.4
09:04:00 3.8 3.8 4.9 4.3 3.8 3.9 7.2 17.14
3.6 4.8 3.9
3.6 3.8
3.5 3.9
09:04:30 3.4 3.4 4.2 4.2 3.7 3.6 3.9 8.2 17.14
3.9 3.6 4.3 3.5 3.7 7.5
3.8 4.6 3.4
3.5 4 3.6
09:05:00 3.4 4 4.5 5.2 3.7 3.5 7.5 17.17
3.4 4.6 3.4
3.8 4.8 3.2
3.7 4.6 3.8

Space Mean Speed (9:00:30) =

= 17.33 kmph
Table 4.19: Sample Spot Study data of Direction: Mota Varachcha to Nana Varachcha
Time in Time in Sec Speed in
Sec 2w 3w car Bus LCV N.M kmph
09:00:3 3.6 3.8 4.2 5.4 3.9 4 4.4 17.29
0 3.8 4.5 5.8 3.7
3.4 4.9 3.5
3.5 4.8 3.6
09:01:0 3.4 4.1 4.6 4.3 3.4 4 17.71
0 3.8 4.5 4.9 3.8 4.1
3.6 5.1 3.9
3.2 4.6 3.8
09:01:3 3.7 3.9 4.2 4.5 3.9 4.7 4.6 4.6 17.79
0 3.6 3.4 4.5 3.7 4.2
3.9 4.8 3.5
3 4.8 3.4
09:02:0 3.9 4.2 4.6 5.4 3.6 3.9 17.84
0 3.2 4.1 4.9 3.7 4.2
3.7 4.5 3.4

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3.5 4.6 3.2


09:02:3 3 4.2 4.5 4.9 3.8 3.4 3.9 18.13
0 3.6 4.1 4.8 5 3.5
3.7 4.2 3.4
3.5 4.6 3.4
09:03:0 3.7 3.5 4.3 4.2 3.1 3.4 8 16.90
0 3.2 3.8 4.7 4.8 3.4 3.4 8.2
3.4 4.9 3
3.8 4.8 3.6
09:03:3 3.6 4 4.2 4.9 3.7 4.1 3.9 7 18.00
0 3.6 3.3 4.1 3.5 3.8
3.5 4.2 3.7 4
3.4 4.3 3.2
09:04:0 3.9 4.5 4.6 4.9 3.4 3.6 17.98
0 3.8 4.2 4 3.8 4
3.5 4.5 3.6 4.2
3.4 4.6 3.6
09:04:3 3.4 3.9 4.8 4.9 3.5 4.1 4.2 17.98
0 3.8 3.8 4.6 3.4 3.4
3.7 4.8 3.9
3.4 4.7 3.8
09:05:0 3.5 4.2 4.9 4.6 3.5 4.5 18.02
0 3.9 4.3 4.6 4.9 3.4 3.7
3.3 4.3 3.4 3.1
3.2 4.8 3.8

Space Mean Speed (9:00:30) =

= 17.29kmph
4.5.3 Density Calculation
After collecting volume count and Space Mean Speed, density of vehicles can be obtained by,
q = k*v
Where, q = Traffic flow in pcu/hr
k = density in pcu/km
v = speed in kmph

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Calculation of density:
Table 4.20: The LOS of Mid-Block Section
LOS Quality Speed V/C Description
kmph
A Free Flow 80 0.6 High Level of Physical and
Psychological Comfort
B Reasonable Free Flow 70 0.7 Reasonable level of physical and
psychological comfort
C Near Free Flow 60 0.8 Local deterioration possible with
blockages
D Medium Flow 50 0.85 Non-recoverable local desruption
E At Capacity Flow 40 0.9 Minor disturbance resulting
break down
F Congested Flow 15 1.0 Break down of flow capacity
drops
(Source: NPTEL.in/IITB/tom Mathew)
Density Calculation for Amroli Bridge of Both direction.
Table 4.21: Flow-Speed-Density: Katargam to Amroli
Time Traffic flow Speed kmph Density PCU/km (k)
PCU/Hr (q) (v)
9:00 to 9:05 5790 15.2 380.92
9:05 to 9:10 6024 14.24 423.03
9:10 to 9:15 6012 14.39 417.79
9:15 to 9:20 6030 14.41 418.46
9:20 to 9:25 6006 14.36 418.25
9:25 to 9:30 6024 14.49 415.73
9:30 to 9:35 5946 14.16 419.92
9:35 to 9:40 6126 14.52 421.90
9:40 to 9:45 6006 14.36 418.25
9:45 to 9:50 5826 14.37 405.43
9:50 to 9:55 5928 14.65 404.64
9:55 to 10:00 6084 14.59 417.00
12:00 to 12:05 5946 14.39 413.20
12:05 to 12:10 5940 14.74 402.99
12:10 to 12:15 5892 14.73 400.00
12:15 to 12:20 6072 14.99 405.07
12:20 to 12:25 6240 14.81 421.34

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12:25 to 12:30 6156 14.68 419.35


12:30 to 12:35 5934 15.13 392.20
12:35 to 12:40 6132 15.07 406.90
12:40 to 12:45 5808 15.47 375.44
12:45 to 12:50 5874 14.77 397.70
12:50 to 12:55 5964 15.66 380.84
12:55 to 1:00 5970 15.02 397.47
4:30 to 4:35 6168 14.83 415.91
4:35 to 4:40 6462 14.65 441.09
4:40 to 4:45 6060 14.74 411.13
4:45 to 4:50 5898 14.97 393.99
4:50 to 4:55 5850 14.92 392.09
4:55 to 5:00 5784 15.1 383.05
5:00 to 5:05 5910 14.83 398.52
5:05 to 5:10 5940 14.49 409.94
5:10 to 5:15 5832 14.67 397.55
5:15 to 5:20 5922 14.64 404.51
5:20 to 5:25 6030 14.84 406.33
5:25 to 5:30 5994 14.7 407.76

Density(k) =

= 380.92 PCU/km
Table 4.22: Flow-Speed-Density: Amroli to Katargam
Time Traffic flow Speed kmph Density PCU/km
PCU/Hr (q) (v) (k)
9:00 to 9:05 7164 14.31 500.63
9:05 to 9:10 6612 14.72 449.18
9:10 to 9:15 7008 14.44 485.32
9:15 to 9:20 6588 14.5 454.34
9:20 to 9:25 6666 14.28 466.81
9:25 to 9:30 6888 14.46 476.35
9:30 to 9:35 6534 14.51 450.31
9:35 to 9:40 6708 14.5 462.62
9:40 to 9:45 6372 14.47 440.36
9:45 to 9:50 6306 15.33 411.35
9:50 to 9:55 6666 13.93 478.54
9:55 to 10:00 6612 14.44 457.89

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12:00 to 12:05 5922 15.05 393.49


12:05 to 12:10 5664 15.07 375.85
12:10 to 12:15 5766 15.48 372.48
12:15 to 12:20 5754 14.79 389.05
12:20 to 12:25 5922 15.64 378.64
12:25 to 12:30 5724 15.01 381.35
12:30 to 12:35 5706 14.36 397.35
12:35 to 12:40 5802 14.74 393.62
12:40 to 12:45 5886 14.71 400.14
12:45 to 12:50 5766 14.98 384.91
12:50 to 12:55 5856 14.82 395.14
12:55 to 1:00 5688 14.71 386.68
4:30 to 4:35 5730 14.62 391.93
4:35 to 4:40 5892 14.89 395.70
4:40 to 4:45 6036 14.7 410.61
4:45 to 4:50 5982 14.89 401.75
4:50 to 4:55 6060 14.53 417.07
4:55 to 5:00 6006 14.79 406.09
5:00 to 5:05 6204 14.59 425.22
5:05 to 5:10 6576 14.22 462.45
5:10 to 5:15 6006 14.6 411.37
5:15 to 5:20 6108 14.86 411.04
5:20 to 5:25 6042 14.66 412.14
5:25 to 5:30 5886 14.71 400.14

The observed Average Spot-speed of all category of vehicles is around 15 kmph in both
direction of Amroli Bridge. So, From the table 4.20, The L.O.S of mid-block section for the
selected bridge is obtained as category F.

Density Calculation for Sardar Patel Bridge of Both direction.


Table 4.23: Flow-Speed-Density: Athwa Gate to Adajan
Time Traffic flow Speed kmph Density PCU/km (k)
PCU/Hr (q) (v)
9:00 to 9:05 5988 15.18 394.47
9:05 to 9:10 5802 14.91 389.13
9:10 to 9:15 5988 14.87 402.69
9:15 to 9:20 5820 14.61 398.36
9:20 to 9:25 6018 14.9 403.89
9:25 to 9:30 5946 14.83 400.94
9:30 to 9:35 5982 14.93 400.67
9:35 to 9:40 5976 14.9 401.07

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9:40 to 9:45 5892 14.91 395.17


9:45 to 9:50 5928 14.79 400.81
9:50 to 9:55 6006 14.69 408.85
9:55 to 10:00 6048 14.88 406.45
12:00 to 12:05 5796 14.78 392.15
12:05 to 12:10 5784 14.69 393.74
12:10 to 12:15 5904 15 393.60
12:15 to 12:20 5964 15.18 392.89
12:20 to 12:25 6090 14.91 408.45
12:25 to 12:30 5868 15.06 389.64
12:30 to 12:35 6060 15.36 394.53
12:35 to 12:40 6240 15.22 409.99
12:40 to 12:45 6150 15.43 398.57
12:45 to 12:50 6258 15.23 410.90
12:50 to 12:55 6216 15.74 394.92
12:55 to 1:00 6264 15.24 411.02
4:30 to 4:35 5910 14.71 401.77
4:35 to 4:40 5922 15 394.80
4:40 to 4:45 5610 15.11 371.28
4:45 to 4:50 5706 15.48 368.60
4:50 to 4:55 5730 15.41 371.84
4:55 to 5:00 5880 15.37 382.56
5:00 to 5:05 5592 15.23 367.17
5:05 to 5:10 5550 14.72 377.04
5:10 to 5:15 6000 14.62 410.40
5:15 to 5:20 5862 14.81 395.81
5:20 to 5:25 5838 15 389.20
5:25 to 5:30 6174 14.83 416.32

Table 4.24: Flow-Speed-Density: Adajan to Athwa Gate


Time Traffic flow Speed kmph Density PCU/km
PCU/Hr (q) (v) (k)
9:00 to 9:05 6126 14.74 415.60
9:05 to 9:10 6036 14.81 407.56
9:10 to 9:15 5748 14.78 388.90
9:15 to 9:20 6120 14.84 412.40
9:20 to 9:25 6006 14.83 404.99
9:25 to 9:30 5826 14.8 393.65
9:30 to 9:35 5928 15.02 394.67
9:35 to 9:40 6256 14.59 428.79
9:40 to 9:45 6162 14.62 421.48
9:45 to 9:50 6042 15.28 395.42

GUJARAT TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY, AHMEDABAD 61


STUDY AREA AND DATA COLLECTION

9:50 to 9:55 5982 14.88 402.02


9:55 to 10:00 6126 14.87 411.97
12:00 to 12:05 5598 15.34 364.93
12:05 to 12:10 5544 15.05 368.37
12:10 to 12:15 5634 15.55 362.32
12:15 to 12:20 5628 15.25 369.05
12:20 to 12:25 5742 15.74 364.80
12:25 to 12:30 5700 15.23 374.26
12:30 to 12:35 5688 14.76 385.37
12:35 to 12:40 5766 14.73 391.45
12:40 to 12:45 5670 15.06 376.49
12:45 to 12:50 5712 15.02 380.29
12:50 to 12:55 5880 15.01 391.74
12:55 to 1:00 5874 15.08 389.52
4:30 to 4:35 6024 14.77 407.85
4:35 to 4:40 6048 15 403.20
4:40 to 4:45 6102 14.86 410.63
4:45 to 4:50 6006 14.91 402.82
4:50 to 4:55 6264 14.73 425.25
4:55 to 5:00 6060 14.83 408.63
5:00 to 5:05 5850 14.89 392.88
5:05 to 5:10 6030 14.91 404.43
5:10 to 5:15 6108 14.84 411.59
5:15 to 5:20 6084 14.72 413.32
5:20 to 5:25 6180 15.05 410.63
5:25 to 5:30 6030 15.15 398.02

The observed Average Spot-speed of all category of vehicles is around 15 kmph in both
direction of Sardar Patel Bridge. So, From the table 4.20, The L.O.S of mid-block section for
the selected bridge is obtained as category F.
Density Calculation for Savjibhai Korat Bridge of Both direction.
Table 4.25: Flow-Speed-Density: Nana Varachcha To Mota Varachcha
Time Traffic flow Speed kmph Density PCU/km (k)
PCU/Hr (q) (v)
9:00 to 9:05 4992 17.72 281.72
9:05 to 9:10 4794 17.48 274.26
9:10 to 9:15 4920 17.63 279.07
9:15 to 9:20 4854 17.36 279.61
9:20 to 9:25 5040 17.41 289.49
9:25 to 9:30 5034 17.5 287.66
9:30 to 9:35 4986 17.34 287.54

GUJARAT TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY, AHMEDABAD 62


STUDY AREA AND DATA COLLECTION

9:35 to 9:40 4956 17.46 283.85


9:40 to 9:45 5142 17.53 293.33
9:45 to 9:50 5010 17.75 282.25
9:50 to 9:55 4842 17.49 276.84
9:55 to 10:00 4944 17.52 282.19
12:00 to 12:05 5214 17.67 295.08
12:05 to 12:10 5274 17.52 301.03
12:10 to 12:15 5208 17.75 293.41
12:15 to 12:20 5136 17.51 293.32
12:20 to 12:25 5076 17.34 292.73
12:25 to 12:30 5220 17.59 296.76
12:30 to 12:35 5340 17.49 305.32
12:35 to 12:40 5328 17.36 306.91
12:40 to 12:45 5370 17.52 306.51
12:45 to 12:50 5394 17.36 310.71
12:50 to 12:55 5220 17.39 300.17
12:55 to 1:00 5184 17.31 299.48
4:30 to 4:35 5226 17.04 306.69
4:35 to 4:40 5274 17.23 306.09
4:40 to 4:45 5208 17.26 301.74
4:45 to 4:50 5124 17.52 292.47
4:50 to 4:55 5358 17.54 305.47
4:55 to 5:00 5214 17.41 299.48
5:00 to 5:05 5274 17.74 297.29
5:05 to 5:10 5256 17.79 295.45
5:10 to 5:15 5232 17.57 297.78
5:15 to 5:20 5280 17.41 303.27
5:20 to 5:25 5412 17.42 310.68
5:25 to 5:30 5502 17.37 316.75

Table 4.26: Flow-Speed-Density: Mota Varachcha to Nana Varachcha


Time Traffic flow Speed kmph Density PCU/km
PCU/Hr (q) (v) (k)
9:00 to 9:05 5040 17.76 283.78
9:05 to 9:10 4914 17.46 281.44
9:10 to 9:15 4974 17.52 283.90
9:15 to 9:20 5088 17.44 291.74
9:20 to 9:25 5100 17.48 291.76
9:25 to 9:30 5124 17.23 297.39
9:30 to 9:35 5232 17.45 299.83
9:35 to 9:40 5082 17.72 286.79
9:40 to 9:45 5334 17.49 304.97
9:45 to 9:50 5076 17.73 286.29

GUJARAT TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY, AHMEDABAD 63


STUDY AREA AND DATA COLLECTION

9:50 to 9:55 5220 17.53 297.78


9:55 to 10:00 5148 17.74 290.19
12:00 to 12:05 5112 17.61 290.29
12:05 to 12:10 5184 17.28 300.00
12:10 to 12:15 5268 17.59 299.49
12:15 to 12:20 5298 17.27 306.77
12:20 to 12:25 5436 17.45 311.52
12:25 to 12:30 5490 17.34 316.61
12:30 to 12:35 5208 17.68 294.57
12:35 to 12:40 5280 17.46 302.41
12:40 to 12:45 5286 17.72 298.31
12:45 to 12:50 5448 17.54 310.60
12:50 to 12:55 5460 17.39 313.97
12:55 to 1:00 5472 17.47 313.22
4:30 to 4:35 5292 17.5 302.40
4:35 to 4:40 5640 17.44 323.39
4:40 to 4:45 5340 17.32 308.31
4:45 to 4:50 5166 17.29 298.79
4:50 to 4:55 5244 17.39 301.55
4:55 to 5:00 5202 17.51 297.09
5:00 to 5:05 5508 17.48 315.10
5:05 to 5:10 5202 17.59 295.74
5:10 to 5:15 5136 17.72 289.84
5:15 to 5:20 5248 17.04 307.98
5:20 to 5:25 5202 17.23 301.92
5:25 to 5:30 5400 17.26 312.86

The observed Average Spot-speed of all category of vehicles is More than 15 kmph in both
direction of Savjibhai Korat Bridge. So, From the table 4.20, The L.O.S of mid-block section
for the selected bridge is obtained as category E.
4.5.4 Travel Time Calculation
Travel time Calculation for Sardar Bridge for both direction.
Length of Bridge: 772.23 M
Table 4.27: Travel Time Calculation: Athwa Gate to Adajan
Time L.P T.T Avg. L.P T.T Avg. L.P T.T Avg.
2w T.T 3w T.T 4w T.T
9:00 to 3720 03:04 03:00 7809 03:16 03:10 7075 03:06 03:05
9:05 2959 02:58 5216 03:13 2758 03:04
2427 02:58 1616 03:10 4299 03:07
444 03:00 2360 03:09 576 03:08
1920 03:02 3113 03:09 6567 03:09

GUJARAT TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY, AHMEDABAD 64


STUDY AREA AND DATA COLLECTION

6048 03:01 8628 03:10 4241 03:05


686 03:00 8889 03:11 8391 03:06
59 02:59 4313 03:08 473 03:03
6956 03:01 3169 03:09 4128 03:04
5913 03:02 67 03:08 9323 03:05
5155 02:59 9241 03:10 9798 03:04
5241 03:04 7587 03:05
1886 02:58 9977 03:06
4889 03:00 8465 03:05
4215 03:03 7605 03:04
211 03:04 2882 03:06
7558 02:58 5348 03:07
3293 02:58 8351 03:04
371 03:00 5839 03:07
9350 03:08
3561 03:09
2086 03:05
9336 03:06
6822 03:03
467 03:04
2008 03:05
1568 03:04

9:05 to 773 03:02 03:00 1487 03:07 03:11 1319 03:05 03:05
9:10 6416 03:01 915 03:11 7580 03:06
2868 03:00 9840 03:13 6721 03:05
8257 02:59 4475 03:10 3657 03:04
2128 03:04 4905 03:15 4460 03:04
2344 02:58 4691 03:14 1426 03:05
5890 03:00 3222 03:10 1366 03:04
4633 03:03 5427 03:11 585 03:05
8325 03:04 4609 03:08 4170 03:06
1519 02:58 79 03:09 5075 03:05
234 02:58 9142 03:07 214 03:04
873 03:00 5245 03:11 9153 03:06
7561 03:02 3925 03:13 2902 03:07
3164 03:01 4679 03:10 5497 03:04
3605 03:00 5950 03:15 3402 03:07
6118 02:59 2191 03:14 191 03:08
9885 03:04 9572 03:10 7002 03:09
2244 02:58 4270 03:05

GUJARAT TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY, AHMEDABAD 65


STUDY AREA AND DATA COLLECTION

4460 03:00 723 03:05


4158 03:03

Time L.P Bus T.T Avg. T.T L.P T.T Avg. T.T
LCV
9:00 to 9:05 3395 03:29 03:29 1605 3:05 3:05
8244 3:06
5706 3:07
773 3:05
9:05 to 9:10 8309 3:09 3:05
2956 3:04
773 3:05
8690 3:03
5977 3:05

Photographs of Travel Time Data Collection(Fig. 4.25 & Fig. 4.26)

Entry Time: 9:02:30 Exit Time: 9:05:36


Fig. 4.25 Entry Time of Vehicles Fig. 4.26 Exit Time of Vehicles

GUJARAT TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY, AHMEDABAD 66


STUDY AREA AND DATA COLLECTION

Table 4.28: Travel Time Calculation: Adajan to Athwa Gate


Time L.P T.T Avg. L.P T.T Avg. L.P T.T Avg.
2w T.T 3w T.T 4w T.T
9:00 2927 02:58 03:00 2237 03:08 03:10 5058 03:03 03:05
to 9792 03:00 7518 03:12 4385 03:04
9:05 2476 02:59 4071 03:09 2348 03:05
7585 03:01 6915 03:10 9076 03:06
6233 03:02 6530 03:11 279 03:04
9752 02:59 1888 03:12 3684 03:07
2927 03:03 5428 03:16 8545 03:08
5518 03:04 2852 03:13 7571 03:09
8230 02:58 2861 03:10 6482 03:05
3805 02:58 7047 03:09 2839 03:06
3836 03:00 9369 03:09 5723 03:03
1834 03:02 1104 03:10 5650 03:04
1838 03:01 2125 03:11 830 03:05
6063 03:00 8525 03:08 1623 03:04
4396 02:59 4380 03:09 7429 03:05
7977 03:01 9441 03:08 1328 03:06
1477 03:02 2353 03:10 9107 03:05
9203 02:59 8214 03:07 8926 03:04
8614 03:04 6913 03:11 1176 03:06
1078 02:58 5306 03:07
5840 03:00

9:05 3053 03:01 03:00 4600 03:12 03:10 6655 03:05 03:05
to 5130 03:02 9590 03:09 3403 03:06
9:10 1683 02:59 4956 03:10 6218 03:04
4065 03:03 1661 03:11 7878 03:07
2197 03:04 1535 03:12 5570 03:08
28 02:58 4788 03:16 9001 03:09
2985 02:58 1562 03:13 6252 03:05
2325 03:00 9199 03:10 1328 03:06
7656 03:02 7161 03:09 1092 03:03
1444 03:01 5351 03:09 6465 03:04

GUJARAT TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY, AHMEDABAD 67


STUDY AREA AND DATA COLLECTION

845 03:00 2874 03:10 2797 03:05


8110 02:59 8181 03:11 9995 03:08
2208 03:01 7369 03:08 4164 03:09
7579 03:02 1388 03:09 3800 03:05
7841 02:59 941 03:08 9498 03:06
6789 03:04 266 03:10 7812 03:03
1398 03:04
8545 03:05
8596 03:04
5343 03:05
3136 03:06
1578 03:05
8039 03:04
6643 03:06
3647 03:09
6564 03:05
4300 03:06
9867 03:03
7767 03:04

Time L.P Bus T.T Avg. T.T L.P LCV T.T Avg. T.T

9:00 to 9:05 3284 03:25 03:25 1398 3:04 3:04


9:05 to 9:10 860 03:28 03:28 3739 3:04 3:05
3526 3:07
3340 3:06

Travel time Calculation for Amroli Bridge for both direction.


Length of Bridge: 655.20 M
Table 4.29: Travel Time Calculation: Katargam to Amroli
Time L.P T.T Avg. L.P T.T Avg. L.P T.T Avg.
2w T.T 3w T.T 4w T.T
9:00 6167 02:25 02:26 6862 02:35 02:36 2466 02:30 02:32
to 9619 02:29 6516 02:36 8813 02:31
9:05 1993 02:28 6927 02:35 6438 02:35
5970 02:28 1534 02:38 4755 02:33
5344 02:26 8875 02:34 5547 02:32
3003 02:30 7389 02:36 3060 02:31

GUJARAT TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY, AHMEDABAD 68


STUDY AREA AND DATA COLLECTION

3230 02:29 2327 02:37 8912 02:35


5359 02:28 1547 02:38 8517 02:34
9773 02:24 2718 02:39 3951 02:33
4890 02:31 665 02:38 3088 02:32
8904 02:29 6223 02:35 2367 02:30
7432 02:24 6834 02:39 9011 02:29
4585 02:25 2313 02:34 4755 02:34
365 02:26 6369 02:36 5040 02:33
1919 02:29 1980 02:34
8321 02:28 1137 02:32
3946 02:29
5285 02:27
6597 02:22
5376 02:23
6904 02:25
8333 02:24
5127 02:26
6184 02:25
5935 02:24
1457 02:06
558 02:28

9:05 8607 02:29 02:25 5615 02:36 02:36 4347 02:32 02:32
to 7245 02:28 9403 02:37 5151 02:31
9:10 845 02:24 2764 02:38 7230 02:35
1026 02:31 966 02:39 9803 02:34
6206 02:29 5478 02:38 3753 02:33
5048 02:24 7734 02:35 3258 02:32
7439 02:25 8831 02:39 5646 02:30
2604 02:26 7720 02:34 7131 02:29
9942 02:24 3522 02:36 8714 02:34
4595 02:23 5263 02:34 1872 02:33
4827 02:25 1184 02:32 4149 02:32
5619 02:27 5844 02:31
3680 02:22 7923 02:35
2814 02:23 9704 02:34
1098 02:25 1971 02:33
7684 02:24 4953 02:32
6982 02:26 4842 02:30
5913 02:25 8220 02:29
1602 02:24 6141 02:34

GUJARAT TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY, AHMEDABAD 69


STUDY AREA AND DATA COLLECTION

3804 02:23 8022 02:33


2608 02:25 2565 02:32
7611 02:27
3148 02:22
5448 02:23
6973 02:25

Time L.P Bus T.T Avg. T.T L.P LCV T.T Avg. T.T

9:00 to 3238 2:42 2:42 276 2:33 2:32


9:05 461 2:34
2433 2:31
9:05 to 4854 2:43 2:43 1119 2:34 2:35
9:10 427 2:36
2169 2:31

Table 4.30: Travel Time Calculation: Amroli to Katargam


Time L.P 2w T.T Avg. L.P T.T Avg. L.P T.T Avg.
T.T 3w T.T 4w T.T

9:00 3236 02:24 02:24 531 02:32 02:35 9233 02:34 02:32
to 1179 02:25 8080 02:38 914 02:33
9:05 5344 02:26 8066 02:35 831 02:32
3483 02:24 969 02:39 7008 02:31
3035 02:23 6964 02:34 7715 02:35
2582 02:25 6348 02:36 2870 02:34
1789 02:27 8922 02:35 8863 02:33
221 02:22 1346 02:32 2495 02:32
6872 02:23 6777 02:38 2313 02:30
214 02:25 3765 02:35 1077 02:29
7643 02:24 1349 02:39 342 02:34
299 02:26 5865 02:34 3159 02:33
5405 02:25 8288 02:36 1461 02:32
5147 02:24 3043 02:30
7957 02:23 9874 02:29
6145 02:29 7855 02:34
667 02:24 3007 02:33

GUJARAT TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY, AHMEDABAD 70


STUDY AREA AND DATA COLLECTION

6061 02:25 3000 02:32


2402 02:26 3265 02:31
9186 02:24
7972 02:26
2959 02:25
8262 02:24
372 02:23
4857 02:29
784 02:24

9:05 2225 02:24 02:25 780 02:35 02:35 2664 02:35 02:32
to 3570 02:31 3980 02:39 8923 02:34
9:10 3894 02:29 4720 02:34 5018 02:33
7318 02:24 4126 02:36 4413 02:32
8505 02:25 9677 02:35 4984 02:30
3813 02:26 7944 02:32 2194 02:29
7951 02:24 1787 02:38 3122 02:34
6669 02:23 2444 02:35 9767 02:33
4060 02:25 855 02:39 5518 02:32
1385 02:27 9047 02:34 8650 02:31
6571 02:22 5417 02:36 4161 02:35
6655 02:23 8056 02:39 9195 02:34
2417 02:25 6816 02:34 7879 02:33
8430 02:24 9968 02:35
1894 02:26 1790 02:34
9517 02:25 2392 02:33
4289 02:24 5710 02:32
5128 02:23 8337 02:30
7258 02:29 4192 02:31
2999 02:24
2673 02:25
1507 02:26
4611 02:24
8764 02:23
8487 02:25
4855 02:27
9269 02:22

GUJARAT TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY, AHMEDABAD 71


STUDY AREA AND DATA COLLECTION

Time L.P T.T Avg. L.P T.T Avg.


Bus T.T LCV T.T

9:00 to 3321 2:45 2:45 4839 2:32 2:33


9:05
8262 2:34
9:05 to 8262 2:31 2:31
9:10

Travel time Calculation for Savjibhai Korat Bridge for both direction.
Length of Bridge: 544.6 M
Table 4.31: Travel Time Calculation: Nana Varachcha To Mota Varachcha
Time L.P T.T Avg. L.P T.T Avg. L.P T.T Avg.
2w T.T 3w T.T 4w T.T
9:00 8121 01:02 01:07 5495 01:27 01:30 2870 01:10 01:08
to 1859 01:04 4182 01:29 5193 01:09
9:05 2043 01:08 5091 01:29 2264 01:06
9030 01:08 7112 01:37 3880 01:08
3374 01:04 5697 01:32 7315 01:10
9434 01:03 4687 01:33 4385 01:08
7111 01:05 6304 01:28 2769 01:09
9232 01:02 9394 01:27 1759 01:07
9050 01:05 4485 01:29 2062 01:11
7313 01:04 5899 01:28 1658 01:08
5046 01:05 6001 01:29 4284 01:10
2162 01:06 9637 01:24 1254 01:09
8727 01:53 5047 01:38 5395 01:06
2879 01:05 9738 01:32 1456 01:08
4045 01:04 4283 01:28 5800 01:10
6505 01:08 8627 01:37 1961 01:11
1051 01:08 4788 01:32 7416 01:08
1657 01:04 8223 01:33
8020 01:03 4384 01:28
7212 01:05 9435 01:27

GUJARAT TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY, AHMEDABAD 72


STUDY AREA AND DATA COLLECTION

9:05 2061 01:05 01:04 6506 01:29 01:30 3577 01:12 01:09
to 9131 01:04 1043 01:28 6204 01:09
9:10 8222 01:08 9031 01:37 2567 01:08
1354 01:08 5394 01:32 5597 01:09
7515 01:04 8930 01:33 8060 01:12
8828 01:03 4889 01:28 3072 01:08
3273 01:05 7049 01:27 7113 01:09
2667 01:02 6405 01:29 6507 01:10
8049 01:01 8728 01:28 3274 01:11
7010 01:04 7819 01:33 7820 01:12
9636 01:05 6607 01:30 6911 01:09
2970 01:04 9940 01:31 5901 01:08
3677 01:04 6708 01:31 6810 01:10
9535 01:03 6910 01:29 2668 01:12
596 01:02 9839 01:28 6103 01:09
263 01:04 5192 01:37 8527 01:08
163 01:08 4586 01:32 4890 01:09
2364 01:08 6809 01:33 2971 01:12
3172 01:04 8050 01:28 6406 01:08
8929 01:03 7011 01:27 4951 01:09
3980 01:29

Time L.P T.T Avg. T.T L.P LCV T.T Avg. T.T
Bus
9:00 to 3173 01:38 01:39 3562 01:18 01:17
9:05 7517 01:41 4635 01:16
3524 01:17
9:05 to 3852 01:15 01:15
9:10 2649 01:14

GUJARAT TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY, AHMEDABAD 73


STUDY AREA AND DATA COLLECTION

3456 01:18
2564 01:15

Table 4.32: Travel Time Calculation: Mota Varachcha to Nana Varachcha


Time L.P T.T Avg. L.P T.T Avg. L.P T.T Avg.
2w T.T 3w T.T 4w T.T
9:00 8553 01:05 01:06 8792 01:30 01:28 3049 01:10 01:09
to
9:05
922 01:04 3238 01:32 2565 01:12
1006 01:05 1420 01:32 6046 01:11
5964 01:06 9499 01:25 7682 01:10
2732 01:53 1016 01:26 8793 01:15
1217 01:05 1007 01:31 6369 01:10
735 01:04 1723 01:32 6268 01:09
3843 01:08 9601 01:28 2060 01:06
6873 01:08 8287 01:29 9399 01:08
1722 01:04 1925 01:24 5763 01:10
4146 01:03 2935 01:38 4656 01:08
1015 01:05 2008 01:32 5797 01:09
3439 01:02 4147 01:28 3043 01:07
5459 01:01 5011 01:25 5864 01:11
5661 01:04 9297 01:28 1656 01:08
2934 01:05 3137 01:27 5460 01:09
6065 01:04 8893 01:25 9501 01:08
1520 01:04 2228 01:29 2767 01:09
6671 01:03
1621 01:04
6011 01:05
6267 01:02

9:05 2631 01:04 01:03 8691 01:35 01:30 6167 01:11 01:09
to 1924 01:05 3541 01:21 5561 01:08
9:10 5257 01:02 4551 01:31 8894 01:09
9014 01:03 9803 01:29 7177 01:07
4449 01:04 7883 01:37 7076 01:08

GUJARAT TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY, AHMEDABAD 74


STUDY AREA AND DATA COLLECTION

6570 01:05 3844 01:32 5191 01:10


3136 01:02 9095 01:33 6470 01:07
2429 01:04 2733 01:28 9703 01:11
5762 01:02 4046 01:27 7278 01:12
4651 01:03 4349 01:29 6571 01:09
1116 01:02 6012 01:28 9096 01:08
2530 01:04 9196 01:33 7884 01:09
6166 01:05 2531 01:30 7480 01:12
3540 01:04 8014 01:31 5045 01:08
4853 01:02 8489 01:28 6066 01:09
7012 01:02 8186 01:30 2666 01:10
7176 01:05 5157 01:11
3035 01:04 6672 01:12
4752 01:03 7379 01:09
4009 01:02 1151 01:08
5156 01:02 4080 01:10
1419 01:04

Time L.P Bus T.T Avg. T.T L.P T.T Avg. T.T
LCV

9:00 to 9:05 9905 01:38 01:38 8013 01:14 01:14

4348 01:15
9:05 to 9:10 8288 01:12 01:11
2632 01:10

4.5.5 Speed calculation


Speed Calculation For Amroli Bridge for Both Direction
Bridge Length: 655.20 M

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Table 4.33: Speed Calculation: Katargam to Amroli


Time Veh. Type Avg. T T Speed(v) Avg. Speed
(kmph (kmph)
Morning 2w 2:26 16.15 15.37
3w 2:36 15.12
4w 2:32 15.51
Bus 2:42 14.56
LCV 2:32 15.51
Afternoon 2w 2:25 16.26 15.41 15.37
3w 2:35 15.21
4w 2:31 15.62
Bus 2:42 14.56
LCV 2:33 15.41
Evening 2w 2:24 16.38 15.33
3w 2:34 15.31
4w 2:32 15.51
Bus 2:44 14.38
LCV 2:33 15.41

Speed(v) =

= 16.15 kmph
Table 4.34: Speed Calculation: Amroli to Katargam
Time Veh. Type Avg. T T Speed Avg. Speed (kmph)
(kmph
Morning 2w 2:24 16.38 15.36
3w 2:35 15.21
4w 2:32 15.51
Bus 2:45 14.29
LCV 2:33 15.41
Afternoon 2w 2:24 16.38 15.43
3w 2:36 15.12
4w 2:32 15.51 15.40
Bus 2:41 14.65
LCV 2:32 15.51
Evening 2w 2:24 16.38 15.42
3w 2:36 15.12
4w 2:31 15.62
Bus 2:43 14.47
LCV 2:32 15.51

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STUDY AREA AND DATA COLLECTION

Speed Calculation For Sardar Patel Bridge for Both Direction


Table 4.35: Speed Calculation: Athwa Gate to Adajan
Time Veh. Type Avg. T T Speed Avg. Speed (kmph)
(kmph
Morning 2w 3:00 15.44 14.68
3w 3:10 14.63
4w 3:05 15.02
Bus 3:29 13.30
LCV 3:05 15.02
Afternoon 2w 3:00 15.44 14.71
3w 3:11 14.55
4w 3:05 15.02 14.67
Bus 3:22 13.76
LCV 3:08 14.78
Evening 2w 3:00 15.44 14.63
3w 3:11 14.55
4w 3:05 15.02
Bus 3:30 13.23
LCV 3:06 14.94

Table 4.36: Speed Calculation: Adajan to Athwa Gate


Time Veh. Type Avg. T T Speed Avg. Speed (kmph)
(kmph
Morning 2w 3:00 15.44 14.75
3w 3:10 14.63
4w 3:05 15.02
Bus 3:25 13.56
LCV 3:04 15.10
Afternoon 2w 3:00 15.44 14.66
3w 3:11 14.55
4w 3:06 14.94 14.68
Bus 3:24 13.62
LCV 3:08 14.78
Evening 2w 3:01 15.35 14.65
3w 3:09 14.70
4w 3:06 14.94
Bus 3:26 13.49
LCV 3:08 14.78

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STUDY AREA AND DATA COLLECTION

Speed Calculation For Savjibhai Korat Bridge for Both Direction


Table 4.37: Speed Calculation: Nana Varachcha To Mota Varachcha
Time Veh. Type Avg. T T Speed Avg. Speed (kmph)
(kmph
Morning 2w 1:07 29.26 26.91
3w 1:30 21.78
4w 1:08 28.83
Bus 1:39 29.26
LCV 1:17 25.46
Afternoon 2w 1:03 31.12 25.53
3w 1:29 22.02
4w 1:08 28.83 25.90
Bus 1:42 19.22
LCV 1:14 26.49
Evening 2w 1:04 30.63 25.27
3w 1:29 22.02
4w 1:08 28.83
Bus 1:41 19.41
LCV 1:17 25.46

Table 4.38: Speed Calculation: Mota Varachcha to Nana Varachcha


Time Veh. Type Avg. T T Speed Avg. Speed (kmph)
(kmph
Morning 2w 1:06 29.70 25.37
3w 1:28 22.27
4w 1:09 28.41
Bus 1:38 20.00
LCV 1:14 26.49
Afternoon 2w 1:04 30.63 25.38
3w 1:30 21.78
4w 1:09 28.41 25.25
Bus 1:40 19.60
LCV 1:14 26.49
Evening 2w 1:07 29.26 25.01
3w 1:29 22.02
4w 1:09 28.41
Bus 1:40 19.60
LCV 1:16 25.79

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4.5.6 V/C Ratio Calculation


V/C Ratio Calculation for Amroli Bridge for both Direction
For V/C Ratio calculation, The capacity is 5420 PCU/hr taken for Four-lane Divided (7.5 m)
from INDO-HCM-2018.
Table 4.39: V/C Ratio Calculation: Katargam to Amroli
Time PCU Veh/hr v/c Ratio Avg. V/C Ratio
Morning 5790 1.07
6024 1.11
6012 1.11
6030 1.11
6006 1.11
6024 1.11
Afternoon 5946 1.10 1.11
5940 1.10
5892 1.09
6072 1.12
6240 1.15
6156 1.14
Evening 6168 1.14
6462 1.19
6060 1.12
5898 1.09
5850 1.08
5784 1.07
Table 4.40: V/C Ratio Calculation: Amroli to Katargam
Time PCU Veh/hr v/c Ratio Avg. V/C
Ratio
Morning 7164 1.32
6612 1.22
7008 1.29
6588 1.22
6666 1.23
6888 1.27
Afternoon 5922 1.09
5664 1.05
5766 1.06
5754 1.06 1.14
5922 1.09
5724 1.06
Evening 5730 1.06
5892 1.09
6036 1.11

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STUDY AREA AND DATA COLLECTION

5982 1.10
6060 1.12
6006 1.11

V/C Ratio Calculation for Sardar Patel Bridge for both Direction
Table 4.41: V/C Ratio Calculation: Athwa Gate to Adajan
Time PCU Veh/hr v/c Ratio Avg. V/C
Ratio
Morning 5988 1.10
5802 1.07
5988 1.10
5820 1.07
6018 1.11
5946 1.10
Afternoon 5796 1.07
5784 1.07
5904 1.09 1.10
5964 1.10
6090 1.12
5868 1.08
Evening 5910 1.09
5922 1.09
5610 1.04
5706 1.05
5730 1.06
5880 1.08

Table 4.42: V/C Ratio Calculation: Adajan to Athwa Gate


Time PCU Veh/hr v/c Ratio Avg. V/C
Ratio
Morning 6126 1.13
6036 1.11
5748 1.06
6120 1.13
6006 1.11
5826 1.07
Afternoon 5838 1.08
5544 1.02
5634 1.04
5628 1.04 1.11
5742 1.06
5700 1.05
Evening 6024 1.11

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STUDY AREA AND DATA COLLECTION

6048 1.12
6102 1.13
6006 1.11
6264 1.16
6060 1.12

V/C Ratio Calculation for Sardar Patel Bridge for both Direction
Table 4.43: V/C Ratio Calculation: Nana Varachcha to Mota Varachcha
Time PCU Veh/hr v/c Ratio Avg. V/C
Ratio
Morning 4992 0.92
4794 0.88
4920 0.91
4854 0.90
5040 0.93
5034 0.93
Afternoon 5214 0.96
5274 0.97
5208 0.96
5136 0.95 0.96
5076 0.94
5220 0.96
Evening 5226 0.96
5274 0.97
5208 0.96
5124 0.95
5358 0.99
5214 0.96

Table 4.44: V/C Ratio Calculation: Mota Varachcha to Nana Varachcha


Time PCU Veh/hr v/c Ratio Avg. V/C Ratio

Morning 5040 0.93


4914 0.91
4974 0.92
5088 0.94
5100 0.94
5124 0.95
Afternoon 5112 0.94
5184 0.96
5268 0.97 0.96
5298 0.98
5436 1.00

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STUDY AREA AND DATA COLLECTION

5490 1.01
Evening 5292 0.98
5640 1.04
5340 0.99
5166 0.95
5244 0.97
5202 0.96

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RESULTS AND CONCLUSION

Chapter 5
Results and Conclusion
5.1Results
5.1.1Traffic Flow Count
The results of Traffic flow count of all selected River Bridges are shown in below table 5.1.
Table 5.1: Results of Traffic Flow count
Bridge Name Direction PCU/hr

Amroli Bridge Katargam to Amroli 6013.5


Amroli to Katargam 6173.7
Sardar Patel Bridge Athwa Gate to Adajan 5959.4
Adajan to Athwa Gate 6092.1
Savjibhai Korat Nana Varachcha to Mot 5194
Bridge Varachcha
Mota Varachcha to 5229.7
Nana Varachcha

5.1.2 Spot- Speed and Density


The results of Spot- speed and Density of vehicles on all selected River Bridges are shown in
below table 5.2.
Table 5.2: Results of Spot- Speed and Density
Bridge Name Direction Avg. Spot- Avg. Density
Speed (v) PCU/km (k)
kmph
Amroli Bridge Katargam to Amroli 14.74 406.55
Amroli to Katargam 14.70 420.55
Sardar Patel Bridge Athwa Gate to Adajan 15.01 395.55
Adajan to Athwa Gate 14.96 396.81
Savjibhai Korat Nana Varachcha to 17.48 295.34
Bridge Mot Varachcha
Mota Varachcha to 17.48 300.24
Nana Varachcha

5.1.3 Travel Time of Different Vehicles


The results of Travel Time of Different vehicles on all selected River Bridges are shown in
below table 5.3.

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RESULTS AND CONCLUSION

Table 5.3: Results of Travel Time of Different Vehicles


Bridge Name Direction Veh. Type Avg. T.T(min)
Amroli Bridge Katargam to Amroli 2w 02:25
3w 02:35
Car 02:32
Bus 02:42
LCV 02:33
Amroli to Katargam 2w 02:24
3w 02:36
Car 02:32
Bus 02:43
LCV 02:32
Sardar Patel Bridge Athwa Gate to 2w 03:00
Adajan 3w 03:11
Car 03:05
Bus 03:25
LCV 03:06
Adajan to Athwa 2w 03:00
Gate 3w 03:10
Car 03:06
Bus 03:25
LCV 03:06
Savjibhai Korat Nana Varachcha to 2w 01:04
Bridge Mota Varachcha 3w 01:29
Car 01:08

Bus 01:40
LCV 01:15
Mota Varachcha to 2w 01:05
Nana Varachcha 3w 01:29
Car 01:09
Bus 01:39
LCV 01:15

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RESULTS AND CONCLUSION

5.1.4 Spot–speed and Speed Comparison


Table 5.4: Comparison of Spot-speed and Speed
Bridge Name Direction Avg. Spot- Speed Avg. Speed
(kmph) (kmph)
Amroli Bridge Katargam to Amroli 14.73 15.37
Amroli to Katargam 14.70 15.40
Sardar Patel Bridge Athwa Gate to Adajan 15.01 14.67
Adajan to Athwa Gate 14.95 14.68
Savjibhai Korat Nana Varachcha to Mot 17.48 25.90
Bridge Varachcha
Mota Varachcha to 17.47 25.25
Nana Varachcha

Table 5.5: LoS of Urban road based on Stream Speed, V/C Ratio and FFS
Level of Range of Average V/C Ratio (Volume/ Percentage of
Service(L.O.S) Stream Speed Capacity Ratio) Free flow Speed
LoS A > 64 < 0.15 > 84
LoS B 64-58 0.15-0.45 84-76
LoS C 58-45 0.45-0.75 76-59
LoS D 45-31 0.75-0.85 59-41
LoS E 31-17 0.85-1.0 41-22
LoS F <17 >1 < 22
(Source: INDO-HCM-2018)
5.1.5 L.O.S Calculation from table 5.5.
The L.O.S of all selected River Bridges are shown in below table.
Table 5.6: L.O.S Calculation
Bridge Name Direction Avg. Speed (v) Avg. V/C L.O.S
kmph Ratio
Amroli Bridge Katargam to Amroli 15.37 1.11
Amroli to Katargam 15.40 1.14 F
Sardar Patel Bridge Athwa Gate to Adajan 14.67 1.10
Adajan to Athwa Gate 14.68 1.11 F
Savjibhai Korat Bridge Nana Varachcha to Mot 25.90 0.96
Varachcha
Mota Varachcha to 25.25 0.96 E
Nana Varachcha

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RESULTS AND CONCLUSION

5.2 Conclusion
As per the IRC criteria urban roads are design for L.O.S category C. But in this case,
observed L.O.S is found for Amroli Bridge and Sardar Bridge as category F and for Svajibhai
Korat Bridge, L.O.S is found as category E. So, to improve the level of service of selected
bridges certain remedial measures is required to be implemented.
5.2.1 Suggested Measures:
 Improvement of public transportation system
 Staggering working hours of public and private organisations
 Rescheduling of school timing
 Enforcement of traffic rules and Lane discipline
 Possibility of diversion of traffic to to alternate routes
 Expanding capacity of Existing bridge
 Construction of new bridge adjacent to existing bridge

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Photographs during Survey

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Annexure
Classified Traffic Volume Count
Time 2w 3w car Bus/Truck L.C.V N.M Total Veh/5min

Spot Speed Study


Time in Time in Sec Speed in
Sec 2w 3w car Bus LCV N.M kmph

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Travel Time
Time L.P T.T Avg. L.P T.T Avg. L.P T.T Avg.
2w T.T 3w T.T 4w T.T

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Speed
Time Veh. Type Avg. T T Speed(v) Avg. Speed
(kmph (kmph)

V/C Ratio
Time PCU Veh/hr v/c Ratio Avg. V/C
Ratio

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