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CLASSIFICATIONS OF FOLK DANCE D.

FORMATION
A. GEOGRAPHICAL ORIGIN 1. SQUARE OR QUADRILLE.
1. NATIONAL DANCES. - forms a square in their dancing.
- found throughout the islands with little or no Examples: Rigodon, Los Bailes de Ayer, etc.
modification. 2. LONG FORMATION.
Examples: Rigodon, Cariñosa, Jota, Balitaw, - forms two or more parallel lines.
Pandango Examples: Lulay, Sakuting
2. LOCAL DANCES. 3. SET.
- found in a specific locality. - consist of two or more pairs as a unit; with
Examples: Tinikling - Leyte, Maglalatik - partner facing each other or standing side
Biñan, Subli - Batangas, Esperanza - Nabua, by side.
Binaganbigat - Abra. Examples: Binadyong, Haplik, Kakawati, etc.
B. NATURE
1. OCCUPATIONAL DANCES.
- depict of a particular occupation, industry E. SPECIAL CLASSIFICATION
or human labor. 1. DANCES WITH SONGS
Examples: planting, harvesting. Pounding, Examples: Abaruray, Manang Biday, Lulay,
winnowing, pabirik mananguete, etc. Rogelia, Lawiswis Kawayan, etc.
2. RELIGIOUS / CEREMONIAL. 2. OLD BALLROOM DANCES
- associated with religion vows and Examples: Polka, Mazurka, Chotis, Valse, etc.
ceremonies. 3. DANCES WITH IMPLEMENTS
Examples: Dugsu, Sua-sua, Putong, Sta. Examples: Maglalatik, Sakuting, Jota
Clarang Pinong-pino. Moncadeña, Tinikling, Salakot, etc.
3. COMIC DANCES. 4. DANCES OF COMBINED RHYTHM
- depict funny movements intended for Examples: Surtido, Pantomina, Los Bailes de
entertainment. Ayer, etc.
Examples. Kimbo-kimbo, Makonggo, Kinotan
4. WEDDING DANCES. BASIC DANCE STEPS IN THE 2/4 TIME SIGNATUTE
- performed during wedding feast.
Examples: Panasahan, etc. DANCE Step Pattern Counting No. of
5. GAME DANCES STEP Measure
- done with play elements (dance mixers). CHANGE Step, Close, 1 and 2 1
Examples: Lubi-lubi, Pavo STEP Step
6. COURTSHIP DANCES. CROSS Cross Step, 1 and 2 1
- depict the art of courtship or dances with CHANGE Close, Step
love themes. STEP
Examples: hele-hele, Quire, Maramion, Tadek, ROCKING Cut and 1, 2 1
Daling-daling. STEP Raise, cut
7. FESTIVAL DANCES. and raise
- suitable for special occasions or for any
HEEL AND Heel in front, 1,2,1 and 1
social gathering.
TOE point toeand 2
Examples: Pandanggo, Habanera, Jota,
CHANGE step, close,
Surtido.
STEP step
8. WAR DANCE.
- show imaginary combat or duel among CHANGE Step, turn, 1 and 2 1
tribe member. STEP TURN close, step
Examples: Sagayan, Palu-palo, etc. CONTRA Leap, cross, 1 and 2 1
C. MOVEMENTS GANSA step, close
1. ACTIVE. BLEKING Heel place, 1, 2 1
- show fast energetic movements. close
Examples: Tinikling, Maglalatik, Sakuting, CLOSE STEP Step, close 1, 2 1
Polkabal, etc. BRUSH Step brush, 1, 2 1
2. MODERATE. STEP heel forward
Examples: Cariñosa, Tagala, Habanera,
STEP Step, swing 1, 2 1
Puripuri, etc.
SWING
3. SLOW.
CUT STEP Cut or 1, 2 1
Examples: Pasakat, Amorosa, Tiliday,
displace
Kundiman, etc
CROSS Step, cross 1, 2 1
4. SLOW AND FAST.
STEP step
Examples: Putritos, Ba-Ingles, Habanera,
Botoleña, Alcomfor, etc.
BASIC DANCE STEP IN ¾ TIME SIGNATURE body’s capabilities. Toe or pointe shoes, stilts, and
DANCE Step Pattern Counting No. of flying harnesses are a few of the artificial aids
STEP Measure employed by dancers.
MAZURKA Slide, cut, 1,2,3 1
hop The primary elements of dance include (1) the
REDOBA Slide, cut, 1,2,3, 1 use of space – floor patterns, the shapes of the
cut moving body, and designs in space made by the
STEP SWING Step R, 1,2,3, 1 limbs; (2) the use of time – tempo, the length of a
HOP swing L, hop dance, rhythmic variations, and the attitude toward
WALTZ STEP Step, close, 1,2,3 1 filing time, from taking one’s time to making quick
step stops and starts; (3) the use of the body’s weight –
WALTZ Step, raise, 1,2,3 1 overcoming gravity with heavy or limp movements, or
BALANCE down exerting the body’s weight against gravity with
SWAY Step, cross, 1,2,3 1 strength; and (4) the use of energy flow – tense,
BALANCE step, point restrained, or bound movements or freely flowing
WITH A motion.
POINT D. DANCE AND THE HUMAN MIND
Besides giving physical pleasure, dancing can
I. INTRODUCTION have psychological effects. Feelings and ideas can be
UNIT I – DANCE expressed and communicated; sharing rhythms and
A. MEANING movements can make a group feel unified. In some
DANCE is a rhythmic and expressively body societies, dancing often leads to trance or other altered
movements usually coordinated into a pattern and states of consciousness. These states can be interpreted
adapted to musical accompaniment. DANCE is as signaling possession by spirits, or they may be sought
perhaps the oldest of the arts, reflecting man’s age as a means to emotional release. A state of trance may
old need to communicate joy or grief by using the enable people to perform remarkable feats of strength,
most immediate instrument at his disposal- his body. endurance, or danger, such as dancing through hot coals.
Almost all important in the life of primitive man In some societies, shamans dance in trance in order to
were celebrated by dancing: birth, death, marriage, heal others physically or emotionally. The modern field of
war, a new leader, the healing of the sick, prayers for dance therapy developed as a means to help people
rain, sun, fertility, protection, and forgiveness were all express themselves and relate to others.
expressed through dancing.
DANCE STEPS are created from man’s basic E. DANCE AND SOCIETY
movements: walk, run, jump, hop skip, slide, leap, The physical and psychological effects of dance
turn, and sway. Combinations of these have become enable it to serve many functions. It may be a form of
traditional dance steps and have been used, often in worship, a means of honoring ancestors, a way of
a stylized manner, for folk and ethics dances, social propitiating the gods, or a method to effect magic.
or ballroom dances, ballet, and modern expressive Dancing is mentioned in the Bible, and until the Middle
dances. Ages it was often a part of worship services and religious
B. DANCE AND HUMAN CULTURE celebrations. Although the Christian church later
Dance can be art, ritual or recreation. It goes denounced dancing as immoral, it continued to be
beyond the functional purposes of the movements important in various Christian and non-Christian sects,
used in work or athletics in order to express among them the American Shakers and the Islamic
emotions, moods, or ideas; tell a story; serve whirling dervishes.
religious, political, economic, or social needs; or
simply be an experience that is pleasurable, exciting, Dance often occurs at rites of passage, or
or aesthetically valuable. ceremonies performed when an individual pass from one
C. DANCE AND THE HUMAN BODY role to another. Thus, birth, initiation graduation,
The body can perform such as actions as marriage, succession to political office, and death may be
rotating, bending, stretching, jumping and turning. By marked by dancing. Dance may also be a part of
varying these physical actions and using different courtship. In some societies, dances may be the only
dynamics, human beings can devise an infinite events at which young people of different sexes can
number of body movements. Out of the range of meet. In contemporary society, dances also provide
movements that the body is capable of performing, important occasions for young people to socialize. Work
every culture emphasizes certain features in its dance too may be in the form of dance. Rhythmic movements
styles. The ordinary potential of the body can be may make the work go more quickly and efficiently, as in
expanded in dance, usually through long periods of Japanese rice-planting dances. Dance is an art form in
specialized training. In ballet, for example, the dancer some cultures, and in the 20 th century some dances that
exercises to rotate, or turn out, the legs at the hips, originated as elaborate religious rituals or court
making it possible to lift the leg high in an arabesque. entertainments have been adapted to the theater.
In India, some dancers learn to choreograph their
eyeballs and eyebrows. Costuming can extend the
planting and harvesting, prosperous voyage, recovery from
sickness and healing the sick.
In places where life is easy, the dances are gay and
KINDS OF DANCE frolicsome. Dance in places where life is hard are sad, slow
Two main kinds of dance exist; dances for and even mournful.
PARTICIPATION, which do not need spectators; and dances Filipinos are also lovers of rituals as shown in
for PRESENTATION, which are designed for an audience. ceremonial dances during town fiestas, Christmas, Easter,
DANCES FOR PARTICIPATION include work dances, some Ash Wednesday. There were dances performed by the priests
forms of religious dance, and recreational dances such as folk and the priests in the thanksgiving for a plentiful harvest, a
dances and popular or social dances. To ensure that victorious battle, a prosperous voyage or recovery from
everyone in a community can take part in them, such dances sickness, to drive away evil spirits and in invoking their gods
often consist of repetitive step patterns that are easy to learn. and anitos.

PRESENTATIONAL DANCES are often performed in ORIGIN OF DANCE IN THE PHILIPPINES ACCORDING TO
royal courts, temples, or theaters; the dancers may be FILIPINO LEGEND
professionals, and the dance may be considered art. The According to Philippine legend, the first man and the
movements tend to be relatively difficult and require first woman went up to hill to make their first home. They
specialized training. begot many children and later became the ancestors of
diverse tribes.
SOME OF THE MORE IMPORTANT FEATURES OF THE Several beliefs became their way to life. When death
DANCE ARE: struck, when lighting flashed in the sky, and when thunder
a. RHYTHM – relatively fast or slow repetition and variation rumbled, the tribes were struck in fear. They thought the gods
of movements. were angry. To placate their deities, they offered sacrificial
b. DESIGN – arrangement of movements according to a rites by way of fire and smoke in the belief that the smoke
pattern. from the fires the kindled carried their invocation
c. DYNAMICS – variations in the force and intensity of heavenwards.
movement. When illness and pestilence befell the tribes, the
d. TECHNIQUE – degree of body control and mastery of people wailed and dance long into the night, so that the evil
basic steps and positions. spell might be broken. When the earth caked from drought,
e. GESTURES – especially hand movements. they performed a dance of propitiation so that the divine
entities might take pity on them and send rain to their parched
FOLK DANCE DEFINITION fields. And when the rain came and drenched the soil to
 The traditional recreational dance of and indigenous assure a bountiful harvest, these children of the god’s dances
society showing the cultural characteristics of a specific in the moonlight in joy and thanksgiving.
people at a given time and place. In the acts of imploring, conciliating and giving thanks
 Traditional, social expression through movements with to gods, the people of these islands created dance to live
rhythmic accompaniment which are characteristics of the forever in themselves, in their children and their children’s
community life of the people of different nationalities. children.
 The vivid intimate bond of customs, ideals, and traditions
of the past through which a multitude of national
characteristics in music, steps and costumes are The Philippine Folk dances are classified according to:
preserved.
 A dance developed spontaneously and naturally by 1. GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION
specific folk, usually handed down from generation to I.1 NATIONAL DANCES are traditional dances
generation and following a fixed basic pattern. throughout the Philippines with a common basic
THE PHILIPPINE FOLK DANCE movement or pattern but with slight variations.
Dance in the Philippines influences the diversity of Examples: Carinosa, Kuratsa, Balitaw, Rigodon,
our cultural beginnings and the drama of our everyday lives. It Pandanggo, Surtido
bends the exotic customs and culture of many countries and
races – Indonesian, Malay, Chinese, Indian, Spanish and I.2 LOCAL OR REGIONAL DANCES are dances found in
American. certain localities or regions only.
The Philippine archipelago had been inhabited by Examples: Alcamfor (Leyte), Maglalatik (San Pablo,
three different racial groups even before the coming of Laguna), Basulto (Pampanga)
Magellan in 1521. They were the Pygmies, Indonesians and
Malays. The Negritos and Proto-Malays were the 2. NATURE OF THE DANCES
descendants of the Pygmies. As early as those days, 2.1 OCCUPATIONAL DANCES are dances that depicts
dancing among the Negritos was mostly pantomimic, actions, characteristics, occupations, industries and
performed to depict the events of daily chores. phase of human labor.
Filipino possesses natural grace, an inborn love for Examples:
music and dance. Dancing was considered a religious activity Rice Festival – has the largest number of
among them. They danced for many occasions – birth, love, dances.
courtship, thanksgiving, wedding, war, victory, marriage,
Pagtatanim,Paggapas, Paggiik, Paglulugas,
Paghangin, Pagbabayo
Pabirik – depicts the different stages of gold
planning
Mananguete – tuba gatherer
2.2 RELIGIOUS OR CEREMONIAL DANCES are
performed in connection with religious vows,
practices and ceremonies. A religious dance may be UNIT II – FUNDAMENTAL POSITIONS OF ARMS AND
performed to drive away evil spirits, ask for favor to FEET
have a child, give thanks for having recovered from ARMS
sickness, favor granted and vows fulfilled.
Examples: Obando, Dugso, Sinurog
2.3 COURTSHIP DANCES are dances that depict love
making or with a love team.
Examples: Rogelia, Lulay, Hele Hele, Bago Quiere
2.4 WEDDING DANCES are performed by newlyweds,
by friends and relatives of the bride and the mother
of the groom.
Examples:  FIRST POSITION
Pantomina (bride and groom) Arms are raised forward in a circle in front of the chest with
Pandang-Pandang (bride and groom and friends fingertips of both hands about an inch apart
or relatives of each side)
2.5 FESTIVAL DANCES are performed in the connection
with the celebrations, a feast, a barrio fiesta and a
good fortune.
Examples: Kuratsa, La Jota, Putong
2.6 WAR DANCES are intended to show imaginary
combat or duel with the use of fighting implements like
bolo, kris or spear.  SECOND POSITION
Examples: Inabaknon, Sagayan The arms are placed sideways a little below shoulder level
2.7 COMIC DANCES are dances with funny and with palms facing up.
humorous movements mainly intended for
entertainment.
Examples:
Makonggo (movements of monkey)
Kinoton (imitates movements of person bitten by
ants)
2.8 GAME DANCES are dances that have some play
elements and are for recreational purposes.
Examples: Lubi-Lubi, Gayong-Gayong, Pabo  THIRD POSITION
2.9 SOCIAL DANCES are dances during social One arm is raised in a semi- circle slightly in front of the head
gatherings. (amplified position while the other arm remains as in second
Examples: Rigodon, Lanceros
position).
KEYS TO SYSTEM OF COUNTING
 Counting is the most practical way to describe a rhythmic
pattern. The note is the unit in musical rhythm showing in
the duration in which a tone or movement (in the case of
dancing) is taken.
 Rest is a character used to silence or pause (in cause of
dancing) for a certain time.
 Note and rest values refer to the musical notations
which give the exact duration values of the rhythmic  FOURTH POSITION
patterns. One arm is raised in amplified position, while other is as in
first position.
NOTE AND REST VALUES
 FIFTH POSITION
Bring the heel of one foot to touch the toe of the
other.
UNIT III - TERMS IN FOLK DANCE
1. ARMS IN LATERAL POSITION
– both arms are on the sides, either left or right; at
shoulder, chest or waist level.
 FIFTH POSITION 2. BRUSH
– weight on the floor hits the floor with the ball or
Both arms re raised to form a circle over and slightly in front
heel of the other foot. One foot carries the weigh
of the head (amplified position) when the other foot slightly hits the floor.
FEET 3. CABECERAS
– the people occupying the width of the hall when the
dancers are in square formation.
4. CLOCKWISE
– movement like motion of the hands of the clock,
R shoulder toward the center of an imaginary circle.
When facing center, movement is toward left.
5. COUNTER CLOCKWISE
 FIRST POSITION
– the reverse direction of clockwise, L shoulder
The feet positon is executed with the heels and toes a part of
toward center.
an angle of about 90 degrees
6. COSTADOS
– the couple occupying the length of the hall when
side joins their L hands with their R hands together;
either R over L or L over R.
7. CROSSED ARMS
– partners facing each other or standing side by side
join their L hands with their R hands together; either
facing R over L or L over hands.
 SECOND POSITION
8. CUT
The feet position is performed with feet sideward about a
– to display quickly one foot with each other.
pace apart with heels parallel each other.
9. DO-SI-DO (DOS-A-DOS)
– partners advance forward, pass each other’s right
(or left) side across to the right (or left), move
backward without turning around, then pass each
other’s left (or right) side back to other places.
10. FREE FOOT
– the foot not bearing the weight of the body.
11. FREE HAND
– hand not places anywhere or not doing anything.
 THIRD POSITION 12. “HAYON–HAYON”
Bring the heel of one foot to touch the instep of the – to place forearm in front while the other is ate the
other foot. back of the waist.
13. HOP
– a spring from one foot landing on the same foot in
place or in any direction.
14. INSIDE FOOT
– the foot nearer the partner when the partners stand
side by side.
15. “JALAO”
– partners turn around clockwise (with L elbows
 FOURTH POSITION touching), using, walking, or any kind of dance step.
Bring one foot in front of the other to walk strike.
16. JUMP
– a spring on one foot or both feet landing in booth
feet any direction.
17. “KUMINTANG”
– moving the hand from the wrist either in a clockwise
or counter clockwise position.
18. LEAP
– a spring in one foot landing on the other foot in any
direction.
19. OUTSIDE FOOT
– the foot away from one’s partner when partners
stand side by side.
20. OUTSIDE HAND
– the hand away from one’s partner when partners
stand side by stand.
21. PLACE
– a foot in any position without putting weight on it;
the sole of the foot rests on the floor.
22. PIVOT
– to turn with the ball, heel or whole foot, on a fixed
place or point.
23. POINT
– to touch the floor with the toes of one foot, with the
ball on the floor and the weight of the body on the
other foot.
24. SALOK
– swinging the arm downward-upward passing in the
front of the body as if scooping, the trunk bent
forward following the movement of the arm doing the
“salok”.
25. SALUDO
– partners with feet together bow to each other, or to
the audience, or to the opposite dancers, or to the
neighbors.
26. SAROK
– cross the R (or L) foot in the front of the L (or R)
bend the body slightly forward and across the hands
down in front with the R (or L) hand over L (or R).
27. SET
– a dance formation like a square or a unit formation
composed of two or more pairs.
28. SLIDE
– to guide smoothly among the floor.
29. STAMP
– to bring the foot forcibly and noisily on the floor.
30. STEP
– to advance or recede by moving one foot to another
resting place with a complete transfer of weight from
one foot to another foot.
31. SUPPORTING FOOT
– the foot that bears the weight of the body.
32. TAP
– to tap slightly with the ball or toe of the free foot,
keeping weight of the body on the other foot. There is
no transfer of weight.
33. WHIRL
– to make fast turn executing small steps in place to
the right or to the left.