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Natural Ventilation

A properly designed natural ventilation system allows fresh outside air to enter a
large space through low-level inlet ventilators. As warm air rises, it exits through
high-level ventilators at the top of the space. The large difference in height between
the entry of fresh air and the exit of warm air through the atrium creates a buoyancy
effect that draws air through the building. The upward airflow and circulation
creates a cooler, more comfortable indoor environment and an ideal path for
smoke extraction. Natural ventilation systems feature electric actuators and
sophisticated controls, so this entire process is easily integrated into any building
management system for climate control or fire protection.

Figure 1.Shillong House Eco Makeover

There are many benefits to a natural ventilation system, which include:

 Lower building construction costs. Typically, naturally ventilated

structures cost about 10 to 15 percent less to build than those with air
 Lower building operating costs. Naturally ventilated buildings are
generally less expensive to run than those with air conditioning. This can be
attributed to a significant reduction in energy consumption, as well as lower
maintenance costs due to the reduced complexity of natural ventilation
 Increased health and productivity. Surveys have shown that people
prefer a work environment that has fresh air and natural daylight.
Employees feel better and are more alert and productive in a naturally
ventilated and climate controlled environment. Natural ventilation reduces
the expense of mechanical climate control — including the need for
additional electrical power— cuts the emissions of CO2 and other
environmentally harmful elements and supports the goals of Architecture
 Better long-term investment. Buildings constructed according to
environmentally sensitive principles are good long-term investments as
environmental controls, legislation, and industry initiatives are likely to
increase in the future.
 Life safety. Natural ventilation products provide passive smoke ventilation
to improve air quality and visibility during an emergency. Proper ventilation
allows occupants to get out safely and firefighters to get in quickly to do their

Natural ventilation systems are ideal for the atrium of any retail, corporate, or
institutional building, or other large enclosed common area. Not only is smoke
control mandatory in these situations, but the NFPA 92B fire protection standard
also recognizes natural ventilation as a viable alternative for smoke control in large
areas such as these.

The use of natural ventilation vividly demonstrates a commitment to green

practices, reduced mechanical reliance and the creation of a more natural,
environmentally friendly occupant experience. Buildings that incorporate natural
ventilation can significantly reduce the demand for and costs associated with
mechanical air handling equipment, an important consideration in meeting
Architecture 2030 goals.

Shading Device

Solar radiation adjustment which entered into building is a major step in

passively cooling process to get thermal comfort condition. Sunlight modulation in
setting process can be achieved with regard: Orientation and aperture geometry;
Shading devices; Property of opaque and transparent surfaces.

A strategy in passive design of building envelope which can be applied in

order to reduce the external heat gain in buildings is shadow elements usage.
Shadow elements are many variations. Principally, external shading element
divided into horizontal type (overhang), vertical (side fin), and an egg crate. Despite
having different characteristics, the core of shadow elements usage is to minimize
the angle of solar radiation that hits the glass field.

Orientation and aperture are closely related aspects in controlling the

thermal comfort of the building. Building with sunlight radiation high levels requires
needs aperture and orientation. Instead of building with sunlight radiation low
levels requires needs to avoid aperture and direct sun orientation. By arranging
the shape and orientation towards direct solar radiation can be adjusted in
accordance with the position of the equator location. Shading devices usage is the
next step after controlling the orientation and aperture. If the orientation and
aperture cannot be tolerated because of design needs, then the shading devices
are very important elements. Shading devices can be designed in accordance with
the position and direction of solar radiation arrival so that aperture can be shielded
from direct radiation.

According to, there are two classifications of shading devices namely fixed
shading elements and adjustable/retractable shading elements. Fixed shading
devices categories are external form position, overhangs, vertical fins, horizontal
and vertical combinations (egg-crate type), and balcony. Among other internal
position are light-shelves form and louvre above the window. While adjustable
shading elements categories are element external position, tents, awning, blinds,
pergola, and the internal ones such as curtains, rollers and venetian blinds. There
are external factors of the building that can serve as shading devices, namely
vegetation around buildings. Vegetation near a window can provide shading effect
and reduce sunlight’s direct radiation
Figure.2. Direct and Indirect Solar Radiation Figure. 3. Shadowing area by overhang and side fin

Shading device is able to block direct solar radiation and reduce the influence
of indirect illumination that is the sky reflection and the ground level. The position
of the sun determines the sunlight’s angle of incidence on the glass surface
(penetration).When the sunlight's angle of incidence equals the angle of the
shadow which formed shading device that direct sunlight can be driven effectively.
Therefore, sunlight’s position and the depth of shading device becomes a very
important factor.
According to, shading devices divided into two types based on application,
internal shading and external shading.
• Internal shading is interior element on inside windows. Internal shading
devices generally can adjustable. Thus shading can be blinds, curtains
and others.
• External shading is the shading element which is placed on building
external. External shading devices can reduced thermal energy
effectively to anticipate and reduced radiation before glass surfaces.
External shading devices divided into 2 types, Fixed Devices and Adjustable
• Adjustable Devices generally used indoor or outdoor or between inside
and outside of windows (double glazing system) and generally used in
internal shading systems.
• Fixed Devices generally used outdoor and influence façade building.
Building orientation was the point.

Some of shading devices were generally used is explained on Table 1

Table 1. External Shading Devices
3D-View Best

Overhang south, west,


south, west,
Louver s
south, west,

south, west,
Overhang east

Vertical Fin

west, east,
west and

west and east


Wind Towers

A wind catcher is an architectural device used for many centuries to create natural
ventilation in buildings. The function of this tower is to catch cooler breeze that
prevail at a higher level above the ground and to direct it into the interior of the
buildings. It is not known who first invented the wind catcher, although some claim
it originated in Iran and it can be seen in. Wind catchers come in various designs,
such as the uni-directional, bi-directional, and multi-directional. Examples of wind
catchers can be found in traditional Persian influenced architecture throughout the
Middle East, Pakistan and Afghanistan. Central Iran has a very large day-night
temperature difference, ranging from cool to extremely hot, and the air tends to be
very dry all day long. Most buildings are constructed of very thick ceramics with
extremely high insulation values. Furthermore, towns centered on desert oases
tend to be packed very closely together with high walls and ceilings relative to
Western architecture, maximizing shade at ground level. The heat of direct sunlight
is minimized with small windows that do not face the sun.
Fig. 4. “Al Barajeel" is a simple air- conditioner that originated in Iran

Courtyard Effect

 Due to incident solar radiation in a courtyard, the air gets warmer and rises.
 Cool air from the ground level flows through the louvered openings of rooms
surrounding a courtyard, thus producing air flow.
 At night, the warm roof surfaces get cooled by convection and radiation.
 If this heat exchange reduces roof surface temperature to wet bulb
temperature of air, condensation of atmospheric moisture occurs on the roof
and the gain due to condensation limits further cooling.

Figure. 5. Courtyard as a moderator of internal climate

 If the roof surfaces and sloped towards the internal courtyard, the cooled air
sinks into the court and enters the living space through low-level openings.
 However, care should be taken that the courtyard does not receive intense
solar radiation, which would lead to conduction and radiation heat gains into
the building.
Figure. 6. Passive Cooling Techniques

Earth Air Tunnels

Although, this technique is essentially used for cooling the air in Hot and dry
climates, it can also be used for winter heating. Earth- air tunnels may be
considered as special types of wind towers connected to an underground tunnel.
The cooling process is based on the fact that the temperature a few meters below
the ground is almost constant throughout the year. A wind tower is connected to
the underground tunnel, which runs from the bottom of the wind tower to the
basement of the building. The wind tower catches the wind which is forced down
the tower into the tunnel. The temperature of the tunnel, being lower than that of
the ambient temperature, cools the air before it is circulated into the living space.
In winter, the temperature of the air tunnel is higher than the ambient temperature
and hence warms the air passing through it.

Figure. 7. Earth air tunnels

Sensible cooling can be aided by evaporative cooling. To reduce the underground

temperature, the ground can be shaded using vegetation and can be wetted by
sprinkling water. This water seeps through and dampens the tunnel walls.
Consequently, air from the tunnel is evaporative cooled as it passes through the
tunnel. Another variation possible is to use buried pipes instead in place of tunnel.

Evaporative Cooling

Evaporative cooling is a process that uses the effect of evaporation as a natural

heat sink. Sensible heat from the air is absorbed to be used as latent heat
necessary to evaporate water. The amount of sensible heat absorbed depends on
the amount of water that can be evaporated.

Evaporative cooling can be direct or indirect; passive or hybrid. In direct

evaporative cooling, the water content of the cooled air increases because air is in
contact with the evaporated water. In indirect evaporative cooling, evaporation
occurs inside a heat exchanger and the water content of the cooled air remains
unchanged. Since high evaporation rates might increase relative humidity and
create discomfort, direct evaporative cooling can be applied only in places where
relative humidity is very low.

Where evaporation occurs naturally it is called passive evaporation. A space can

be cooled by passive evaporation where there are surfaces of still or flowing water,
such as basins or fountains. Where evaporation has to be controlled by means of
some mechanical device, the system is called a hybrid evaporative system.
Figure 8.

Evaporative cooling is based on the thermodynamics of evaporation of water, i.e.

the change of the liquid phase of water into water vapor. This phase change
requires energy, which is called latent heat of evaporation- this is the energy
required to change a substance from liquid phase to the gaseous one without
temperature change. When non- saturated air (i.e. air that does not contain liquid
water but only water vapor) comes in direct contact with water evaporation occurs.
It is obvious that during this process the moisture content of air is increased. This
process is represented on the psychometric chart by a displacement along a
constant wet bulb line, AB. The air to be cooled is initially at point A. The air, as a
result of the direct evaporative cooling process, reaches point B. This is a constant
wet bulb temperature process and therefore line AB is parallel to the wet bulb
temperature lines.

When evaporation occurs in the primary circuit of a heat exchanger, while the air
to be cooled circulates in the secondary circuit, the air temperature decreases but
its humidity ratio remains constant. It must be noted that since the air temperature
drops, its relative humidity will increase, but less than during the direct evaporative
cooling process. Since the humidity ratio of the air does not change, this process
is represented on the psychometric chart by a displacement along a constant
humidity ratio line CD. In this figure, the air to be cooled, initially at point C is
sensibly cooled by the indirect evaporative cooler until it reaches point B.

Figure 9. Direct evaporative cooling

Figure. 9. Indirect evaporative cooling

Advantages and problems of direct and indirect evaporative cooling

Evaporative cooling uses large volumes or air. Forcing this volume of air through
small ducts, around sharp corners, and out of small outlets, involves ducting costs.
In some cases the best duct system is none. Just blow the air into a large daytime
occupancy rooms.

If not properly designed direct type evaporative coolers may pose the following

 The cooled air may be excessively humid.

 The high rate of air flow and large number of air changes, which are
necessary for effective cooling, cause large variation in the air speed and
the associated thermal sensation within the cooled space. This results in a
waste of energy, which has been used to cool the discharged air.

Indirect type evaporative coolers try to overcome these defects. Since the air in
these types of coolers gets cooled without coming in direct contact with water, the
problem of excessive humidity in the room air gets automatically solved.
Simultaneously the required number of air changes also gets reduced.

The important advantages of the indirect type evaporative cooling are as follows:

 Depending upon the performance of the system used, the operating cost
gets reduced by 20% - 60% below that of refrigerant air conditioning. Of
course, the temperature achieved by evaporative cooling is higher and
varying unlike air conditioned system.
 Power consumption is less resulting in a sharp reduction in the running
costs. Because of this reason, the indirect evaporative coolers can also be
used where electricity is expensive or scarce.
 It can be used as a pre-cooler for refrigerant air conditioning systems.
 In this type of cooling, the exhaust room air can be delivered to the cooling
tower as a result of which the lower water temperature is obtained. This in
turn, produces more cooling.