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COMMUNICATIONCOMMUNICATION SYSTEMSYSTEM

COMMUNICATIONCOMMUNICATION :: ItIt isis aa processprocess ofof transmittingtransmitting informationinformation oror
COMMUNICATIONCOMMUNICATION ::
ItIt isis aa processprocess ofof transmittingtransmitting informationinformation
oror signalsignal fromfrom oneone pointpoint knownknown asas sourcesource
toto anotheranother pointpoint knownknown asas destination.destination.
InformationInformation cancan bebe continuouscontinuous suchsuch asas
music,music, picturepicture etc.etc. oror discretediscrete signalssignals likelike
datadata fromfrom computercomputer etc.etc.
BLOCKBLOCK DIAGRAMDIAGRAM OFOF AA COMMUNICATIONCOMMUNICATION SYSTEM:SYSTEM: II II NN NN FF FF OO OO RR
BLOCKBLOCK DIAGRAMDIAGRAM OFOF AA COMMUNICATIONCOMMUNICATION SYSTEM:SYSTEM:
II
II
NN
NN
FF
FF
OO
OO
RR
RR
MM
INPUT
TX
TX
RX
OUTPUT
MM
AA
transducer
transducer
CHANNEL
AA
TT
TT
II
II
OO
Noise
OO
NN
NN
AsAs shownshown inin thethe figurefigure above,above, thethe firstfirst blockblock atat thethe sourcesource isis anan
AsAs shownshown inin thethe figurefigure above,above, thethe firstfirst blockblock atat
thethe sourcesource isis anan inputinput transducertransducer whichwhich isis usedused
toto convertconvert physicalphysical quantityquantity (non(non electrical)electrical) toto
electricalelectrical quantity.quantity. ForFor exampleexample voicevoice isis
convertedconverted toto electricalelectrical quantityquantity usingusing
microphone.microphone. SimilarlySimilarly atat thethe destinationdestination outputoutput
transducertransducer isis usedused toto convertconvert electricalelectrical backback toto
physicalphysical quantity.quantity. ForFor exampleexample aa loudspeakerloudspeaker isis
usedused toto convertconvert voicevoice signalsignal inin thethe formform ofof
electricalelectrical backback toto physicalphysical quantity.quantity.
ThereThere areare basicallybasically threethree essentialessential blocksblocks inin aa communicationcommunication
ThereThere areare basicallybasically threethree essentialessential blocksblocks inin aa
communicationcommunication system.system.
TransmitterTransmitter (TX)(TX)
TransmissionTransmission ChannelChannel
ReceiverReceiver (RX)(RX)
TransmitterTransmitter :: TheThe outputoutput signalsignal ofof thethe transducertransducer isis aa complexcomplex
TransmitterTransmitter ::
TheThe outputoutput signalsignal ofof thethe transducertransducer isis aa complexcomplex
signal.signal. ItIt isis restrictedrestricted toto desireddesired rangerange ofof
frequencies.frequencies. OnOn thisthis signalsignal modulationmodulation isis
performed.performed. ModulationModulation isis aa processprocess ofof alteringaltering
thethe characteristicscharacteristics ofof carriercarrier signalsignal inin accordanceaccordance
withwith thethe information.information. ThereThere areare basicallybasically threethree
typestypes ofof modulationmodulation techniquetechnique
AmplitudeAmplitude modulation.modulation.
FrequencyFrequency modulation.modulation.
PhasePhase modulation.modulation.
TransmissionTransmission channel:channel: ItIt isis aa mediummedium overover whichwhich thethe electronicelectronic
TransmissionTransmission channel:channel:
ItIt isis aa mediummedium overover whichwhich thethe electronicelectronic signalsignal isis transmitttransmitteded fromfrom
oneone pointpoint toto another.another. ThisThis mediummedium cancan bebe eithereither wiredwired oror wireleswireless.s.
AnAn exampleexample forfor wiredwired communicatiocommunicationn isis telephonytelephony wherewhere aa pairpair ofof
physicalphysical wireswires isis runningrunning parallelparallel betweenbetween transmittertransmitter andand receireceiver.ver.
NowNow aa daysdays opticaloptical fibersfibers areare usedused inin betweenbetween transmittertransmitter andand
receiverreceiver inin whichwhich lightlight carriescarries thethe information.information. SimilarlySimilarly anan exexampleample
forfor wirelesswireless communicationcommunication isis radioradio communicationcommunication wherewhere twotwo
antennasantennas areare employed,employed, oneone atat thethe transmittertransmitter andand otherother atat thethe
receiver.receiver. TheThe transmittertransmitter anteantennanna transmitstransmits thethe modulatedmodulated
informationinformation intointo freefree spacespace andand thethe receiverreceiver antennaantenna pickspicks upup ththee
modulatedmodulated informationinformation whichwhich isis laterlater demodulateddemodulated toto getget thethe
informationinformation back.back.
TheThe modulatedmodulated signalsignal isis thenthen transmittedtransmitted overover aa transmissiontransmission
channel.channel.
Noise:Noise: ItIt isis aa random,random, undesirableundesirable electricalelectrical energyenergy thatthat
Noise:Noise:
ItIt isis aa random,random, undesirableundesirable electricalelectrical
energyenergy thatthat interferesinterferes withwith thethe transmittedtransmitted
signal.signal. ItIt cancan bebe eithereither naturalnatural noisenoise suchsuch
asas noisenoise causedcaused byby lightninglightning duringduring rainyrainy
seasonseason oror manman mademade noisenoise producedproduced byby
ignitionignition systemsystem ofof carscars etc.etc. NoiseNoise isis aa
seriousserious problemproblem whichwhich cannotcannot bebe
eliminatedeliminated butbut oneone cancan reducereduce thethe effecteffect
causedcaused byby itit onon thethe signal.signal.
Receiver:Receiver: ItIt isis aa collectioncollection ofof electronicelectronic circuitscircuits designeddesigned toto
Receiver:Receiver:
ItIt isis aa collectioncollection ofof electronicelectronic circuitscircuits
designeddesigned toto convertconvert thethe modulatedmodulated signalsignal
backback toto modulatingmodulating signal.signal. ThisThis processprocess isis
knownknown asas demodulation.demodulation. FinallyFinally anan outputoutput
transducertransducer isis employedemployed toto convertconvert backback
thethe informationinformation inin electricalelectrical formform toto
physicalphysical form.form.
MODULATION:MODULATION: ModulationModulation isis aa processprocess ofof alteringaltering thethe
MODULATION:MODULATION:
ModulationModulation isis aa processprocess ofof alteringaltering thethe
characteristicscharacteristics ofof carriercarrier signalsignal inin
accordanceaccordance withwith thethe informationinformation oror
modulatingmodulating signal.signal.
CarrierCarrier signal:signal: ItIt isis aa highhigh frequencyfrequency
signalsignal thatthat carriescarries thethe informationinformation
fromfrom transmittertransmitter toto receiver.receiver.
NeedNeed forfor modulation:modulation: TheThe heightheight ofof thethe antennaantenna requiredrequired toto
NeedNeed forfor modulation:modulation:
TheThe heightheight ofof thethe antennaantenna requiredrequired toto transmittransmit andand receivereceive radioradio waveswaves isis aa
functionfunction ofof wavelengthwavelength ofof thethe frequencyfrequency used.used. i.e.i.e.λλ == c/fc/f AtAt lowlow
frequency,frequency, λλ isis highhigh andand hencehence thethe heightheight ofof thethe antennaantenna shouldshould bebe moremore
toto transmittransmit thethe signalsignal (since(since ‘‘λλ’’ isis proportionalproportional toto ‘‘hh’’).). ThereforeTherefore highhigh
frequenciesfrequencies areare usedused toto transmittransmit thethe
ofof lesserlesser height.height.
informationinformation whichwhich requirerequiress antennaantenna
AtAt lowlow frequencyfrequency radiationradiation isis poorpoor andand signalsignal getsgets highlyhighly attenuattenuated.ated.
ThereforeTherefore
signalsignal cannotcannot bebe transmittedtransmitted overover longerlonger distance.distance. ModulationModulation
effectivelyeffectively increasesincreases thethe frequencyfrequency ofof thethe signalsignal toto bebe radiateradiatedd andand thusthus
increasesincreases thethe distancedistance overover whichwhich signalsignal cancan bebe transmittedtransmitted faitfaithfully.hfully.
TheThe modulationmodulation permitspermits multiplexingmultiplexing toto bebe used.used. MultiplexingMultiplexing isis methodmethod ofof
transmittingtransmitting twotwo oror moremore informationsinformations simultaneouslysimultaneously overover aa singlesingle channel.channel.
InIn thisthis methodmethod eacheach messagemessage signsignalal isis modulatedmodulated usingusing differentdifferent carriercarrier
signalsignal frequenciesfrequencies andand thenthen transmittedtransmitted overover aa singlesingle channel.channel. AAtt thethe
receiverreceiver thethe messagemessage signalssignals areare extractedextracted individuallyindividually byby tunintuningg toto theirtheir
respectiverespective carriercarrier frequencies.frequencies.
AMPLITUDEAMPLITUDE MODULATION:MODULATION: ItIt isis defineddefined asas aa processprocess ofof varyingvarying thethe
AMPLITUDEAMPLITUDE MODULATION:MODULATION:
ItIt isis defineddefined asas aa processprocess ofof varyingvarying thethe
amplitudeamplitude ofof thethe carriercarrier wavewave
proportionalproportional toto thethe instantaneousinstantaneous
amplitudeamplitude ofof modulatingmodulating signal.signal.
Modulating signal Carrier signal Modulated signal
Modulating signal
Carrier signal
Modulated signal
Modulating signal Carrier signal Modulated signal
Modulating signal
Carrier signal
Modulated signal
CARRIERCARRIER ANDAND MODULATINGMODULATING SIGNALSSIGNALS
CARRIERCARRIER ANDAND MODULATINGMODULATING SIGNALSSIGNALS
AMPLITUDEAMPLITUDE MODULATEDMODULATED SIGNALSIGNAL
AMPLITUDEAMPLITUDE MODULATEDMODULATED SIGNALSIGNAL
TimeTime domaindomain analysisanalysis LetLet thethe equationequation ofof carriercarrier signalsignal bebe c(tc(t)) ==
TimeTime domaindomain analysisanalysis
LetLet thethe equationequation ofof carriercarrier signalsignal bebe c(tc(t)) ==
cos(2cos(2ппfct)fct) wherewhere
isis thethe
AA cc
AA cc
peakpeak amplitudeamplitude ofof carriercarrier signalsignal andand fcfc isis thethe frequencyfrequency ofof thethe carriercarrier signal.signal.
LetLet thethe equationequation ofof modulatingmodulating signalsignal bebe m(tm(t)) ==
cos(2cos(2ппfmt)fmt) wherewhere
AA mm
AA mm
isis thethe peakpeak amplitudeamplitude ofof modulatimodulatingng signalsignal andand fmfm isis thethe frequenfrequencycy ofof thethe
modulatingmodulating signal.signal.
ThenThen byby thethe definitiondefinition ofof AM:AM:
VV AMAM (t)(t) == [A[A cc +A+A mm cos(2cos(2ппfmt)]cos(2fmt)]cos(2ппfct)fct)
== AA cc cos(2cos(2ппfct)fct) ++ (A(A mm /2)/2) cos(2cos(2ппfmt)fmt) cos(2cos(2ппfct)fct)
== AA cc cos(2cos(2ппfct)fct) ++ (mA(mA CC /2)/2) {cos[2{cos[2пп(fc(fc ++ fm)tfm)t]] ++ cos[2cos[2пп(fc(fc -- fm)tfm)t]] }}
WhereWhere ‘‘mm’’ isis thethe modulationmodulation indexindex ofof AMAM signalsignal whichwhich isis defineddefined asas
ratioratio ofof amplitudeamplitude ofof modulatingmodulating signalsignal toto thatthat ofof carriercarrier signal.signal.
SIGNIFICANCESIGNIFICANCE OFOF MODULATIONMODULATION INDEXINDEX TheThe significancesignificance ofof modulationmodulation
SIGNIFICANCESIGNIFICANCE OFOF MODULATIONMODULATION INDEXINDEX
TheThe significancesignificance ofof
modulationmodulation indexindex is,is, itit decidesdecides
thethe depthdepth ofof modulation.modulation. IfIf itit isis lessless thanthan one,one,
thenthen AMAM signalsignal isis knownknown asas underunder modulatedmodulated
signal.signal. IfIf itit isis moremore thanthan one,one, thenthen AMAM signalsignal isis
knownknown asas overover modulatedmodulated signal.signal. IfIf itit isis equalequal toto
oneone ,, thenthen AMAM signalsignal isis knownknown asas perfectperfect
modulatedmodulated signal.signal. ToTo obtainobtain thethe originaloriginal
information,information, modulationmodulation indexindex shouldshould alwaysalways bebe
lessless thanthan oror equalequal toto one.one.
SpectrumSpectrum ofof AMAM signal:signal: lVlV AMAM (( ff )l)l AA cc /2/2 mAmA cc /2/2
SpectrumSpectrum ofof AMAM signal:signal:
lVlV AMAM (( ff )l)l
AA cc /2/2
mAmA cc /2/2
mAmA cc /2/2
fcfc --fmfm
fcfc
fcfc ++ fmfm
ff (Hz)(Hz)
AsAs shownshown inin thethe figurefigure above,above, thethe spectrumspectrum consistedconsisted ofof threethree
AsAs shownshown inin thethe figurefigure above,above, thethe spectrumspectrum
consistedconsisted ofof threethree frequencyfrequency components,components, oneone
atat fcfc andand otherother twotwo atat ff cc ++ ff mm ,, ff cc -- ff mm
TheThe
frequenciesfrequencies ff cc ++ ff mm andand ff cc -- ff mm areare knownknown asas
sidebandsideband frequenciesfrequencies i.e.i.e. ff cc ++ ff mm isis knownknown asas
upperupper sidebandsideband frequencyfrequency andand ff cc -- ff mm isis knownknown asas
lowerlower sidebandsideband frequencyfrequency
TheThe separationseparation
betweenbetween thesethese twotwo frequenciesfrequencies isis defineddefined asas
bandwidthbandwidth ofof AMAM signal.signal. ThereforeTherefore thethe
bandwidthbandwidth ofof AMAM signalsignal isis 2f2f mm
TotalTotal powerpower requiredrequired toto transmittransmit AMAM signalsignal TheThe totaltotal powerpower
TotalTotal powerpower requiredrequired toto
transmittransmit AMAM signalsignal
TheThe totaltotal powerpower requiredrequired toto transmittransmit AMAM signalsignal (( PP TT )) isis sumsum ofof
powerpower
requiredrequired toto transmittransmit carriercarrier signalsignal (( PP CC )) andand powerpower requiredrequired toto
transmittransmit sideside bandband signalssignals (( PP TSBTSB ).).
ThereforeTherefore
PP TT == PP CC ++ PP TSBTSB
== PP CC ++ PP LSBLSB ++ PP USBUSB
== (A(A CC 22 /2R)/2R) ++ (m(m 22 AA CC 22 /8R/8R)) ++ (m(m 22 AA CC 22 /8R/8R))
==
{{ 11 +(+( mm 22 /2)/2) }}
PP CC
TheThe aboveabove equationequation givesgives thethe totaltotal powerpower requiredrequired toto transmittransmit AMAM
TheThe aboveabove equationequation givesgives thethe totaltotal powerpower
requiredrequired toto transmittransmit AMAM signalsignal inin termsterms ofof carriercarrier
powerpower andand modulationmodulation index.index.
ForFor 100%100% modulationmodulation :: mm == 1,1,
ThereforeTherefore
==
{{ 11 +(+( ½½)) }}
PP TT
PP CC
PP CC == 0.66660.6666 PP TT
OrOr PP CC == 66.66%P66.66%P TT
i.e.i.e. 66.66%66.66% ofof totaltotal powerpower isis wastedwasted inin
transmittingtransmitting carriercarrier signal.signal.
CurrentCurrent calculation:calculation: == PP CC {{ 11 ++ (m(m 22 /2)/2) }} PP TT II
CurrentCurrent calculation:calculation:
== PP CC
{{ 11 ++ (m(m 22 /2)/2) }}
PP TT
II TT 22 RR ==
II CC 22 RR {{ 11 ++ (m(m 22 /2)/2) }}
II CC {{ 11 ++ (m(m 22 /2)/2) }} 0.50.5
II TT ==
wherewhere ‘‘II TT ’’ isis thethe currentcurrent withwith modulationmodulation ,, ‘‘II CC ’’ isis
thethe currentcurrent withoutwithout modulationmodulation andand RR isis thethe
resistanceresistance ofof thethe antenna.antenna.
ModulationModulation byby severalseveral sinesine waveswaves InIn modulationmodulation byby severalseveral sinesine
ModulationModulation byby severalseveral
sinesine waveswaves
InIn modulationmodulation byby severalseveral sinesine waves,waves, modulatingmodulating
signalsignal consistsconsists ofof severalseveral sinesine waveswaves i.e.i.e.
m(tm(t)) == AA m1m1 cos(2cos(2ппff m1m1 t)t) ++ AA m2m2 cos(2cos(2ппff m2m2 t)t) ++
ForFor modulationmodulation byby severalseveral sinesine waveswaves overalloverall
modulationmodulation indexindex willwill bebe
mm tt == {(A{(A m1m1 22 ++ AA m2m2 22 ++ …… )/A )/A
cc 22 }} 0.50.5
== (m(m 11 22 ++ mm 22 22 ++………….).) 0.50.5
ThereforeTherefore TotalTotal powerpower willwill be:be: P T = { 1 + (m t 2 /2)
ThereforeTherefore TotalTotal powerpower willwill be:be:
P T =
{ 1 + (m t 2 /2) }
P C
SimilarlySimilarly currentcurrent withwith modulationmodulation willwill
be:be:
I T = I C
{ [ 1 + (m t 2 /2) ] 0.5 }
Problems:Problems: 1.1. AnAn audioaudio signalsignal 10sin10sin (2(2пп1000t)1000t) amplitudeamplitude
Problems:Problems:
1.1.
AnAn audioaudio signalsignal 10sin10sin (2(2пп1000t)1000t) amplitudeamplitude
modulatesmodulates aa carriercarrier ofof 40sin40sin (2(2пп2000t)2000t) FindFind
ModulationModulation indexindex
SidebandSideband frequenciesfrequencies
Bandwidth.Bandwidth.
TotalTotal powerpower delivereddelivered ifif RR LL == 1K1KΩΩ
AmplitudeAmplitude ofof eacheach sideside bandband componentscomponents
Solution:Solution: i)i) ModulationModulation index:index: mm ==0.25.0.25. ii)ii) SidebandSideband frequenciesfrequencies
Solution:Solution:
i)i) ModulationModulation index:index: mm ==0.25.0.25.
ii)ii) SidebandSideband frequenciesfrequencies ::
UpperUpper sideside bandband == fCfC ++ fmfm == 300Hz.300Hz.
LowerLower sideside bandband == fCfC -- fmfm == 1000Hz.1000Hz.
iii)iii) BandwidthBandwidth == 2fm2fm == 2KHz.2KHz.
iv)iv) TotalTotal powerpower delivered:delivered:
PP TT == {{ 11 ++ (0.25(0.25 22 )/2})/2}
== 1.031251.03125
v)v) AmplitudeAmplitude ofof eacheach sidebandsideband == mAmA cc /2=5V/2=5V
2.2. TheThe antennaantenna currentcurrent ofof anan AMAM transmittertransmitter isis 8A8A whenwhen onlyonly
2.2. TheThe antennaantenna currentcurrent ofof anan AMAM transmittertransmitter isis 8A8A
whenwhen onlyonly carriercarrier isis transmitted,transmitted, butbut
increasesincreases
toto 8.93A8.93A whenwhen carriercarrier isis modulatedmodulated byby aa singlesingle
sinesine wave.wave. FindFind thethe percentagepercentage modulation.modulation.
DetermineDetermine thethe antennaantenna currentcurrent whenwhen thethe depthdepth ofof
modulationmodulation changeschanges toto 0.8A.0.8A.
Solution:Solution:
i)i) GivenGiven :: II TT == 8.93A.8.93A.
II CC == 8A.8A.
{{ 1+1+ mm 22 /2}/2}
II TT == II CC
mm == 0.7010.701 =70.1%.=70.1%.
ii)ii) II TT == ?,?, whenwhen mm == 0.80.8 II TT == 88 {1+(.7){1+(.7) 22
ii)ii)
II TT == ?,?, whenwhen mm == 0.80.8
II TT == 88 {1+(.7){1+(.7) 22 /2/2 }} == 9.19A9.19A
EXERCISE:EXERCISE:
1.1. AA certaincertain transmittertransmitter radiatesradiates 9KW9KW withwith
carriercarrier unmodulatedunmodulated andand 10.125KW10.125KW whenwhen
carriercarrier isis sinusoidallysinusoidally modulated.modulated. CalculateCalculate
modulationmodulation index.index. IfIf anotheranother sinesine wavewave
correspondingcorresponding toto 40%40% modulationmodulation isis
transmittedtransmitted simultaneously,simultaneously, determinedetermine thethe
totaltotal powerpower radiated.radiated.
FREQUENCYFREQUENCY MODULATIONMODULATION ItIt isis defineddefined asas aa processprocess ofof alteringaltering thethe
FREQUENCYFREQUENCY MODULATIONMODULATION
ItIt isis defineddefined asas aa processprocess ofof alteringaltering thethe
frequencyfrequency ofof thethe carriercarrier signalsignal w.r.t.w.r.t.
instantaneousinstantaneous amplitudeamplitude ofof modulatingmodulating
signal.signal.
CARRIERCARRIER ANDAND MODULATINGMODULATING SIGNALSSIGNALS
CARRIERCARRIER ANDAND MODULATINGMODULATING SIGNALSSIGNALS
FREQUENCYFREQUENCY MODULATEDMODULATED SIGNALSIGNAL
FREQUENCYFREQUENCY MODULATEDMODULATED SIGNALSIGNAL
TimeTime domaindomain analysis:analysis: FromFrom thethe definition:definition: ff FMFM == ff CC ++ KK ff m(t)m(t)
TimeTime domaindomain analysis:analysis:
FromFrom thethe definition:definition:
ff FMFM == ff CC ++ KK ff m(t)m(t)
WhereWhere KK ff isis knownknown asas frequencyfrequency sensitivity.sensitivity.
ff FMFM == ff CC ++ KK ff AA mm cos(2cos(2ΠΠff mm t)t)
== ff CC ++ ∆∆ff cos(2cos(2ΠΠff mm t)t)
wherewhere ∆∆ff isis knownknown asas frequencyfrequency deviation.deviation. ItsIts
signifiessignifies ,, byby howhow muchmuch amountamount carriercarrier frequencyfrequency
getsgets deviated.deviated.
MultiplyingMultiplying byby 22ΠΠ onon bothboth sidessides :: 22ΠΠff FMFM == 22ΠΠff CC ++ 22Π∆Π∆ff
MultiplyingMultiplying byby 22ΠΠ onon bothboth sidessides ::
22ΠΠff FMFM == 22ΠΠff CC ++ 22Π∆Π∆ff cos(2cos(2ΠΠff mm t)t)
∆∆WW FMFM == ∆∆WW CC ++ ∆∆Wcos(2Wcos(2ΠΠff mm t)t)
WW FMFM =d=dθθ((t)/dtt)/dt ,, integratingintegrating bothboth thethe sidessides ::
WW FMFM tt == WW CC tt +(+(∆∆W/W/∆∆WW mm ))sin(2sin(2ΠΠff mm t)t)
ThereforeTherefore equationequation ofof FMFM Signal:Signal:
VV FMFM (t)(t) == AA CC coscos[[θθ(t)(t)]]
== AA CC cos[Wcos[W CC tt ++ββ sin(2sin(2ΠΠff mm t)]t)]
wherewhere ββ == ∆∆f/ff/f mm isis defineddefined asas modulationmodulation indexindex ofof FM.FM. UnlikeUnlike AMAM
wherewhere ββ == ∆∆f/ff/f mm isis defineddefined asas modulationmodulation indexindex ofof
FM.FM. UnlikeUnlike AMAM modulationmodulation indexindex isis notnot restrictedrestricted toto
one.one. ItIt cancan bebe moremore thanthan unity.unity.
FrequencyFrequency spectrum:spectrum:
TheThe frequencyfrequency spectrumspectrum ofof FMFM signalsignal consistedconsisted ofof
infiniteinfinite numbernumber ofof sidebandsideband componentscomponents (( usingusing
FourierFourier TransformTransform ).). HenceHence theoreticallytheoretically thethe
bandwidthbandwidth ofof FMFM signalsignal isis infinity.infinity. ButBut practically,practically,
thethe bandwidthbandwidth ofof FMFM signalsignal isis restrictedrestricted usingusing
CarsonCarson’’ss rule.rule. AccordingAccording toto CarsonCarson’’ss rulerule thethe
bandwidthbandwidth ofof FMFM signalsignal isis givengiven byby 2(2(∆∆ff ++ fm).fm).
Problems:Problems: GivenGiven aa FMFM equationequation VV FMFM (t)(t) == 1010 coscos [2[2ΠΠ1010 88 tt ++
Problems:Problems:
GivenGiven aa FMFM equationequation
VV FMFM (t)(t) == 1010 coscos [2[2ΠΠ1010 88 tt ++ 55 sin(2sin(2ΠΠ15000t)]15000t)] ,, CalculateCalculate
CarrierCarrier frequency.frequency.
ModulatingModulating frequency.frequency.
FrequencyFrequency deviation.deviation.
BandwidthBandwidth usingusing CarsonCarson’’ss rule.rule.
Solution:Solution: CarrierCarrier frequency:frequency: ff CC == 108Hz.108Hz. ModulatingModulating frequencyfrequency ::
Solution:Solution:
CarrierCarrier frequency:frequency: ff CC == 108Hz.108Hz.
ModulatingModulating frequencyfrequency :: ff mm == 15KHz.15KHz.
FrequencyFrequency deviationdeviation ::
∆∆ff == ββ ff mm == 55 ** 1515 == 75KHz.75KHz.
BandwidthBandwidth
==
2(2(∆∆ff ++ ff mm ))
==
2(2( 7575 ++ 1515 )) == 180KHz.180KHz.
InIn anan FMFM systemsystem whenwhen thethe audioaudio frequencyfrequency isis 50Hz50Hz ,,
modulatingmodulating voltagevoltage isis 2.5V2.5V ,, thethe deviationdeviation producedproduced isis 5KHz.5KHz.
IfIf thethe modulatingmodulating voltagevoltage isis nonoww increasedincreased toto 7.5V7.5V ,, calculatecalculate
thethe newnew valuevalue ofof frequencyfrequency deviation.deviation. IfIf thethe AFAF voltagevoltage isis
raisedraised toto 10V10V whilewhile thethe modulamodulatingting frequencyfrequency isis droppeddropped toto
250Hz250Hz ,, whatwhat isis thethe frequencyfrequency deviationdeviation produced.produced. AlsoAlso
calculatecalculate modulationmodulation indexindex inin eacheach case.case.
Solution:Solution: GivenGiven :: ff mm == 50Hz50Hz ,, AA mm == 2.5V2.5V ,, ∆∆ff ==
Solution:Solution:
GivenGiven :: ff mm == 50Hz50Hz ,, AA mm == 2.5V2.5V ,,
∆∆ff == 5KHz.5KHz.
ModulationModulation index:index: ββ == ∆∆f/ff/f mm == 55*10*10 33 /50/50 == 100100
ii)ii)
IfIf
AA mm == 7.5V7.5V ,,
∆∆ff == ??
KK ff == ∆∆f/Af/A mm =2KHz/V.=2KHz/V.
∆∆ff == KK ff AA mm == 22**7.57.5 == 15KHz.15KHz.
ModulationModulation index:index: ββ == ∆∆f/ff/f mm == 300.300.
iii)iii) ∆∆ff == KK ff AA mm == 22**10KHz10KHz == 20KHz.20KHz.
ModulationModulation index:index: ββ == ∆∆f/ff/f mm == 800.800.
EXERCISE:EXERCISE: AA carriercarrier ofof amplitudeamplitude 5V5V andand frequencyfrequency 90MHz90MHz isis
EXERCISE:EXERCISE:
AA carriercarrier ofof amplitudeamplitude 5V5V andand frequencyfrequency 90MHz90MHz isis
frequencyfrequency modulatedmodulated byby asinusoidalasinusoidal voltagevoltage ofof
amplitudeamplitude 5V5V andand frequencyfrequency 15KHz.15KHz. TheThe
frequencyfrequency sensitivitysensitivity isis 1Hz/V.1Hz/V. CalculateCalculate thethe
frequencyfrequency deviationdeviation andand modulationmodulation index.index.
CompareCompare andand contrastcontrast AMAM andand FM.FM.
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