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LESSON 1: INTRODUCTION TO THE COURSE REPUBLIC ACT 1425

What is Republic Act 1425?

 An act to include in the curricula of all public and private schools, colleges and universities courses on
the life, works and writings of jose rizal, particularly his novels noli me tangere and el filibusterismo,
authorizing the printing and distribution thereof, and for other purposes
WHEREAS, today, more than any other period of our history, there is a need for a re-dedication to the ideals of
freedom and nationalism for which our heroes lived and died; 

WHEREAS, it is meet that in honoring them, particularly the national hero and patriot, Jose Rizal, we remember with
special fondness and devotion their lives and works that have shaped the national character;

WHEREAS, the life, works and writing of Jose Rizal, particularly his novels Noli Me Tangere and El Filibusterismo,
are a constant and inspiring source of patriotism with which the minds of the youth, especially during their formative
and decisive years in school, should be suffused;

WHEREAS, all educational institutions are under the supervision of, and subject to regulation by the State, and all
schools are enjoined to develop moral character, personal discipline, civic conscience and to teach the duties of
citizenship; Now, therefore:

Section 1.    Courses on the life, works and writings of Jose Rizal, particularly his novel Noli Me Tangere and El
Filibusterismo, shall be included in the curricula of all schools, colleges and universities, public or private: Provided,
That in the collegiate courses, the original or unexpurgated editions of the Noli Me Tangere and El Filibusterismo of
their English translation shall be used as basic texts.

The Board of National Education is hereby authorized and directed to adopt forthwith measures to implement and
carry out the provisions of this Section, including the writing and printing of appropriate primers, readers and
textbooks. The Board shall, within sixty (60) days from the effectivity of this Act, promulgate rules and regulations,
including those of disciplinary nature, to carry out and enforce the provisions of this Act. The Board shall promulgate
rules and regulations providing for the exemption of students for reasons of religious belief stated in a sworn written
statement, from the requirement of the provision contained in the second part of the first paragraph of this section;
but not from taking the course provided for in the first part of said paragraph. Said rules and regulations shall take
effect thirty (30) days after their publication in the Official Gazette. 

Sec. 2.    It shall be obligatory on all schools, colleges and universities to keep in their libraries an adequate number of
copies of the original and unexpurgated editions of the Noli Me Tangere and El Filibusterismo, as well as of Rizal's
other works and biography. The said unexpurgated editions of the Noli Me Tangere and El Filibusterismo or their
translations in English as well as other writings of Rizal shall be included in the list of approved books for required
reading in all public or private schools, colleges and universities.

The Board of National Education shall determine the adequacy of the number of books, depending upon the
enrollment of the school, college or university.

Sec. 3.    The Board of National Education shall cause the translation of the Noli Me Tangere and El Filibusterismo, as
well as other writings of Jose Rizal into English, Tagalog and the principal Philippine dialects; cause them to be
printed in cheap, popular editions; and cause them to be distributed, free of charge, to persons desiring to read them,
through the Purok organizations and Barrio Councils throughout the country. 

Sec. 4.    Nothing in this Act shall be construed as amendment or repealing section nine hundred twenty-seven of the
Administrative Code, prohibiting the discussion of religious doctrines by public school teachers and other person
engaged in any public school.

Sec. 5.    The sum of three hundred thousand pesos is hereby authorized to be appropriated out of any fund not
otherwise appropriated in the National Treasury to carry out the purposes of this Act.

Sec. 6.    This Act shall take effect upon its approval.

Filipino Nationalism
What is Filipino Nationalism?

 The Philippines nationalist movement was the earliest of its kind in Southeast Asia.

 Many of its leaders saw their movement as a beacon for other Southeast Asian colonies. In reality it had
little impact.
 Nationalism took a decidedly different course in the Philippines than elsewhere in Southeast Asia.

 Philippine intellectual and political elites identified themselves more with Spain and later the United
States than they did with anti-colonialists elsewhere in Southeast Asia.

In the 1890s, disillusioned by Spain’s refusal to treat them as equals and its dismissal of their proposals for
social and economic reform, the ilustrados began to call themselves Filipinos.

They were led by Jose Rizal, a wealthy fifth generation Chinese mestizo. Hitherto the Spanish had
appropriated the term Filipino for Spaniards born in the Philippines, referring to natives as Indios. The
term Filipino now became a symbol of nationalism.

The ilustrados – the educated, wealthy mestizo elite – wanted to rid the Philippines of clerical
domination in order to assume leadership of their society.

In 1896 a rebellion broke out in Manila organised by a far more radical group known as the Katipunan and
led by Andres Bonifacio, a relatively poorly educated Manila clerk. Fighting broke out in the Manila area
between Katipunan forces and the colonial army. The Spanish responded by arresting not only Katipunan
leaders but also many ilustrados as well. Rizal was arrested, charged with treason and publicly executed.
Philippine nationalism now had a martyr.

DID YOU KNOW?


Nationalism can refer to an ideology, sentiment, a form of culture, or a social
movement that focuses on the nation. While there is significant debate over the historical
origins of nations, nearly all specialists accept that nationalism, at least as an ideology
and social movement, is a modern phenomenon originating in Europe.

United States colonialism


Americans’ own history of anti-colonialism ensured that there were significant differences in United States
rule in the Philippines from colonial rule elsewhere in Southeast Asia. From the start the United States made
clear that its goal was to lead the Philippines to independence.

By 1934 the United States Congress mandated Philippine independence within twelve years. As a first step, in
1935 a Philippines Commonwealth was established, autonomous in domestic affairs with Manuel Quezon as
its first President. Political developments in the Philippines were unique in Southeast Asia, though in the long
run the effect was to increase the wealth and power of the landed elite.

The United States government expended money on the Philippines rather than extracted money from it –
another unique occurrence in colonial Southeast Asia. Much of this money was spent on developing education
and health systems far superior to anywhere else in the region. Education policies in the Philippines reflected
American domestic educational philosophies, in the same way as education policies in British, French and
Dutch colonies reflected their domestic policies.

LESSON 2: THE PHILIPPINE IN THE NINEEENTH CENTURY AS RIZAL’S CONTEXT


The 19th century
By the late 18th century, political and economic changes in Europe were finally beginning to affect
Spain and, thus, the Philippines. Important as a stimulus to trade was the gradual elimination of the
monopoly enjoyed by the galleon to Acapulco. The last galleon arrived in Manila in 1815, and by the mid-
1830s Manila was open to foreign merchants almost without restriction. The demand for Philippine sugar and
abaca (hemp) grew apace, and the volume of exports to Europe expanded even further after the completion of
the Suez Canal in 1869.

Until 1863 was there public education in the Philippines, and even then the church controlled the curriculum.
Less than one-fifth of those who went to school could read and write Spanish, and far fewer could speak it
properly. The limited higher education in the colony was entirely under clerical direction, but by the 1880s
many sons of the wealthy were sent to Europe to study. There, nationalism and a passion for reform
blossomed in the liberal atmosphere. Out of this talented group of overseas Filipino students arose what came
to be known as the Propaganda Movement. Magazines, poetry, and pamphleteering flourished. José Rizal,
this movement’s most brilliant figure, produced two political novels—Noli me tangere(1887; Touch Me
Not) and El filibusterismo (1891; The Reign of Greed)—which had a wide impact in the Philippines. In
1892 Rizal returned home and formed the Liga Filipina, a modest reform-minded society, loyal to Spain,
that breathed no word of independence. But Rizal was quickly arrested by the overly fearful Spanish, exiled to a
remote island in the south, and finally executed in 1896. Meanwhile, within the Philippines there had
developed a firm commitment to independence among a somewhat less privileged class.

Shocked by the arrest of Rizal in 1892, these activists quickly formed the Katipunan under the leadership
of Andres Bonifacio, a self-educated warehouseman. The Katipunan was dedicated to the expulsion of the
Spanish from the islands, and preparations were made for armed revolt. Filipino rebels had been numerous in
the history of Spanish rule, but now for the first time they were inspired by nationalist ambitions and possessed
the education needed to make success a real possibility

The Philippine Revolution

In August 1896, Spanish friar’s uncovered evidence of the Katipunan’s


plans, and its leaders were forced into premature action. Revolts broke out
in several provinces around Manila. After months of fighting, severe Spanish
retaliation forced the revolutionary armies to retreat to the hills. Emilio
Aguinaldo, a municipal mayor and commander of the rebel
forces, was paid a large sum and was allowed to go to Hong Kong with
other leaders; the Spanish promised reforms as well. But reforms were slow
in coming and distrustful of Spanish promises, kept their arms; clashes grew
more frequent.

War had broken out between Spain and the United


States (the Spanish-American War).

Emilio Aguinaldo

Independence was declared on June 12 (now


celebrated as Independence Day). In September
a constitutional congress met in Malolos, north of
Manila, which drew up a fundamental law
derived from European and Latin American
precedents. A government was formed on the
basis of that constitution in January 1899, with
Aguinaldo as president of the new country,
popularly known as the “Malolos Republic.”

U.S. soldiers in a trench near Manila, Phil., during the Spanish-American War,
1898.Hulton Archive/Getty Images

U.S. troops had landed in Manila and, with important Filipino help, forced the capitulation in
August 1898 of the Spanish commander there. The Americans, however, would not let Filipino forces
enter the city. It was soon apparent to Aguinaldo and his advisers that earlier expressions of sympathy
for Filipino independence by Dewey and U.S. consular officials in Hong Kong had little
significance. They felt betrayed.

Philippine-American War: ManilaPortion of the ruins of


Manila, Philippines, after shelling by U.S. forces in 1899.Library of
Congress, Washington, D.C.
The Filipino revolutionary movement had two goals, national and social. The first goal,
independence, though realized briefly, was frustrated by the American decision to continue
administering the islands. The goal of fundamental social change, manifest in the nationalization of
friar lands by the Malolos Republic, was ultimately frustrated by the power and resilience of
entrenched institutions. Share tenants who had rallied to Aguinaldo’s cause, partly for economic
reasons, merely exchanged one landlord for another. In any case, the proclamation of a republic in
1898 had marked the Filipinos as the first Asian people to try to throw off European colonial
rule.

LESSON 3: RIZAL’S LIFE FAMILY, CHILDHOOD AND EARLY


EDUCATORS
The Mercado - Rizal Family
DR. JOSE RIZAL (1861-1896)
 The second son and the seventh child. He was executed by the Spaniards on December 30,1896.
 Rizals is considered one of the biggest families during their time.
 He came from a 13-member family consisting of his parents, Francisco Mercado II and Teodora Alonso
Realonda, and nine sisters and one brother.
FRANCISCO MERCADO (1818-1898)

 Father of Jose Rizal who was the youngest of 13 offsprings of Juan and Cirila Mercado. Born in Biñan,
Laguna on April 18, 1818; studied in San Jose College, Manila; and died in Manila.
TEODORA ALONSO (1827-1913)

 Mother of Jose Rizal who was the second child of Lorenzo Alonso and Brijida de Quintos. She studied at
the Colegio de Santa Rosa. She was a business-minded woman, courteous, religious, hard-working and
well-read. She was born in Santa Cruz, Manila on November 14, 1827 and died in 1913 in Manila.
SATURNINA RIZAL (1850-1913)

 Eldest child of the Rizal-Alonzo marriage. Married Manuel Timoteo Hidalgo of Tanauan, Batangas.
PACIANO RIZAL (1851-1930)

 Only brother of Jose Rizal and the second child. Studied at San Jose College in Manila; became a farmer
and later a general of the Philippine Revolution.
NARCISA RIZAL (1852-1939)

 The third child. married Antonio Lopez at Morong, Rizal; a teacher and musician.
OLYMPIA RIZAL (1855-1887)

 The fourth child. Married Silvestre Ubaldo; died in 1887 from childbirth.
LUCIA RIZAL (1857-1919)

 The fifth child. Married Matriano Herbosa.


MARIA RIZAL (1859-1945)

 The sixth child. Married Daniel Faustino Cruz of Biñan, Laguna.


CONCEPCION RIZAL (1862-1865)

 The eight child. Died at the age of three.


JOSEFA RIZAL (1865-1945)

 The ninth child. An epileptic, died a spinster.


TRINIDAD RIZAL (1868-1951)

 The tenth child. Died a spinster and the last of the family to die.
SOLEDAD RIZAL (1870-1929)
 The youngest child married Pantaleon Quintero.

Early childhood of Dr. Jose Rizal

In Calamba, Laguna
19 June 1861 JOSE RIZAL, the seventh child of Francisco Mercado
Rizal and Teodora Alonso y Quintos, was born in Calamba, Laguna.22
June 1861He was baptized JOSE RIZAL MERCADO at the Catholic of
Calamba by the parish priest Rev. Rufino Collantes with Rev. Pedro
Casañas as the sponsor.28 September 1862The parochial church of
Calamba and the canonical books, including the book in which Rizal’s
baptismal records were entered, were burned.1864Barely three years
old, Rizal learned the alphabet from his mother.1865When he was four
years old, his sister Conception, the eight child in the Rizal family, died at
the age of three. It was on this occasion that Rizal remembered having
shed real tears for the first time.1865 – 1867During this time his
mother taught him how to read and write. His father hired a classmate by
the name of Leon Monroy who, for five months until his (Monroy)
death, taught Rizal the rudiments of Latin.At about this time two of his mother’s cousin frequented Calamba.
Uncle Manuel Alberto, seeing Rizal frail in body, concerned himself with the physical development of his young
nephew and taught the latter love for the open air and developed in him a great admiration for the beauty of
nature, while Uncle Gregorio, a scholar, instilled into the mind of the boy love for education. He advised Rizal:
"Work hard and perform every task very carefully; learn to be swift as well as thorough; be independent in
thinking and make visual pictures of everything."6 June 1868 With his father, Rizal made a pilgrimage to
Antipolo to fulfill the vow made by his mother to take the child to the Shrine of the Virgin of Antipolo should
she and her child survive the ordeal of delivery which nearly caused his mother’s life.From there they
proceeded to Manila and visited his sister Saturnina who was at the time studying in the La Concordia College
in Sta. Ana.1869At the age of eight, Rizal wrote his first poem entitled "Sa Aking Mga Kabata." The poem was
written in tagalog and had for its theme "Love of One’s Language."

Education of Dr. Jose Rizal

Early Education in Calamba and Biñan

The Hero’s First Teacher


The first teacher of Rizal was his mother, who was a remarkable woman of good character and fine
culture. As tutor, Doña Teodora was patient, conscientious, and understanding. It was she who
first discovered that her son had a talent for poetry. Accordingly, she encouraged him to write
poems. To lighten the monotony of memorizing the ABC’s and to stimulate her son’s imagination,
she related many stories.