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Anthony‟s College
San Jose, Antique
HIGH SCHOOL DEPARTMENT

PRACTICAL RESEARCH 1 HANDOUTS


QUARTER 1: Lesson 5 (Identifying Inquiry and Stating the Problem)

Learning Competencies: The student should be able to (a) selects relevant literature; and (b) cites
related literature using standard style.

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE (RRL)

Every day, we use the word research in a different sense. For example, we always say that we are
conducting research in the library or in the Internet. Although grammatically correct, these phrases denote
a misconception of what research is. Thus, the correct term for what we are doing is that we are
conducting a literature review.

What is review of related literature?

Once a research is already determined, the researcher must look for academic and
research journals, books and other similar documents that contain reports of previous research studies
about a topic related to the present study. This is called literature review or review of related literature.

Review of related literature involves a process of identifying, locating, organizing, and analyzing
information about a research topic.

What is the value of related literature?

Related literature is essential because of the following reasons:

It prevents duplication of studies


It helps avoiding problems that others encountered.
Provides valuable information about how to measure the research variables involved
It helps determine what research design s will be most useful.

A thorough literature review before the implementation of the study reflects the depth of
discussion, analysis, and interpretation of findings.

Literature serves the following purposes in research process:

o It builds the confidence of the researcher as /he/she fully understands the variables being studied.
o It shows similar studies conducted which, in turn, become the springboard of discussion as the
researcher may agree or disagree with the current results.
o Fellow researchers may see the objectivity of the study as they read the review of literature and
related sources similar in research or conceptual framework.
o Reviewing a body of literature on the topic makes the research study empirical

Types of Sources

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What are the types of sources for related literarture?

The following are types of sources in conducting related literature:

 General references. These are sources firrst accessed by the researchers to give them informaton
about other sources such as research articles, professional journals, books, momographs,
conference proceedings, and similar documents.
Example: The Curent Index of Journals in Education.

 Primary sources. These sources provide first-hand information about experts‟ and other
researchers‟ publications that contains findings that are directly communicated to the readers and
interested parties.
Example: Academic and research journals published by universities and learned organizations.

 Secondary sources. These are written by authors that describe another researcher‟s work and may
only contain summaries or interpretation of research reports rather than a complete description.
Example: Textboooks, single-authored books, and books edited by different authors with each
contributing to a collection of chapters on a single topic.

 Tertiary sources. These sources are books and articles based on secondary sources. It synthesizes
and explains the work of others.

Related literature surveyed for theories and concepts that can be used as bases of the present
research.

Misconception Alert!

A theory is defines a s a stetement that makes claim about a certain phenoenon. Arrange from
complex, well-research claims to informal guesses about specific situations. As these statements
maybe viewed as abstract and complex bodyof ideas, it is required to break them down into parts for
better understanding and to show how they can provide support to the problem, procedures and
findings of the present tudy. These staements are composed of several concepts and how they are
related to one another.
Concept is a particular phenomenon that cab be both abstarct and concrete.

Writing the Review of Related Literature

The following are steps in writing the related literature.

1. Introduction. The introduction discusses briefly the research problem and the significance of the
study.

 It may also present the organization of the discussion of the claims and arguments of experts and
researches aligned with the topic of interest.
2. Body. It contains a narrative of relevant ideas and findings found in the reports of other researchers that
support the present research problem.

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 RRL is not simply a listing and discussion of research findings, but an organized form of writing
that helps the conduct of the research and the analysis and interpretation of data gathered in the
research process.
3. Synthesis. This part ties together the main ideas revealed in the RRL.

 It presents an overall picture of what was established up to the present, how the review supports
the development and conduct of the research.
 Its role is very important because it explains why the review is relevant and helpful to the present
research.
4. Bibliography. This part contains the full bibliographic information of all the sources mentioned in
RRL

 The format of the bibliographic entries in the References depends on the writing style adopted in
writing the report.

Characteristics of a good literature review

a. Delimits clearly the subject matter to be reviewed

b. covers all important relevant literature

c. Is up-to-date

d. Provides an insightful analysis of the ideas and conclusions in the literature

e. Points out similarities and differences, and strengths and weaknesses in the literature

f. Identifies gaps in the literature for future use

g. Clarifies the context for which the literature is important

Organization of Information from Related literature

The related literature section is not a list of article summaries but it should be a flowing, well-
structured narrative that begins with the research variables included in the problem and ends a question to
be answered. In ordering the topics, three major approaches are considered:

a. Chronological

 A chronological ordering is most applicable if the topics are arranged for usual timeline of
development. In this arrangement, clusters are time-sensitive and show a change in thinking over
time. This approach is most appropriate for development qualitative studies.
b. Conceptual

 A conceptual ordering is suggested if the study is set in clear and interrelated concepts. This
approach is applicable to almost all qualitative and quantitative researches because the
organization of the review is by claims and arguments, forming a small body of knowledge that
supports the present research.

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c. Stated hypotheses

 If there are several hypotheses in a given study, stated hypotheses form a natural way to order key
word clusters. The topics are listed based on each hypothesis made in the research and the
discussion is done according to this topic listing.
In summary, writing the review related literature, always begin with a good introduction and end
it with a synthesis making a connection between the topic and the subtopics. A summary of each subtopic
must also be presented together with transition paragraphs. Consistently cite the reference or source for
each claim or argument. American Psychological Association (APA) style and format is always adopted
to cite bibliographical information in the body of the literature review.

Guidelines in Citing Authors of the Related Literature

In citing the sources of the related literature and studies in the body of the research paper (or in-
text citation), the following ways may be considered:

1. By author or writer. In this method, facts, ideas, or principles are discussed or explained separately.
The respective authors or writers are then cited in footnote.

Example:
Burns et al. (2008) expounded that learning styles are the preferred habitual patterns of mental
functioning.
Romanelli et al. (2009) described that learning styles as the cognitive, affective, and
psychological behaviors that serve as relatively stable indicators of how learners perceive,
interact, and respond to the learning environment.

2. By topic. In this case, if many authors have the same opinion or idea about the same topic, discussion
and citation of the topic is under the names of the authors or writers.

Example:
The use of animated movies, computer animation, and simple drawings are constructive for
stimulating and maintaining learner‟s attention (Williamson & Abraham, 1995; Ames & Ames,
1995; Barak, 2006).

3. Chronological. Related materials or references may be cited in a chronological manner, that is,
according to the year they were written or published.

Example:
Adri (2004) described the relationship between the student‟s learning styles and their academic
performance.
Baldomero (2006) assessed the learning style of students in bridge programs in a public high
school and their implications on academic achievement.
Romana (2010) determined the learning styles and multiple intelligences of pupils in a
preparatory school.

Ways of Citing

There are many formats in citing sources of information and ideas in the text of the related
literature or in any part of the research paper. The following are the commonly used formats with sample
citations.

Forms of Citation

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1. In-text citation requires the writer to cite the details of the reference used in a certain part of his/her
essay. The format of in-text citations may vary per style.

Example (APA style)

Two of the three reviewed studies focusing on the communication in non-Internet and Internet
relationships mediated by FtF, phone oe email modalities found that the frequency of each modality‟s
use was significantly linked to the strength of the particular relationship (Cummings et. al., 2002)

2. Reference citation refers to the complete bibliographic entries of all references used by the writer.
This appears in the reference list found at the last part of the paper.

Example (APA style)

References

Cummings, J.N., Butler, B., & Krant, R. (2002). The quality of online social relationships.
Communications of the ACM 45 (7), 103-108.
Hu, Y., Wood, J. F., Smith, V., & Westbrook, N. (2004). Friendship through IM: Examining the relationship
between instant messaging and intimacy. Journal of Computer- Mediated
Communication, 10, 28-48.
Tidwell, L. C., & Walther,J.B. (2002). Computer-mediated communication effects on
Disclosure, impressions, and interpersonal evaluations: Getting to know one
Another a bit at a time. Human Communication Research, 28, 317-348.

Style Guides

Style Guide Discipline

APA ( The Publication Manual of the Psychology, education, hotel and restaurant management, business,
American Psychological Association) economics, and other social sciences

MLA (The Modern Language Association Literature, arts, and humanities


Style Guide)
IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Engineering
Electronic Engineers)
AMA (American Medical Association Medicine, health sciences, and other natural sciences
Manual of Style)
Chicago (The Chicago Manual of Style) Reference books, non-academic periodicals (e.g., newsapers,
magazines, journals, among others)

APA FORMAT
American Psychological Association or APA style is the most common way to cite sources in
field of social sciences. In using this format, the author-date method of in-text citation is followed, in
which the author‟s surname and the year of publication for the source should appear in the text, e.g.,
(Cahan, 2000). A complete reference should appear in the bibliography section of the research paper.
In some cases where the researcher only cites an idea or opinion from another author‟s work but
do not directly quote the material or making reference to an entire book, article, or other work, a reference
to the author and year of publication is made. There is no need to include the page number in the in-text
reference.

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Citing in APA format


1. A work by two authors. Name both authors in the parentheses whenever their work is cited. Use the
word “and” between the authors‟ names within the text and use the ampersand (&) in the parentheses.

Research is . . . . (Robinson & Levin, 1997)


Robinson and Levin (1997) discussed . . . .

2. A work by three to five authors. Include the entire author‟s surname in parentheses the first time the
source is cited. Use the word and between the authors‟ names within the text and use the ampersand in the
parentheses.

Kim, Song, Chang, Kang, and Park (2013) posited. . . .


Learning is. . . (Kim, Song, Chang, Kang, & Park, 2013)

In subsequent citations, only use the first author‟s surname followed by the words “et al.” which
means „and others‟ in the parentheses.

Kim et al. (2013) stated. . .


In et al., et should not be followed by a period.

3. Six or more authors. Use the first author‟s name followed by et al. in the parentheses.

Choi et al. (2013) reported….

However, if two sources have six or more authors but with some identical surnames, cite the first
author followed by as many names to distinguish one source from the other.

Orleans, Nueva España, Palomar, Camacho, Avilla, Sotto (2014) suggested. . . . . .


Orleans, Nueva España, Palomar, Florentino, David, Abulon (2014) claimed. . . . . .

In the subsequent citations, the following is observed:

Orleans, Nueva España, Palomar, Camacho et al. (2014) argued. . . . .


Orleans, Nueva España, Palomar, Florentino et al. (2014) maintained. . . . .

4. Associations, corporations, government agencies, etc. as an author. If the name of an association is the
source, it should be cited as follows:

According to the Department of Education (2013). . . .

However, if the association has a well-known abbreviation, the abbreviation in brackets is


included the first time it appears and then only the abbreviation in later citations.

first citation: Commission on Higher Education [CHED] (2012)….


second citation: CHED (2012) ….

5. Citing indirect sources. If a source was mentioned in another source, the citation is as follows:

Smith argued that …… (as cited in Johnson, 2005, p. 92).

6. Electronic sources. Electronic documents are cited the same way as any other document by using the
author-date style.

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Briones (2009) explained…..

7. Citing websites. Websites are cited the same way as any other source, using the author-date style if
known. If there is no author, the title and the date are cited as the in-text citation (for long titles, the first
few words are cited). For sources with no date, “n.d.” (for no date) in place of the year is used.

Andrews, n.d.

a. In-text citation for website with no author

Bulacan has become a major link between large and concentered consumer markets in the
National Capital Region (NCR) or Metro Manila and the resource-rich provinces of Northern
Luzon (Provincial Government of Bulacan, 2007).

b. Reference entry for website with no author

Provincial Government of Bulacan. (2007). Retrieved from


http://www.bulacan.gov.ph/business/products.php

c. In-text citation for section of website with no author

In addition, bamboo bike cannot be split in two because of having so much fiber
(“Philippine Bamboo Bikers Hit”, 2012).

d. Reference entry for section of a website with no author

Philippine Bamboo Bikes Hit Market. (2012). Manila Bulletin. Retrieved from
https://ph.news.yahoo.com/philippine-bamboo-bikes-hit-market-154958087.html

MLA Format
Modern Language Association or MLA style is most commonly used to write papes and cite
sources within the liberal arts and humanities. In MLA style, the works of others in the text cited by using
what is known as parenthetical citation. This involves placing relevant source information in parentheses
after a quote o a paraphrase. The source of information required in a parenthetical citation depends upon
(a) the source medium (e.g., print, web, DVD) and (b) the source‟s entry on the Works Cited
(Bibliography) page.

In-Text Citations: Author-Page Style


Example:
Gale stated that the term “abnormal” is misuses in a judgemental manner when people are
uncomfortable about something.

Basic Rules from the MLA Handbook, 7th edition (Chapter 6) and MLA Style Manual, 3rd
Edition (Chapter 7)

. The in-text parenthetical details in MLA vary depending on the type of source (e.g. print, web,
DVD).

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. This style follows the author-page method. The author‟s name may appear in the sentence, but the
page number should always be in a parenthetical citation and not in the sentence.

Example: (Take note on the use of capitalization, parentheses, quotation marks, periods, spacing and
numbers; notice the absence of comma in the in-text citation.

1.Sipacio claimed that MLA style is required for Humanities student majors (54)
2.MLA style is required for humanities student majors (Sipacio 54)

For single authors in a print source, check the example below.

1. Sipacio claimed that MLA style is required for Humanities student majors (54)

2. MLA style is required for humanities student majors (Sipacio 54)

For three or fewer authors, list all the last names of the authors in the text or inside the parenthetical
citation. Notice the use of “and”in the parenthetical citations below.

1. Sipacio and Barrot claimed that MLA style is required for Humanities student majors (54).
2. MLA style is required for Humanities student majors (Sipacio and Barrot 54).
3. Bautista, Castillo, and Sy state that a citation guide is useful when writing (54).
4. A citation guide is useful when writing (Bautista, Castillo, and Sy 54).

For a print source with more than three authors, you can either use the first author‟s name followed by et
al. or you can list the entire author‟s.

1. Sipacio et al. claimed that MLA style is required for Humanities student majors (54)

2. MLA style is required for humanities student majors (Sipacio et al. 54).

3. Sipacio, Miranda, Garcia, and Enriquez claimed that MLA style is required for Humanities student majors
(54).

If print source does not list an author, use the shortened title of the work enclosed in quotation marks in
place of the author‟s name.

MLA style is one of the many citation styles students can use (“Citation Style”64).

Direct Quotations

 Use double quotation marks to enclose direct quotes not exceeding four lines. In the parenthetical
citation, give the author‟s last name and the page number.
 All punctuations which are part of the quoted text must be placed inside the quotation marks, but if
the punctuations are part of your own text, place them outside (see example below).

1. Miranda claimed that “adhering to a style is a mark of discipline”(56).

2. Would it be fair to say that “adhering to a style is a mark of discipline”(Miranda 56)?

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If your source quotes another text, use “qtd. in” (which stands for as “quoted in”) in the parenthetical
remarks:

Mallari claimed that “the level of complexity differs according to each person”(qtd. in Sipacio 56) because of
several factors.

For direct quotations that exceed four lines of text, start in a new line. There is no need to enclose the
whole text in double quotation marks, but make sure to indent the block of text 1”from the left. Maintain
double spacing. The parenthetical citation should come after the closing punctuation mark of the quoted
text.

In his article “Poverty in the Philippines: Income, Assets , and Access”, Scheliz (2005) suggest a list of causes of
poverty.

(1) low to moderate economic growth for the past 40 years; (2) low growth elasticity of poverty
reduction; (3) weakness in employment generation and the quality of jobs generated; (4) failure to
fully develop the agriculture sector; (5) high inflation during crisis periods; (6) high levels of
population growth; (7) high and persistent levels of inequality incomes and assets), which dampen
the positive impacts of economic expansion; and (8) recurrent shocks and exposure to risks such as
economic crisis, conflicts,natural disasters, and environmental poverty. (2)

IEEE Editorial Style Manual, 2014

In this style, there is no need to name the author, page number, or date of publication in
the text citation. Instead, the references are numbered according to the order in which they were cited in the
text. The reference numbers which appear in the text have to be enclosed in brackets.

.When a reference which was cited earlier is used again in the later parts of the text, the reference
number will be used (see example below).

1. (Paragraph 2) Sipacio claimed that IEEE style is complex [1].

2. (Paragraph 5) There are reasons why it has been claimed that using IEEE formatting style is
complex [1]

The reference number has to correspond to the full bibliographic details of the text in the reference list of
your paper.

Chicago Manual of Style


The Chicago Manual of Style presents two basic documentation systems. First is the
bibliography and second is author-date. Each documentation system is favored different groups of
scholars depending on the subject matter and the nature of sources.

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Notes and Bibliography System

The notes and bibliography style is preferred in the field of humanities, like in the areas of
literature, history, and arts. It presents bibliographic information in notes and oftentimes, a bibliography.
It also accommodates a wide variety of sources, including the difficult ones that are less appropriate to the
author-date system.

One author

end note: John Creswell, Educational research: Planning, conducting, and evaluating
qualitative research (Ohio: Merrill Prentice-Hall, 2002), 268.

in-text citation: Creswell, Educational research, 3.

Bibliographic entry: Creswell, John. Educational research: Planning, conducting, and


evaluating qualitative research.. Ohio: Merrill Prentice-Hall, 2002.

Two or more authors

end note: Donald H. McBurney and Theresa White, ResearchMethods 6th Edition
(California:Wadsworth/Thomson Learning, 2004), 52.

in-text citation: McBurney and White, Research, 59-60.

bibliographic entry: McBurney, Donald H., and Theresa White. Research Methods 6 th
Edition. California: Wadsworth/Thomson Learning, 2004.

Four or more authors. All of the authors in the bibliography are listed; in the note, only the first
author is listed, followed by et al.

first end note: Anthony Norman et al., Moral reasoning and religious belief: Does content
influence structure.

succeeding end note: Norman et al., Moral reasoning. . . . .

Author-Date System

In the fields of physical, natural, and social sciences, the author-date system is used. In this
system, sources are briefly cited in the text, usually in parentheses, by author‟s surname and date of
publication. The short citations are elaborated in a list of references, where full bibliographic information
is given.

One author

in-text citation: (Creswell 2002, 268)

bibliographic entry: Creswell, John. 2002. Educational research: Planning, conducting,


and evaluating qualitative research. Ohio: Merrill Prentice-Hall.

Two or more authors

in-text citation: (McBurney and White 2004, 52)

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bibliographic entry: McBurney, Donald H., and Theresa White. 2004. Research Methods
6th Edition. California: Wadsworth/Thomson Learning.

Four or more authors. List all of the authors in the reference list; in the text, list only the first
author, followed by et al.

in-text citation: (Norman et al. 1998)

Websites. A citation to website content can often be restricted to a mention in the text.
For example,

As of August 19, 2015, the Google Privacy Policy provided.......

If a more formal citation is needed, it may be formatted in the following example:

Google. 2015. “Google Privacy Policy.” Last modified August 19.


http://www.google.com/policies/privacy/

Google (2015)

If the date of publication is absent, or if the content is subject to change, make use of the
access date or the date it was last modified as the basis of citation.

How to Quote a Material

A material may be quoted if the idea imparted is ideally stated or if it is controversial and not
quiet long. It is written in a single-spaced format with wider margins at the left and right side of the paper
and without quotation marks.
Example:

Orleans (2011) concluded:

The results of this investigation suggest that by itself, a fully online training can hardly
develop all facets of science teacher competencies as measured by the four Pedagogical Content
Knowledge (PCK) components in science teaching. It can substantially alter the knowledge-based
components, and only partly modify skill-based competencies. Thus, the blended training model is argued
to effect better educational outcomes. (p. 384)

Quotations fewer than 40 words should be incorporated into the text using quotation marks. Then,
cite the specific page of the quotation. If a quotation is 40 or more words, start a new line, use a block
quotation, indent as if a new paragraph, set to double spacing, and do not use quotation marks.

Ethical Standards in Writing Related Literature

There are three broad issues that need to be considered when completing research report and
transmitting results. These ethical standards to be followed are as follows:

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Plagiarism

According to Carver et al. (2011) “Plagiarism is the appropriation of another person‟s ideas,
processes, results or words without giving appropriate credit, including those obtained through
confidential review of others‟ research proposals and manuscripts.” Plagiarism is considered as the most
common scientific misconduct.

Plagiarism is an act of claiming another‟s work or copying a portion of someone else‟s writing.
If copying another researcher‟s ideas cannot be avoided, proper citation must be done. In most
universities, plagiarism is a breach of the student code of conduct and can result in failure of the course
subject or even expulsion from the institution. To avoid such consequences, care and adequate referencing
must be observed in writing any academic or research documents.

Types of Plagiarism

Type Description Icon

Clone The act of submitting another‟s work, word-for-word, as one‟s own

ctrl+ C The act of writing a study that contains significant proportions of text
(copy-paste) from a single source without alterations

find-replace The act of changing key words and phrases by retaining the essential
contents of the source in a paper

remix The act of paraphrasing from other sources and making the content fit
together seamlessly

recycle The act of borrowing generously from one‟s own previous work without
citation. This is also called self-plagiarism

hybrid The act of combining perfectly – cited sources with copied passages –
without citation – in one paper

mashup The act of mixing copied materials from several different sources without
paper citation

404 error The act of including non-existent citation or inaccurate information


about sources

aggregator The act of including proper citations but containing almost no original
work

re-tweet The act of including proper citation but relying too closely on the text‟s
original wording and/or structure

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Copyright

For researchers who want their papers to be published in conventional journals, the usual
agreement is for the copyright of the researcher‟s work to be transferred to the publisher of that journal. In
this case, the publisher of the journal can be reproduce and distribute the research legally. However, most
journals nowadays maintain the researcher‟s ownership of their work, but both parties agreed on the
journal‟s right to publish and reuse the manuscript. In case of „Open Access‟ journals, the researchers
agree to allow free dissemination of one‟s work without their permission.

Ways to Avoid Plagiarism

1. Citation
The complete source must be placed after the copied phrase or sentence using the prescribed
format of citation.

2. Paraphrasing
A process by which the information to be lifted is rephrased into one‟s own words on how you
understood the information.

3. Quoting
One must quote and cite again or paraphrase to avoid self-plagiarism when using materials from
one‟s own former-writings. Avoid quoting more than 40 words.

4. Referencing
This is done in conjunction with citations following the prescribed format.

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