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jkpo; fw;g pf;F k; Kiwfs; gFjp -1

fw;g pj;j y; jpwd;f s;:

fw;gpj;jy; vd;gJ xU rpf;fyhd jpwd;. Mrpupau;fs; tFg;giwap;y; fw;gpf;Fk; NghJ


gyjpwd;fis ntspg;gLj;j Ntz;Lk;. fw;gpj;jy; gyjpwd;fis cs;slf;fpAs;sJ. Xt;nthU
jpwDk; gy cl;$Wfisf; nfhz;lJ. ,ij tFg;gpy; Mrpupau; gad;gLj;Jk;NghJ fw;wy;
kw;Wk; fw;gpj;jy; mDgtk; mjpfkhfpwJ. Ve;nje;j jpwd;fis vg;NghJ gad;gLj;j
Ntz;Lk; vd;w mwpit Ez;zpiyf; fw;gpj;jy;, gapw;rp MrpupaUf;F czu;j;JfpwJ. XU
ghlNtisapy; gy jpwd;fis cs;slf;fpNa ghlk; fw;gpf;fg;gLfpwJ.

Myd; kw;W k; iuahd; 14 jpwd;fisAk; Nguhrpupau; 13 jpwd;fisAk; fw;gpj;jypy;;


Mrpupau;fs; gad;gLj;j Ntz;Lnkd;W Fwpg;gpl;Ls;sdu;. gNuhlh gy;f iyf;f ofkhdJ 21
jpwd;fisf; Fwpg;gpl;L tpsf;fk; je;Js;sJ

Ez;z piyf; fw;g pj;j y;:

Ez;z piyf; fw;g pj;j y; vd;g J fw;g pj;j y; El;g ky;y . ,J xU gapw;r p El;g khFk;.

Mrpupag;gapw;rp khztu;fs; fw;gpj;jypy; cs;s gy cl;jpwd;fspy; xd;wd; gpd;


xd;whf xt;nthU jpwdpYk; gapw;rp ngWtijNa Ez;zpiyf; fw;gpj;jy; vd;fpNwhk;.

tiuaiw:

Myd; b v]; vd;gtupd; tiuaiwg;gb, “Ez;zpiyf; fw;gpj;jy; vd;gJ tFg;gpd; msT


Neuk; jpwik fUj;J Mfpa ahitAk; Ez;zpa gpupTfshfr; RUf;fpg; gpd;G fw;gpj;jy;
vd;gjhFk;”.

Ez;z piyf; fw;g pj;j ypd; $Wfs;:

• Ez;zpiyf; fw;gpj;jypy; gapw;rp Mrpupau; xt;nthUtUk; jdpj;jdp jpwdpy; gapw;rp


ngWfpd;wdu;.
• jpwd; vd;gJ Mrpupaupd; nray;fs; my;yJ elj;ijfs;.,jd; Nehf;fk; fw;wy;
jpwdpy; gapw;rp Mrpupau;fis Nkk;ghL milar; nra;tjhFk;.
• Ez;zpiyf; fw;gpj;jypd; NghJ cld; gapy;gtNu khztuhf mku;e;jpUg;gu;.
• xt;nthU jpwidAk; Fiwe;jJ 5-7 epkplq;fs; gapw;rp nra;jy; Ntz;Lk;.
• cld; gapYk; khztupy; xUtu; cw;Wnehf;Fgtuhf ,Ug;gu;. ,jid Nguhrpupau;;
xUtu; Nkw;ghu;it nra;thu;.
xUtu; fw;gpj;jypy; KOik ngw Ntz;Lkhapd; my;yJ rpwe;J tpsq;f Ntz;Lkhapd;
mtu; fw;gpj;jypd; cl;jpwd;fspy; KOikahd gapw;rp ngw Ntz;Lk; vd;gNj Ez;zpiyg;
gapw;rpapd; mbg;gilf; fUj;jhFk;.

Ez;z piyf; fw;g pj;j y; Roy;:

Ez;zpiyf; fw;gpj;jypd; $Wfs; Roy; tbtpy; xd;Nwhnlhd;W njhlu;Gilajha;


,Uf;fpd;wd. Ez;zpig; gapw;rpapy; xt;nthU jpwdhf vLj;Jf;nfhz;L me;je;jj; jpwdpy;
FOtpy; cs;s midtUk; Nju;;r;rp ngw;wgpd; NtWjpwd;fis vLj;J gapw;rp ngWfpNwhk;.

Ez;z piyf; fw;g pj;j ypd; ed;i kfs;:


• 5 epkplf; fw;gpj;jNy 45 epkplf; fw;gpj;jYf;F mbg;gilahf mikfpwJ. vdNt
rpWff; fw;gpj;jy; gapw;rp xt;nthU gap;w;rp MrpupaUf;Fk; ,d;wpaikahjJ Mfk;.
• Xt;nthU jpwdpYk; gapw;rp ngWtjhy; tFg;gpy; fw;gpf;Fk; NghJ midj;J
jpwd;fisAk; Njitahd ,lq;fspy; gad;gLj;jr; rpWff; fw;gpj;jy; gad;gLfpwJ.
• Ez;zpiyf; fw;gpj;jypd; Nehf;fq;fs; fw;wy; tpisTfshff; Fwpf;fg;gLfpd;wJ.
• nray; tpisT $wy; %yk; Mrpupa khztd; jd; Fiwfis tpiuthfj; jpUj;jp
Kd;Ndw;wpf; nfhs;syhk;.
• gapw;rp MrpupaUf;F tFg;giwiaf; fl;Lg;gLj;jTk;, tFg;giwapy; Vw;gLk;
,lu;ghLfisr; rkhspf;fTk; Nghjpa typikia Ez;zpiyf;fw;gpj;jy;
mspf;fpd;wJ.
• Xt;nthU jpwdpYk; gapw;rp ngWtjhy; tFg;gpy; fw;gpf;Fk; NghJ midj;J
jpwd;fisAk; Njitahd ,lq;fspy; gad;gLj;jr; rpWff; fw;gpj;jy; gad;gLfpwJ.
gapw;r p ngWk; jpwd;f s;

1. njhlq;Fk; jpwd;
2. tpsf;Fjy; jpwd;
3. fUk;gyifiag; gad;gLj;Jk; jpwd;
4. gy;tifj;Jhz;ly; jpwd;
5. fpsu;tpdhj;jpwd;
6. tYT+l;Lk; jpwd;
7. jfty; gupkhw;wj; jpwd;
8. vLj;Jf;fhl;LfSld; tpsf;Fk; jpwd;
9. Kbf;Fk; jpwd;

njhlq;F k; jpwd;:
njhlq;Fk; jpwd; khztu;fspd; mwpT kw;Wk; czu;r;rpf;F ,ilNa njhlu;ig
Vw;gLj;j Ntz;Lk;. Mrpupau;, khztu;fspd; Kd;dwpitr; Nrhjpj;J tpl;L ghlj;ijj;
njhlq;f Ntz;Lk;. Kd;dwpT Gjpjhfg; ngwg;NghFk; mwpNthL njhlu;Gilajhf ,Uf;f
Ntz;Lk;. khztu;fspd; tFg;G juk; ghlg;nghUs; ,tw;wpw;Nfw;g Jizf;fUtpfisf;
nfhz;Lk; ghlj;ij mwpKfg;gLj;jyhk;.

njhlq;F k; jpwdpd; cl;$ Wfs;:


1. Kd;dwpitg; gad;gLj;Jjy;
2. nghUj;jkhd Jizf; fUtpfisg; gad;gLj;Jjy;
3. njhlu;r;rpapd;ik
4. Njitaw;w nrhw;nwhlu;fisj; jtpu;jj
; y;

tpsf;F jy; jpwd;


tpsf;Fjy; jpwd; Kf;fpakhd jpwd;fspy; xd;W. Xu; Mrpupau; jhd; fw;gpf;fpd;w
Neuj;jpy; ,uz;by; %d;W gFjpia tpsf;FjYf;Nf nrytpLfpd;whu;.

tpsf;Fjy; jpwidf; ifahSk;NghJ Mrpupau; tpdhitj; njhLj;J mjw;fhd


tpiliaAk; mtNu $Wthu;. Mrpupau; tpsf;fk; mspf;Fk; NghJ thu;j ; ;ijfs; ruskhf
tuNtz;Lk;. xU thf;fpaj;jpw;Fk; kw;nwhU thf;fpaj;jpw;Fk; ,ilNA njhlu;G Vw;gLj;jf;
$ba nrhw;fisf; nfhz;L ,izg;gpid Vw;gLj;j Ntz;Lk;. mit vspikahfTk;
njspthfTk; ,Uj;jy; Ntz;Lk;. ,j;jpwdpy; gapw;rp ngWtjd; %yk; fhy tpiuaj;ijf;
Fiwf;fyhk;.
tpsf;F jy; jpwdpd; cl;$ Wfs;:

gad; ey;F k; elj;i jfs;


1. njhlq;Fk; njhlu;
2. njhlu; ,izg;Gr; nrhw;fs;
3. Kw;Wtpf;Fk; njhlu;
4. jpwdwp tpdhf;fs;
5. Vw;w tpilngw;w tpdhf;fs;

jtpu;f ;f Ntz;b ait


1. nghUj;jkw;w nrhw;fs;
2. Ngr;rpy; njhlu;r;rpapd;ik
3. jFjpaw;w nrhw;fs;
4. Ngr;rpy; ruskpd;ik
5. njsptw;w nrhw;fSk; njhlu;fSk;

fUk;g yifiag; gad;g Lj;J k; jpwd;:


tFg;giwf; fw;gpj;jyp;y; gad;gLj;jg;gLk; Jizf;fUtpfSs; ifahStjw;F
vspikahdJk;;, midtuhYk; gad;gLj;jf;$baJk;;, khztu;fSf;F fw;wiy Cf;Ftpg;gJk;
fUk;gyifahFk;. tFg;giwapd; 45 epkplf; fw;gpj;jiy ntspg;gLj;Jk; tz;zk;
fUk;gyifia Mrpupau;fs; jpwikahff; ifahs Ntz;Lk;.

Kf;fpa fUj;Jfs;;, tUlq;fs;;, glq;fs;, ngau;fs; Nghd;wtw;iw khztu;fspd;


ftdj;ij <u;f;Fk; tz;zk; fUk;gyifapy; tupirf;fpufkhfTk;; , njspthfTk;;,
Jy;ypakhfTk; vOj Ntz;Lk;. vdNt Mrpupag; gapw;rp khztu;fs; fUk;gyifiag;
gad;gLj;Jk; jpwdpy; gapw;rp ngWtJ mtu;fSila fw;gpj;jy; gzpia Nkk;gLj;j cjTk;.

fUk;g yifiag; gad;g Lj;J k; jpwdpd; cl;$ Wfs;:


1. ifnaOj;jpy; njspT
2. vOj;Jfs; kw;Wk; nrhw;fSf;fpilNa ,ilntsp kw;Wk; Neu;jj
; p
3. nghUj;jkhd fUk;gyif Ntiy

gy;t ifj;J hz;l y;f isg; gad;g Lj;J k; jpwd;


fw;wy; vd;gJ khztu;fspd; ftdj;ij mbg;gilahff; nfhz;lJ. fw;wy; rpwg;ghf
eilngw Ntz;Lnkdpy; Mrpupau; fw;gpj;jypd; NghJ khztu;fspd; ftdj;ij <u;j;jy;
mtrpakhd xd;whFk;. Mrpupaupd; fw;gpj;jy; nray;fspy; khw;wk; Njhd;wpdhy; khztu;fspd;
ftdk; <u;f;fg;gLk;.
khztu;fspd; ftdj;ij xNu tifahd nraypy; ePz;l Neuk; epiyepWj;JtJ
fbdk;. vdNt rpijtilAk; khztu;fspd; ftdj;ij <u;g;gjw;fhf tpdhf;Nfl;ly; , 
cjhuzq;fisf; fUk;gyifapy; vOJjy;; Nghd;wtw;wpd; %yk; ghlepfo;r;rpapy; kPz;Lk;
xUKfg;gLj;jpdhy;jhd; khztu;fspd; fw;wy; rpwg;ghf mikAk;.

gy;t ifj;J hz;l y;f isg; gad;g Lj;J k; jpwdpd; cl;$ Wfs;:
1. Mrpupau; ,lkhw;wk;
2. iriffs;
3. Fuypy; Vw;wj;jho;T
4. ftdk; <u;j;jy;
5. ,iltpid khw;wk;
6. Ngr;R epWj;jk;
7. gy;tifj; Jhz;ly; khw;wk;

fpsu; tpdhj;j pwd;:

fw;gpj;jYf;F Mrpupaupd; jpwd;kpf;f fUtp tpdhthFk;. ghlg;gnghUisf; fw;gpg;gjw;F mtu;


tpdhf;fs; Nfl;fpwhu; mtw;iwf; fw;gpj;jy; tpdhf;fs; vd;gu;. fw;gpj;j gpd;du; mtu;fs;
ghlg;nghUis ed;F mwpe;Js;sduh vd;W mwpaTk; tpdhf;fs; Nfl;fpd;whu;. mtw;iw
Nju;e;jwp tpdhf;fs; vd;gu;.

fw;gpj;jypd; NghJ Mrpupau; khztu;fspilNa gy;NtW tpdhf;fis vOg;g Ntz;Lk;.


khztu;fs; rupahd tpiliaNah jtwhd tpiliaNah gFjp rupahd tpiliaNah
mspf;fyhk;. rpy rkaq;fspy; tpil juhkYk; ,Uf;fyhk;. khztuplkpUe;J mjpf
nra;jpfis tutiof;Fk; tifapy; Mrpupaupd; Nfs;tpfs; mika Ntz;Lk;.
tpdhf;fspilNa Fwpg;Gfs; nfhLf;fg;glyhk;. khztu;fsplk; Mrpupau; tpdhf;fis vOg;Gk;
jUzj;jpy; khztu;fspd; Kd;dwpT kw;Wk; Kd;mDgtk; mwpag;gLfpwJ. ,t;thW mwpe;J
nfhs;tjhy; Nkw;nfhz;L jpl;lkpl;L fy;tp Gfl;l VJthf mikfpwJ.

fpsu; ;t pdhj; jpwdpd; cl;$ Wfs;:


1. vz;zj;Jhz;ly;
2. nkd;NkYk; nra;jpfis tutioj;jy;
3. njhlu;GgLj;Jjy;
4. tpdh jpir jpUg;Gjy;
5. fhuzk; czu; Mw;wy;
tYT+l;b fisg; gad;g Lj;J k; jpwd;:
Mrpupau; tFg;gpy; fw;gpf;Fk; nghOJ tpdhf;fs; Nfl;fpd;whu;. tpdhf;fSf;F khztu;
tpilaspf;fpd;wdu;. kpfr;rupahd tpil mspf;fpd;wNghJ Mrpupau; xd;Wk; nrhy;yhJ, mLj;j
NtW tpdh Nfl;lhy; khztu; kfpo;r;rp milahu;. fw;wypy; Cf;fk; ngwhu;. rupahd
tpilahdJ Mrpupauhy; Vw;Wf; nfhs;sg;gl;lJ vd Mrpupau; nrhy;yhNyh, gpw
Fwpg;GfshNyh njuptpg;gpd; khztu; kfpo;TWtu;. mt;thW ed;F gbj;J Kiwahf
tpilaspj;jYf;F MrpupauJ nray; tYT+l;LfpwJ. mjid tYT+l;b vd;gu;. ghuhl;ly;
vd;Wk; $wyhk;.

tYT+l;L fisg; gad;g Lj;J k; jpwdpd; cl;$ Wfs;:


1. nkhopr; rhu;Gila tYT+l;bfs;
2. jpUk;gf;$wy;
3. NtWtifapy; $wy;
4. nkhopr;rhu;Gila xypfs;
5. cjTk; iriff; Fwpfs;
6. fUk;gyifapy; tpilia vOJjy;

jfty; gupkhw;w j; jpwd;:

fy;tpapy; jfty; gupkhw;wk; ,d;wpaikahj ,lk; tfpf;fpwJ. fw;gtu; jfty;fis


Vw;FkhW ntspg;gLj;Jtjpy; fy;tpapd; ngUk;gq;F epiwT ngWfpwJ. vdNt, jfty;
gupkhw;wj;jpwd; Mrpupau; ngw Ntz;ba jpwd;fSs; xd;whFk;.

jfty; gupkhw;w j; jpwdpd; cl;$ Wfs;:


1. jfty; mikg;G Kiw
2. jfty; ntspg;ghl;L Kiw
3. jfty; gupkhw;w Neuk;
4. jftiy khztu; Vw;Fk; Nghf;F
5. Mrpupau; gpd;Dhl;lk; ngWjy;

vLj;J f;f hl;L fSld; tpsf;F k; jpwd;:

nghJthf ehk; xU fUj;ijg; gpwUf;Ff; $Wk; nghOJ xU epfo;r;rpiaNah,


nra;jpiaNah $wp, ,JNghy mike;jJ vd tpsf;FfpNwhk;. ,e;epiyiaNa
vLj;Jf;fhl;LfSld; tpsf;Fk; jpwd; vd;gu;. Gjpa fUj;ijNah, Gupahj fUj;ijNah
Mrpupau; khztu;f;Ff; $Wk;nghOJ jFe;j vLj;Jf;fhl;bidf; $wp tpsf;Fk; jpwd; ngWjy;
Ntz;Lk;.

vLj;J f;f hl;L fSld; tpsf;F k; jpwdpd; cl;$ Wfs;:


1. vspikahdit
2. nghUj;jkhdit
3. Rit kpFe;jit
4. taJ tFg;Gepiyf;F Vw;wit
5. khztu; gw;Nfw;G
6. gpd;gw;wg;gl;l Kiw
7. nghJf; Fwpg;G

ghlk; Kbf;F k; jpwd;:


fw;gpf;Fk; xU ghlj;jpd; ghlg;gFjpapd; rpwg;ghd fUj;Jfs; , nfhs;iffs;
fw;gpf;fg;gl;Ltpl;ld vd;Dk; epiyapy; Njhd;Wk;NghJ mtw;iw Kbj;Jf; fhl;LtJ
fw;wYf;Fg; ngUe;Jiz GupAk;.mt;thW Kbj;Jf;fhl;Lk; nghOJjhd; ghlq;fw;NghUf;F xU
epiwT Vw;gLk;.

ghlk; Kbf;F k; jpwdpd; cl;$ Wfs;:

1. fUj;Jfisj; njhFj;Jf;$wy;
2. Gjpa mwpitg; gad;gLj;j tha;g;G
3. Kd;dwpTld; ,izg;G
4. NkYk; fw;wYf;F tha;g;G