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R. gÆxÔD
c>s º√´VEˆBÏ, ÔË>› mÁ≈
ÿ√ˆBVÏ \ËBDÁ\ √_ÔÁȬÔwÔD,
k_ÈD, >fiƒV∆Ï.

A^π sk´ ºƒÔˆ©A


(Collection of data)
®|›m¬ ÿÔVı¶ sƒV´Á¬z ∞u≈ A^π sk´∫ÔÁ·
ºƒÔˆ›>_ A^πlB_ gFs[ x>u√ΩBVzD. ÿ√VmkVÔ A^π
sk´∫Ô^ ºƒÔˆ©√>uz ¶›>©√|D gFsuz tzÕ>© √fl
ÿƒÈ°D, ¿ı¶ ÔVÈxD, √Ȉ[ cÁw©AD º>Ák©√|˛≈m. ®™ºk
A^π sk´∫Ô^ ºƒÔˆ¬zD º√Vm W>V™\VÔ°D ÿ>πkV™
ÿÔV^ÁÔ•¶[ ÿƒB_√¶ ºkı|D.

A^π sk´ ºƒÔˆ©A xÁ≈Ô^


(Methods of Collection of data)

A^π sk´ ºƒÔˆ©A xÁ≈Ô^ x>_ WÁÈ© A^π sk´D


(Primary Data), ÷´ı¶VD WÁÈ©A^π sk´D (Secondary Data)
®™ ÷Ú kÁÔBVÔ© ∏ˆ¬Ô©√|˛[≈™. gFkV·´V_ ∂_Èm
∂kÚÁ¶B ∏´]W]Ô·V_ ºÂ´ΩBVÔ ºƒÔˆ¬Ô©√|D A^π
sk´∫Ô^ x>_ WÁÈ© A^πsk´∫Ô^ ®™©√|˛[≈™.
∂ÀkV§[§, ∞uÔ™ºk ºƒÔˆ¬Ô©√‚| ÿkπl¶©√¶ c^· A^π
sk´∫ÔπoÚÕm ®|¬Ô©√|D sk´∫Ô^ ÷´ı¶VD WÁÈ© A^π
sk´∫Ô^ gzD.
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c>V´\VÔ :

\¬Ô^ ÿ>VÁÔ¬z Ô¬ÿÔ|©A zøs™´V_


ºƒÔˆ¬Ô©√|˛[≈ sk´∫Ô^ ∂¬zøsuz x>_ WÁÈ©A^π
sk´∫Ô^ gzD. ∂Àsk´∫ÔÁ· \u≈kÏÔ^ √B[√|›]™V_
∂Ák ÷´ı¶VD WÁÈ©A^π sk´∫Ô·V˛[≈™.

x>_WÁÈ©A^π sk´∫Ô^: (Primary data)

ŒÚ z§©∏‚¶ gFsuÔVÔ gFkV·´V_ ∂_Èm ∂k´m


√ËBV·ÏÔ·V_ x>[ x>ÈVÔ ºÂ´ΩBVÔ ºƒÔˆ¬Ô©√|˛[≈ A^π
sk´∫Ô^ x>_WÁÈ©A^π sk´∫Ô^ gzD.

c>V´\VÔ :

\¬Ô^ ÿ>VÁÔ Ô¬ÿÔ|©A zøkV_ (Population Census


Committee) \¬Ô^ ÿ>VÁÔ ºƒÔˆ¬Ô©√|km x>_ >´© A^π
sk´∫Ô^ gzD.

÷´ı¶VD WÁÈ©A^π sk´∫Ô^ : (Secondary data)

x[º√ ºƒÔˆ¬Ô©√‚| ÿkπl¶©√‚¶ ∂_Èm


ÿkπl¶©√¶V> A^π sk´∫Ô^ ÷´ı¶VD WÁÈ© A^π
sk´∫Ô^ gzD. ÷©A^π sk´∫Ô^ {Ï gFs[ JÈD
ÿkπkÚk>V_ ÷´ı¶VD >´\VÔ (Second hand) ∂Á\˛[≈m.
÷ÁkÔÁ·© √B[√|›mDº√Vm tzÕ> Ôk™D º>Ák©√|˛[≈m.

÷´ı¶VD >´ A^π sk´∫Ô”¬ÔV™ g>V´∫Ô^ :

(Sources of Secondary data)

÷´ı¶VD WÁÈ©A^π sk´∫Ô”¬ÔV™ g>V´∫ÔÁ·


÷ÚkÁÔÔ·VÔ© ∏ˆ¬Ô©√|˛[≈™.
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∂Ák ÿkπl¶©√‚¶ (Published Sources) g>V´∫Ô^
ÿkπl©√¶V> g>V´∫Ô^ (Unpublished Sources)
®™©√|˛[≈™.

ÿkπl¶©√‚¶ g>V´∫Ô^ : (Published Sources)


ÿkπl¶©√‚¶ A^π sk´∫Ô^:

1. ∂´ƒV_ ÿkπl¶©√‚¶Ák (Official Publication)

2. ∂´∑D >M Â√ÚD ºƒÏÕ> WÆk™∫Ô^ (Semi- Official)

3. >M Â√´V_ ÿkπl¶©√‚¶Ák ®[Æ J[Æ kÁÔl_


∂Á\˛[≈™.

∂´E[ ÿkπX|Ô^ (Official Publications)

∂´∑ ÔÈ©AÁ¶B WÆk™∫Ôπ[ ÿkπX|Ô^:

ÿkπl¶©√¶V> g>V´∫Ô^ : (Unpublished Sources)

®_ÈV© A^π sk´∫Ô”D ÿkπl¶©√|k]_ÁÈ.


ÿkπl¶©√¶V> A^π sk´∫Ô^ c^·™. ∂´∑ \uÆD >M
∂]ÔVˆÔ^ Ák›]Ú¬zD √]ºk|Ô^ g´VFflE ∂Á\©AÔπ[
gF°Ô^, ÿ>Vauƒ∫Ô∫Ôπ[ z§©AÔ^ º√V[≈Ák ÷]_
∂¶∫z˛[≈™.

kÁÔ©√|›m>KD ∂‚¶kÁl|>K
∂‚¶kÁl|>KD D : (Classification and
Tabulation)
A^π sk´∫ÔÁ· kÁÔ©√|›m>_ : (Classification of data)
ºƒÔˆ¬Ô©√‚¶ A^π sk´∫Ô^ √_ºkÆ ÷™∫Ô·VÔ ∏ˆ›m
kÁÔ©√|›>©√|˛[≈™. kÁÔ©√√|›mD xÁ≈Ô^ A^π
sk´∫Ô^ ºƒÔˆ¬Ô©√|D x[™º´ WÏl¬Ô©√¶ ºkıΩB
Œ[≈VzD.
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ºƒÔˆ¬Ô©√‚¶ A^π sk´∫ÔÁ· ∂ÁkÔπ[, √_ºkÆ
kÁÔBV™ >[Á\Ô”¬ºÔu√ √_ºkÆ ∏ˆ°Ô·VÔ (Classes)
√Vz√V| ÿƒF•D xÁ≈¬z kÁÔ©√|›m>_ ®[Æ ÿ√BÏ.

c>V´\VÔ : ŒÚ kz©∏_ √Ω¬zD \VkÏÔÁ· kB][


∂Ω©√Á¶l_ ∂_Èm \]©ÿ√ı ∂Ω©√Á¶l_ ∏ˆ©√Á>¬
Ì≈ÈVD.

kÁÔ©√|›m>o[ kÁÔÔ^ : (Types of Classification)

kÁÔ©√|›m>_ ∏[kÚD kÁÔÔπ_ ∂Á\˛[≈m,

1. ÷¶D ∂_Èm AslB_ ∂Ω©√Á¶l_ kÁÔ©√|›m>_


(Spatial or Geographical Classification)

2. ÔVÈkVˆBVÔ kÁÔ©√|›m>_ (Chronological


Classification)

3. √ıAÔπ[ ∂Ω©√Á¶l_ kÁÔ©√|›m>_ (Qualitative


Classification)

∂‚¶kÁl|>_ : (Tabulation)

ºƒˆ¬Ô©√‚¶ A^π sk´∫Ô^ ∞º>–D ŒÚ kÁÔl_


kÁÔ©√|›>©√‚¶V_>V[ ∂Á> ÂVD AˆÕm ÿÔV^· xΩ•D.
®™ºk, ®›>ÁÔB gFsKD kÁÔ©√|›m>_ x>o¶D ÿ√Æ˛[≈m.
A^π sk´∫ÔÁ· ÿkπl|k]_ ∂‚¶kÁ©√|›m>_ ŒÚ
xÁ≈BVzD ÿ√VÚ^Ôπ[ x¬˛B© √ıÁ√ ÿkπ©√|›mD
xÁ≈l_ ∂§sB_ ka ƒVÏÕ> xÁ≈ºB ∂‚¶kÁ©√|›m>_
gzD.

A^π sk´ ∂‚¶kÁ (Statistical Tables) ®[√m A^π


sk´∫ÔÁ· ºÂÏ kˆÁƒBVÔ°D (Rows) WÁ´ kˆÁƒBVÔ°D
(Colums) Œø∫ÔVÔ ∂Á\¬zD ∂Á\©√VzD.
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A^π sk´∫ÔÁ· ∂ku§[ √ıAÔ”¬zD,
∂·°Ô”¬zD ∞u≈kVÆ √_ºkÆ kz©AÔ·VÔ √Vz√V|
ÿƒF>∏[, ŒÀÿkVÚ kz©∏uzD ŒÀÿkVÚ W´_ (Colums)
÷Ú¬z\VÆ √‚ΩB_ ∂Á\¬Ô©√|˛[≈m, √_ºkÆ kz©AÔÁ·
ƒVÏÕ> ®ıˬÁÔÔ^ ∂>uzˆB E§B Ô‚¶∫Ôπ_
®ø>©√|˛[≈™.

∂‚¶kÁl[ kÁÔÔ^ : (Types of tables)

∂‚¶kÁ ∂ku§[ >[Á\Ô”¬zD, √B[√V| Ô”¬zD


∞u≈ kÁÔl_ ÷Ús>\VÔ kÁÔ©√|›>©√|˛[≈™.

ÿ√Vm ºÂV¬z© √‚ΩB_ (General Purpose Table)

ÿ√Vm ºÂV¬z© √‚ΩB_ ®[√m tÔ°D sˆkV™√‚ΩBÈVzD.


gF°¬ÔVÔ ºƒÔˆ¬Ô©√‚|^· sk´∫Ô^ BV°D xøÁ\BVÔ
÷Àk‚¶kÁl_ z§©∏¶©√|˛[≈m. ÷m ®ı sk´∫ÔÁ·¬

ÿÔVı¶ ŒÚ √‚ΩBÈVÔ ∂Á\˛[≈m. ÷]oÚÕm gFsuÔV™


s·¬Ô›Á> ®π]_ ÿ√≈ xΩBVm.

2. >M ºÂV¬z© √‚ΩB_ ∂_Èm ∑Ú¬Ô©√‚ΩB_ (Special


Purpose Table or Summary Table)

ŒÚ >M©√‚¶ ºÂV¬Ô›]uÔVÔ ∂Á\¬Ô©√|˛[≈ √‚ΩB_


>M ºÂV¬z© √‚ΩBÈVzD. ÿ√Vm ºÂV¬z© √‚ΩBooÚÕm ŒÚ
z§©∏‚¶ ºÂV¬Ô›]uz º>ÁkBV™ sk´∫ÔÁ·¬ ÿÔVı| >M
ºÂV¬z √‚ΩB_ ∂Á\¬Ô©√|˛[≈m. ÷©√‚ΩB_ º>ÁkBV™
sk´∫ÔÁ· \‚|D √B[√|›> ∑Ú¬Ô\VÔ ∂Á\¬Ô©√|k>V_
∑Ú¬Ô©√‚ΩB_ (Summary Table) ®™ ∂Áw¬Ô©√|˛≈m.

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÷©√‚ΩBo_ Œ©∏¶ √¶ ºkıΩB √ıAÔ^ ∂|›>|›m
z§©∏¶©√|k>V_ ∂kuÁ≈ ®π]_ Œ©∏‚| ∂§B xΩ˛[≈m.

∂‚¶kÁl[ cÚk kÁÔÔ^: (Forms of Table)

∂‚¶kÁÔ^ ∂>[ cÚk›][ ∂Ω©√Á¶l_


∏[kÚ\VÆ ∏ˆ¬Ô©√|˛[≈™.

®πB ∂‚¶kÁ: (SimplehTable) A^π sk´∫ÔÁ· ŒÚ


√ı∏[ ∂Ω©√Á¶l_ kÁÔ©√|›] ∂‚¶kÁ©√|›mkm ®πB
∂‚¶kÁ gzD. ÷m sk´ √ıA WÁÈ ∂‚¶kÁ©√|›m>_
gzD (Descriptive Table).

c>V´\VÔ:

ŒÚ ªˆK^· \¬ÔÁ· gı, ÿ√ı ®[≈ ÷Ú


kÁÔÔ·VÔ© ∏ˆ›m ∂‚¶kÁ©√|›m>_ ®πB ∂‚¶kÁ
gzD.

2. ÔÈ©A ∂‚¶kÁ : (Complex Table)

÷´ıΩuz º\u√‚¶ √ıAÔπ[ ∂Ω©√Á¶l_ ∂‚¶kÁ


∂Á\©√m ÔÈ©A ∂‚¶kÁBVzD. ÔÈÁk ∂‚¶kÁ ÷Ú ka
∂‚¶kÁÔ·VºkV (Two Way Table), xÀka
∂‚¶kÁÔ·VºkV (Three Way Table), √_ka
∂‚¶kÁÔ·VºkV (Main Fold Table) ∂Á\˛[≈m.
ÿ√VmkVÔ kÁÔ©√|›mk]_ ∂¶∫˛•^· √ıAÔπ[
®ıˬÁ¬z ∞u≈kVÆ ∂‚¶kÁ ∂Á\˛[≈m.
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ŒÚ √_ka ∂‚¶kÁ ∏[kÚD kÁÔl_ ÷Ú¬zD.
÷Àk‚¶kÁl_ ys√›m √u§B sk´∫Ô^ ÔV‚¶©√‚|^·™.

√_ka ∂‚¶kÁ (Manifold table)

y s√›m sk´∫ÔÁ· ÔV‚|D ÿkuÆ ∂‚¶kÁ:

∂‚¶kÁl[ √z]Ô^ : (Parts of table)

ÿ√VmkVÔ ®_ÈV ∂‚¶kÁ¬zD ®ıˬÁÔ ∂·sÈV™


sk´∫ÔÁ· ºÂÏkˆÁƒ \uÆD WÁ´kˆÁƒ xÁ≈l_
kÁÔ©√|›>©√‚¶>VÔ ÷Ú¬˛[≈™. A^π sk´ ∂‚¶kÁ
∏[kÚD x¬˛B\V™ √z]ÔÁ· ÿÔVıΩÚ¬˛[≈m.

®ı. (Table number)


1. ∂‚¶kÁ kˆÁƒ ®ı

ŒÀÿkVÚ ∂‚¶kÁ¬zD kˆÁƒ ®ıÔ^ ÿÔV|¬Ô©√¶


ºkı|D. ∂‚¶kÁ¬ÔV™ ®ı kˆÁÔBVÔ ∂Á\Õ>>VF ÷Ú¬Ô
ºkı|D.

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2. ∂‚¶kÁ¬ÔV™ ÿ√BÏ: (Title of the Table)

ŒÀÿkVÚ ∂‚¶kÁ¬zD ŒÚ >ÁÈ©A ÷Ú¬Ô


ºkı|D. ∂‚¶kÁl[ >ÁÈ©A ∑Ú¬Ô\VÔ°D ∂º> ƒ\B›]_
s·¬Ô\VÔ°D ÷Ú¬Ô ºkı|D. ®π]_ ∂Á¶BV·D Ôı|
ÿÔV^k>uÔVÔ ∂‚¶kÁ¬z› >ÁÈ©A >´©√|˛[≈m.

3. >ÁÈ©A : (Caption)

>ÁÈ©A ®[√m WÁ´kˆÁƒl[ ÿ√BÁ´¬ z§¬˛[≈m.


WÁ´ kˆÁƒ¬z› mÁ >ÁÈ©AÔ”D >´ ºkı|D.

4. ºÂÏkˆÁƒl[ >ÁÈ©AD ∂Á\©AD: (Stub)

A^π sk´∫Ôπ[ >[Á\ÔÁ·© ÿ√VÆ›m ∂Ák


ºÂÏkˆÁƒlKD, ∂Ô´ kˆÁƒlKD ∂_Èm ∂·° kˆÁƒlKD
∂Á\›m¬ ÿÔV^·ÈVD. ºÂÏkˆÁƒ¬zˆB >ÁÈ©AÔ”D ºkı|D.

5. c¶_√z] (Body)

∂‚¶kÁl[ c¶_ √z]l_ ®ıÔ^ z§¬Ô©√‚ΩÚ¬zD.


÷m ∂‚¶kÁl[ x¬˛B© √z]BVzD.

6. ∂Ω¬z§©A: (Footnote)

A^π sk´∫Ô”¬ÔV™ JÈ g>V´D ∂Ω¬z§©∏_


ÿÔV|¬Ô©√¶ ºkı|D.

s·¬Ô©√¶∫Ô”D kÁ´√¶∫Ô”D (Diagrams and Graphs)

A^πlBo[ x¬˛B© √Ë E¬ÔÈV™ A^π sk´›Á> ®πB


kÁÔl_ ∂π©√>VzD. A^π sk´∫ÔÁ· kÁÔ©√|›m>_
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\uÆD ∂‚¶kÁ©√|›m>_ g˛BkÁk ÷ku§uÔVÔ
ÁÔBV·©√|˛[≈m.

A^π sk´∫ÔÁ· ®π]_ Œ©∏¶°D s·¬Ô°D


s·¬Ô©√¶∫Ô”D (Diagrams), kÁ´√¶∫Ô”D (Graphs)
c>°˛[≈™.

A^π sk´∫ÔÁ· ∂π›>_: (Presentation of


Data)ddddddddddddddd
ddddddddddddddd

ÿ√VmkVÔ, s·¬Ô©√¶∫Ô^ √V\´ \¬ÔÁ·•D √Ω›>kÏÔÁ·•D


®π]_ ÔkÚD >[Á\•Á¶B™. tÔ E¬ÔÈV™ A^π
sk´∫ÔÁ·•D s·¬Ô©√¶∫Ô^ ®π>V¬˛ ƒV>V´ \M>[̶
∂kuÁ≈ AˆÕm ÿÔV^·fl ÿƒF˛[≈m. ÷¬ÔV´›>V_
s·¬Ô©√¶∫Ô^ \uÆD kÁ´√¶∫Ô^ JÈD A^π sk´∫ÔÁ·
∂π©√m (Presentation of data) E≈©∏¶D ÿ√Æ˛[≈m.

s·¬Ô©√¶∫Ôπ[ kÁÔÔ^: (Types of diagrams)

A^π sk´ gF°Ô”¬z ∞u√ √È kÁÔBV™


s·¬Ô©√¶∫Ô^ kÁ´B©√|˛[≈™.

∂ÁkÔπ_ x¬˛B\V™ÁkÔ^,

1. √‚Á¶ s·¬Ô©√¶∫Ô^ (Bar diagrams)

2. ÿƒÀkÔ s·¬Ô©√¶∫Ô^ (Rectangular diagrams)

3. ƒm´ s·¬Ô©√¶∫Ô^ (Square diagrams)

4. k‚¶ s·¬Ô©√¶∫Ô^ (Pie diagrams)

5. cÚkÔ s·¬Ô©√¶∫Ô^ (Pictograms or


cartograms)
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1. √‚Á¶ s·¬Ô©√¶∫Ô^ (Bar Diagrams)

A^π sk´ s·¬Ô©√¶∫Ôπ[ √‚Á¶ s·¬Ô©√¶∫Ô^


ÿ√ÚD ∂·s_ √B[√|›>©√|˛[≈™.

÷Ák kÁ´k>uz ®π>V™Ák. ®›>ÁÔB sk´›Á>•D √‚Á¶


s·¬Ô©√¶›][ JÈD z§©∏¶xΩ•D.

®M–D, A^π sk´∫Ôπ[ >[Á\¬z ∞u√ ÷ÀkÁ´√¶∫Ô^


kÁ´B©√|˛[≈™.

√‚Á¶ s·¬Ô©√¶∫Ô^

( ∂ ) >M©√‚Á¶ s·¬Ô©√¶D
( g) Ì‚|©√‚Á¶ s·¬Ô©√¶D
( ÷ ) ÌÆ√‚Á¶ s·¬Ô©√¶D
( ~ ) ƒ>T>©√‚Á¶ s·¬Ô©√¶D
®[≈ ÂV[z kÁÔÔπ_ c^·™.

√‚Á¶ s·¬Ô©√¶∫Ôπ[ kÁÔÔ^:

(Types of Bar diagrams)

∂. >M©√‚Á¶ s·¬Ô©√¶D (Simple Bar Diagram)

A^πlB_ s·¬Ô©√¶∫Ôπ_ >M©√‚Á¶ s·¬Ô©√¶D


tÔ°D ®π>V™>VzD. ŒÚ \V§lÁ™ ÔV‚¶ (Variable) ÷m
√B[√|˛≈m. >M©√‚Á¶ s·¬Ô©√¶∫Ô^ ˛Á¶©√‚Á¶ s·¬Ô©√¶D
(Horizontal Diagram) ®[≈ kÁÔlKD ÿƒ∫z›m© √‚Á¶
s·¬Ô©√¶D (Vertical Bar diagram) ®[≈ kÁÔlKD
∂Á\BÈVD.
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÷Às·¬Ô© √¶›]_ ƒ\ ∂ÔÈ›m¶[ ÌΩB √È √‚Á¶Ô^
ÔV©√|˛[≈™. ÷©√‚Á¶Ôπ[ ¿·∫Ô^ ∂Ák z§¬˛[≈
\V§Ôπ[ \]©A¬z ƒ\\VÔ ÷Ú¬zD. ®_ÈV© √‚Á¶Ô”D ƒ\
÷Á¶ÿkπl_ ∂Á\¬Ô©√‚ΩÚ¬zD.
>M©√‚Á¶ s·¬Ô©√¶D: s·¬ÔD (Illustration of Simple bar
diagram)
∏[kÚD ∂‚¶kÁl_ EÈ ÂV|ÔπoÚÕm ÷≈¬z\]
ÿƒFB©√‚¶ ÿ√VÚ‚Ôπ[ \]©AÔ^ >´©√‚|^·™. ÷©A^π
sk´∫ÔÁ· >M©√‚Á¶ s·¬Ô©√¶›]_ kÁ´Ô.

g. Ì‚|©√‚Á¶ s·¬Ô©√¶D: (Multiple Bar Diagram)

Œ[Ƭz º\u√‚¶ sk´∫ÔÁ· Œ©∏¶ ºkıΩB ÷¶∫Ôπ_


®_ÈVD ÷›>ÁÔB s·¬Ô© √¶∫ÔÁ· √B[√|›>ÈVD. Œ©AºÂV¬Ô
ºkıΩB ÿ√VÚ^Ôπ[ ®ıˬÁÔ¬z ∞u≈√Ω Ì‚|©√‚Á¶
√¶∫ÔÁ· ∂|›>|›m kÁ´Õm Œ©∏¶ ºkı|D. ÷Ú √‚Á¶Ô^
JÈD z§¬Ô©√|˛[≈ s·¬Ô©√¶›]uz ÷Ú √‚Á¶ s·¬Ô©√¶D
(Double Bar Diagram) ®[Æ ÿ√BÏ. J[Æ

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√‚Á¶Ô^ JÈD z§¬˛[≈ s·¬Ô©√¶›]uz x©√‚Á¶
s·¬Ô©√¶D ®[Æ ÿ√BÏ. ÿ√VmkVÔ ÷>uz Ì‚|©√‚Á¶
s·¬Ô©√¶D (Compound Diagram or Multiple
BarhDiagram)h®[Æ ÿ√BÏ. ÷ÀkÁÔ s·¬Ô©√¶›][ JÈD
tÔ ∂]Ô\V™ sk´∫ÔÁ· z§©∏¶ xΩ˛[≈m.
Ì‚|©√‚Á¶ s·¬Ô©√¶D s·¬ÔD : (Illustration of Multiple
bar diagram)
∏[kÚD ∂‚¶kÁl_ ÔV‚¶©√‚¶ sk´∫Ô”¬z
Ì‚|©√‚Á¶ s·¬Ô©√¶D kÁ´Ô.

TNPSC s™V- sÁ¶ ÁÔºB|


கல்வி அமுது http://kalviamuthu.blogspot.com

229
÷. ÌÆ√‚Á¶ s·¬Ô©√¶D (Component Bar Diagram (or)
Subdivided Bar Diagram)
ÿÔV|¬Ô©√‚¶ \V§Ôπ[ \]©AÔ^ √È ÌÆÔ·VÔ ∂_Èm
√z]Ô·VÔ ∏ˆ¬Ô©√‚ΩÚ©∏[ ∂>uz kÁ´B©√|D s·¬Ô©√¶D
ÌÆ√‚Á¶ s·¬Ô©√¶\VzD. ÷Às·¬Ô© √¶›][ √‚Á¶Ô^
√_ºkÆ ∏ˆ°Ô·VÔ© ∏ˆ¬Ô©√|˛[≈™. c>V´\VÔ, ŒÚ ÂV‚Ω[
ÿ\V›> \¬Ô^ ÿ>VÁÔl_ gı, ÿ√ı ®[≈ ÷ÚÌÆÔ^
c^·™. ÷kuÁ≈ s·¬Ô ÌÆ√‚Á¶ s·¬Ô©√¶D kÁ´BÈVD.
c>V´D
c>V´D: ∏[kÚD sk´∫ÔÁ· ÌÆ√‚Á¶ s·¬Ô©√¶›][
JÈD ÔV‚|>_

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(~~) ƒ>T> √‚Á¶ s·¬Ô©√¶D : (Percentage)
ŒÀÿkVÚ \V§l[ √_ºkÆ ÌÆÔπ[ \]©AÔ^ ƒ>T>
∂·kVÔ ÿÔV|¬Ô©√‚ΩÚÕ>V_ ƒ>T>© √‚Á¶ s·¬Ô©√¶D
kÁ´B©√¶ ºkı|D. ®_ÈV \V§Ô”¬zD cˆB √‚Á¶Ô^ ƒ\
¿·x^·ÁkBVÔ kÁ´B©√¶ ºkı|D. ŒÀÿkVÚ \V§lKD
c^· ÌÆÔ”¬ºÔu√ ∂>uzˆB© √‚Á¶Ô”D √È ÌÆÔ·VÔ©
∏ˆ¬Ô©√|˛[≈™. ÷›>ÁÔB© √¶∫ÔπoKÚÕm √_ºkÆ
ÌÆÔπ[ Œ©AÁ\ \]©Á√ (Relative Value) ∂§Õm ÿÔV^·
xΩ˛≈m.
ƒ>T> √‚Á¶ s·¬Ô©√¶D á s·¬ÔD: (Illustration of
Percentage Bar Diagram)
∏[kÚD A^π sk´∫ÔÁ· s·¬Ô© √¶›]_ kÁ´Ô.

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÷Ú √ˆ\V s·¬Ô©√¶∫Ô^: (Two Dimensional Diagram)

√‚Á¶ s·¬Ô©√¶›]_ ¿·D (Length) \‚|D


ÔV‚¶©√|˛[≈m. ∂ÔÈD (Width) Œº´ ∂·kVÔ ∂Á\¬Ô©√|˛≈m.
÷>uz \V≈VÔ ¿·xD ∂ÔÈxD s·¬Ô©√¶›]_ ÔV‚¶©√|˛[≈™.
÷m ÷Ú √ˆ\V s·¬Ô©√¶∫Ô^ (Two-Dimensional) ∂_Èm
√´©√·° s·¬Ô©√¶∫Ô^ (Area Diagrams) ®™©√|˛[≈™. ÷Ú
√ˆ\V s·¬Ô©√¶∫Ôπ_ x¬˛B\V™ÁkÔ·VÔ,

1. ÿƒÀkÔ s·¬Ô©√¶∫Ô^
2. ƒm´ s·¬Ô©√¶∫Ô^
3. k‚¶ s·¬Ô©√¶∫Ô^ c^·™.

ÿƒÀkÔ s·¬Ô©√¶D: (Rectangular Diagram)

ŒÚ ÿƒÀkÔD ¿·D, ∂ÔÈD ®[≈ ÷Ú √¬Ô∫ÔÁ·¬


ÿÔVıΩÚ¬˛≈m. A^π sk´∫ÔÁ· ÔV‚|˛[≈ º√Vm ÷Ák
÷´ı|D Ô¬˛_ ®|›m¬ ÿÔV^·©√|˛≈m, ÷ÚkÁÔBV™
A^π sk´∫Ô^ ÿÔV|¬Ô©√‚ΩÚ¬˛[≈º√Vm ∂Ák ÿƒÀkÔ
s·¬Ô©√¶∫Ô^ z|D√ k´° ÿƒÈ° ]‚¶∫Ô^, ÷Ú ]‚¶¬
ÔVÈ∫ÔÁ· Œ©∏|>_ g˛BkuÁ≈ z§©∏¶© √B[√|˛[≈™.

ÿƒÀkÔ s·¬Ô© √¶›][ s·¬ÔD: (Illustration Of


Rectangular Diagram)

ÿƒÀkÔ s·¬Ô©√¶D kÁ´k>uz ÷Ú kÁÔBV™ A^π


sk´∫Ôπ[ ÿ\V›>›]oÚÕm ÷Às´ıΩuz\V™ s˛>D (Ratio)
Ô¬˛¶©√|˛[≈m, ÷Às˛>›][ ∂Ω©√Á¶l_ ÷Ú
ÿƒÀkÔ∫Ôπ[ ∂ÔÈD ∂Á\›m¬ ÿÔV^·©√|˛[≈m. ÷Ú
ÿƒÀkÔ∫Ôπ[ ¿·D (length)100%\VÔ Ák›m¬ ÿÔV^·©√‚|
√_ºkÆ ÿƒÈs™∫Ô”D ∂]_ c‚∏ˆkVÔ¬ ÔV‚¶©√‚|^·m.
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÷Ú z|D√∫Ôπ[ k´° ÿƒÈ° ]‚¶ \]©AÔÁ·¬ ÔV‚|D ÿƒÀkÔ


s·¬Ô©√¶D.

ƒm´ s·¬Ô©√¶D (Square Diagram)


ÿÔV|¬Ô©√‚¶ \V§Ôπ[ \]©AÔ^ Œ[ƬÿÔV[Æ ∂]Ô
s›]BVƒ›]_ ÷ÚÕ>V_ ƒm´∫Ôπ[ JÈD \V§Ô”¬z ÷Á¶ºB
c^· Œ©AÁ\ÁB ÔV‚¶ xΩ˛≈m. ƒm´∫Ôπ[ √¬Ô∫ÔÁ· ∂Ák
z§©∏|˛[≈ \V§Ôπ[ \]©∏[ kÏ¬Ô JÈ∫Ô”¬z
(SquaregRoot) ƒ\\VÔ ®|›m¬ ÿÔV^· ºkı|D. ®_ÈV
ƒm´∫Ô”D Œº´ ∂Ω¬ºÔV‚Ω[ º\_ ÷Ú¬z\VÆ kÁ´B ºkı|D.

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ƒm´ s·¬Ô©√¶D á s·¬ÔD (Illustration of Square Diagram )

∏[kÚD A^π sk´∫Ô”¬ÔV™ ƒm´ s·¬Ô©√¶D kÁ´Ô.

Ô_KVˆ Á\BD º>Ï° ®ø]BkÏÔ^

]ÚflE, >fiÁƒ, AmÁÔ 400, 625, 900

÷>uÔV™ kϬÔJÈ∫Ô^ xÁ≈ºB 20, 25, 30 gzD.


÷Ák ƒm´∫Ôπ[ √¬Ô ∂·kVÔ¬ ÿÔVı| ƒm´∫Ô^ kÁ´B©√¶
ºkı|D. ƒm´∫ÔÁ· kÁ´km tÔ°D ÔΩ™\V™>VÁÔBVKD
÷´ı| ƒm´∫Ôπ[ √´©√·°ÔÁ· ƒˆBVÔ Œ©∏¶ xΩBV>>VKD
ÂÁ¶xÁ≈l_ ƒm´ s·¬Ô©√¶D √B[√|›mk]_ÁÈ.

k‚¶ s·¬Ô©√¶∫Ô^ (Pie Diagram or Circular Diagram)

\V§ÔÁ· (Variables) √‚Á¶Ô·VÔ kÁ´Õm ÔV‚|kÁ> s¶


\V§Ôπ[ ∂·°¬z› >zÕ> √´©AÔÁ·¬ ÿÔVı¶ k‚¶∫ÔÁ·
kÁ´Õm ÔV‚|km ®π>VÔ ÷Ú¬˛[≈m. k‚¶∫Ô·VÔ kÁ´B©√|D
s·¬Ô©√¶∫Ô”¬z k‚¶ s·¬Ô©√¶∫Ô^ ®[Æ ÿ√BÏ. ÷Ú
√ˆ\V s·¬Ô©√¶∫Ôπ_ (TwofDimensionsfDiagrams) ∂]Ô
x¬˛B›mkD kVFÕ>m k‚¶ s·¬Ô©√¶∫Ô^ gzD. ÿÔV|¬Ô©
√‚|^· \V§Ô^ ŒÀÿkV[ÆD ŒÚ k‚¶›][ JÈD z§©∏¶©
√|˛[≈m. k‚¶∫Ôπ[ √´©√·°Ô^ \V§Ôπ[ ÿ\V›>
\]©AÔπ[ s˛>∫Ôπ_ ÷Ú¬Ôºkı|D. \V§Ôπ[
c‚ÌÆÔÁ· (Subdivision) k‚¶©√z]¬z^ z§©∏¶ ºkı|D.
√È \V§ÔÁ· z§©∏|˛[≈ k‚¶∫Ô^ ÷≈∫z kˆÁƒl_
kÁ´B©√¶ ºkı|D. k‚¶›]_ k‚¶ ºÔV©√z]l_ ŒÀÿkV[ÆD
ŒÚ \V§ÁB¬ z§¬˛[≈m.

k‚¶ s·¬Ô©√¶∫Ô”¬ÿÔ™ >Mfl E≈©A ÷Ú¬˛[≈m. √È


√z]ÔÁ·¬ ÿÔVı¶ ŒÚ \V§l_ ŒÚ √z]ÁB \uÿ≈VÚ
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√z]ºBV| Œ©∏‚| √VÏ©√>uz k‚¶ s·¬Ô©√¶∫Ôº·
tÔ°D ÿ√VÚ›>\V™ÁkBVzD. k‚¶ s·¬Ô©√¶D s·D
√´∫ÔπKD, ÔıÔV‚ElKD ÿ√ˆmD √B[√|›>©√|˛[≈™.
∂Ák ÿ√Vm \¬Ôπ[ √VÏÁkÁB ÔkÏÕm ÷ø©√º>V|, ∂kÏÔ·m
ÔÚ›Á>•D ÿkπ©√|›m˛[≈m.

z§©√VÔ k‚¶ s·¬Ô©√¶∫Ô^ JÈD z§©∏¶©√|˛[≈ W]


√u§B sk´∫Ô^ \¬Ô^ \™]_ gw\VÔ √]Õms|˛[≈™.
®M–D k‚¶ s·¬Ô©√¶∫ÔÁ· kÁ´kmD k‚¶ √z]l[
√´©AÔÁ· Œ©∏|kmD ƒuÆ ÔΩ™\V™ ÿƒBÈVzD.

k‚¶ s·¬Ô©√¶D kÁ´>_: (Pie Digram)

ŒÚ k‚¶D ∂>–Á¶B Á\B›]_ ÿÔVıΩÚ¬˛[≈


ºÔV›][ ∂·° 360 Ω˛ˆ gzD. √_ºkÆ ÌÆÔÁ·¬ ÿÔVı¶
\V§l[ ÿ\V›> \]©Á√ 360 Ω˛ˆ ƒ\\V¬˛ ÿÔV^· ºkı|D.
∏≈z ŒÀÿkVÚ Ì§[ \]©∏[ ∂·Ák √VÁÔ (Degree) ∂·s_
\Vu§¬ÿÔV^· ºkı|D. ŒÀÿkVÚ ÌƬzD c^· √VÁÔ¬ ºÔu√
k‚¶›Á> √_ºkÆ √z]Ô·VÔ© ∏ˆ›m¬ ÔV‚¶ ºkı|D. k‚¶›][
ŒÀÿkVÚ √z]ÁB•D ºkÆ√|›mD kÁÔl_ √È kı∫Ô^
∂_Èm kΩk∫Ô^ (Design) ÿÔV|¬Ô ºkı|D. ŒÀÿkVÚ
kıxD ®Á>¬ z§¬˛[≈ÿ>[√Á> k‚¶ s·¬Ô© √¶›][
∂Ú˛_ z§©∏‚|¬ ÔV‚¶ ºkı|D.

\V]ˆ:

∏[kÚD A^π sk´›]uzˆB ÿ√VÚ›>\V™ s·¬Ô©√¶D


kÁ´Ô.

c° 63%, ºƒV©A -19% , kV¶ÁÔ -12% ,


ÿ√Vømº√V¬z 6%
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ÿƒFxÁ≈:

c° 63% , 63/100 360 = 227 Ω˛ˆ

ºƒV©A -19%, 19/100 360 = 68 Ω˛ˆ

kV¶ÁÔ - 12%, 12/100 360 = 43 Ω˛ˆ

ÿ√Vømº√V¬z -6%, 6/100 360 = 22 Ω˛ˆ

cÚkÔ©√¶∫Ô^ : (Pictograms)

EÈkÁÔ© A^π sk´∫ÔÁ· EÈ E§B √¶∫Ôπ[ JÈD


kÁ´Õm s·¬zkm cÚkÔ© √¶∫Ô^ gzD.

c>V´\VÔ:

t]kıΩÔ^, ¸Ì‚¶Ï º√V[≈ku§[ cu√›] ∂·Ák


t]kıΩÔ^, ¸Ì‚¶Ï g˛B √¶∫ÔÁ· kÁ´Õm s·¬ÔÈVD.
cÚkÔ© √¶∫Ôπ[ JÈD ÔV‚¶©√|˛[≈ √¶ s·¬Ô›]uz cÚkÔ
s·¬Ô©√¶D ®[Æ ÿ√BÏ. \V§Ôπ[ \]©A¬z› >¬ÔkVÆ
∂ku§[ cÚkD kÁ´Õm ÔV‚¶©√|˛[≈m. cÚkÔ© √¶∫Ôπ[
JÈD º>V´VB \]©AÔÁ·ºB ÿ√≈ xΩ˛≈m.
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ÿ√VÚ›>\V™ s·¬Ô©√¶›Á> º>ÏÕÿ>|›>_ (Choice Of A
Suitable Diagram)
s·¬Ô©√¶∫Ôπ_ √ÈkÁÔBV™ÁkÔ^ c^·™. ÷ku§_
®Á> º>ÏÕÿ>|©√m ®[Æ A^π sk´›][ >[Á\ÁB•D,
BVÚ¬ÔVÔ s·¬Ô©√¶D kÁ´B©√|˛[≈ ÿ>[√Á>•D ÿ√VÆ›m
∂Á\˛[≈m.
1. >M©√‚Á¶ s·¬Ô©√¶D
s·¬Ô©√¶D: ÿ\V›>›]_ c^· \VÆ>_ÔÁ· ÔV‚¶
√B[√|›>©√¶ÈVD.

c>V´\VÔ,

1. ÷Õ]BVs_ √È \VWÈ∫Ôπ[ ºÔVmÁ\ cu√›]ÁB


ÔV‚¶ ÷ÀkÁÔBV™ √¶D kÁ´B©√¶ÈVD.

2. ÿ\V›>›Á>•D ÌÆÔπ[ ∂·°ÔÁ·•D, (Component)


ÔV‚¶ ÌÆ√‚Á¶ s·¬Ô©√¶D √B[√|›>ÈVD.

3. ÌÆÔπ[ \]©∏_ c^· ºkÆ√V‚Á¶ ÔV‚¶ ∂º>


ƒ\B›]_ ÿ\V›>D x¬˛B›mkD ÿ√≈V> WÁÈl_ Ì‚|©√‚Á¶
s·¬Ô©√¶D (Multiple Bar) √B[√|›>©√¶ÈVD.

4. ÌÆÔπ[ Œ©AÁ\ \]©∏_ (RelativeValue) c^·


ºkÆ√V‚Á¶ s·¬Ô ƒ>T> √‚Á¶ s·¬Ô©√¶D ÿ√VÚ›>
\V™>VÔ ∂Á\˛≈m.
5. ÌÆÔ^ ∂]Ô ®ıˬÁÔloÚ¬˛[≈ º√Vm k‚¶
s·¬Ô©√¶D tÔ°D ÿ√VÚ›>\V™m.
ÿ\V›>›Á>•D Œ©AÁ\ s˛>›Á>•D ÔV‚¶ k‚¶ s·¬Ô©√¶D
∂]ÔD √B™π¬ÔÌΩB>VzD.
\u≈ kÁÔBV™ s·¬Ô©√¶∫Ô^ ∂]Ô\VÔ
√B[√|›>©√¶Vs‚¶VKD EÈ z§©∏‚¶ >[Á\ÔÁ·
s·¬zk>uÔVÔ cÚkÔ© √¶∫Ô^, A^π sk´©√¶∫Ô^,

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(Cartogram) ƒm´∫Ô^,
ÿƒÀkÔ∫Ô^ º√V[≈
s·¬Ô©√¶∫Ô”D {´·suz √B[√|˛[≈™.

kÁ´√¶∫Ô^ (Graphs)

A^πlB_ gFs_ s·¬Ô©√¶∫Ô^ kÁ´km º√VÈ


kÁ´√¶∫Ô^ kÁ´B©√|˛[≈™. kÁ´√¶∫Ô^ A^πlB_
sk´∫ÔÁ· ƒˆBVÔ, \uÆD ÿ>πkVÔ ÔV‚|˛[≈™. kÁ´√¶∫Ô^
kÁ´km ®πm. gF°¬zD kÁ´√¶∫Ô^ ∂]Ô\VÔ
√B[√|›>©√|˛[≈™. ÔVÈD ƒVÏ ÿ>V¶Ï kˆÁƒ (Time Series)
\uÆD ∂ÁÈÿkı √´k_ (Frequency distribution)
g˛BÁkÔπ[ ÷B_AÔÁ·© √u§ ∂§k>uz kÁ´√¶∫Ô^
tÔ°D c>sBVÔ ÷Ú¬˛[≈™.

kÁ´√¶∫Ôπ[ kÁÔÔ^ : (Types of Graphs)

kÁ´√¶∫Ô^ ÔVÈDƒVÏ ÿ>V¶Ï kˆÁƒl[ (Timefseries)


÷B_AÔÁ· s·¬zk>uzD WÔµÿkı √´k_ÔÁ·
s·¬zk>uzD kÁ´B©√|˛[≈™.

1. ÔVÈD ƒVÏ ÿ>V¶Ï kˆÁƒ kÁ´√¶D : (Time Series Graph)

ÔVÈD ƒVÏ ÿ>V¶ÏkˆÁƒl[ ÷B_AÔÁ· s·¬zk>uz


kÁ´B©√|D kÁ´√¶∫Ô^ ÔVÈDƒVÏ ÿ>V¶Ï kˆÁƒ kÁ´√¶∫Ô^
®™©√|˛[≈™. ÷ÀkÁ´√¶›]_ Xk∂flE_ ÔVÈxD, Yj∂flE_
\V§Ôπ[ \]©AÔ”D z§©∏¶©√|˛[≈™. ŒÀÿkVÚ ÔVÈ›]uzD
cˆB \]©AÔ^ A^πBVÔ kÁ´√¶›]_ z§¬Ô©√‚| ∂©A^πÔ^
ºÂÏ ºÔV|Ô·V_ ÷Á¬Ô©√|˛[≈™.

∏[kÚD A^π sk´∫Ô”¬ÔV™ kÁ´√¶D Œ[Æ


kÁ´√¶›>Vπ_ (Graph Paper) kÁ´Ô.
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kÁ´√¶∫Ô^ JÈD Œ[Ƭz º\u√‚¶ \V§Ôπ[ \]©AÔÁ·


z§©∏‚| kÁ´Õm Œ©∏‚|© √VϬÔÈVD. c>V´\VÔ, ÷Ú
gı|Ôπ_ ºÔVmÁ\ cu√›]lÁ™ z§›m kÁ´√¶D
kÁ´Õm ÷´ıÁ¶•D Œ©∏‚| ∂§BÈVD.
2. ∂ÁÈÿkı √´kÁÈ s·¬zD kÁ´√¶∫Ô^: (Frequency
Graph)
{Ï ∂ÁÈÿkı √´kÁÈ (FrequencygDistribution)
s·¬Ô© √¶\VÔ z§©∏|D xÁ≈¬z ∂ÁÈÿkı kÁ´√¶D
®[Æ ÿ√BÏ. ÷ku§_ ÂV[z kÁÔÔ^ c^·™. ∂Ák,
1. ºÔV‚|Úk© √¶D (Line Graph)
2. √´k_ ÿƒÀkÔ∫Ô^ (Histograms)
3. ∂ÁÈÿkı √_ºÔVD (Frequency Polygon)
4. ∂ÁÈÿkı kÁ·ºÔV| (Frequency Curve)
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1. ºÔV‚|Úk© √¶D (Line Graph)
ºÔV‚|Úk©√¶D ÿ>V¶ÏflEBV™ √È ºÔV|ÔÁ·¬
ÿÔVı¶m. ÷¬ºÔV|Ô^ ŒÀÿkV[§[ ¿·xD ŒÀÿkVÚ
∏ˆsKD c^· ∂ÁÈÿkıËuz ƒ\\VÔ ∂Á\•D. ºÔV|Ô^
(Line) ∏ˆs[ Â|©A^πloÚÕm ÿƒ∫z›>VÔ kÁ´B©√|˛[≈m.
ºÔV‚|Úk© √¶Dás·¬ÔD (Illustration of Line Graph)
∏[kÚD ∂‚¶kÁ¬ÔV™ ºÔV‚|Úk© √¶D kÁ´Ô.

2. √´k_ ÿƒÀkÔD (Histograms) :


∂ÁÈÿkı √´k_Ôπ[ kÁ´√¶ kÁÔÔ^ √´k_
ÿƒÀkÔD ÂÁ¶xÁ≈l_ √´kÈVÔ© √B[√|›>©√|˛[≈m.
∏ˆ° ÷Á¶ÿkπl_ º\_ kÁ´B©√|D ÿƒÀkÔ© √‚Á¶Ô·V_
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g™ √¶D ÿƒÀkÔ© √¶D gzD. ÷]_, ∂ÁÈÿkı
√´ko[ ∏ˆ° ®_ÁÈÔ^ (ClassgBoundries) BV°D kˆÁƒBVÔ
˛Á¶BflE[º\_ (Xpaxis) z§¬Ô©√|˛≈m. ∏ˆ° ÷Á¶ÿkπÔπ[
º\_ (Classkintervals) ŒÀÿkVÚ ∏ˆ°Ôπ[ ∂ÁÈÿkıÔ”¬z
ƒ\\V™ √´©AÔÁ·¬ ÿÔVı¶ ÿƒÀkÔ∫Ô^ kÁ´B©√|˛[≈™.
÷ÀkVÆ kÁ´B©√|˛[≈ ÿƒÀkÔ∫Ô^ ∂¶∫˛B kÁ´√¶›]uz
√´k_ ÿƒÀkÔD ®[Æ ÿ√BÏ.
√´k_ ÿƒÀkÔ© √¶D s·¬ÔD: (Illustration of Histogram)
ÿÔV|¬Ô©√‚|^· ∂ÁÈÿkı √´kK¬ÔV™ √´k_
ÿƒÀkÔD kÁ´Ô. (ºÂÏ ºÔV‚|Úk© √¶›]uÔV™ A^π sk´›Á>
ÿÔVı| √´k_ ÿƒÀkÔ©√¶D kÁ´B©√‚|^·m.

3. ∂ÁÈÿkı √_ºÔVD : (Frequency Polygon):


√´k_ ÿƒÀkÔ© (FrequencyhPolygon) √¶›][ ŒÀÿkVÚ
ÿƒÀkÔ›][ º\_A≈›][ Â|©A^πÔÁ· ºÂϺÔV|Ô·V_
÷Á›>V_ ∂ÁÈÿkı √_ºÔVD ˛Á¶¬˛[≈m. ÷>[
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∂Ω©√Á¶¬ ÔÚ›m ŒÚ ∏ˆsK^· ®_ÈV Â√ÏÔπ[ \]©AD
∂©∏ˆs[ Á\B ∂·Ákfl ∑u§ zsÕ]Ú¬zD ®[√º> gzD.
÷›>ÁÔB √È √¬Ô∫ÔÁ·¬ ÿÔVıΩÚ©√>V_ √È √¬Ô
cÚkÔ∫Ô^ ®[Æ ∂Áw¬Ô©√|˛[≈™. ÷Õ> cÚk∫Ô^
∂ÁÈÿkıÔÁ· z§©√>V_ ∂m ∂ÁÈÿkı √_ºÔVD ®™°D
∂Áw¬Ô©√|˛≈m.
√´k_ ÿƒÀkÔ∫ÔÁ·¬ ÔV‚ΩKD ∂ÁÈÿkı √_ºÔV∫Ôπ[
ÈD Œ[Ƭz º\u√‚¶ ∂ÁÈÿkı √´k_ÔÁ· ÿ>πkVÔ Œ©∏‚|
∂§B xΩ•D. (x[ >´©√‚|^· A^π sk´∫Ô”¬ÔV™
∂ÁÈÿkı kÁ· ºÔV| ∏[kÚ\VÆ ∂Á\˛≈m).

4. ∂ÁÈÿkı kÁ·ºÔV| (Frequency Curve)


√_ºÔV ÿƒÀkÔ∫Ôπ[ Á\B©A^πÔÁ·
ºÂϺÔV|Ô·V_ ÷Á©√>uz √]ÈVÔ ®πBº>VÏ Œø∫ÔV™
ºÔV‚Ω™V_ ÷Á›>V_ {Ï kÁ·ºÔV| ˛Á¶¬zD. ÷ÀkÁ· ºÔV|
∂ÁÈÿkıÁ¬ z§©√>V_ ÷m ∂ÁÈÿkıkÁ·ºÔV|
®[≈Áw¬Ô©√|˛[≈m.

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Á\B© √z]ÁB ÷Á¬˛[≈º√Vm ∂ÁÈÿkı
√_ºÔV›][ √´©Á√•D ∂ÁÈÿkı kÁ·ºÔV‚Ω[ √´©√·°D
ƒ\\VÔ ÷Ú¬Ô ºkı|D. ∂ÁÈÿkı kÁ·ºÔV‚Á¶ ÿƒÀkÔ©√¶D
kÁ´Õm ∂>[ *m kÁ´BÈVD ∂_Èm ºÂ´ΩBVÔ°D kÁ´BÈVD.

∂ÁÈÿkı kÁ·ºÔV‚Ω[ JÈD ∂ÁÈÿkı √´ko[


xÔ‚¶·Ák \]©∏¶ÈVD. ∂ÁÈÿkı kÁ´√¶D ÔË>©
A^πlBo_ E≈Õ>ÿ>VÚ √∫z k˛¬˛[≈m. ∂ÁÈÿkı
kÁ·¬ºÔV|Ô^ ƒ\flÊ´VÔ ∂Á\•D º√Vm ∂m ƒ\flÊÏ
kÁ·ºÔV|Ô^ (Normal Curve) ®™ ∂Áw¬Ô©√|˛≈m.

x[ >´©√‚|^· A^π sk´∫Ô”¬ÔV™ kÁ·ºÔV|


∏[kÚ\VÆ ∂Á\˛≈m.

\V]ˆs™VsÁ¶:
1. gFkV·´V_ ºÂ´ΩBVÔ ºƒÔˆ¬Ô©√|D A^π sk´∫Ô^ ®ÀkVÆ
∂Áw¬Ô©√|˛≈m?

(A) x>_ WÁÈ© A^π sk´D.

(B) ÷´ı¶VD WÁÈ© A^π sk´D


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(C) J[≈VD WÁÈ© A^π sk´D

(D) ÷ku§_ ∞mt_ÁÈ.

sÁ¶: (A)x>_
x>_ WÁÈ©A^π sk´D

2. x[º√ ºƒÔˆ¬Ô©√‚| ÿkπl¶©√‚¶ A^π sk´∫Ô^ ®ÀkVÆ


∂Áw¬Ô©√|˛[≈m?

(A) x>_ WÁÈ© A^π sk´D

(B) ÷´ı¶VD WÁÈ© A^π sk´D

(C) \¬Ô^ ÿ>VÁÔ Ô¬ÿÔ|©A

(D) ÷ku§_ ∞mt_ÁÈ.

sÁ¶: (B) ÷´ı¶VD WÁÈ© A^π sk´D

3. ºƒÔˆ¬Ô©√‚¶ A^π sk´∫ÔÁ· ∂ku§[ √_ºkÆ kÁÔBV™


>[Á\ºÔu√ √È ∏ˆ°Ô·VÔ √Vz√V| ÿƒF•D xÁ≈¬z ®[™
ÿ√BÏ?

(A) ∂‚¶kÁl|>_ (B) kÁÔ©√|›m>_

(C) s·¬Ô©√¶D (D) ÷ku§_ ∞mt_ÁÈ.

sÁ¶: (B) kÁÔ©√|›m>_

4. gF°¬ÔVÔ ºƒÔˆ¬Ô©√‚|^· sk´∫Ô^ ∂Á™›mD


xøÁ\BVÔ z§©∏¶©√|km ®m?

(A) >MºÂV¬z©√‚ΩB_ (B) ÔÈ©A ∂‚¶kÁ

(C) ÿ√Vm ºÂV¬z© √‚ΩB_ (D) ÷ku§_ ∞mt_ÁÈ

sÁ¶: ( C) ÿ√Vm ºÂV¬z© √‚ΩB_

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5. Œ[Ƭz º\u√‚¶ sk´∫ÔÁ· Œ©∏¶ √B[√|D s·¬Ô©√¶D
®m?

(A) >M©√‚Á¶ s·¬Ô©√¶D

(B) Ì‚|© √‚Á¶ s·¬Ô©√¶D

(C) ƒ>T> √‚Á¶ s·¬Ô©√¶D

(D) ÷ku§_ ∞mt_ÁÈ

sÁ¶: (B) Ì‚|© √‚Á¶ s·¬Ô©√¶D

6. A^π sk´∫ÔÁ· E§B √¶∫Ôπ[ JÈD s·¬zk>uz ®[™


ÿ√BÏ?

(A)k‚¶ s·¬Ô©√¶D (B) ƒm´ s·¬Ô©√¶D

(C) cÚkÔ©√¶∫Ô^ (D) ÷ku§_ ∞mt_ÁÈ.

sÁ¶: (C) cÚkÔ©√¶∫Ô^

7. Œ[Ƭz º\u√‚¶ ∂ÁÈÿkı √´k_ÔÁ· ÿ>πkVÔ Œ©∏¶


c>°km ®m?

(A) ∂ÁÈÿkı √_ºÔVD (B) √´k_ ÿƒÀkÔD


(C) ºÔV‚|Úk© √¶D (D)∂ÁÈÿkı kÁ·ºÔV|.
sÁ¶: (D) ∂ÁÈÿkı √_ºÔVD

8. ÷Ú z|D√∫Ôπ[ k´° ÿƒÈ° ]‚¶ \]©AÔÁ· ÔV‚¶ c>°km


®m?

(A) ƒm´ s·¬Ô©√¶D (B) k‚¶ s·¬Ô©√¶D


(C) ÿƒÀkÔ s·¬Ô©√¶D (D) ÷ku§_ ∞mt_ÁÈ.
sÁ¶: (C) ÿƒÀkÔ s·¬Ô©√¶D
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Á\B WÁÈ© º√V¬z ∂·ÁkÔ^:
(Measures of Central Tendency or Averages):

tÔ© ÿ√ˆB ∂·s_ ºƒÔˆ›> A^π sk´∫Ô^


kÁÔ©√|›m>_ JÈxD ∂‚¶kÁ©√|›m>_ JÈxD
∑Ú¬Ô©√|˛[≈™. ∑Ú¬Ô©√‚¶ A^π sk´∫Ô^ s·¬Ô©√¶∫Ô^
\uÆD kÁ´√¶∫Ô^ JÈD kÁ´Õm ÔV‚|km A^π sk´∫ÔÁ·
Œ©∏‚| √VÏ©√>uz kƒ]BVÔ ÷Ú¬˛[≈m.

A^πlB_ gFs[ x¬˛B ºÂV¬ÔD ÿ√ÚD ÿ>Vz]BV™


A^π sk´∫Ôπ[ c‚ÔÚ›Á> ∂·Õm ÌÆ›>¬Ô ŒÚ >M
\]©Á√ Ôı|∏Ω©√m gzD. ÷ÀkVÆ ŒÚ ÿ>Vz]l[
Á\B¬ÔÚ›Á> ∂_Èm Á\B WÁÈ©º√V¬˛Á™ ∂·Õm Ì≈›>¬Ô
{Ï ∂·Ák Á\B WÁÈ©º√V¬z ∂·Ák ∂_Èm ƒ´Vƒˆ (Average)
®™ÈVD.

ƒ´Vƒˆl[ kÁÔÔ^ : (Types of Average)

ƒ´Vƒˆ √_ºkÆ xÁ≈Ôπ_ Ô¬˛¶©√|˛[≈m.


∂©√_ºkÆ xÁ≈Ô”¬zºÔu√ √_ºkÆ kÁÔBV™ ƒ´VƒˆÔ^
c^·™. ÷kuÆ^ A^π sk´ gF°¬z ÿ√ˆmD √B[√¶¬
ÌΩB>VÔ ∏[kÚD kÁÔÔ^ ∂Á\˛[≈™.

1. Ì‚|flƒ´Vƒˆ (Arithmetic Mean)


2. ÷Á¶WÁÈB·° (Median)
3. xÔ‚¶·° (Mode)
4. ÿ√Ú¬Ô_ ƒ´Vƒˆ (Geometric Mean)
5. ÷Áƒflƒ´Vƒˆ (Harmonic Mean)
6. WÁ≈l‚¶ ƒ´Vƒˆ (Weighted Average)
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1. Ì‚|flƒ´Vƒˆ (Arithmetic Mean)::

ÿÔV|¬Ô©√‚|^· \]©AÔπ[ ÿ\V›>¬ Ì‚|›ÿ>VÁÔÁB


∂D\]©AÔπ[ ÿ\V›> ®ıˬÁÔBV_ kz›m ˛Á¶¬zD \]©A
Ì‚|flƒ´Vƒˆ gzD.

Ì‚|flƒ´VƒˆÁB¬ Ô¬˛|>_ : (Calculation of Arithmetic


Mean):

A^π sk´› ÿ>V¶Ú¬z ∞u≈√Ω ƒ´Vƒˆ Ô¬˛¶©√|˛≈m.


ÿ√VmkVÔ,

1. √z¬Ô©√¶V> A^π sk´∫Ô^ (Rawfdata)

2. ÿ>V¶Ï√u≈ ∂ÁÈÿkı √´k_ (Discrete Frequency


Distribution)

3. ÿ>V¶ÏAÁ¶B ∂ÁÈÿkı √´k_ (ContinuousfFrequency


Distribution) ®[≈ √ÈkuƬzD ƒ´VƒˆÁB Ô¬˛¶ÈVD.
ƒ´VƒˆÁB¬ Ô¬˛|km ºÂ´Ω xÁ≈ \uÆD ∑Ú¬Ô\V™
kaxÁ≈ g˛B ÷ÚkÁÔÔπ_ ÿƒFB©√|˛≈m.

1. √z¬Ô©√¶V> A^π sk´›]uÔV™ Ì‚|fl ƒ´Vƒˆ ∂_Èm >M


cÆ©A› ÿ>Vz] (Mean for ungrouped data or Individual
Observation)

Û›]´D (Formula):

x=
x1 + x2 + ...... + xn
∂_Èm x=
∑x
N N
x = Ì‚|fl ƒ´Vƒˆ

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N= ÿ\V›> cÆ©AÔπ[ ®ıˬÁÔ

∑ x = ÿ\V›> \]©AÔ^
ºÂ´Ω xÁ≈ (Direct Method)

1. \V]ˆ¬Ô¬z:

ŒÚ kz©∏K^· nÕm \VkÏÔπ[ \]©ÿ√ıÔ^


xÁ≈ºB 100, 90, 80, 70, 60 ÷ku§uÔV™ ƒ´Vƒˆ \]©ÿ√ıÔÁ·
Ô¬˛|Ô.

yÏ° :

kz©∏[ ƒ´Vƒˆ \]©ÿ√ı =

= = 80

Ì‚|flƒ´Vƒˆ = 80

∑Ú¬Ô\V™ ka xÁ≈ : (Short - cut Method)

Û›]´D : (Formula) :

x = A+
∑d
N
x = Ì‚|flƒ´Vƒˆ

A = ªÔfl ƒ´Vƒˆ (Assumed mean)


∑d =
ÿÔV|¬Ô©√‚|^· \]©∏uzD ªÔfl ƒ´Vƒˆ¬zD ÷Á¶ºB
c^· sȬÔ∫Ôπ[ Ì‚|›ÿ>VÁÔ (Deviations).
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\V]ˆ¬Ô¬z :
∏[kÚD A^π sk´∫Ô”¬ÔV™ Ì‚|flƒ´VƒˆÁB Ô¬˛|Ô.

yÏ°:

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Û›]´D (Formula)

x = A+
∑d
N
10
= 60 + = 61
10
Ì‚|flƒ´Vƒˆ = 61
2. ÿ>V¶ÏflEBu≈ ÿ>V¶ˆ[ Ì‚|flƒ´VƒˆÁB Ô¬˛|>_
(Calculation of Arithmetic mean for Discrete Series)
ºÂ´Ω xÁ≈ (Direct method)
Û›]´D (Formula)

x = A+
∑ fx
N

f = ∂ÁÈÿkı
N = ∂ÁÈÿkıË[ Ì‚|›ÿ>VÁÔ

∑ fx \uÆD [ ÿ√Ú¬z› ÿ>VÁÔl[


Ì‚|›ÿ>VÁÔ
\V]ˆ¬Ô¬z : 2
∏[kÚD sk´∫Ô”¬z Ì‚|flƒ´VƒˆÁB¬ Ô¬˛|Ô.

\]©ÿ√ı 20 25 30 35 40

\VkÏÔπ[ ®ıˬÁÔ 05 10 12 08 05

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yÏ°:

\VkÏÔπ[ fx
\]©ÿ√ı (x)
®ıˬÁÔ (f)
20 05 100
25 10 250
30 12 360
35 08 280
40 05 200
N = 40 ∑ fx = 1190

̶|flƒ´Vƒˆ = x =
∑ fx = 1190 = 29.75
N 40
÷Á¶WÁÈ ∂·°: (Median)

A^πlBo_ ƒ´Vƒˆ¬z ∂|›>√ΩBVÔ ÷Á¶WÁÈ ∂·°


x¬˛B›mkD kVFÕ> Œ[≈VzD. ŒÚ ÿ>Vz]l_ c^·
cÆ©AÔÁ· ∞ÆkˆÁƒBVÔºkV ∂_Èm ÷≈∫z kˆÁƒBVÔºkV
®ø]™V_, ∂]_ \›]l_ c^· cÆ©A ÷Á¶WÁÈ gzD.

÷Á¶WÁÈÁB¬ Ô¬˛|>_ : (Calculation of Median)

ƒ´VƒˆÁB© º√V[Æ ÷Á¶WÁÈ ∂·°D ÿƒ©√M¶V A^π


sk´∫Ô”D (Rawhdata), ÿ>V¶ÏflEBu≈ ÿ>V¶ÏÔ”¬zD
(Discrete series), ÿ>V¶ÏflEBV™ ÿ>V¶ÏÔ”¬zD
Ô¬˛¶©√|˛≈m.

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1. >M›ÿ>V¶Ú¬z ∂_Èm ÿƒ©√M¶V A^π sk´∫Ô”¬z
÷Á¶WÁÈ Ô¬˛|>_ (Computation of Median for
individual series or Raw data)
Û›]´D:

 N + 1  km
÷Á¶WÁÈ =   cÆ©∏[ \]©A
 2 

N = ÿ\V›> cÆ©AÔπ[ ®ıˬÁÔ


>M›ÿ>V¶Ú¬z ÷Á¶WÁÈ \]©A Ô¬˛|Dº√Vm ∏[kÚD
ÂÁ¶xÁ≈ÁB© ∏[√u≈ ºkı|D.
1. A^π sk´∫ÔÁ· ∞ÆkˆÁƒ ∂_Èm ÷≈∫z kˆÁƒl_
kˆÁƒ©√|›> ºkı|D.
2. Û›]´›Á>© √B[√|›] ÷Á¶WÁÈ \]©Á√ Ô¬˛¶
ºkı|D.
\V]ˆ¬Ô¬z : 1. ∏[kÚD A^π sk´∫Ô”¬ÔV™ ÷Á¶WÁÈ
\]©Á√ ÔVıÔ.

®Á¶ (˛.˛´VD) 150 130 125 160 100 120 140

yÏ°:

cÆ©AÔ^ 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
®Á¶ 150 130 125 160 100 120 140

∞ÆkˆÁƒ 100 120 125 130 140 150 160

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 N + 1  km
÷Á¶WÁÈ ∂·° = Md =   cÆ©∏[ \]©A
 2 

 7 + 1  km
Md =   cÆ©∏[ \]©A
 2 

÷Á¶WÁÈ = 4 km \]©A = 130


2. ÿ>V¶ÏflEBu≈ ÿ>V¶ˆ[ ÷Á¶WÁÈ (Median for Discrete
series)

 N +1 km
Û›]´D Md =   cÆ©∏[ \]©A
 2 

N = ∂ÁÈÿkıË[ Ì‚|›ÿ>VÁÔ
\V]ˆ¬Ô¬z : 2
∏[kÚD 46 Â√ÏÔ”Á¶B ®Á¶l[ ÷Á¶WÁÈ ∂·Ák
Ô¬˛|Ô.

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 N + 1  km
÷Á¶WÁÈ ∂·° : Md =  2  cÆ©∏[ \]©A
 

 46 + 1  km
Md =  2  cÆ©∏[ \]©A
 

= 23.5 km cÆ©∏[ \]©A


÷Á¶WÁÈ = 23.5 km cÆ©∏[ \]©A = 130

3. ÿ>V¶ÏflEBV™ ÿ>V¶ˆ[ ÷Á¶WÁÈ (Median for


Continuous series)
Ô¬˛|D xÁ≈:
1) zs° ∂ÁÈÿkı Ô¬˛¶ ºkı|D (c.f)
2) ®Õ> z§©∏‚¶ √´ko_ ÷Á¶WÁÈ ∂·° ÷Ú¬zD ®[√Á>
N
  ®[≈ Û›]´›][ JÈD Ô¬˛¶ ºkı|D.
2

3) Û›]´›Á>© √B[√|›] ÷Á¶WÁÈ \]©Á√ Ô¬˛¶


ºkı|D.
Û›]´D: (Formula)

N − c. f
÷Á¶WÁÈ = l + 2 xc
f

= ÷Á¶WÁÈ© ∏ˆs[ ˇµ ®_ÁÈ


N = ÿ\V›> cÆ©AÔπ[ ®ıˬÁÔ

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c.f = ÷Á¶WÁÈ© ∏ˆ°¬z xÕÁ>B ∏ˆs[ zs°


∂ÁÈÿkı
= ÷Á¶WÁÈ© ∏ˆs[∂ÁÈÿkı
c = ÷Á¶WÁÈ© ∏ˆs[ ÷Á¶ÿkπ
\V]ˆ¬Ô¬z: 3
∏[kÚD A^π sk´∫Ô”¬ÔV™ ÷Á¶WÁÈ \]©Á√ Ô¬˛|Ô.

\]©ÿ√ı 10-20 20-30 30-40 40-50 50-60 60-70


\VkÏÔπ[ ®ıˬÁÔ 4 6 10 15 8 7

yÏ°:

N − c. f
÷Á¶WÁÈ = l + 2 xc
f

25 km cƩA

÷Á¶WÁÈ ∂·° = 40á50 ∏ˆs_ c^·m.

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255

gÔºk,

÷Á¶WÁÈ =

= 43.33
xÔ| (Mode)
xÔ| A^πsk´ gF°Ôπ_ √B[√|˛[≈ ŒÚ Á\B©
º√V¬z ∂·kVzD. ∂Ω¬ÔΩ º>V[≈¬ÌΩB ∂·°
(Freqently)b®[Æ ÷Á>¬ Ì≈ÈVD. xÔ| tÔ ∂]Ô ∂·°
∂ÁÈÿkı (Frequency) ÿÔVı¶ ∂·Ák¬ z§©√>VzD.
xÔ‚Á¶ Ô¬˛¶_: (Calculation of Mode)
\u≈ ƒ´VƒˆÔÁ·© º√VÈ √z¬Ô©√¶V> A^π sk´∫Ô”D
(Ungroupedfdata) ∂_Èm >M› ÿ>Vz]¬zD (Individual
Series) ÿ>V¶Ï√u≈ ÿ>Vz]¬zD ÿ>V¶ÏAÁ¶B ÿ>Vz]¬zD xÔ|
Ô¬˛¶©√|˛≈m.
\V]ˆ¬Ô¬z: 1
∏[kÚD A^π sk´∫Ô”¬ÔV™ xÔ‚¶·Ák Ô¬˛|Ô.
Ìo (‘√Vl_): 100, 150, 120, 100, 120, 130, 120, 110, 120.
yÏ°:
÷]_ 120 ∂]Ô >¶ÁkÔ^ kÕ]Ú©√>V_ xÔ‚¶·° 120
gÔ Ô¬˛¶©√|˛≈m. ÷´ı| ∂_Èm ∂>uz º\u√‚¶ \]©AÔ^
Œº´ ®ıˬÁÔl_ ]ÚD√› ]ÚD√ kÕ>V_ ÷´ı| ∂_Èm
∂>uz º\u√‚¶ xÔ|Ô^ ˛Á¶¬˛[≈™.

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1. ÿ>V¶ÏflEBu≈ ÿ>V¶Ú¬ÔV™ xÔ|: (Mode for Discrete


series) :
ÿ>V¶ÏflEBu≈ ∂ÁÈÿkı √´ko_ √VÏ›> ∂·sºÈºB ∂]Ô
∂ÁÈÿkıÔÁ·¬ ÿÔVı|^· ÷™D ∂>[ xÔ‚¶·kVzD.
\V]ˆ¬Ô¬z: 2
∏[kÚD A^π sk´∫Ô”¬z xÔ| ÔVıÔ.

yÏ°:
÷]_ ∂]Ô ∂ÁÈÿkı cÁ¶Bm 15, ∂Õ> cÆ©∏[ \]©A
14. ®™ºk, xÔ| 14 ®™ Ô¬˛¶©√|˛[≈m.
ÿ>V¶ÏflEBu≈ ÿ>V¶Ú¬z xÔ| Ô¬˛|>_ :
(Determination of Mode for Continuous Series)
Û›]´D:

xÔ| =

÷]_, = xÔ|© ∏ˆs[ ˇµ ®_ÁÈ

= xÔ|©∏ˆs[ ∂ÁÈÿkı

= xÔ|© ∏ˆ°¬z ∂|›>© ∏ˆs[ ∂ÁÈÿkı

= xÔ|© ∏ˆ°¬z xÕÁ>B ∏ˆs[ ∂ÁÈÿkı


c = xÔ|© ∏ˆs[ ∏ˆ° ÷Á¶ÿkπ

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\V]ˆ¬Ô¬z: 3
∏[kÚD A^π sk´∫Ô”¬ÔV™ xÔ| ÔVıÔ.

yÏ°:
xÔ|© ∏ˆ° : 20-30

xÔ| = =

= 25.714

ÿ√Ú¬Ô_ ƒ´Vƒˆ (Geometric Mean)


‘n’ cÆ©AÔÁ·¬ ÿÔVı¶ ŒÚ ÿ>V¶ˆ[ ÿ√Ú¬Ô_ ƒ´Vƒˆ ®[√m
∂›ÿ>V¶ˆ_ c^· ®_ÈV cÆ©AÔπ[ ÿ√Ú¬Ôu√È[ n km
kÏ¬Ô JÈ\VzD (Root).
Û›]´D:

G.M = ®]Ï \¶¬ÁÔ

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258

(i.e) G.M = Antilog of

ÿ√Ú¬Ô_ ƒ´VƒˆÁB¬ Ô¬˛|>_ : (Calculation of Geometric


Mean)
>M›ÿ>Vz] (Individual Series)
\V]ˆ¬Ô¬z: 1
∏[kÚD A^π sk´∫Ô”¬z ÿ√Ú¬Ô_ ƒ´VƒˆÁB¬ Ô¬˛|Ô.
nÕm Â√ÏÔπ[ ®Á¶: 100, 120, 140, 85, 110 (˛.˛)
yÏ°:

GM = ®]Ï \¶¬ÁÔ

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259

= ®]Ï \¶¬ÁÔ

= ®]Ï \¶¬ÁÔ ( 2.0392 )


GM = 109.4
2. ÿ>V¶ÏflEBu≈ ÿ>Vz]l[ ÿ√Ú¬Ô_ ƒ´VƒˆÁB Ô¬˛|>_:
(Calculation of Geometric mean for discrete series) ;
Û›]´D:

GM = ®]Ï \¶¬ÁÔ

\V]ˆ¬Ô¬z: 2
∏[kÚD A^π sk´∫Ô”¬z ÿ√Ú¬Ô_ ƒ´VƒˆÁB¬ Ô¬˛|Ô.

yÏ°:

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260

ÿ√Ú¬Ô_ ƒ´Vƒˆ = ®]Ï \¶¬ÁÔ

= ®]Ï \¶¬ÁÔ = 23.93

ÿ>V¶ÏflEBV™ ÿ√Ú¬Ô_ ƒ´Vƒˆ : (Geometric mean for


continuous series)

Û›]´D:

GM = ®]Ï \¶¬ÁÔ

\V]ˆ¬Ô¬z: 3
∏[kÚD A^π sk´∫Ô”¬ÔV™ ÿ√Ú¬Ô_ ƒ´VƒˆÁB ÔVıÔ.

yÏ°:

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261

 ∑ f log x 
ÿ√Ú¬Ô_ ƒ´Vƒˆ = Anti log  
 N 

GM = ®]Ï \¶¬ÁÔ =

ÿ√Ú¬Ô_ ƒ´Vƒˆ = 23.9247

÷Áƒflƒ´Vƒˆ (Harmonic Mean)


÷Áƒflƒ´Vƒˆ ®[√m ŒÚ √´ko_ c^· \]©AÔπ[ >ÁÈˇµ
\]©AÔπ[ ƒ´Vƒˆl[ >ÁÈˇµ \]©√VzD. ÿÔV|¬Ô©√‚|^·
\]©AÔ^ (a, b, c, d,…….n) ®[≈V_, ÷>[

N
÷Áƒflƒ´Vƒˆ = 1 1 1
+ + ..... +
a b n

1. >M›ÿ>V¶ˆ[ ÷Áƒfl ƒ´VƒˆÁB¬ Ô¬˛|>_


(Computation of Harmonic Mean for Individual Series)

Û›]´D:

N
H .M =
1 1 1
+ + ..... +
a b n
(∂_Èm)

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262

\V]ˆ¬Ô¬z 1 :
∏[kÚD A^π sk´∫Ô”¬ÔV™ ÷Áƒflƒ´VƒˆÁB ÔVıÔ.

20, 25, 40, 30, 35.

yÏ°:

÷Áƒfl ƒ´Vƒˆ (H.M)

÷Áƒfl ƒ´Vƒˆ 28.25

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2. ÿ>V¶ÏflEBu≈ ÿ>V¶ˆ[ ÷Áƒfl ƒ´Vƒˆ Ô¬˛¶_


(Calculation of H.M. for Discrete Series)
Û›]´D
Û›]´D::

\V]ˆ¬Ô¬z: 2
∏[kÚD A^π sk´∫Ô”¬ÔV™ ÷Áƒflƒ´VƒˆÁB ÔVıÔ.

yÏ°:

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264

÷Áƒfl ƒ´Vƒˆ

÷Áƒfl ƒ´Vƒˆ = 20.33

3. ÿ>V¶ÏflEBV™ ÿ>V¶ˆ[ ÷Áƒflƒ´Vƒˆ (Calculation of


Harmonic Mean for Continuous Series)

Û›]´D:

÷Áƒfl ƒ´Vƒˆ =

\V]ˆ¬Ô¬z: 3
∏[kÚD A^π sk´∫Ô”¬ÔV™ ÷Áƒflƒ´VƒˆÁB ÔVıÔ.

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265
yÏ°:

H.M = =

H.M = 20.33

®|›m¬ÔV‚| : 1
1. x›m ®[√kÏ >[–Á¶B J[Æ zwÕÁ>Ô”¬zD
xÁ≈ºB ‘.500, ‘.400, ‘.600 ÿÔV|¬˛[≈VÏ. gÔºk ƒ´Vƒˆ
ÿ>VÁÔ ®[™?
ÿÔV|¬Ô©√‚¶ ÿ>VÁÔl[ Ì|>_
ƒ´Vƒˆ ÿ>VÁÔ = ááááááááááááááááááááááááááááááááááááááááá
ÿÔV|¬Ô©√‚¶ zwÕÁ>Ôπ[ ®ıˬÁÔ
yÏ°:

500 + 400 + 600


ƒ´Vƒˆ ÿ>VÁÔ = ááááááááááááááááá = 500
3
ƒ´Vƒˆ ÿ>VÁÔ = ‘. 500

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266
®|›m¬ÔV‚| : 2
ŒÚ \Vk[ nÕm √V¶∫Ôπ_ ÿ√u≈ \]©ÿ√ıÔ^
xÁ≈ºB 50, 40, 60, 80 \u≈D 55. ®™ºk, ∂Õ> \VkM[
ƒ´Vƒˆ \]©ÿ√ı ®[™?
\]©ÿ√ıÔπ[ Ì|>_ 50 + 40 + 60 + 80 + 55
ƒ´Vƒˆ \]©ÿ√ı = ááááááááááááááááááá = --ááááááááááááááááááááá
√V¶∫Ôπ[ ®ıˬÁÔ 5
= 57

®|›m¬ÔV‚| : 3
ŒÚ kz©∏_ c^· \VkÏÔπ[ ®ıˬÁÔ 65.
∂kÏÔ^ ÔË>©√V¶›]_ \‚|D ÿ√u≈ ƒ´Vƒˆ \]©ÿ√ı 50 ®M_,
∂kÏÔ^ ÔË>© √V¶›]_ ÿ√u≈ ÿ\V›> \]©ÿ√ı ®[™?
yÏ°:
ÿ\V›> \]©ÿ√ıÔ^
ƒ´Vƒˆ = ááááááááááááááááááááááááááá
\VkÏÔπ[ ®ıˬÁÔ

ÿ\V›> \]©ÿ√ıÔ^ = ƒ´Vƒˆ $ \VkÏÔπ[ ®ıˬÁÔ


= 50 $ 65
= 3250
®|›m¬ÔV‚| : 4
ŒÚ \Vk[ ÂV[z √V¶∫Ôπ_ ÿ√u≈ \]©ÿ√ıÔ^
xÁ≈ºB 50,ï60, 62 \uÆD 48. ®™ºk, ∂kM[ ƒ´Vƒˆ
\]©ÿ√ı 55 gzD. gEˆBÏ ∂Õ> \VkM[ ÂV[z √V¶›]KD
xÁ≈ºB 10 \]©ÿ√ıÔ^ ∂]ÔD º√V‚¶V_ ∂Õ> \VkM[ A]B
ƒ´Vƒˆ ®[™?

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267

yÏ°: Ì‚¶©√‚¶ \]©ÿ√ıÔ^ xÁ≈ºB 60, 70, 72, \uÆD 58.


Ì‚¶©√‚¶ \]©ÿ√ıÔπ[ Ì|>_ 60 + 70 + 72 + 58
ƒ´Vƒˆ = ááááááááááááááááááááááááááááá = ááááááááááááááááá
√V¶∫Ôπ[ ®ıˬÁÔ 4
= 65

®™ºk, ŒÀÿkVÚ \]©ÿ√ıb¶[ 10 \]©ÿ√ıÔ^ Ì‚Ω™V_


ƒ´VƒˆlKD 10 \]©ÿ√ıÔ^ Ì|D.
®|›m¬ÔV‚| : 5
ŒÚ kz©∏_ c^· 40 \VkÏÔπ[ ƒ´Vƒˆ kBm 20.
∂Õ> kz©∏_ c^· gEˆBˆ[ kBÁ>¬ Ì‚|D º√Vm ƒ´Vƒˆ 21
gÔ \VÆ˛[≈m ®M_, ∂Õ> gEˆBˆ[ kBm ®[™?
yÏ°:
40 \VkÏÔπ[ ÿ\V›> kBm = 40 $ 20 = 800 gı|Ô^.
gEˆBˆ[ kBÁ>¬ Ì‚Ω™V_ ÿ\V›> kBm = 41 $ 21 = 861
gı|Ô^
gEˆBˆ[ kBm = 861 - 800 = 61 gı|Ô^.
z§©A:

40 \VkÏÔ”¶[ gEˆBÁ´¬ Ì‚Ω™V_ ®ıˬÁÔ = 41.

®|›m¬ÔV‚| : 6
ŒÚkÏ >fiÁƒloÚÕm ]ÚflE¬z \ˬz 50 ˛.*
ºkÔ›]_ ÿƒ_˛≈VÏ. ∂kÏ ]ÚD√°D \ˬz 30 ˛. * ºkÔ›]_
>fiÁƒÁB ∂Á¶˛[≈VÏ ®M_, ∂kˆ[ ƒ´Vƒˆ ºkÔD (Average
Speed) ®[™?

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268

yÏ°
yÏ°:

ƒ´Vƒˆ ºkÔD =

ƒ´Vƒˆ ºkÔD = = 37.5 km/hr

∂kˆ[ ƒ´Vƒˆ ºkÔD = 37.5 km/hr


÷Á¶WÁÈ:
®|›m¬ÔV‚| : 7
ÿÔV|¬Ô©√‚¶ ®ıÔπ[ ÷Á¶WÁÈ ∂·° ÔVıÔ.
58, 62, 66, 60, 61, 65, 69.
yÏ°:
ÿÔV|¬Ô©√‚¶ ®ıÔÁ· ∞Æ ∂_Èm ÷≈∫z kˆÁƒl_ ®ø]™V_,
Â| ®ıV™m ÷Á¶WÁÈ gzD. ÿÔV|¬Ô©√‚¶ ®ıÔπ[
∞ÆkˆÁƒ : 58, 60, 61, 62, 65, 66, 69.
gÔºk, ÷Á¶WÁÈ ∂·° = 62
®|›m¬ÔV‚| : 8
ˇºw ÿÔV|¬Ô©√‚¶ ®ıÔπ[ ÷Á¶WÁÈ ∂·° ÔVıÔ.
14, 8, 22, 25, 15, 10, 12, 16
yÏ°
yÏ°: ∞Æ kˆÁƒ = 8, 10, 12, 14, 15, 16, 22, 25

÷Á¶WÁÈ = = 14.5

gÔºk, ÷Á¶WÁÈ = 14.5.

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269

xÔ|
®|›m¬ÔV‚| : 9
ˇºw ÿÔV|¬Ô©√‚¶ ®ıÔπ[ xÔ| ÔVıÔ.
2, 4, 6, 4, 2, 6, 6.
yÏ°: ÿÔV|¬Ô©√‚¶ ®ıË_ ®ı 6 \‚|D J[Æ xÁ≈ kÕm^·m.
®ı 2, ÷´ı| xÁ≈•D, ®ı ÂV[z, 2 xÁ≈•D kÕm^·m.
gÔºk, xÔ| = 6.
®|›m¬ÔV‚| : 10
14, 12, 15, 10, 18, 15, 15, 18, 15, 16 ®[≈ ÿ>V¶ˆ[ xÔ| ®[™?
yÏ°;
®ı 15 á ÂV[z xÁ≈
®ı 18 á ÷´ı| xÁ≈
\u≈ ∂Á™›m ®ıÔ”D ŒÚxÁ≈ kÕm^·m.
gÔºk xÔ| = 15.
ÿ√Ú¬zfl ƒ´Vƒˆ:

®|›m¬ÔV‚| : 11

ˇºw ÿÔV|¬Ô©√‚|^· ®ıÔ”¬z ÿ√Ú¬zfl ƒ´Vƒˆ ÔVıÔ.

2, 4, 16 \uÆD 32.

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270

yÏ°:

Û›]´D:

G.M = ®]Ï \¶¬ÁÔ

®]Ï \¶¬ÁÔ =

= 7.999 ≅ 8.0

÷Áƒflƒ´Vƒˆ:
®|›m¬ÔV‚| : 12
ˇºw c^· ®ıÔ”¬z ÷Áflƒ´Vƒˆ ÔVıÔ.
8, 3, 4, 5 \uÆD 2.

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271

yÏ°:

Û›]´D:
1
2 H.M =

H.M = = 3.551

z§©A : (x¬˛B
x¬˛B Û›]´∫Ô^ Important Formula)

1. ƒ´Vƒˆ = (3 ÷Á¶WÁÈ á xÔ|).

2. ƒ´Vƒˆ á xÔ| = 3 (ƒ´Vƒˆ á ÷Á¶WÁÈ).


2
3. ÷Á¶WÁÈ = xÔ| + (ƒ´Vƒˆ á xÔ|).
3

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272

4. xÔ| = ƒ´Vƒˆ á 3 (ƒ´Vƒˆ á ÷Á¶WÁÈ).


5. ÷Á¶WÁÈ = ÷´ı¶VD ÔV_\V™D.
6. Ì‚|flƒ´Vƒˆ , ÿ√Ú¬zfl ƒ´Vƒˆ \uÆD ÷Áƒflƒ´Vƒˆ¬zD c^·
cš.
A.M ≥ GM ≥ HM
\VÆ√V‚|¬ ÿÔø (Co-efficient of Variation)
]‚¶sȬԛÁ> ƒ´Vƒˆl[ ÿ\V›> \VÆ√V¶VÔ ®|›m¬ ÿÔVı|
Ô¬˛¶©√|D ƒ´Vƒˆl[ ƒ>T> \VÆ√V| \VÆ√V‚|¬ ÿÔø gzD.

\VÆ√V‚|¬ ÿÔø ÔVbD kVF√V|.

÷]_, , x ®[√Ák >´©√‚¶ A^π sk´∫Ôπ[ ]‚¶ sȬÔD


\uÆD ƒ´Vƒˆ gzD.
\VÆ√V‚|¬ ÿÔøÁk ƒVÏA› ]‚¶ sȬÔD ®™°D ∂Áw¬ÔÈVD.

®|›m¬ÔV‚| : 1
ŒÚ ÿ>V¶ˆ[ \VÆ√V‚|¬ÿÔø 60 % \uÆD ]‚¶ sȬÔD 15
gzD. ÿ>V¶ˆ[ ƒ´VƒˆÁB¬ ÔVıÔ.
yÏ°:

\VÆ√V‚|¬ÿÔø =

கல்வி அமுது http://kalviamuthu.blogspot.com

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273

60 = 100

x = 100

= 25

®|›m¬ÔV‚| : 2
100 º√Ï ÿÔVı¶ zøs[ ƒ´Vƒˆ cB´D 165 ÿƒ.* \uÆD
\VÆ√V‚|¬ÿÔø 3.5%. ∂kÏÔ^ cB´›][ ]‚¶sȬÔD ®[™?
yÏ°

®™ºk, ∂kÏÔ^ cB´›][ ]‚¶sȬÔD = 5.775.


E>≈_ ∂·ÁkÔ^ (Measures of Dispersion)
E>≈_ ∂·Ák á s·¬ÔD:
ƒ´VƒˆÁB ∑u§ cÆ©AÔπ[ E>≈_ >[Á\ÁB© √u§B
∂·Ák E>≈_ ∂·ÁkBVzD. ∂>Vkm {Ï √´ko[ ƒ´VƒˆÁB

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274

∑u§ ∂©√´ko[ cÆ©AÔ^ E>§¬ ˛¶¬zD >[Á\ E>≈_ ∂_Èm


√´°ÁÔ (Dispersion) ®™©√|˛[≈m. ÷Á> E>≈_ >[Á\ (Degree
of Scatter) ®[ÆD ∂Áw¬ÔÈVD.

E>≈_ ∂·Ákl[ kÁÔÔ^: (Different Measures of


Dispersion)
E>≈_ ∂·ÁkÔ^ √È c^·™. ∂ku§_
x¬˛B\V™ÁkÔ·Vk™,
1. Tfl∑ (Range)
2. ÔV_\V™ sȬÔD (Quartile Deviation)
3. ƒ´Vƒˆ sȬÔD ( Mean Deviation)
4. >´sȬÔD ∂_Èm ]‚¶ sȬÔD g˛B™
x¬˛B\V™ÁkÔ·VzD.
1. Tfl∑: (Range)
E>≈_ ∂·°Ôπ_ ÔË©√>uz tÔ ®πÁ\BV™m.
tÔ©ÿ√ˆB cÆ©A¬zD (Largestgitems) tÔfl E§B cÆ©A¬zD
(Smallest items) ÷Á¶ºB c^· ºkÆ√V‚Ωuz Tfl∑ ®_ÁÈ ®[Æ
ÿ√BÏ.
tÔ©ÿ√ˆB ®ı á tÔfl E§B ®ı
Tfl∑¬ÿÔø = áááááááááááááááááááááááááááááááá
tÔ©ÿ√ˆB ®ı + tÔfl E§B ®ı
Tfl∑¬ÿÔø: (Co-efficient of Range)

Co-efficient of Range =

TNPSC s™V- sÁ¶ ÁÔºB|


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\V]ˆ¬Ô¬z: 1
ˇºw ÿÔV|¬Ô©√‚¶ ®ıÔ”¬z Tfl∑ \uÆD Tfl∑¬ÿÔø ÔVıÔ.
2, 8, 4, 3, 12
yÏ° :
Tfl∑ =
Tfl∑ = 12 - 2 = 10

Tfl∑¬ÿÔø =

Tfl∑¬ÿÔø = 0.7143.
2. ÔV_\V™ sȬÔD: (Quartile Deviation)
“ÔV_\V™ sȬÔD ®[√m ÷´ı| ÔV_\V™∫Ô”¬z ÷Á¶ºB
c^· ºkÆ√V‚Ω_ √V] ” ®[Æ kÁ´BƬԩ√|˛[≈m. ÷m Q.D
®[≈ ®ø›>V_ z§©∏¶©√|˛[≈m.

ÔV_\V™ sȬÔD =

ÔV_\V™∫Ô”¬˛Á¶ºBBV™ ºkÆ√V| ÔV_\V™ ÷Á¶ÿkπ


(InterjQuartilegRange) ®[Æ ∂Áw¬Ô©√|˛[≈m. ®™ºk
ÔV_\V™ sȬԛÁ> ÔV_\V™ ÷Á¶ÿkπl_ √V] (Semi–
Inter\Quartile Range) ®[ÆD ∂Áw¬ÔÈVD.

ÔV_\V™ sÈ¬Ô ÿÔø

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\V]ˆ¬Ô¬z : 2
∏[kÚD ®ıÔ”¬z ÔV_\V™ sȬÔD \uÆD ÔV_\V™
sȬԬ ÿÔø ÔVıÔ.
2 ,7, 3, 8, 5.
yÏ°:
Q3 − Q1
ÔV_\V™ sȬÔD =
2

 N +1 6
km km
=  \]©A =   \]©A
 4  4

= (1.5) \]©A

ÿÔV|¬Ô©√‚¶ ®ıÔ^ ∞ÆkˆÁƒl_ 2, 3, 4, 7, 8

= = 2.5

 3( N + 1)  km  3(5 + 1)  km
=   \]©A =  
 4   4 

= (4.5) km \]©A

= = 7.5

ÔV_\V™ sȬÔD = = 2.5

ÔV_\V™ sÈ¬Ô ÿÔø = = 0.5.

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\V]ˆ¬Ô¬z : 3
∏[kÚDA^π sk´∫Ô”¬ÔV™ ÔV_\V™ sȬÔD \uÆD
ÔV_\V™ sȬԬ ÿÔø ÔVıÔ.

yÏ°:

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= 37.333
Q3 − Q1 37.333 − 22.5
ÔV_\V™ sȬÔD =
2
=
2
= 7.4165

Q3 − Q1 37.333 − 22.5
ÔV_\V™ sÈ¬Ô ÿÔø = = = 0.2479
Q3 + Q1 37.333 + 22.5

ƒ´Vƒˆ sȬÔD (Mean Deviation)


ƒ´Vƒˆ sȬÔD ®[√m ŒÚ ƒ´VƒˆloÚÕm Ô¬˛¶©√|D
sȬÔ∫Ôπ[ Ì‚|flƒ´Vƒˆ gzD. ƒ´Vƒˆ sȬÔD
Ô¬˛|Dº√Vm cÆ©AÔπ[ sȬÔD ƒ´VƒˆloÚÕº>V,
÷Á¶WÁÈloÚÕº>V ∂_Èm xÔ‚ΩoÚÕº>V
®|¬Ô©√|˛≈m. ƒ´Vƒˆ sȬÔD ÷Á¶WÁÈloÚÕm
®|¬Ô©√‚¶V_ E≈Õ> xΩ°ÔÁ· >Ú˛[≈m. ƒ´Vƒˆ sȬԛ][
\]©Á√ Ô¬˛|Dº√Vm ºÂÏÔËB (Positive), ®]ÏÔËB
(Negative) z§Ô^ >sϬԩ√|˛[≈™. ®_ÈV \]©AÔ”D
ºÂÏÔËB\VÔ ®|›m¬ ÿÔV^·©√|˛≈m.
ƒ´Vƒˆ sȬÔD Ô¬˛|>_: (Calculation of Mean
Deviation)
∑D
Û›]´D: M.D
N
; ∑ D = ÷Á¶WÁÈ ∂_Èm xÔ|

∂·s[ sÈÔ›][ Ì‚|›ÿ>VÁÔ.


N = ÷™∫Ôπ[ ®ıˬÁÔ.
\V]ˆ¬Ô¬z: 4
∏[kÚD A^π sk´∫Ô”¬ÔV™ ƒ´Vƒˆ sȬԛÁ>
(∂) ÷Á¶WÁÈ ∂·soÚÕmD,
(g) ƒ´VƒˆloÚÕmD Ô¬˛|Ô.
®Á¶Ô^: 90, 100, 125, 115, 110.

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yÏ°: (∂) ÷Á¶WÁÈloÚÕm ƒ´Vƒˆ sȬÔD Ô¬˛|>_ ;


(Calculation Of Mean Deviation from Median)

®Á¶ ÷Á¶WÁÈloÚÕm
(∞Æ kˆÁƒl_) sȬÔD (D = 110)
90 20
100 10
110 0
115 5
125 15

∑ x = 540 ∑D = 50

Mean Deviation = ƒ´Vƒˆ sȬÔD = M.D =


∑D
∑ND+ 1  N
 
 2 
= ÷Á¶WÁÈ sȬԛ][ Ì‚|›ÿ>VÁÔ ± z§ >sϬÔ
ºkı|D

N = cÆ©AÔπ[ ®ıˬÁÔ
km
÷Á¶WÁÈ = cÆ©∏[ \]©A

 N +1
÷Á¶WÁÈ =  
km
cƩA = 3 km cƩA
 2 

gÔºk, 3ákm cÆ©∏[ ∂·° 110.


50
÷Á¶WÁÈloÚÕm ƒ´Vƒˆ sȬÔD = = 10
5

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(g) ƒ´VƒˆloÚÕm ƒ´Vƒˆ sȬÔD Ô¬˛|>_:


(Calculation of Mean deviation from Mean)

ƒ´Vƒˆ = ∑x
x=
N
; ∑ x = 540, N =5

540
x= = 108
5

gÔºk, ƒ´Vƒˆ = 108.

ƒ´VƒˆloÚÕm sȬÔD (A=108)


®Á¶
D
90 18
100 8
125 17
115 7
110 2

∑D = 52

ƒ´VƒˆloÚÕm ƒ´Vƒˆ sȬÔD =


∑D = = 10.4
N

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ÿ>V¶ÏEBu≈ ÿ>V¶ˆ[ ƒ´Vƒˆ sȬÔD: (Calculation of Mean


Deviation for Discrete series)
Û›]´D:

ƒ´Vƒˆ sȬÔD =
∑fD
N

÷Á¶WÁÈloÚÕm sȬÔD \uÆD


∂ÁÈÿkıÔπ[ ÿ√Ú¬z› ÿ>VÁÔ,
∑f = ÿ\V›> ∂ÁÈÿkı.
\V]ˆ¬Ô¬z : 5
∏[kÚD A^π sk´∫¬ÔV™ ƒ´Vƒˆ sȬԛÁ>
÷Á¶WÁÈloÚÕmD, ƒ´VƒˆloÚÕmD Ô¬˛|Ô.

∑fD= X 20 18 16 14 12 10 8 6
F 2 4 9 18 27 25 14 1

yÏ°: ÷Á¶WÁÈloÚÕm ƒ´Vƒˆ sȬÔD Ô¬˛|>_:

. D fD
20 02 02 06 12
18 04 06 04 16
16 09 15 02 18
14 18 33 0 0
12 27 60 02 54
10 25 85 04 100
08 14 99 06 84
06 01 100 08 8
N=100 ∑ f D = 292

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 N + 1 km  100 + 1  km
÷Á¶WÁÈ =   cÆ©A =   cÆ©A
 2   2 

= 50.5 km cƩA = 12

ƒ´Vƒˆ sȬÔD =
∑f D =
292
= 2.92
N 100

ƒ´Vƒˆ = x =
∑ fx =
1200
= 12
N 100

ƒ´VƒˆloÚÕm ƒ´Vƒˆ sȬÔD Ô¬˛|>_: (Calculation of


Mean Deviation from Mean)

D ; (D = 12 − x) fD
20 02 40 8 16
18 04 72 6 24
16 09 144 4 36
14 18 252 2 36
12 27 324 0 0
10 25 250 2 50
08 14 112 4 56
06 01 006 06 06
N=100 ∑ fx = 1200 ∑ f D = 224

ƒ´VƒˆloÚÕm ƒ´Vƒˆ sȬÔD :


224
(Mean Deviation from Mean) = = 2.24
100

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ƒ´Vƒˆ sȬԬÿÔø (Coefficient of Mean Deviation)


ŒÚ √´ko[ ƒ´Vƒˆ sȬԛÁ> ∂m ®Õ> ƒ´VƒˆloÚÕm
ÿ√≈©√‚¶º>V ∂Õ> ƒ´VƒˆÁB¬ ÿÔVıº¶ kz›m ∂flƒ´Vƒˆ
sȬԛ]uzˆB ƒ´Vƒˆ sȬԬÿÔø Ô¬˛¶©√|˛[≈m.
ƒ´Vƒˆ sȬԬ ÿÔøsuÔV™ Û›]´D:
÷Á¶WÁÈ ∂·soÚÕm ƒ´Vƒˆ sȬÔD Ô¬˛¶©√‚¶V_,
ƒ´Vƒˆ sȬÔD (Mean Deviation)
ƒ´Vƒˆ sȬÔÿÔø = áááááááááááááááááááááááááááááááá
÷Á¶WÁÈ ∂·° (Median)
Ì‚|fl ƒ´VƒˆloÚÕm ƒ´Vƒˆ sȬÔD Ô¬˛¶©√‚¶V_,

ƒ´Vƒˆ sȬÔD (Mean Deviation)


ƒ´Vƒˆ sȬÔÿÔø = áááááááááááááááááááááááááááááááááááááá
Ì‚|fl ƒ´Vƒˆ (Mean)

]‚¶ sȬÔD ∂_Èm >´sȬÔD: (Standard Deviation)


˛º´¬Ô ÿ\Val_ ®[≈ ®ø›>V_ z§¬Ô©√|D ]‚¶
sȬÔD E>≈_ ∂·Ák¬ z§¬zD tÔfl E≈Õ> ∂·ÁkBVzD.
]‚¶ sȬԛÁ> Ô¬˛|>_: (Calculation of Standard
Deviation)
>M›ÿ>Vz] (Individual Series): >M› ÿ>V¶Ú¬ÔV™ ]‚¶
sȬÔD Ô¬˛|k]_ ÷Ú xÁ≈Ô^ c^·™.
1. sȬÔ∫ÔÁ· cıÁ\BV™ ƒ´VƒˆloÚÕm ®|©√m.
(Deviation taken from Actual Mean)
2. ª˛¬Ô©√‚¶ ƒ´VƒˆloÚÕm sȬÔ∫ÔÁ· ®|©√m.
(Deviation taken from Assumed Mean)

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284

cıÁ\BV™ ƒ´VƒˆloÚÕm sȬÔ∫ÔÁ· ®|›m ]‚¶


sȬԛÁ> Ô¬˛|>_.

Û›]´D : =
∑d 2

; = ]‚¶ sȬÔD ;
N

∑d 2
= sȬÔ∫Ôπ[ kϬԛ ÿ>VÁÔ

N = cÆ©AÔπ[ ®ıˬÁÔ.
\V]ˆ¬Ô¬z : 6
∏[kÚD A^π sk´∫Ô”¬ÔV™ ]‚¶ sȬÔD ÔVıÔ.
kÚ\V™D : 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90, 100
yÏ°:

kÚ\V™D X = 70
(
d2 = X − X )
2

d =x− x
40 -30 900
50 -20 400
60 -10 100
70 0 0
80 10 100
90 20 400
100 30 900

∑ X =490 ∑ (X − X ) = 0 ∑ (X − X ) = 2800
2

TNPSC s™V- sÁ¶ ÁÔºB|


285

∑X =
X= N
= 70

∑ (x − x )
2
= 2800
= = 20
N 7

]‚¶ sȬÔD = 20

ª˛¬Ô©√‚¶ ƒ´VƒˆloÚÕm sȬÔ∫ÔÁ· ®|›m ]‚¶


sȬԛÁ> Ô¬˛|>_:
Û›]´D

∑d  ∑d 
2
490 2

= − 
7 N  N 
 

∑ d = ª˛¬Ô©√‚¶ ƒ´VƒˆloÚÕm cÆ©AÔπ[


sȬÔ∫Ôπ[ Ì‚|› ÿ>VÁÔ

∑d 2
= ª˛¬Ô©√‚¶ ƒ´VƒˆloÚÕm cÆ©AÔπ[
sȬÔ∫Ôπ[ kϬÔ∫Ôπ[ Ì‚|› ÿ>VÁÔ
\V]ˆ¬Ô¬z: 7
∏[kÚD A^π sk´∫Ô”¬ÔV™ ]‚¶ sȬԛÁ>¬ Ô¬˛|Ô.
\]©ÿ√ı: 50, 40, 60, 90, 95, 70, 80.

TNPSC s™V- sÁ¶ ÁÔºB|


286

yÏ° :

d = x − A; d = x − 60 d2
50 -10 100
40 -20 400
60 0 0
90 30 900
95 35 1225
70 10 100
80 20 400
∑ d = 65 ∑d
2
= 3125

∑d  ∑d 
2 2 2
3125  65 
= −   =
 −   = 18.979
N  N  7  7
S.D = 18.97

ÿ>V¶ÏflEBu≈ ÿ>V¶Ú¬ÔV™ ]‚¶ sȬÔD ÔVb>_:


(Calculation of Standard Deviation for Discrete Series)
Û›]´D

∑d  ∑d 
2 2

σ= − 
N  N 
 

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287

\V]ˆ¬Ô¬z: 8 ∏[kÚD A^π sk´∫Ô”¬ÔV™ ]‚¶ sȬÔ


\]©Á√ Ô¬˛|Ô.

kÚ\V™D : x 10 12 17 21 26
f 2 4 8 5 1

yÏ°:
ª˛¬Ô©√‚¶ ƒ´VƒˆloÚÕm ]‚¶ sȬÔD Ô¬˛|>_:

10 2 -7 -14 098
12 4 -5 -20 100
17 8 0 0 000
21 5 4 +20 080
26 1 +9 +9 081
N = 20 ∑ fd = 5 ∑ fd 2
= 359

∑d  ∑d 
2 2 2
359  − 5 
σ= −   =
 −  = 4.16
N  N  20  20 

σ = 4.16

TNPSC s™V- sÁ¶ ÁÔºB|


288

√luE¬ Ô¬z:
1 ) 15, 18, 15, 16, 14, 12, 15, 10, 18, 15 ®[≈ ÿ>V¶ˆ[ xÔ| ®[™?
a) 15 b) 18 c) 0 d) 6
2) 3, 7, 5, 10, 8, 12 ÷ku§[ ÷Á¶WÁÈ ∂·° ®[™?
a) 7 b) 8 c)7. 5 d) 1
3) 8, 5, 4, 9, 11, 17 ®[≈ ÿ>V¶ˆ[ xÔ| ®[™?
a) 1 b) 0 c) 9 d) xÔ|
÷_ÁÈ.
4) 10, 12, 25, 14, 52, 8 ®[˛≈ A^πÔπ[ Tfl∑ (Range) ®[™?

a) 44 b) 60 c) 13 d) 12.14

5) nÕm ®ıÔπ[ ]‚¶ sȬÔD 4, ŒÀÿkVÚ ®ıb¶–D 5 g_


ÿ√Ú¬Ô¬ ˛Á¶¬zD A]B ®ıÔπ[ ]‚¶ sȬÔD ®[™?
a) 20 b) 4 c) 25 d) 9
6) Tfl∑ ®™©√|km?
a) cBÏÕ> \]©A $ zÁ≈Õ> \]©A
b) cBÏÕ> \]©A + zÁ≈Õ> \]©A
c) cBÏÕ> \]©A ÷ zÁ≈Õ> \]©A
d) cBÏÕ> \]©A - zÁ≈Õ> \]©A
7) ÿÔV|¬Ô©√‚¶cÆ©AÔÁ· ∞Æ kˆÁƒ ∂_Èm ÷≈∫z kˆÁƒl_
®ø>,k∂ku§[ Â| cÆ©∏[ \]©A ®™©√|km BVm?
a) Ì‚|flƒ´Vƒˆ b) xÔ| c) ÷Á¶WÁÈ ∂·° d) Tfl∑

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289

8) ˇºw ÿÔV|¬Ô©√‚¶ ®ıÔπ[ ÷Á¶WÁÈ ∂·° ®[™?


15 , 18, 9 , 12 , 10 , 25, 13.
a)15 b) 12 c) 13 d) 10
9) ¶¬Ô ÷BÈV> WÔµflEl[ WÔµ>Ô° ®[™?
a) 1 b) 0 c)2 d) 1/2
10) 50 A^π sk´∫Ôπ[ ƒ´Vƒˆ 25, ∂ku§[ ]‚¶ sȬÔD 5
®M_, kϬÔ∫Ôπ[ Ì‚|› ÿ>VÁÔ ®[™?
a)1250 b) 6250 c)32500 d) 250
11) ŒÚ ÿ>V¶ˆ[ \VÆ√V‚|¬ ÿÔø 70% \uÆD ]‚¶ sȬÔD 12.6
®M_, ÿ>V¶ˆ[ ƒ´VƒˆÁB¬ ÔVıÔ.
a) 18 b) 88.2 c) 30%
d) ÷ku§_ ®m°t_ÁÈ.
12) nÕm ®ıÔπ[ ]‚¶ sȬÔD 3.12 ŒÀÿkVÚ ®ıb¶–D
3n¬ Ì‚¶ A]B ®ıÔπ[ ]‚¶sȬÔD ®[™?
a) 6.12 b) 3.12 c) 18.12 d) 9.36
13) √›m ®ıÔπ[ Ì|>_ 550 ∂ku§[ ]‚¶sȬÔD 9 ®M_,
∂ku§[ sÈ¬Ô kÏ¬Ô ƒ´Vƒˆ ®[™?
a) 3 b) 81 c) 500 d) 55

sˆkV™ sÁ¶Ô^:
1. (A) xÔ| ®[√m ∂]Ô xÁ≈ ÔV©√|D cÆ©A gzD. 15 ®[≈
®ı 4 xÁ≈, 18 ®[≈ ®ı 2 xÁ≈•D kÕm^·m. gÔºk xÔ|
15.
2. (C) ∞Æ kˆÁƒ 3, 5, 7, 8,10,12 ; ÷ÁWÁÈB·° = 7.5.

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290

3. (D) ÿÔV|¬Ô©√‚¶ ∂Á™›m ®ıÔ”D ŒÚ xÁ≈>V[


kÕm^·m. ®™ºk xÔ| ÷_ÁÈ.
4. (A) Tfl∑ = tÔ©ÿ√ˆB \]©A á tÔflE§B \]©A = 52 - 8 = 44.
5. (A) ŒÀÿkVÚ ®ıÁ•D ŒÚ z§©∏‚¶ ®ıV_ ÿ√Ú¬Ô
]‚¶ sȬԛÁ>•D ∂º> ®ıV_ ÿ√Ú¬Ô ºkı|D.
®™ºk ]‚¶ sȬÔD = .

6. (D) Tfl∑ ®[√m cBÏÕ> \uÆD zÁ≈Õ> \]©AÔπ[


s›]BVƒD.
7. (C) ÷Á¶WÁÈ ∂·°
8. (C) ÿÔV|¬Ô©√‚¶ ®ıÔπ[ ∞ÆkˆÁƒ : 9, 10, 12, 13, 15, 18, 25
÷Á¶WÁÈ ∂·° = 13
9 (B) ŒÚ ÂVB›Á> ∑ı|Dº√Vm ®ı 5 ˛Á¶¬z\V?
˛Á¶¬ÔVm. ®™ºk ¶¬Ô ÷BÈV> WÔµflEl[
WÔµ>Ô° = 0.

10 (C)

σ2 =
∑ x − (x )
2
2

∑x 2

− (25)
2
5 =
2
50

TNPSC s™V- sÁ¶ ÁÔºB|


291

25 + 625 =
∑x 2

50

∑x 2
= 50 × 650 = 32500

σ 12.6
11. (A) \VÆ√V‚|¬ ÿÔø (C.V) = × 100 = × 100 = 18
x 70

®™ºk, ÿ>V¶ˆ[ ƒ´Vƒˆ = 18

12. (B) ŒÀÿkVÚ ®ı–¶–D, ŒÚ z§©∏‚¶ ®ıÁ¬


Ì‚Ω™V_ ∂>[ ]‚¶ sȬԛ]_ \Vu≈D ∞u√¶Vm.
]‚¶ sȬÔD = 3.12

X 13. (B) ]‚¶ sȬÔD = var iance

sÈ¬Ô kÏ¬Ô ƒ´Vƒˆ = ( ]‚¶ sȬÔD )2 = 92 = 81

ƒ>T>D (Percentage)

ƒ>T>D ®[√m ±uƬz ®Àk·° ®[√º> gzD.


50
c>V´\VÔ
c>V´\VÔ, 50% ®[√Á> ®™ ®ø>ÈVD.
100
0.6 6
0.6% ®[√Á> ®™°D ®™°D ®ø>ÈVD.
100 1000

®|›m¬ÔV‚| : 1

20á_ 5 ®[√m ®›>Á™ ƒ>T>D?

TNPSC s™V- sÁ¶ ÁÔºB|


292

yÏ°:

 5 
ƒ>T>D =  ×100  % = 25%
 20 

®|›m¬ÔV‚| : 2

‘.4000- _, 15% ®Àk·° ‘√VF?

15
‘√VF = × 4000 = 600
100

®™ºk, ‘.4000 á _ 15% ®[√m ‘.600/-n¬ z§¬zD.

®|›m¬ÔV‚| : 3

ŒÚ mˬÔÁ¶l_ ‘.20,000/-¬z mË ®|›>V_ 5% >^”√Ω


®™ ÿƒV[™V_, ®Àk·° ‘√VF >^”√Ω ÿƒFkVÏÔ^?

yÏ°:

5
>^”√Ω = × 20000 = 1000
100

®™ºk, ‘.1000 n >^”√Ω ÿƒFkVÏÔ^.

÷´ı| x¬˛B s]Ô^:

9 Aál[ kÚ\V™D B-l[ kÚ\V™›Á>s¶ R% ∂]ÔD


®M_, B-l[ kÚ\V™D Aál[ kÚ\V™›Á>s¶

TNPSC s™V- sÁ¶ ÁÔºB|


293

 R 
 × 100  0 0 zÁ≈°.
 100 + R 

9 A ál[ kÚ\V™D B ál[ kÚ\V™›Á>s¶ R %


zÁ≈° ®M_, Bál[ kÚ\V™D Aál[

 R 
kÚ\V™›Á>s¶  × 100  0 0 ∂]ÔD.
 100 − R 

®|›m¬ÔV‚|:4
Ajl[ kÚ\V™D B -l[ kÚ\V™›Á> s¶ 20 ƒ>T>D ∂]ÔD
®M_, B ál[ kÚ\V™D A l[ kÚ\V™›Á> s¶ ®Àk·°
ƒ>T>D zÁ≈°?
17 0 0 yÏ°:

 R   20 
 × 100  0 0 =  × 100  0 0 ( R = 20 0 0 )
 100 + R   100 + 20 

= 16.667 0 0 ≅ 17 0 0

®™ºk, B-l[ kÚ\V™D Aál[ kÚ\V™›Á>s¶ zÁ≈°.

®|›m¬ÔV‚|: 5

ŒÚ Áƒ¬˛π[ sÁÈ 15% cBÏ˛≈m. ÷m ÿ>ˆBV\_ ŒÚkÏ


Áƒ¬˛π[ √ÁwB sÁÈÁB Ô¬˛_ Ák›m √D ÿÔVı|
ÿƒ_˛≈VÏ. ®™ºk, ∂kÏ ÿÔV^x>ÁÈ (Áƒ¬˛π[
®ıˬÁÔÁB) ®›>Á™ ƒ>T>D zÁ≈¬Ô ºkı|D?

TNPSC s™V- sÁ¶ ÁÔºB|


294
yÏ°: Áƒ¬˛π[ sÁÈ 15% cBÏ˛[≈m.

R=15%

 R   15  1500 1
 × 100  0 0 =  × 100  0 0 = = 13 0 0
 100 + R   100 + 15  115 23
1 0
®™ºk, ∂kÏ Áƒ¬˛π[ ®ıˬÁÔÁB 13 0 zÁ≈¬Ô
23
ºkı|D.

\¬Ô^ ÿ>VÁÔ Ô¬z


Ô¬z:

ŒÚ ˛´V\›]_ \¬Ô^ ÿ>VÁÔ >uƒ\BD P ®[Ô. ŒÀÿkVÚ gı|D


R% \¬Ô^ ÿ>VÁÔ ∂]Ôˆ¬zD ®[≈V_,

n
 R 
l‘n’\kÚ¶∫Ô”¬z© ∏≈z \¬Ô^ ÿ>VÁÔ= P 1 + 
 100 

P
‘n’ kÚ¶∫Ô”¬z x[A \¬Ô^ ÿ>VÁÔ =
(
1+ R
100
n
)
®|›m¬ÔV‚| : 6

ŒÚ ˛´V\›][ \¬Ô^ ÿ>VÁÔ 7000 º√Ï. ∂Õ> ˛´V\›][ \¬Ô^


ÿ>VÁÔ ŒÀÿkVÚ gı|D 4% ∂]Ôˆ¬˛[≈m ®[≈V_, 2
gı|Ô”¬z© ∏≈z ∂Õ>¬ ˛´V\›][ \¬Ô^ ÿ>VÁÔ ®[™?
P
yÏ°: ‘n’ kÚ¶∫Ô”¬z© ∏≈z \¬Ô^ ÿ>VÁÔ =
(1 + R100) n

TNPSC s™V- sÁ¶ ÁÔºB|


295

÷∫z, n = 2 gı|Ô^, R = 4% P = 7000

2
\¬Ô^ ÿ>VÁÔ = 7000 1 + 4  = 7571.2 ≅ 7571
 100 

®™ºk, 2 gı|Ô”¬z© ∏≈z, ∂Õ> ˛´V\›][ \¬Ô^ ÿ>VÁÔ


7571.

®|›m¬ÔV‚| : 7

{Ï ÂÔ´›][ \¬Ô^ ÿ>VÁÔ 44,100 º√Ï. ∂Õ> ÂÔ´›][ \¬Ô^


ÿ>VÁÔ ŒÀÿkVÚ gı|D 4% cBÏ˛≈m ®[≈V_, 2
gı|Ô”¬z x[A ∂Õ> ÂÔ´›][ \¬Ô^ ÿ>VÁÔ ®Àk·° º√Ï?

yÏ° :

P
‘n’ kÚ¶∫Ô”¬z x[A \¬Ô^ ÿ>VÁÔ =
(
1+ R
100
)n

÷]_ , P = 44100, n = 2, R = 4%

44100
/ \¬Ô^ ÿ>VÁÔ = = 40772.92 ≅ 40773
(
1+ 4
100
2
)
®™ºk, 2 gı|Ô”¬z x[A ∂Õ> ÂÔ´›][ \¬Ô^ ÿ>VÁÔ =
40773 º√Ï.

TNPSC s™V- sÁ¶ ÁÔºB|


296

º>F\V™¬ Ô¬ˇ|Ô^ (Depreciation)

ŒÚ ÷BÕ]´›][ >uº√VÁ>B sÁÈ P ®[Ô. ∂m ºkÁÈ


ÿƒFk>V_ ŒÀÿkVÚ gı|D ∂>[ sÁÈ zÁ≈•D ®[≈V_,

n
‘n’ kÚ¶∫Ô”¬z ∏≈z, ÷BÕ]´›][ sÁÈ = P 1 − R 
 100 

P
‘n’ kÚ¶∫Ô”¬z x[A, ÷BÕ]´›][ sÁÈ =
(
1− R
100
n
)
®|›m¬ÔV‚| : 8

ŒÚ kı› ÿ>VÁÈÔV‚E ÿ√‚ΩÁB ŒÚkÏ ‘.8100¬z


kV∫z˛[≈VÏ. ∂>[ º>F\V™ ƒ>T>D gı|¬z 10% ®[≈V_,
∂Õ> kı›ÿ>VÁÈÔV‚Eÿ√‚Ωl[ sÁÈBV™m
(i) 3 gı|Ô”¬z© ∏[A ®[™?
(ii) 3 gı|Ô”¬z x[A ®[™?
yÏ°

kı›ÿ>VÁÈÔV‚Eÿ√‚Ωl[ >uº√VÁ>B sÁÈ = 8100

º>F\V™ ƒ>T>D = 10%

(i) 3 gı|Ô”¬z ∏[ ∂>[ sÁÈ


n 3
 R   10 
= P 1 −  = 8100 1 −  = 5904.9 ≅ 5905
 100   100 

TNPSC s™V- sÁ¶ ÁÔºB|


297

(ii) 3 gı|Ô”¬z x[A ∂>[ sÁÈ


P 8100
= = 11111.11 ≅ 11111
=
(
1− R
100
n
) (
1 − 10
100
3
)
®™ºk, sÁÈ 3 gı|Ô”¬z ∏[A ‘.5905, sÁÈ 3
gı|Ô”¬z x[A ‘. 11111.

√luE Ô¬zÔ^:

1) 50 × x = 25 0 0 800 ®M_, x \]©A ®[™?

a) 4 b) 5 c) 3 d) 6

x + 30 0 0 2) 50% of of 210 ®M_, x -[ \]©A ®[™?

a) 18 b) 72 c) 50 d) 36

3) 75án ŒÚ z§©∏‚¶ ®ıË[ 75% c¶[ Ì‚|Dº√Vm ∂Õ>


z§©∏‚¶ ®ı ˛Á¶¬˛[≈m ®M_, ∂Õ> ®ı ®m?

a) 75 b) 150 c) 200 d) 300

4) A -[ \]©A B [ \]©∏_ 80% ®[≈V_, A [ \]©∏[ ƒ>T>D


®[™?

a) 100% b) 110% c) 125% d) 150%

TNPSC s™V- sÁ¶ ÁÔºB|


298

5) ŒÚ ±ÈÔ›]_ 20% A›>Ô∫Ô^ g∫˛ÈD ƒVÏÕ>Ák.


*>x^·ÁkÔπ_ 50% A›>Ô∫Ô^ >tµ ƒVÏÕ>Ák. \u≈ ÿ\Va
A›>Ô∫Ô^ 800 c^·™. ®™ºk, ®›>Á™ >tµÿ\Va A›>Ô∫Ô^
±ÈÔ›]_ c^·™?

a) 1000 b) 500 c) 300 d) 800

6) ŒÚkˆ[ ƒD√·D 50% zÁ≈¬Ô©√|˛≈m. ∏[A ∂kˆ[ ƒD√·D


50% cBÏ›>©√|˛[≈m ®[≈V_, ∂kÏ ∂Á¶km ÷ÈV√\V?
∂_Èm Âi¶\V?

a) 25% ÷ÈV√D b) 25% Âi¶D c) ÷ÈV√xD ÷_ÁÈ


Âi¶xD ÷_ÁÈ d) 2.5% Âi¶D.

7) ŒÚ ÂÔ´›][ \¬Ô^ ÿ>VÁÔ gıΩuz 15% cBÏ˛≈m. 1998-D


kÚ¶D ∂Õ> ÂÔ´›][ \¬Ô^ ÿ>VÁÔ 10000 gzD. ®™ºk, 2000
á D kÚ¶›][ \¬Ô^ ÿ>VÁÔ ®Àk·°?

a) 13000 b) 14000 c) 13225 d) 14225

8) ŒÚ ÿƒÀkÔ›][ ¿·D 20% cBÏ›>©√|˛[≈m. ∂>[ ∂ÔÈD


20% zÁ≈¬Ô©√|˛[≈m. ÷Õ> \Vu≈∫Ô·V_ √´©A ®›>Á™
ƒ>T>D zÁ≈•D?

a) 16% b) 40% c) 0% d) 4%

TNPSC s™V- sÁ¶ ÁÔºB|


299

9) ŒÚ ƒm´›][ ŒÀÿkVÚ √¬ÔxD 25% cBÏ›>©√|˛[≈m


®[≈V_, ∂>[ √´©A ®Àk·° ƒ>T>D ∂]Ôˆ¬zD?

a) 100% b) 50% c) 56.25% d) 2%

10) 30% of 90 = 27 ®M_, x-[ \]©A ®[™?


x
a) 0 b) 1 c) 27 d) 25%

sˆkV™ sÁ¶Ô^:

1. (a)

25 × 8
/ x= =4
50 × x = 25 0 0 800 = 50
50x = 25 × 8

50 30
2. (b) ×x+ × 90
100 100

x = 2 × 36 = 72

3.(b) ∂Õ> ®ı = x ®[Ô.

75
× x + 75 = x
100

75 × 100
x= = 300
25

/ ∂Õ> ®ı = 300.

TNPSC s™V- sÁ¶ ÁÔºB|


300

80
4.(c) A = B ; 100A = 80 B
100

B 5
=
A 4

5
/ ƒ>T>D = × 100 = 125 0 0
4

5) (b) g∫˛È A›>Ô∫Ô^ 20%

*>x^·Ák = 100-20 = 80%

>tµ A›>Ô∫Ô^ = 50% ; *>x^·Ák = 50% of 80


50
= × 80 = 40 0 0
100

\u≈ ÿ\Va A›>Ô∫Ô^ = 100- (20+40) = 100 - 60 = 40%

40% A›>Ô∫Ô^ = 800

®™ºk, >tµ A›>Ô∫Ô^ = 40% = 800

6) ŒÚkˆ[ ƒD√·D = ‘. 100 ®[Ô. 100 - [ 50% =


50
×100 = ‘. 50
100

®™ºk, ∂kˆ[ zÁ≈¬Ô©√‚¶ ƒD√·D = ‘. 100 - 50 = ‘. 50

50
50 [ 50% = × 50 = ‘. 25
100

TNPSC s™V- sÁ¶ ÁÔºB|


301

®™ºk, ∂kˆ[ cBÏ›>©√‚¶ ƒD√·D ‘. 50 + 25 = ‘. 75.


∂kÏ ∂Á¶Õ> Âi¶D = ‘. 100 - 75 = 25.
25
Âi¶ ƒ>T>D = × 100 = 25 %
100

7) 1998-D gı| \¬Ô^ ÿ>VÁÔ = 10000

gı|¬z cBÏ° ƒ>T>D = 15%

2000áD gı| \¬Ô^ ÿ>VÁÔ


2 2
 15   115 
= 100001 +  = 10000  = 13225
 100   100 

®™ºk, 2000 á D gı| \¬Ô^ ÿ>VÁÔ = 13225.

x× y
8). (D) x + y =
100

x = 20, y = −20,
√´©A = 4%
x× y
9) (C) x + y =
100

x = y = 25 0 0

25 × 25
x = 25 + 25 + = 56.25
100

TNPSC s™V- sÁ¶ ÁÔºB|


302

30
10) (B) × 90 = 27 x
100

27 x = 27

x =1

*.ÿ√V.\. \uÆD *.ÿ√V.k


*.ÿ√V.k.

*.ÿ√V.\. ®[√m *flEÆ ÿ√Vm \¶∫z ®[√>[ ∑Ú¬ÔD gzD.


÷Á> g∫˛È›]_ LCM (Least Common Mutliple) ®[√Ï.
∂>Vkm ÷´ı| ∂_Èm ∂>uz º\u√‚¶ √_KÆ©A¬ ºÔVÁkl[
*flEÆ ÿ√Vm \¶∫z ®[√m ∂ÀsÚ (∂) ∂>uz º\u√‚¶
√_KÆ©A¬ºÔVÁkÔ·VKD xøkm\VÔ kz√¶¬ÌΩB tÔ¬
zÁ≈Õ> ÿ√VmkV™©√ΩÁB¬ ÿÔVı¶ √_KÆ©A¬ºÔVÁkBVzD.
÷>–Á¶B cBÏ√Ω cÆ©∏[ ÿÔøs[ z§BV™m ∂ÀsÚ
√_KÆ©A¬ºÔVÁkÔπ[ ÿ√Ú¬Ô_ √ÈM[ cBÏ√Ω cÆ©∏[
ÿÔøs[ z§ÁB cÁ¶B>VÔ ÷Ú¬zD.

®|›m¬ÔV‚| : 1

5, 15, 20, 30 g˛B ®ıÔπ[ LCM ®[™?

yÏ°:

5 5 15 20 30

31 3 4 6

21 1 4 2
1 1 2 1

TNPSC s™V- sÁ¶ ÁÔºB|


303
LCM = 5 × 3 × 2 × 2 = 60

®™ºk 5, 15, 20, 30 g˛B ®ıÔπ[ LCM 60 gzD.

®|›m¬ÔV‚| : 2

[ LCM ÔVıÔ.

yÏ°:

12 ( x − 1) = 2 2 × 3( x − 1) ®™ ®ø>ÈVD.
3 3

15 ( x − 1)( x + 2 ) = 5 × 3( x − 1)( x + 2 ) ®™ ®ø>ÈVD.


2 2

®™ºk, LCM = 2 2 × 3 × 5 × ( x − 1)3 × ( x + 2 )2

12 ( x − 1) , 15 ( x − 1)( x + 2 )= 60 ( x − 1)3 ( x + 2 )2
3 2

®|›m¬ÔV‚| : 3

6 x 2 y, 9 x 2 yz, 12 x 2 y 2 z

g˛Bku§[ LCM ÔVıÔ.

yÏ°:

6x2 y = 2 × 3× x2 y

9 x 2 yz = 32 x 2 yz

12 x 2 y 2 z = 2 2 × 3 × x 2 y 2 z

TNPSC s™V- sÁ¶ ÁÔºB|


304

®™ºk, LCM = 2 2 × 32 × x 2 y 2 z

= 4×9× x2 y2 z

LCM = 36x 2 y 2 z

®|›m¬ÔV‚| : 4
96, 108, 280 g˛B ®ıÔπ[ LCM ®[™?

yÏ°:

2 96 108 280
2 48 54 140
2 24 27 70
3 12 27 35
4 9 35

/ LCM = 2 × 2 × 2 × 3 × 4 × 9 × 35 = 30240

( ∂_Èm )

108 = 2 2 × 33

280 = 23 × 5 × 7

/ LCM = (25 × 33 × 5 × 7 ) = 30240

TNPSC s™V- sÁ¶ ÁÔºB|


305

*.ÿ√V.k. *©ÿ√Ú ÿ√Vmkz›]


*.ÿ√V.k.(*©ÿ√Ú ÿ√Vmkz›]):
*.ÿ√V.k.. ®[√m *©ÿ√Ú ÿ√Vmkz›] ®[√>[ ∑Ú¬ÔD
gzD. ÷Á> g∫˛È›]_ HCF (HighestdCommonmFactor)
®[√Ï. ∂>Vkm ÷´ı| (∂) ∂>uz º\u√‚¶ (∂)
√_KÆ©A¬ºÔVÁkÔπ[ ®_ÈV ÿ√Vm kz›]ÔÁ·•D tÔ©ÿ√ˆB
∂|¬ÁÔ¬ ÿÔVı¶mD ∂Õ> ∂|¬˛[ ÿÔøkV™m tÁÔ
®ıVÔ°D ÷Ú¬˛[≈ ÿ√Vm kz›]>V[.

®|›m¬ÔV‚| : 5

5, 15, 20, 30 g˛B ®ıÔπ[ HCF ®[™?

yÏ°:

5 5 15 20 30
1 3 4 5

HCF = 5

/ ÿÔV|¬Ô©√‚¶ ®ıÔπ[ HCF = 5

®|›m¬ÔV‚| : 6

25, 35, 45 g˛B ®ıÔπ[ HCF ®[™?

5 25 35 45
5 7 9

HCF = 5 (*]ÁB ®|¬Ô¬Ì¶Vm)

TNPSC s™V- sÁ¶ ÁÔºB|


306

(∂_Èm)
25 = 52
35 = 5 × 7

®™ºk, HCF = 5 (∂Á™›m ®ıÔπKD ÿ√VmkV™ ®ı).

®|›m¬ÔV‚| : 7

x 3 − 9 x 2 + 23x − 15, 4 x 2 − 16 x + 12 g˛Bku§[ HCF ÔVıÔ.

yÏ°:

f ( x ) = x 3 − 9 x 2 + 23x − 15 ®[Ô.

g ( x ) = 4 x 2 − 16 x + 12 ®[Ô.

( )
= 4 x 2 − 4 x + 3 ®™°D ®ø>ÈVD.

x −5

x 2 − 4x + 3 x 3 − 9x 2 + 23x − 15
x 3 − 4 x 2 + 3x
− 5x 2 + 20x − 15
− 5x 2 + 20x − 15
0

HCF = x 2 − 4 x + 3

TNPSC s™V- sÁ¶ ÁÔºB|


307

÷´ı| x¬˛B s]Ô^ :

1. ÷´ı| ®ıÔπ[ ÿ√Ú¬Ôu√È[ = (∂Õ> ®ıÔπ[ LCM) $


(∂Õ> ®ıÔπ[ HCF).

2. ÿÔV|¬Ô©√‚¶ ®ıÔπ[ HCF g™m ∂Õ> ®ıÔπ[ LCM


- I ®©º√VmD *]l[§ kz¬zD.

®|›m¬ÔV‚|: 8
÷Ú ®ıÔπ[ HCF = 12. ∂Õ> ®ıÔπ[ LCM = 180. ŒÚ
®ı 36 ®M_, \uÿ≈VÚ ®ı ®m?

yÏ°;

\uÿ≈VÚ ®ı = áááááááááááááá
ŒÚ ®ı

12 × 180
= = 60
36
®™ºk, \uÿ≈VÚ ®ı = 60.

®|›m¬ÔV‚| : 9
÷Ú ®ıÔπ[ HCF = 99. ∂Õ> ÷Ú ®ıÔ^ 198, 1386 gzD.
®M_, ∂Õ> ÷Ú ®ıÔπ[ LCM ®[™?

yÏ°;
÷Ú ®ıÔπ[ ÿ√Ú¬Ôu√È[
= ááááááááááááááááááááááááááááóóóóó

TNPSC s™V- sÁ¶ ÁÔºB|


308

198 × 1386
LCM = = 2772
99
®™ºk, LCM = 2772 gzD.

∏[™ ®ıÔπ[ HCF \uÆD LCM Ô¬˛|>_:

ÿÔV|¬Ô©√‚¶ ∏[™ ®ıÔπ[ HCF


ÿ>Vz] ®ıÔπ[ HCF
= ------------------------
√z] ®ıÔπ[ LCM

ÿÔV|¬Ô©√‚¶ ∏[™ ®ıÔπ[ LCM

ÿ>Vz] ®ıÔπ[ LCM


= ------------------------
√z] ®ıÔπ[ HCF

®|›m¬ÔV‚| : 10

ÿÔV|¬Ô©√‚¶ ∏[™ ®ıÔπ[ HCFá n¬ ÔVıÔ.

8 22 10
, , .
18 81 27

yÏ° : ÿ>Vz] ®ıÔπ[ HCF

2 8 22 10
4 11 5

/ HCF = 2

TNPSC s™V- sÁ¶ ÁÔºB|


309

√z] ®ıÔπ[ LCM


3 18 81 27
3 6 27 9
32 9 3
2 3 1

/ LCM = 3 × 3 × 3 × 2 × 3 = 162

ÿ>Vz] ®ıÔπ[
®™ºk, ∏[™ ®ıÔπ[ HCF = ááááááááááááááááááááááááá
√z] ®ıÔπ[ LCM

2
2 ®™ºk, ÿÔV|¬Ô©√‚¶ ∏[™ ®ıÔπ[ HCF =
162
162
®|›m¬ÔV‚| : 11
ÿÔV|¬Ô©√‚¶ ∏[™ ®ıÔπ[ LCM n¬ ÔVıÔ.
20 15 60
, ,
105 90 75
yÏ°: ÿ>Vz]Ôπ[ LCM

5 20 15 60

2 4 3 12

32 3 6

22 1 2
1 1 1

LCM = 5 × 2 × 3 × 2 = 60

TNPSC s™V- sÁ¶ ÁÔºB|


310

√z]Ôπ[ HCF :

5 105 90 75

3 21 18 15
7 6 5

H C F = 5 × 3 = 15

®™ºk, ÿÔV|¬Ô©√‚¶ ∏[™ ®ıÔπ[ LCM

√luE Ô¬zÔ^:

1) ÿÔV|¬Ô©√‚¶ÁkÔπ[ LCM ®[™?


2 3 × 3 × 5, 2 4 × 5 × 7
a) 24 × 3 × 5 × 7 b) 23 × 5 × 7

c) 27 × 3 × 52 × 7 d) 212 × 3 × 52 × 7

1 2 3 4
2) , , , ÷ÁkÔπ[ HCF ®[™?
2 3 4 5

1
a) b) 60 c) 1 d) 40
60

3) ÷Ú ®ıÔπ[ HCF = 28 ∂ku§[ LCM = 84


ŒÚ ®ı = 28 ®[≈V_, \uÿ≈VÚ ®ı ®[™?

a) 84 b) 28 c) 56 d) 1

TNPSC s™V- sÁ¶ ÁÔºB|


311
4) ÿÔV|¬Ô©√‚¶ ®ıÔπ[ HCFán¬ ÔVıÔ.

12, 18, 24, 54

a) 6 b) 2 c) 3 d) 216

5) ÷Ú ®ıÔπ[ LCM g™m ∂Õ> ÷Ú ®ıÔπ[ HCF º√V_


nÕm \¶∫z ∂]ÔD. º\KD LCM n•D HCF n•D Ì‚Ω™V_
300 ˛Á¶¬˛[≈m. ŒÚ ®ı 125 ®[≈V_, \uÿ≈VÚ ®ı ®[™?

a) 175 b) 150 c) 625 d) 100


6 ) ÷Ú ®ıÔπ[ ÿ√Ú¬Ôu√È[ 1600, ∂ku§[ HCF = 5 ®M_,
LCM ®[™?

a) 8000 b) 1600 c) 5 d) 320

7) ÂV[z ÔΩÔV´∫Ô^ \Ë Œo¬zD ºÂ´∫Ô^ xÁ≈ºB 5


s™VΩÔ^, 10 s™VΩÔ^, 15 s™VΩÔ^, 20 s™VΩÔ^. ÷Õ> ÂV[z
ÔΩÔV´∫Ô”D ºƒÏÕm Œº´ ºÂ´›]_ ŒÚ \Ë ºÂ´›]_ ®›>Á™
xÁ≈ Œo¬zD?

a) 60 xÁ≈ b) 1 xÁ≈ c) 2 xÁ≈ d) 30 xÁ≈

8) 24 ]´V‚Áƒ Ô[ÆÔÁ·•D, 18 kVÁw Ô[ÆÔÁ·•D, 12 ÔÚDA


Ô[ÆÔÁ·•D ŒÚ skƒVl kV∫z˛[≈VÏ. ∂Õ> Ô[ÆÔÁ· ∂Õ>
skƒVl >[ º>V‚¶›]_ kˆÁƒ (Row) xÁ≈l_ Â|˛[≈VÏ.
ŒÀÿkVÚ kˆÁƒlKD Œº´ \V]ˆBV™ Ô[ÆÔÁ· \‚|D
Â|˛[≈VÏ ®M_, ∂kÏ zÁ≈Õ>m ®›>Á™ kˆÁƒÔπ_ Â|kVÏ?

a) 5 kˆÁƒÔ^ b) 6 kˆÁƒÔ^ c) 9 kˆÁƒÔ^ d) 10


kˆÁƒÔ^.

TNPSC s™V- sÁ¶ ÁÔºB|


312
sˆkV™ sÁ¶Ô^:

1. (A) 23 × 3 × 5 , 2 4 × 5 × 7

/ LCM = 2 4 × 3 × 5 × 7

2. (A) ÿ>Vz]Ôπ[ HCF

11 2 3 4
1 2 3 4

/ HCF = 1

√z]Ôπ[ LCM

22 3 4 5
1 3 2 5

/ LCM = 2 × 3 × 2 × 5 = 60

®™ºk, HCF = 1
60

3. (A)

HCF x LCM
\uÿ≈VÚ ®ı ----------------
ŒÚ ®ı

28 × 84
= = 84
28

TNPSC s™V- sÁ¶ ÁÔºB|


313
4. (A)

ÿÔV|¬Ô©√‚¶ ®ıÔπ[

5. (C) ÿÔV|¬Ô©√‚¶ ŒÀÿkVÚ ®ıÔπ[ tÔ©ÿ√ˆB


∂|¬zÔÁ· ®ø>ºkı|D.

6. (D)

1600
LCM= = 320
5

7. (A)

LCM =

TNPSC s™V- sÁ¶ ÁÔºB|


314

ÂV[z ÔΩÔV´∫Ô”D Œº´ ºÂ´›]_ Œo¬Ô 60s™VΩÔ^ º>Ák.


60 s™VΩÔπ_ 1 xÁ≈ Œo¬zD.

/1 \Ë ºÂ´›]_ (60 × 60 s™VΩÔ^) xÁ≈Ô^

8.(C)

6 24 18 12
4 3 2

24, 18,12 g˛B ®ıÔπ[ HCF = 6.

24 18 12
kˆÁƒ xÁ≈Ô^ = + + = 4 + 3 + 2 = 9 kˆÁƒÔ^.
6 6 6

Ratio and Proportion


s˛>D \uÆD s˛>©√|›m>_:

®|›m¬ÔV‚|: 1

÷Ú ®ıÔ”¬˛Á¶ºB c^· s˛>∫Ô^ xÁ≈ºB 3 : 7.


∂ku§[ *.ÿ√V.k 210. gÔºk, ∂Õ> ÷Ú ®ıÔÁ·¬ ÔVıÔ.

yÏ°:

÷Ú ®ıÔ^ \uÆD 7 x ®[Ô.


3 x \uÆD 7 x [ *.ÿ√V.k.

3 × 7 × x = 21x

TNPSC s™V- sÁ¶ ÁÔºB|


315

gÔºk, ∂Õ> ÷Ú ®ıÔ^ 30 \uÆD 70.

®|›m¬ÔV‚| : 2

\uÆD ®M_, [ \]©A ®[™?


yÏ°:

gÔºk,

®|›m¬ÔV‚|: 3
®M_, A : C ®[™?
yÏ°:
\uÆD

\uÆD

TNPSC s™V- sÁ¶ ÁÔºB|


316

gÔºk, A : C = 5: 3.
®|›m¬ÔV‚|: 4
®M_, [ \]©Á√¬ ÔVıÔ.
yÏ°:

gÔºk,

®|›m¬ÔV‚| : 5.
÷Ú ®ıÔπ[ s˛>∫Ô^ xÁ≈ºB 2 : 3. ŒÀÿkVÚ
®ıÔ”¶–D 10 Ì‚¶©√|˛≈m. gÔºk, ∂Õ> ®ıÔπ[
s˛>∫Ô^ 4 : 5. ∂Õ> ÷Ú ®ıÔÁ·¬ ÔVıÔ.
yÏ°:
÷Ú ®ıÔ^ \uÆD ®[Ô.

ƒ\[√V| (1) \uÆD (2) n yϬÔ,

gÔºk, ÷Ú ®ıÔ^ 10 \uÆD 15.


கல்வி அமுது http://kalviamuthu.blogspot.com

TNPSC s™V- sÁ¶ ÁÔºB|