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(i)

,sikj; jkpnH

7
Kjy; gUtk;
2019?2020 g[jpa ghlj;jpl;lj;jpd;go
▶ E}y; btsp ▶ TLjy; tpdhf;fs;
▶ brhy;Yk; bghUSk; ▶ fw;git fw;wgpd;
▶ kjpg;gPl;L tpdhf;fs; ▶ kdg;ghlg; ghly;fs;
▶ fiyr;brhy; mwpnthk; ▶ khjpup tpdhj;jhs;
▶ rpe;jid tpdh?tpil ▶ bjhFj;jwp kjpg;gPl;L tpdhj;jhs;

ciuahrphpah;fs;:

nfh. ghf;fpaehjd;/ M.A., M.Phil., B.Ed.,


r. nrl;L kjhh;rh/ M.A., M.A., M.Phil., B.Ed., TPT, PGDTR, UGC-NET, Ph.D., Dip.Folk, PGDCA
rp. $hd; @ khlrhkp/ M.A., B.Ed., M.Phil., tP. mgpn&fh nfj;jhpd;/ M.A., B.Ed.,

SURYA PUBLICATIONS
(A UNIT OF SHYAMALA GROUP)
Tirunelveli - Chennai

Price ` 80 /-
(ii)

Published By
B. ARUMUGAM
SURYA PUBLICATIONS
(A unit of Shyamala Group)

BANK DETAILS

TIRUNELVELI ACCOUNT

Account Name : Surya Publications Account Name : Surya Publications


Account Number : 446971431 Account Number : 510909010051752
Bank Name : Indian Bank Bank Name : City Union Bank
IFSC Code : IDIB000T034 IFSC Code : CIUB0000230
Branch Name : Tirunelveli Junction Branch Name : Palayamkottai

CHENNAI ACCOUNT

Account Name : Sri Ganga Publication Account Name : Sri Ganga Publication
Account Number : 928507483 Account Number : 512020010022514
Bank Name : Indian Bank Bank Name : City Union Bank
IFSC Code : IDIB000A031 IFSC Code : CIUB0000230
Branch Name : Ashok Nagar Branch Name : Palayamkottai

SURYA PUBLICATIONS
(A UNIT OF SHYAMALA GROUP)

Corporate Office : Registered Office :


No. 1, Sugar Mill Colony, New No. 59, 4th Avenue,
Salai Kumaran illam, Opp. to Govt. Boys Hr. Sec. School,
Madurai Road, Ashok Nagar,
Tirunelveli - 627001. Chennai - 600 083.
Phone : 0462 - 233 8899 / 233 8484 Phone : 044 - 2474 4484
Mobile : 94431 58484 / 95978 39822 Mobile : 94421 58484 / 94425 58484
Email : suryaguides@yahoo.com Email : srigangapublications5@gmail.com
Website : www.suryapublications.in
(iii)

Kft[iu ....
``jkpGf;F mKbjd;W ngh; ? me;jj;
jkpH; ,d;gj; jkpH; v=;fs; capUf;F neh;~~

vd;W g[ul;rpg;gz; ghodhd; ghujpjhrd;.

jha;bkhHpahd jkpH;g;ghlj;jpy; cah;kjpg;bgz; bgw;wplt[k;/


gpiHapd;wp ,yf;fpa/ ,yf;fz eila[ld; vGjplt[k; ,e;j
,sikj;jkpnH c=;fSf;F cWJiz g[hpa[k;.

md;ghh;e;j khzth;fns-
jd;dk;gpf;if/ fod ciHg;g[/ tplhKaw;rp vDk; @d;iwa[k;
cs;sj;jpy; gjpa itj;Jf; bfhs;S=;fs;. md;whlk; gog;gjidg;
gHf;fkhf;fpf; bfhz;L/ mjid epue;ju tHf;fkhf;fpf; bfhs;S=;fs;.
vspa ,dpa eil/ bjspthd brhw;bwhlh; mikg;g[/ jkpH;ehL murpd;
ghlE}iyj; jGtpa midj;J tpdhf;fSf;Fk; gapw;rpfSf;Fk;
bjspthd tpilfs; ,itna ,sikj;jkpHpd; jdpr;rpwg;g[. ,e;j
,sikj;jkpnH Jiztid th=;fpg; gad;gLj;Jk; ePtph; mhpa
rhjidfisg; gilj;jpl thH;j;Jfpwnhk;.

thH;f jkpH;- tsh;f jkpH; czh;t[--


gjpg;gfj;jhh;
(iv)

bghUslf;fk;

vz; ,ay; ghlj;jiyg;g[fs; gf;fk;


kdg;ghlg; gFjpfs;
xd;W bkhHp v=;fs; jkpH;* 1
mKjj;jkpH; xd;wy;y ,uz;ly;y 6
ngr;RbkhHpa[k; vGj;JbkhHpa[k; 12
brhytilfs; 17
Fw;wpaYfuk;/ Fw;wpaypfuk; 19
khjphp tpdhj;jhs; ? 1 28
,uz;L ,aw;if fhL* 30
mzpepHy; fhL mg;gona epw;fl;Lk; me;j kuk; 34
tpy=;Ffs; cyfk; 39
,e;jpa tdkfd; 45
ehy;tiff; FWf;f=;fs; 47
jpUf;Fws;* 55
khjphp tpdhj;jhs; ? 2 60
@d;W ehL/ r@fk; g[yp j=;fpa Fif* 61
ehL mij ehL gh+;ir tsk; 66
njrpak; fhj;j brk;ky;
71
gRk;bghd; Kj;Juhkyp=;fj;njth;
fg;gnyhl;oa jkpHh; 78
tHf;F 81
khjphp tpdhj;jhs; ? 3 91
bjhFj;jwp kjpg;gPL 93
(v)

kdg;ghlg; gFjp

v=;fs; jkpH;
mUs;bewp mwpitj; juyhFk;
mJnt jkpHd; FuyhFk;
bghUs;bgw ahiua[k; g[fHhJ
nghw;wh jhiua[k; ,fHhJ
bfhy;yh tpujk; Fwpahff;
bfhs;if bgha;ah bewpahf
vy;yh kdpjUk; ,d;g[wnt
vd;Wk; ,ire;jpLk; md;gwnk
md;g[k; mwKk; Cf;fptpLk;
mr;rk; vd;gijg; nghf;fptpLk;
,d;gk; bghHpfpw thbdhypahk;
v=;fs; jkpbHDk; njd;bkhHpahk;
? ehkf;fy; ftp+h; bt. ,uhkyp=;fdhh;

fhL
gr;ir kapy;eof;Fk;
gd;wp fpH=;bfLf;Fk;
er;ru t=;fy=;Fk; ? fpspna
ehpbayhk; CisapLk;
mjpkJ uj;jiHia
ahidfs; jpd;wgo
g[Jeil nghLkO ? fpspna
g{=;Fapy; Tt[ko-
rp=;fk; g[yp fuo
rpWj;ij tpy=;fpd=;fs;
v=;Fk; jphpa[k;O ? fpspna
,aw;if tpLjpapny-
? Rujh
(vi)

jpUf;Fws;
Vjpyhh; Fw;wk;nghy; jk;Fw;wk; fhz;fpw;gpd;
jPJz;nlh kd;Dk; caph;f;F.
tha;ik vdg;gLtJ ahbjdpd; ahbjhd;Wk;
jPik ,yhj brhyy;.
cs;sj;jhy; bgha;ahJ xGfpd; cyfj;jhh;
cs;sj;Js; vy;yhk; csd;.
,aw;wYk; <l;lYk; fhj;jYk; fhj;j
tFj;jYk; ty;yJ muR.
? jpUts;Sth;

g[yp j=;fpa Fif


rpw;wpy; ew;W}z; gw;wp epd;kfd;
ahz;L csndh vdtpdt[jp vd;kfd;
ahz;Lcsd; MapDk; mwpnad; XUk;
g[ypnrh;e;J nghfpa fy;mis nghy
<d;w tapnwh ,Jnt
njhd;Wtd; khnjh nghh;f;fsj; jhnd
? fhtw;bgz;L


,ay; 1 ftpijg;
VII  Nh;ahngiH
 ,sikj;jkpnH 1

,ay; v=;fs; jkpH;


1 ? ehkf;fy; ftp+h; bt. ,uhkyp=;fdhh;

E}y;btsp:
,g;ghlypd; Mrphpaiu/ ehkf;fy; ftp+h; vd;Wk; miHg;gh;. ,th; jkpHwp+h;/ ftp+h;/
tpLjiyg; nghuhl;l tPuh; vdg; gd;Kfj; jd;ik bfhz;lth;. fhe;jpaofspd; bfhs;iffshy;
<h;f;fg;gl;L fhe;jpaj;ijg; gpd;gw;wpajhy; ,th; fhe;jpaf;ftp+h; vd;Wk; miHf;fg;gLfpwhh;.
jkpHf murpd; Kjy; muritf; ftp+uhf tps=;fpath;. kiyf;fs;sd;/ ehkf;fy; ftp+h; ghly;fs;/
vd;fij/ r=;bfhyp cs;spl;l gy;ntW E}y;fis vGjpa[s;shh;.
brhy;Yk; bghUSk;
1. Cf;fptpLk; ? Cf;fg;gLj;Jk; 3. Fwp ? Fwpf;nfhs;
2. tpujk; ? nehd;g[ 4. bghHpfpd;w ? jUfpd;w
kjpg;gPL
rhpahd tpiliaj; njh;e;bjLj;J vGJf. (gf;fk;: 4)
1. `bewp~ vd;Dk; brhy;ypd; bghUs; _______
m) tHp M) Fwpf;nfhs; ,) bfhs;if <) mwk; [tpil: m]
2. `FuyhFk;~ vd;Dk; brhy;iyg; gphpj;J vGjf; fpilg;gJ _______
m) Fuy; + ahFk; M) Fuy; + MFk; ,) Fu + yhFk; <) Fu + MFk;
 [tpil: M]
3. thd; + xyp vd;gjidr; nrh;j;bjGjf; fpilf;Fk; brhy; _______
m) thd;xyp M) thbdhyp ,) thbthyp <) thbdyp
[tpil: M]
eak; mwpf:
1. `v=;fs; jkpH;~ ghlypy; Kjy; vGj;J xd;Wnghy; tUk; nkhidr; brhw;fis vLj;J vGJf.
(v.fh) mUs;bewp bghUs;bgw bfhy;yh vy;yh md;g[k;
mJnt nghw;wh bfhs;if vd;Wk; mr;rk;
2. `v=;fs; jkpH;~ ghlypy; ,uz;lhk; vGj;J xd;Wnghy; tUk; vJifr; brhw;fis vLj;J
vGJf.
(v.fh) mUs; bfhy;yh md;g[k;
bghUs; vy;yh ,d;gk;
3. `v=;fs; jkpH;~ ghlypy; ,Wjp vGj;J xd;Wnghy; tUk; ,iag[r; brhw;fis vLj;J vGJf.
(v.fh) juyhFk; g[fHhJ Fwpahf ,d;g[wnt
FuyhFk; ,fHhJ bewpahf md;gwnk
Cf;fptpLk; thbdhypahk;
nghf;fptpLk; njd;bkhHpahk;
2 VII  Nh;ah  ,sikj;jkpnH ,ay; 1

FWtpdh:
1. jkpH;bkhHpapd; gz;g[fshf ehkf;fy; ftp+h; TWtd ahit>
ek; jha;bkhHpahk; jkpH;bkhHp/ mUs; bewpfs; epuk;gpa mwpitj; jUfpwJ. mJnt
jkpH; kf;fspd; Fuyhft[k; tps=;FfpwJ. midthplj;Jk; md;iga[k; mwj;ija[k;
J}z;Lk;" mBJ mr;rj;ijg; nghf;fp ,d;gk; jUk;.
2. jkpH;bkhHpiaf; fw;wthpd; ,ay;g[fis vGJf.
jkpH;bkhHpiaf; fw;nwhh;/ bghUs; bgWtjw;fhf ahiua[k; g[fH;e;J ngrkhl;lhh;.
jk;ikg; nghw;whjth;fisa[k; ,fH;e;J ngrkhl;lhh;.
rpWtpdh:
1. `v=;fs; jkpH;~ ghlypy; ehkf;fy; ftp+h; TWk; fUj;Jfisj; bjhFj;J vGJf.
ek; jha;bkhHpahk; jkpH;bkhHp/ mUs;bewpfs; epuk;gpa mwpitj; jUfpwJ. mJnt
jkpH;kf;fspd; Fuyhft[k; tps=;FfpwJ. jkpH; bkhHpiaf; fw;nwhh;/ bghUs; bgWtjw;fhf
ahiua[k; g[fH;e;J ngrkhl;lhh;. jk;ikg; nghw;whjth;fisa[k; ,fH;e;J ngrkhl;lhh;.
bfhy;yhikiaf; Fwpf;nfhshft[k; bgha;ahikiaf; bfhs;ifahft[k; bfhz;L/
vy;yh kdpjh;fSk; ,d;g[w;W thH md;g[k; mwKk; cjt[k;.
ek; jkpH;bkhHp midthplj;Jk; md;iga[k; mwj;ija[k; J}z;Lk;. mBJ mr;rj;ijg;
nghf;fp ,d;gk; jUk;" v=;fs; jkpH;bkhHp njd; nghd;w bkhHp MFk;.
rpe;jid tpdh:
1. ftp+h; jkpiH Vd; njDld; xg;gpLfpwhh;>
cyfpy; rpwg;nghL tH=;fpa cah;jdpr; brk;bkhHpfspy; jkpH;bkhHpa[k; xd;whfg;
nghw;wg;gLfpwJ. jkpH;bkhHp gHikf;Fk; gHikaha;/ g[Jikf;Fk; g[Jikaha;/
,UtHf;Fk; bgw;W/ ,yf;fpa tsKk; bfhz;L/ vd;Wk; Fd;whj rPhpsikj; jpwj;njhL
,d;Wk; tps=;FfpwJ. mj;jifa giHika[k;/ tsika[k; bfhz;l jkpH; bkhHpapy;
njhd;wpa ,yf;fpa=;fs; cyfr; rpwg;g[iladthFk;.
rpwpath;fs; Kjy; bghpath;fs; tiu njid tpUk;ghjth;fs; ahUkpy;iy. mj;jifa
Ritiaj; jd;dfj;nj bfhz;L tps=;FtJ njd;. njd; gy njdPf;fspd; ciHg;g[.
mJnghy/ jkpH; gy g[yth;fspd; ciHg;g[. mj;jifa g[yth;fspd; ciHg;igr; Ritf;f
tpUk;ghj jkpH; mwpe;j btspehl;odnu ,y;iy. ,e;jpahtpw;F te;j btspehl;odh;
mwpe;Jbfhs;s tpUk;gpa xnu bkhHp ek; jkpH;bkhHpjhd;. mwpe;jJ kl;Lky;yhky; mjpy;
,yf;fpa=;fSk; gilj;J kfpH;e;jdh;. mj;jifa ,dpg;ghd jkpiHf; ftp+h; njd; vd;W
ghLtJ rhpahfj;jhd; cs;sJ. jkpiHg; gof;fg;gof;f ,dpikiaj; juty;yJ. Mfnt/
ftp+h; jkpiHj; njDld; xg;gpLfpwhh;.

TLjy; tpdhf;fs;
rhpahd tpiliaj; njh;e;bjLj;J vGJf.
1. cyf bkhHpfspy; bjhd;ikahdJ _______ bkhHp
m) jkpH; M) bjY=;F ,) fd;dlk; <) ,e;jp [tpil: m]
,ay; 1 VII  Nh;ah  ,sikj;jkpnH 3

2. _______ njitahd md;iga[k; mwj;ija[k; TWtJ jkpH;bkhHp


m) g[fGf;F M) ghlYf;F ,) thH;t[f;F <) tpisahl;Lf;F
 [tpil: ,]
3. jkpH;bkhHp mr;rj;ijg; nghf;fp _______ jUk;
m) gak; M) Jd;gk; ,) ,d;gk; <) g[fH; [tpil: ,]
4. vy;yh kdpjh;fSk; ,d;g[w;W thH _______ cjt[k;.
m) fhR gzk; M) md;g[k; mwKk;
,) Jd;gk; Jauk; <) kz; bghd; [tpil: M]
5. ehkf;fy; ftp+hpd; ,aw;bgah; _______
m) Rg;gpukzp M) kzpfz;ld; ,) rpjk;guk; <) ,uhkyp=;fdhh;
 [tpil: <]
6. fhe;jpaf;ftp+h; vd;W miHf;fg;gLgth; _______ ftp+h;
m) kJiu M) jpUr;rp ,) ehkf;fy; <) bey;iy
 [tpil: ,)]
7. jkpHfj;jpy; Kjy; muritf; ftp+uhf tps=;fpath; _______
m) fiy+h; M) ehkf;fy; ftp+h;
,) mz;zh <) vk;. $p. Mh; [tpil: M]
8. `md;gwnk~ vd;Dk; brhy;iyg; gphpj;J vGjf; fpilg;gJ _______
m) m + gwnk M) md; + gwnk ,) md;g[ + cwnk <) md;g[ + mwnk
 [tpil: <]
9. `jkpbHDk;~ vd;Dk; brhy;iyg; gphpj;J vGjf; fpilg;gJ _______
m) jkp + bHDk; M) jkpH; + vGk; ,) jkpH; + vDk; <) jkpH; + VDk;
[tpil: ,]
10. `r=;bfhyp~ vd;Dk; brhy;iyg; gphpj;J vGjf; fpilg;gJ _______
m) r=;F + xyp M) r=;F + vyp ,) r + xyp <) r=; + bfhyp
 [tpil: m]
FWtpdh:
1. ehkf;fy; ftp+h; ,aw;wpa E}y;fs; ahit>
kiyf;fs;sd;/ ehkf;fy; ftp+h; ghly;fs;/ vd;fij/ r=;bfhyp.
2. ehkf;fy; ftp+hpd; gd;Kfj; jd;ikia vGJf.
ehkf;fy; ftp+h;/ jkpHwp+h;/ ftp+h;/ tpLjiyg; nghuhl;l tPuh; vdg; gd;Kfj; jd;ik
bfhz;lth;.
3. ehkf;fy; ftp+h; fhe;jpaf; ftp+h; vd;W Vd; miHf;fg;gl;lhh;>
fhe;jpaofspd; bfhs;iffshy; <h;f;fg;gl;Lf; fhe;jpaj;ijg; gpd;gw;wpajhy; ,th; fhe;jpaf;
ftp+h; vd;W miHf;fgl;lhh;.
4 VII  Nh;ah  ,sikj;jkpnH ,ay; 1

4. md;g[k; mwKk; vjw;F cjt[k;>


bfhy;yhikiaf; Fwpf;nfhshft[k; bgha;ahikiaf; bfhs;ifahft[k; bfhz;L/ vy;yh
kdpjh;fSk; ,d;g[w;W thH md;g[k; mwKk; cjt[k;.
5. jkpH;bkhHpapd; jd;ik ahJ>
jkpH;bkhHp midthplj;Jk; md;iga[k; mwj;ija[k; J}z;Lk;" mBJ mr;rj;ijg; nghf;fp
,d;gk; jUk;.
6. mwpitj; jUtJ vJ>
jha;bkhHpahk; jkpH;bkhHp/ mUs;bewpfs; epuk;gpa mwpitj; jUfpwJ.
7. bjhil vd;why; vd;d>
ghlypd; mofspnyh/ rPh;fspnyh vGj;Jfs; xd;wptuj; bjhLg;gJ `bjhil~ vdg;gLk;.
8. bjhil vj;jid tifg;gLk;> mit ahit>
bjhil vl;L tifg;gLk;. mit
1. nkhidj;bjhil 2. vJifj;bjhil 3. Kuz;bjhil 4. ,iag[j;bjhil
5. msbgilj;bjhil 6. ,ul;ilj;bjhil 7. me;jhjpj;bjhil 8. bre;bjhil
9. nkhid vd;why; vd;d>
xU ghlypy; mofspnyh/ rPh;fspnyh KjbyGj;J xd;wp miktJ nkhid vdg;gLk;.
v.fh: mUs;bewp ? mJnt
10. vJif vd;why; vd;d>
xU ghlypy; mofspnyh/ rPh;fspnyh Kjy; vGj;J msbthj;J epw;f/ ,uz;lhk; vGj;J
xd;wpaiktJ vJif vdg;gLk;.
v.fh: mUs; ? bghUs;
11. ,iag[ vd;why; vd;d>
xU ghlypy; mofs;njhWk; ,Wjp vGj;njh/ mirnah/ rPnuh/ monah xd;wpaiktJ
,iag[ vdg;gLk;.
v.fh: juyhFk; ? FuyhFk;
rpWtpdh:
1. ehkf;fy; ftp+h; Fwpg;g[ vGJf.
bgah; : bt. ,uhkyp=;fdhh;
Ch; : ehkf;fy; khtl;lj;jpYs;s nkhfD}h;
bgw;nwhh; : bt=;fl;uhkd; ? mk;kzp
fhyk; : 1888 ? 1972
tpUJ : gj;kg{&z;
E}y;fs; :  jkpHd; ,jak;/ r=;bfhyp/ jkpH;j;njh;/ ftpjh+;ryp/ gpuhh;j;jid/ jhahh;
bfhLj;j jdk;/ njkJuj; jkpnHhir/ mtDk; mtSk;/ kiyf;fs;sd;/
,yf;fpa ,d;gk;/ vd;fij/ ehkf;fy; ftp+h; ghly;fs;.
rpwg;g[ : ehkf;fy; ftp+h;/ muritf; ftp+h;/ fhe;jpaf; ftp+h;.
,ay; 1 VII  Nh;ah  ,sikj;jkpnH 5

fw;git fw;wgpd;  (gf;fk; 3)


1. ``v=;fs; jkpH;~~ ? ghliy ,ira[ld; gho kfpH;f.
mUs;bewp mwpitj; juyhFk;
mJnt jkpHd; FuyhFk;
bghUs;bgw ahiua[k; g[fHhJ
nghw;wh jhiua[k; ,fHhJ
bfhy;yh tpujk; Fwpahff;
bfhs;if bgha;ah bewpahf
vy;yh kdpjUk; ,d;g[wnt
vd;Wk; ,ire;jpLk; md;gwnk
md;g[k; mwKk; Cf;fptpLk;
mr;rk; vd;gijg; nghf;fptpLk;
,d;gk; bghHpfpw thbdhypahk;
v=;fs; jkpbHDk; njd;bkhHpahk;
? ehkf;fy; ftp+h; bt. ,uhkyp=;fdhh;

2. gpd;tUk; ehkf;fy; ftp+h; ghliyg; goj;Jr; Ritf;f.


fj;jp apd;wp uj;j kpd;wp
a[j;j bkhd;W tUFJ
rj;jp aj;jpd; epj;jp aj;ij
ek;g[k; ahUk; nrUtPh;-... (fj;jpapd;wp ...)
fz;l jpy;iy nfl;l jpy;iy
rz;il ape;j khjphp
gz;L bra;j g[z;zp ae;jhd;
gypj;j njehk; ghh;j;jpl-... (fj;jpapd;wp...)


6 VII  Nh;ah  ,sikj;jkpnH ,ay; 1

ftpijg; ngiH
,ay; xd;wy;y ,uz;ly;y
1 ? cLkiy ehuhazftp

E}y;btsp:
gFj;jwpt[f; ftpuhah; vd;W g[fHg;gLgth; cLkiy ehuhazftp. ,th; jkpH;j;
jpiug;glg; ghlyhrphpauhft[k; ehlf vGj;jhsuhft[k; g[fH; bgw;wth;. jkJ ghly;fs; @yk;
gFj;jwpt[f; fUj;Jfisg; gug;gpath;. ehl;Lg;g[w ,irapd; vspikiaf; ifahz;L ftpijfs;
vGjpath;.
brhy;Yk; bghUSk;:
1. xg;g[ik ? ,iz 3. Kfpy; ? nkfk;
2. mw;g[jk; ? tpe;ij 4. cgfhhp ? ts;sy;
kjpg;gPL
rhpahd tpiliaj; njh;e;bjLj;J vGJf. (gf;fk;: 7)
1. giftiu btw;wp bfhz;ltiug; ghLk; ,yf;fpak; _______
m) fyk;gfk; M) ghpghly; ,) guzp <) me;jhjp [tpil: ,]
2. thdpy; _______ Tl;lk; jpuz;lhy; kiH bghHpa[k;.
m) mfpy; M) Kfpy; ,) Jfpy; <) Japy; [tpil: M]
3. `,uz;ly;y~ vd;Dk; brhy;iyg; gphpj;J vGjf; fpilg;gJ _______
m) ,uz;L + ly;y M) ,uz; + my;y
,) ,uz;L + ,y;y <) ,uz;L + my;y[tpil: <]
4. `je;Jjt[k;~ vd;Dk; brhy;iyg; gphpj;J vGjf; fpilg;gJ _______
m) je;J + cjt[k; M) jh + cjt[k; ,) je;J + cjt[k; <) je;j + cjt[k;
 [tpil: ,]
5. xg;g[ik + ,y;yhj vd;gjidr; nrh;j;bjGjf; fpilf;Fk; brhy; _______
m) xg;g[ik,y;yhj M) xg;gpy;yhj
,) xg;g[ikapy;yhj <) xg;g[,y;yhj [tpil: ,]
FWtpdh:
1. jkpH;ehl;od; ,aw;if ts=;fshf ftp+h; TWtd ahit>
tPRk; bjd;wypy; njd;kzk; fkGk;. RitkpF fdpfSk; bghd; nghd;w jhdpaf;
fjph;fSk; tpisa[k;. jkpH;ehl;od; ed;bra; epytsk; xd;wpuz;ly;y gythFk;.
,ay; 1 VII  Nh;ah  ,sikj;jkpnH 7

2. `xd;wy;y ,uz;ly;y~ ? ghlypy; ,lk;bgw;Ws;s ts;sy;fs; Fwpj;j bra;jpfis vGJf.


Ky;iyf;Fj; njh; je;J kiH nkfj;ij tplg;g[fH; bgw;whd; ts;sy; nts;ghhp.
g[ythpd; brhy;Yf;fhfj; jd; jiyiana juj; Jzpe;jhd; Fkz ts;sy;.
rpWtpdh:
1. jkpGf;F tsk; nrh;f;Fk; ,yf;fpa tiffshf ftp+h; TWtd ahit>
giftiu btd;wijg; ghLtJ guzp ,yf;fpak;. mj;njhL ,irg;ghlyhd
ghpghlYk; fyk;gf E}y;fSk; vl;Lj; bjhifa[k; thd;g[fH; bfhz;l jpUf;FwSk; mfk;/
g[wk; Mfpadtw;iw bka;g; bghUshff; bfhz;L ghlg;gl;l r=;f ,yf;fpa=;fSk; vdj;
jkpHpd; ,yf;fpa ts=;fs; xd;wpuz;ly;y gythFk;.
rpe;jidtpdh:
1. jkpHpy; mw ,yf;fpa=;fs; kpFjpahfj; njhd;wf; fhuzk; vd;d>
r=;fkUtpa fhyj;jpw; fsg;gpuuhfpa me;epah; jkpH; ehl;ilf; ifg;gw;wpahz;L
bfhL=;nfhd;ik bra;a/ mth;fs; fhyj;jpny jkpH;r; rKjhak; rPh;nflile;jjhy;/ jkpH;
kf;fs; thH;f;ifia caur; bra;tjw;fhfnt jpUf;Fws; Kjypa mwE}y;fs; njhd;wpd.
ehl;oy; btspehl;lhh; gilbaLg;g[ epfH;e;j fhuzj;jhy;/ mikjpapd;ik Kjypad
epyt[k;nghJ/ kf;fs; xGf;fk; Fd;Wtjpay;g[. mf;Fiwia epth;j;jp bra;a[k; nehf;fkhf/
xGf;fj;ij typa[Wj;Jk; E}y;fs; njhd;WtJ vjph;ghh;f;ff; Toanj. me;epauhd fsg;gpuhpd;
thH;f;if Kiwa[k; jkpHh; thH;f;if Kiwa[k; fye;jnghJ/ rpwe;j xGf;fk; vJ vd;gJ gw;wp
kf;fspilna kaf;fk; Vw;gLtJk; ,ay;ghdnj.
Msg;gLnthUf;F MSnthhpd; thH;f;if Kiwapny jdpf;fth;r;rp fhzg;gLtJk;
,ay;g[. me;j kaf;fj;ij jPh;j;J itf;Fk; tifapy; mf;fhy=;fspy; mwE}y;fs; njhd;wpd
vdf; fUjyhk;.
TLjy; tpdhf;fs;

rhpahd tpiliaj; njh;e;bjLj;J vGJf.


1. _______ bkhHp ,yf;fpa tsKk; ,yf;fz tsKk; epiwe;jJ.
m) F$uhj;jp M) kuhl;oak; ,) jkpH; <) JS [tpil: ,]
2. `cgfhhp~ vd;gjd; bghUs; _______apy; rpwe;jth;fs;.
m) cg;g[f;fhhp M) cg;g[ tpw;gth; ,) ts;sy; <) g[yth; [tpil: ,]
3. jkpHf kd;dh;fSk; ts;sy;fSk; _______
m) bghUs; M) bfhil ,) tPuk; <) el;g[ [tpil: M]
4. gFj;jw[pt[f; ftpuhah; vd;W g[fHg;gLgth; _______
m) ghujpjhrd; M) bghpahh;
,) ghujpahh; <) cLkiy ehuhazftp [tpil: <]
8 VII  Nh;ah  ,sikj;jkpnH ,ay; 1

5. cLkiy ehuhazftp _______ ,irapd; vspikiaf; ifahz;L ftpijfs;


vGjpdhh;.
m) ehl;Lg;g[w M) fh;ehlf
,) nkiyehL <) kiyahs [tpil: m]
6. tPRk; bjd;wypy; _______ kzk; fkGk;.
m) g{ M) kz; ,) g[yhy; <) njd; [tpil: <]
7. jkpH;ehl;od; _______ epytsk; xd;wpuz;ly;y gythFk;.
m) g[d;bra; M) ed;bra;
,) j+;ir <) brk;kz; [tpil: M]
8. _______ nghd;w jhdpaf; fjph;fs; tpisa[k;.
m) ituk; M) Kj;J
,) bghd; <) khzpf;fk; [tpil: ,)]
9. ,irg;ghly; E}y; _______
m) jpUf;Fws; M) bjhy;fhg;gpak; ,) ed;D}y; <) ghpghly; [tpil: <]
10. thd; g[fH; bfhz;l E}y; _______
m) g[wehD}W M) mfehD}W
,) ghpghly; <) jpUf;Fws; [tpil: <]
11. mfk;/ g[wk; Mfpatw;iw bka;g;bghUshff; bfhz;L ghlg;gl;l ,yf;fpak; _______
m) r=;f ,yf;fpak; M) gf;jp ,yf;fpak;
,) mw ,yf;fpak; <) FHe;ij ,yf;fpak; [tpil: m]
12. Ky;iyf;F njh; je;j ts;sy; _______
m) ngfd; M) ghhp ,) Xhp <) fhhp [tpil: M]
13. g[ythpd; brhy;Yf;fhfj; jd; jiyiana juj; Jzpe;j ts;sy; _______
m) ghhp M) mjpakhd; ,) Fkzd; <) es;sp [tpil: ,]
14. `xd;wpuz;ly;y~ vd;Dk; brhy;iyg; gphpj;J vGjf; fpilg;gJ _______
m) xd;wy;y + ,uz;ly;y M) xd;W + my;y
,) xd;W + ,uz;L + my;y <) ,uz;L + my;y [tpil: ,]
15. `vl;Lj;bjhif~ vd;Dk; brhy;iyg; gphpj;J vGjf; fpilg;gJ _______
m) vl;Lj; + bjhif M) vl;L + bjhif
,) VL + bjhif <) vl;oa + bjhif [tpil: M]
16. ed;ik + bra; vd;gjidr; nrh;j;bjGjf; fpilf;Fk; brhy; _______
m) ed;ikbra; M) ed;bra;
,) ez;bra; <) ed;ikapy;bra; [tpil: M]
,ay; 1 VII  Nh;ah  ,sikj;jkpnH 9

17. ghly; + Mrphpah; vd;gjidr; nrh;j;bjGjf; fpilf;Fk; brhy; _______


m) ghlyhrphpah; M) ghl;lhrphpah; ,) ghly; Mrphpah; <) ghl;L Mrphpah;
 [tpil: m]
18. gFj;J + mwpt[ vd;gjidr; nrh;j;bjGjf; fpilf;Fk; brhy; _______
m) gFj;jpwpt[ M) gFj;J mwpt[ ,) gFj;jwpt[ <) gFj;Jwpt[
 [tpil: ,]
FWtpdh:
1. filbaG ts;sy;fs; ahth;>
ghhp/ fhhp/ Xhp/ mjpakhd;/ ngfd;/ es;sp/ Ma; Mfpnahh; filbaG ts;sy;fs; Mth;.
2. guzp ,yf;fpak; vd;why; vd;d>
nghh;f;fsj;jpy; Mapuk; ahidfisf; bfhd;W btw;wp nkk;gl;l tPuiur; rpwg;gpj;Jg;
ghLk; rpw;wpyf;fpak;.
rpWtpdh:
1. fyk;gfk; vd;why; vd;d>
gy g{f;fisf; fye;J/ khiyiaj; bjhLj;jy; nghy/ gy tifahd bra;a[l;fisa[k;/
cWg;g[fisa[k;/ mfg;bghUs;/ g[wg;bghUisa[k; fye;J ,aw;wg;gLk; ,yf;fpaj;ijf;
fyk;gfk; vd;gh;. ,t;tpyf;fpak;/ g[ak;/ jtk;/ tz;L/ mk;khid/ Cry;/ kwk; nghd;w
gjpbdl;L cWg;g[fisf; bfhz;L/ klf;F/ kUl;gh/ Mrphpag;gh/ fypg;gh/ t+;rpg;gh Mfpa
ghf;fSk; jhHpir/ Jiw/ tpUj;jk; vd;w mjd; ghtpd=;fSk; 100 bra;a[l;fspy; tputp tu/
me;jhjpj; bjhil mikag; ghlg;gLtJ fyk;gfk; MFk;.
2. cLkiy ehuhazftp gw;wp vGJf.
cLkiy ehuhazftp jkpH;j; jpiug;glg;ghly; MrphpaUk; ehlf vGj;jhsUk;
Mthh;. ghku kf;fspilna tpHpg;g[zh;it Vw;gLj;Jk; tifapy; rKjhag; ghly;fis
vGjpr; rPh;j;jpUj;jf; fUj;Jfisg; gug;gpath;. ehl;Lg;g[w ,irapd; vspikiaf; ifahz;L
ftpijfs; vGjpath;. `gFj;jwpt[f; ftpuhah;~ vdj; jkpHf kf;fshy; miHf;fg;gLgth;. ,th;
thH;e;j fhyk; 25.09.1899 Kjy; 23.05.1981 tiu.

fw;git fw;wgpd;  (gf;fk; 7)

1. jkpGf;Ff; bfhil bfhLj;j ts;sy;fs; gw;wpa bra;jpfisj; jpul;Lf.


1. KjnyG ts;sy;fs; :
rfud;/ fhhp/ esd;/ je;Jkhhp/ epUjp/ brk;gpad;/ tpuhld;.
2. ,ilnaG ts;sy;fs; :
mf;Fud;/ me;jpkhd;/ fh;zd;/ re;jpkhd;/ rpRghyd;/ tf;fpud;/ re;jd;.
3. filnaG ts;sy;fs; :
ghhp/ fhhp/ Xhp/ mjpad;/ ngfd;/ es;sp/ Ma;.
10 VII  Nh;ah  ,sikj;jkpnH ,ay; 1

ghhp ts;sy; :
,td; gwk;g[ kiy gFjpia Mz;l kd;dd;. ,td; gwk;g[ kiy gFjpiar; nrh;e;j
ehfkiyg; ghijapy; brd;W bfhz;oUe;j bghGJ glh;tjw;Fg; gw;Wf;nfhL ,y;yhky;
Mof; bfhz;oUe;j Ky;iyf; bfho glh;tjw;fhfj; jd; njiuna bfhoaUfpy; epWj;jp
tpl;Lr; brd;wtd;. Mfnt ,td; Ky;iyf;Fj; njh; <e;j ghhp vd bgah; bgw;whd;.
fhhp ts;sy; :
,k;kd;dd; jd; ifapy; cs;s ths; tPr;rpy; gifth;fis btl;o tPH;j;Jtijg;
bghGJg; nghf;fhf bfhz;oe;jhd;. mjdhy; ,td; ths; vd;Wk; bre;epwk; bfhz;L
xspUk;. Mdhy; ,tndh jd;idj; njo te;J nfl;lth;fSf;F btz;kaph; gplhpf;
Fjpiufisg; ghprhf tH=;fpdhd;. mg;nghJ mtd; ngRk; md;g[ bkhHpfs; tpij Kisf;f
cjt[k; <u epyk; nghd;wit" nty; rptg;gpy; tPuKk;/ ifr;rptg;gpy; <uKk; bfhz;lit.
Xhp ts;sy; :
kiy ehl;ilr; nrh;e;j ty;tpy; Xhp nghh; Kidapy; btw;wp bgw;W g[fGld;
tps=;fpatd;. fhhp Fjpiuapy; te;J nghhpl;l nghJ mtidg; nghhpy; btd;W Kotpy;
fhhpapd; FWk;giw ehl;ilj; jdJ nghh; btw;wpapidg; g[fH;e;J ghoa ahH; kPl;Lk;
ghzh;fSf;Fg; ghprhf tH=;fp bgUk; ts;sy; vdg; nghw;wg;gl;lhd;.
mjpad; ' mjpakhd; ts;sy; :
jf#h; ehl;il Mz;L te;jtd; mjpakhd;. ,td; jd; Ml;rpf;fhyj;jpd; bgUk;
gFjpiag; nghhpnyna fHpj;Js;shd; vd;gij ,td; tuyhw;why; mwpayhk;. nty;
tPr;rpy; ,tid bty;y ahUk; fpilahJ. bgUk; rpdf;fhud;. g{+;rhuy; kiyg; gFjpapy;
gGj;jpUe;j mhpa bey;ypf;fdp xd;W ,tDf;Ff; fpilj;jJ. mJ rhthikiaj; jUk;
mKjk; nghd;wJ. mjidj; jhd; cz;zhky; mt;itf;Ff; bfhLj;J ePz;l ehs; caph;
thHr; bra;jhd;. ,jdhy; mt;itf;F bey;ypf;fdp <e;j mjpakhd; vd vy;nyhuhYk;
nghw;wg;gl;lhd;.
ngfd; ts;sy; :
,td; gHdp kiyg; gFjpapy; thGk; Mtpah; Foiar; nrh;e;j kf;fspd; jiytd;.
kiH bghHpa[k; kiyr;rhuy; ghijapy; brd;W bfhz;L ,Ue;jnghJ/ fUnkf=;fisf;
fz;L Mof; bfhz;oUe;j kapy; Fsphpy; eL=;Ftjhf vz;zp jd; nghh;itia mjd;
kPJ nghh;j;jp tpl;ltd;. ,jdhy; ,tid kapYf;Fg; nghh;it je;j ts;sy; ngfd; vd;W
miHj;jdh;.
es;sp ts;sy; :
beL=;nfhL kiy KfL vd;fpd;w kiyg;gFjp jw;nghJ cjif vd;W
miHf;fg;gLfpwJ. ,e;j kiyg; gFjpapd; jiytd;. ,td; nghh; Kidapy; iffs;
vg;go Kd;dhy; epw;Fnkh mJnghy; kiy ts kf;fspd; thH;iff;F ntz;oa midj;Jg;
bghUs;fisa[k; tH=;fpg; g[fH; bgw;whd;.
Ma; ts;sy; :
,td; bghjpa kiyg; gFjpapy; cs;s kiyg;gFjpfisa[k; epyg;gFjpfisa[k;
Mz;L te;j FWepy kd;dd;. ,td; kfpH;e;J ,Uf;Fk; nghJ khh;gpy; re;jdk; g{rpa
,ay; 1 VII  Nh;ah  ,sikj;jkpnH 11

nfhyj;njhL fhl;rp jUthd;;. rpde;jpUf;Fk; nghJ tpy;Yk; mk;g[k; ifa[khfj; jphpgtd;.


vtUf;Fk; fpilj;jw;fhpa ePy ehfj;jpd; cilia Fw;whyj;jpy; cs;s bjd;Kff;flt[s;
rpiy Mil ,y;yhky; ,Ug;gijf; fz;L mr;rpiyf;Fg; nghh;j;jp kfpH;e;jhd;. nkYk;
bghUs; ntz;o tUnthh;f;F ,y;iy vdhJ bghUs; tH=;fpdhd;. ,tidj; jpz; njhs;
Mh;t ed;bkhHp Ma; vdg; nghw;wpdh;.
bgU+;rpj;jpudhiu Mjhpj;jtd; Fkz ts;sy;.
fk;giu Mjhpj;jtd; rilag;g ts;sy; . g[fnHe;jpia Mjhpj;jtd; re;jpud; Rth;f;fp.
tpy;ypg;g[j;J}uhiu Mjhpj;jtd; tugjp Ml;bfhz;lhd; ts;sy;. ckWg;g[ytiu
Mjhpj;jtd; rPjf;fhjp ts;sy; kw;Wk; mg[y; fhrpk; kiuf;fhah; vdg; gy ts;sy;fs;
thH;e;jdh;.

2. jkpHpy; cs;s gy;ntW ,yf;fpa tot=;fspd; bgah;fisg; gl;oaypLf.


r=;f ,yf;fpak;/ r=;fk; kUtpa ,yf;fpak;/ mw ,yf;fpak;/ fhg;gpak;/ rka ,yf;fpak;/
rpw;wpyf;fpak;/ nghpyf;fpak;/ ehl;Lg;g[w ,yf;fpak;/ ,f;fhy ,yf;fpak;/ ftpij ,yf;fpak;/
FHe;ij ,yf;fpak;/ ciueil ,yf;fpak;/ thH;f;if tuyhw;W ,yf;fpak;/ gaz
,yf;fpak;/ tuyhw;W ,yf;fpak;/ rpWfij ,yf;fpak;/ ehty; ,yf;fpak;/ ehlf ,yf;fpak;/
jypj; ,yf;fpak;/ bgz;zpyf;fpak;/ mwptpay; ,yf;fpak;/ r@f ,yf;fpak;/ ,jH; ,yf;fpak;/
bra;jp ,yf;fpak;/ g[uhz ,yf;fpak; vdg; gy tifg;gLk;.


12 VII  Nh;ah  ,sikj;jkpnH ,ay; 1

ciueil cyfk;
,ay;
1 ngr;RbkhHpa[k; vGj;JbkhHpa[k;

kjpg;gPL
rhpahd tpiliaj; njh;e;bjLj;J vGJf. (gf;fk;: 12)
1. bkhHpapd; Kjy; epiy ngRjy;/ _______ MfpadthFk;.
m) goj;jy; M) nfl;ly; ,) vGJjy; <) tiujy;
 [tpil: M]
2. xypapd; thptotk; _______ MFk;.
m) ngr;R M) vGj;J ,) Fuy; <) ghl;L [tpil: M]
3. jkpHpd; fpis bkhHpfspy; xd;W _______
m) cUJ M) ,e;jp ,) bjY=;F <) M=;fpyk;
 [tpil: ,]
4. ngr;RbkhHpia _______ tHf;F vd;Wk; TWth;.
m) ,yf;fpa M) cyf ,) E}y; <) bkhHp [tpil: M]
rhpah jtwh vd vGJf.
1. bkhHp fhyj;jpw;F Vw;g khWfpwJ. rhp
2. vGj;J bkhHp fhyk; fle;Jk; epiyj;J epw;fpwJ. rhp
3. ngRgthpd; fUj;jpw;F Vw;g cldor; bray;ghl;ow;F cjt[tJ vGj;JbkhHp. jtW
4. vGj;J bkhHpapy; cly;bkhHpf;F tha;g;g[ mjpfk;. jtW
5. ngr;RbkhHp rpwg;ghf mikaf; Fuy; Vw;wj;jhH;t[ mtrpak;. rhp
Clf=;fis tifg;gLj;Jf.
thbdhyp/ bjhiyf;fhl;rp/ bra;jpj;jhs;/ E}y;fs;/ jpiug;glk;/ kpd;d+;ry;

vGj;JbkhHp ngr;RbkhHp
bra;jpj;jhs; jpiug;glk;
E}y;fs; thbdhyp
kpd;d+;ry; bjhiyf;fhl;rp
FWtpdh:
1. bkhHpapd; ,U tot=;fs; ahit>
bkhHpapd; ,U tot=;fs;:
1. ngr;RbkhHp 2. vGj;JbkhHp MFk;.
,ay; 1 VII  Nh;ah  ,sikj;jkpnH 13

2. ngr;RbkhHp vd;why; vd;d>


thapdhy; ngrg;gl;Lg; gpwuhy; nfl;L czug;gLtJ ngr;RbkhHpahFk;. bkhHpapd;
caph;ehoahf tps=;FtJ ngr;RbkhHpna vd;gh;.
3. tl;lhu bkhHp vdg;gLtJ ahJ>
ngr;RbkhHp ,lj;jpw;F ,lk; khWgLk;. kdpjh;fspd; thH;tpay; NHYf;F Vw;gt[k;
khWgLk;. ,t;thW khWgLk; xnu bkhHpapd; btt;ntW tot=;fis tl;lhubkhHp
vd;gh;.
rpWtpdh:
1. ngr;RbkhHpf;Fk;/ vGj;JbkhHpf;Fk; ,ilna cs;s ntWghLfSs; ehd;fid tpsf;Ff.

ngr;RbkhHp vGj;JbkhHp
1. cyf tHf;F. ,yf;fpa tHf;F.
2. brhw;fs; bgUk;ghYk; FWfp xypf;Fk;. brhw;fs; KGikahf vGjg;gLk;.
3. czh;r;rpf; TWfs; mjpfkhf ,Uf;Fk;. czh;r;rpf; TWfs; Fiwt[.
4. cly;bkhHpa[k; Fuy; Vw;wj;jhH;t[k; cly;bkhHp/ Fuy; Vw;wj;jhH;t[ nghd;w?
,iztjhy; vspikahff; fUj;ij tw;wpw;F ,lkpy;iy.
czh;j;JfpwJ.
5. jpUj;jkhd ,yf;fpa eilapy; miktJ jpUj;jkhd bkhHpeilapy; mikfpwJ.
,y;iy.
2. fpisbkhHpfs; vt;thW cjt[fpd;wd>
xnu bkhHpiag; ngRk; kf;fs; btt;ntW ,l=;fspy; thH;tJk; cz;L. thGk;
,lj;jpd; epy mikg;g[/ ,aw;if jilfs; nghd;wtw;wpd; fhuzkhf mth;fs; ngRk;
bkhHpapy; rpwpJ rpwpjhf khw;w=;fs; Vw;gLk;. mth;fSf;F ,ilnaahd bjhlh;g[ Fiwa[k;
bghGJ ,k;khw;w=;fs; kpFjpahfg; g[jpa bkhHpahfg; gphpa[k;. mt;thW cUthFk; g[jpa
bkhHpiaf; fpisbkhHp vd;gh;. fd;dlk;/ bjY=;F/ kiyahsk; Kjypa jpuhtpl bkhHpfs;
jkpHpypUe;J gphpe;J brd;w fpisbkhHpfs; MFk;.

rpe;jidtpdh:
1. ,yf;fpa=;fs; fhyk; fle;Jk; mHpahky; thH;tjw;F vd;d fhuzk; vd;W fUJfpwPh;fs;>
jkpH;bkhHpapd; milahs=;fshf md;W Kjy; ,d;W tiu ,a=;fp tUk;
,yf;fpa=;fshfr; r=;f ,yf;fpak;/ jpUf;Fws;/ rpyg;gjpfhuk; Mfpatw;iwf; bfhs;syhk;.
jkpiHg; nghd;W brt;tpay; fhyj;ij rhh;e;j fpnuf;fk;/ vgpnuak;/ ,yj;jPd;/ ghurPfk;/
rPdk;/ tlbkhHp ,yf;fpa kug[fs; g[uhz=;fisa[k;/ flt[sh;fspd; tPu=;fs; kw;Wk;
je;jpu=;fisa[k; tUzpj;Jf; bfhz;L nghFk;nghJ/ r=;f ,yf;fpak; mtw;wpypUe;J
ntWgl;Lj; jdpepiyg; ghly;fshf me;jf; fhyj;J kf;fspd; czh;t[fisa[k;
Mirfisa[k;/ mDgt=;fisa[k; elg;gpay; njhuiznahL brhy;Yfpd;wd.
r=;f ,yf;fpak; mfKk; g[wKk; rhh;e;j vl;Lj;bjhif/ gj;Jg;ghl;L Mfpa bjhif
E}w;fisf; bfhz;ljhFk;. jkpHd; fhjYk;/ tPuKk;/ fw;g[k;/ bfhila[k;/ vy;yh ts=;fSk;
14 VII  Nh;ah  ,sikj;jkpnH ,ay; 1

bfhz;L thH;e;jjd; milahskhfr; r=;f ,yf;fpak; epidf;fg;gLfpwJ. mjhtJ/


xU `,dg;bgUik~ vd;gij ikakhff; bfhz;L mjw;Fhpa kjpg;g[fs; gytw;iwa[k;
xd;wpizj;Jf; bfhz;Ls;sJ. mjdhy;jhd;/ ,yf;fpa=;fs; fhyk; fle;Jk; mHpahky;
thH;e;J bfhz;oUf;fpd;wd.

TLjy; tpdhf;fs;
rhpahd tpiliaj; njh;e;bjLj;J vGJf.
1. _______ bkhHp gHika[k; g[Jika[k; epiwe;j rpwe;j bkhHp.
m) bjY=;F M) fd;dlk; ,) jkpH; <) ,e;jp [tpil: ,]
2. jkpH;bkhHp _______ TWfisf; bfhz;lJ.
m) @d;W M) ,uz;L ,) ehd;F <) Ie;J [tpil: M]
3. 
jdJ vz;z=;fisa[k; czh;r;rpfisa[k; gpwUf;F btspg;gLj;Jtjw;fhf kdpjdhy;
cUthf;fg;gl;lnj _______ MFk;.
m) bkhHp M) fUtp ,) cyfk; <) mwpt[ [tpil: m]
4. brhy;iy xypg;gjpy; Vw;gLk; Vw;w ,wf;fj;jhy; _______ ntWgLk;.
m) brhy; M) bghUs; ,) rpe;jid <) mwpt[ [tpil: M]
5. bkhHpapd; caph;ehoahf tps=;FtJ _______ bkhHpna vd;gh;.
m) vGj;J M) bghUs; ,) mh;j;jk; <) ngr;R [tpil: <]
6. _______ bkhHp ,lj;jpw;F ,lk; khWgLk;.
m) vGj;J M) ngr;R ,) bra;jp <) fzpdp [tpil: M]
7. _______ bkhHpia ,yf;fpa tHf;F vd;Wk; TWth;.
m) ngr;R M) vGj;J ,) bjY=;F <) fd;dlk; [tpil: M]
FWtpdh:
1. bkhHp vt;thW njhd;wpd>
bjhlf;f fhyj;jpy; kdpjh;fs; jdpj;jdpf; FGf;fshf thH;e;J te;jdh;. mth;fs;
j=;fSf;Fs; jdpj;jdpahd xypf; FwpaPLfis cUthf;fpf; bfhz;ldh;. ,jd;
fhuzkhfnt bkhHpfs; gy njhd;wpd.
2. bkhHp vjw;fhf cUthf;fg;gl;lJ>
jdJ vz;z=;fisa[k; czh;r;rpfisa[k; gpwUf;F btspg;gLj;Jtjw;fhf
kdpjdhy; cUthf;fg;gl;lnj bkhHp MFk;.
3. vGj;JbkhHp vd;why; vd;d>
fz;zhy; fz;L czUkhW thp totkhf vGjg;gl;Lg; gof;fg;gLtJ vGj;J
bkhHpahFk;.
,ay; 1 VII  Nh;ah  ,sikj;jkpnH 15

4. vGj;JbkhHpapd; gad;fs; ahit>


nehpy; fhz ,ayhj epiyapy; bra;jpiaj; bjhptpf;f vGj;JbkhHp cjt[fpwJ.
kdpjh;fspd; rpe;jidfs; fhyk; fle;J thH;tjw;Fk; vGj;JbkhHpna fhuzkhfpd;wJ. thp
totpy; mika[k; vGj;J bkhHpahdJ ePz;l fhyg; gad;ghl;ow;F chpaJ.
rpWtpdh:
1. 
jkpH; bkhHpapy; ngr;RbkhHpa[k; vGj;JbkhHpa[k; vt;thW bray;gLfpd;wJ vd;gij
vGJf.
thapdhy; ngrg;gl;Lg; gpwuhy; nfl;L czug;gLtJ ngr;RbkhHpahFk;. fz;zhy;
fz;L czUkhW thptotkhf vGjg;gl;Lg; gof;fg;gLtJ vGj;JbkhHpahFk;. cyfpy;
rpy bkhHpfs; ngr;RbkhHpahf kl;Lnk cs;sd. rpy bkhHpfs; vGj;JbkhHpahf kl;Lnk
cs;sd. Mdhy; jkpH; bkhHpapy; ngr;R/ vGj;J Mfpa ,uz;L tot=;fSk; gad;ghl;oy;
cs;sd.
bkhHpapd; caph;ehoahf tps=;FtJ ngr;RbkhHpna. ngr;RbkhHp czh;t[fis
vspjhf btspg;gLj;Jk;; mJ fUj;ij btspg;gLj;Jtij kl;Lnk nehf;fkhff;
bfhz;lJ. ngrg;gLk; brhw;fs; kl;Lkpd;wpg; ngRnthhpd; cly;bkhHp/ xypg;gjpy; Vw;w
,wf;fk; Mfpadt[k; ngr;RbkhHpapd; rpwg;g[f;TWfs; MFk;.
ngr;RbkhHpf;F ehk; je;j thptotnk vGj;J bkhHpahFk;. xU bkhHpahdJ ePz;l
fhyk; epiybgWtjw;F vGj;J totk; ,d;wpaikahjJ. gy E}W Mz;LfSf;F
Kw;gl;l ,yf;fpa=;fs; vGj;J totpy; ,Ug;gjhy;jhd; ek;khy; ,d;Wk; gof;f KofpwJ.
ngr;RbkhHpia cyf tHf;F vd;Wk;/ vGj;JbkhHpia ,yf;fpa tHf;F vd;Wk;
TWth;. xU bkhHp caph;g;nghL thH;tjw;Fg; ngr;R bkhHpa[k; fhyk; fle;J thH;tjw;F
vGj;JbkhHpa[k; njitg;gLfpd;wd. ,t;thW jkpH;bkhHpapy; ,UbkhHpfSk; ,ize;J
bray;gLfpd;wd.

fw;git fw;wgpd;  (gf;fk; 12)


1. c=;fs; tPl;oy; gad;gLj;Jk; ngr;R tHf;Fj; bjhlh;fSf;F ,izahd vGj;J tHf;Fj;
bjhlh;fis vGjp tUf.
v.fh: ngr;RbkhHp : mk;kh grpf;fpJ vdf;Fr; nrhW ntQk;.
vGj;JbkhHp : mk;kh- grpf;fpwJ. vdf;Fr; nrhW ntz;Lk;.
ngr;RbkhHp : mk;kh Mj;Jf;F nghapl;L thnud;.
vGj;JbkhHp : mk;kh- Mw;Wf;Fg; ngha;tpl;L tUfpnwd;.
ngr;RbkhHp : ,d;dpf;F @D fpnyh mtuf;fha; th=;fpndd;.
vGj;JbkhHp : ,d;iwf;F @d;W fpnyh mtiuf;fha; th=;fp te;njd;.
ngr;RbkhHp : mk;kh jhfkha; ,Uf;F jz;zp jh.
16 VII  Nh;ah  ,sikj;jkpnH ,ay; 1

vGj;JbkhHp : mk;kh- jhfkha; ,Uf;fpwJ jz;zPh; jh.


ngr;RbkhHp : mk;kh mUthkizapy; fhap btl;odh.
vGj;JbkhHp : mk;kh- mhpths;kizapy; fha;fwpfs; btl;odhs;.
ngr;RbkhHp : nej;J buhk;g neuk; J}=;fhk ,Ue;njd;.
vGj;JbkhHp : new;W btF neuk; J}f;fk; ,y;yhky; ,Ue;njd;.

2. ngRk;nghJ rpy neu=;fspy; brhw;fspd; ,Wjpapy; cfuk; nrh;e;J xypg;gJ cz;L. `M~
vd;Dk; vGj;J ,fukhf khWtJk; cz;L. mt;thW xypf;Fk; brhw;fis vGjp mtw;Wf;F
,izahd vGj;J tHf;Fr; brhw;fisa[k; vGJf.
v.fh: brhy;Y ? brhy; te;jpah ? te;jhah>
epy;Y ? epy; rhg;l;oah ? rhg;gpl;lhah>

bry;Y ? bry; bfhy;Y ? bfhy;


gy;Y ? gy; Ks;S ? Ks;
fps;S ? fps; cz;Q ? cz;
gd;D ? gd;

cz;oah ? cz;lhah> gor;rpah ? goj;jhah>


for;rpah ? foj;jhah> xor;rpah ? xoj;jhah>
eor;rpah ? eoj;jhah>


,ay; 1 VII  Nh;ah  ,sikj;jkpnH 17

tphpthdk;
,ay; brhytilfs;
1 (bghk;kyhl;lk;)

kjpg;gPL
ghlg;gFjp bghk;kyhl;lf; fhl;;rpfisr; rpWfijahf vGJf.
Kd;Diu:
bghk;kyhl;lj;jpy; tUk; igad;jhd; ,f;fijapd; fjhehafd;. mtd; xG=;fhfg;
gs;spf;Tlk; nghfhky; Ciur; Rj;jpf;fpl;L tUfpwhd;. mt=;f mk;kh vt;tsnth
brhy;ypa[k; mtd; nfl;ftpy;iy. mtndhl gpothjj;ij ahuhYk; khw;w Koatpy;iy.
bgw;nwhh; mwpt[iu :
xU ehs; mtd; mg;gh mtidf; Tg;gpl;L/ ``,g;g eP rhpahfg; gof;f tpy;iybad;why;
thH;f;ifapy; Kd;ndw KoahJ. xG=;fhf gs;spf;Tlk; ngha; gof;fpw ntiyiag; ghh;~~
vd;W Twpdhh;. mk;kht[k; mtDf;F mwpt[iuf; Tw Kjypy; kWj;j igad; gpwF rhp vd;W
brhy;yp gs;spf;Tlk; brd;whd;.
tpisahl;Lf;F miHj;jy; :
mtd; gs;spia tpl;L Xl;lk; gpof;fpwhd;. tHpapy; tpisahl ahuhtJ
fpilg;gh=;fshd;D ghh;f;fpwhd;. m=;nf vWk;g[ xd;W ngha;f; bfhz;oUe;jJ.
igad; vWk;igf; Tg;gpl/ vWk;ghdJ vdf;F epiwa ntiy ,Uf;F. ehd; vd;
FHe;ijfSf;F czt[ bfhLf;fDk;. mhprp/ bea; vy;yhk; nrfhpf;fDk; vd;W brhy;yp
brd;Wtpl;lJ.
mLj;jJ njdP. vdf;Fj; njd; vLf;fpw ntiy ,Uf;fpwJ vd;W brhy;yp mJt[k;
brd;Wtpl;lJ. mLj;jJ khL. ehd; vd; Kjyhspf;F cg;g[ @l;il/ g[sp @l;il vy;yhk;
Rkf;fDk; ehd; tutpy;iy vd;W TwpaJ. mLj;jJ Mik. ehd; vd;idtpl ntfkhf
XLfpw KanyhL nghl;o itj;Js;nsd;. bfh+;r neuk;Tl tPzhf;fhky; ele;jhf
ntz;Lk; vd;W brhy;yp brd;W tpl;lJ.
mLj;jJ Kay;. nghd Kiw Mikaplk; njhw;Wg; ngha; tpl;nld;. ,e;j KiwahtJ
ehd; btw;wp bgw;whfDk;. mjdhy; ehd; ntfkhf Xl ntz;Lk; vd;W brhy;yp Fl;or;
RtUld; ngha; tpisahL vd;W brhy;ypaJ.
ghlk; fw;wy; :
igaDk; kfpH;t[ld; Fl;or; Rtw;wpy; Vwp mkh;e;jhd;. giHa Rtuhdjhy;/ mJ
,oe;J tpGe;jJ. mjpy; ,Ue;j vWk;g[/ g{r;rpfs; vy;yhk; cdf;Fj;jhd; ntiy ,y;iy
vd;W brhy;yp mtidf; fof;f mtd; tPl;il nehf;fp Xodhd;.
Kot[iu :
tPl;ow;Fr; brd;w igad;/ mk;khtplk; cyfj;jpy; ,Uf;fpd;wth;fs; vy;yhk; mth;fs;
ntiyiag; ghh;f;fpwhh;fs;. ,dpnk ehDk; Rk;kh ,Uf;fhky; xG=;fhfg; gs;spf;Tlk;
18 VII  Nh;ah  ,sikj;jkpnH ,ay; 1

nghntd; ; ed;whfg; gog;ngd; ; vdf;F ,g;bghGJjhd; g[j;jp te;jJ vd;whd;. mjd;gpwF


mg;igad; ey;ygoah gof;f bjhl=;Ffpwhd;.

fw;git fw;wgpd;  (gf;fk; 17)


1. c=;fs; gFjpapy; tH=;fp tUk; brhytilfisj; bjhFj;J tUf.
hh fpilf;fg;nghFk; gyhf;fhapDk;/ fpilf;Fk; fshf;fha; nky;.
hh NL fz;l g{id mLg;gz;il nruhJ.
hh bghd; Flj;Jf;F bghl;L ntz;Lkh>
hh tpUe;Jk; kUe;Jk; @Q ehs;.
hh Fw;wKs;s be+;R FWFWf;Fk;.
hh grp te;jplg; gj;Jk; gwe;J nghFk;.
hh g[ypf;Fg; gpwe;jJ g{idahfhJ.
hh cz;l fisg;g[ bjhz;lDf;Fk; cz;L.
hh bghd;idr; Rke;jhYk; fGij fGijjhd;.
hh Mj;jpuf;fhuDf;F g[j;jpkl;L.
hh fw;wJ ifast[ fy;yhjJ cyfst[.
hh jhiag; nghy gps;is E}iyg; nghy nriy/
hh jhH;e;J epd;why; thH;e;J epw;gha;.
hh jhd; Mlhtpl;lhYk; jd; rij MLk;.
hh ,f;fiuf;F mf;fiu gr;ir.
2. ghlg;gFjpapy; ,lk; bgw;Ws;s brhytilfspy; vitnaDk; Ie;jidj; njh;e;bjLj;Jr;
brhw;bwhlh;fspy; mikj;J vGJf.
v.fh. :
Fj;Jf;fy;Yf;Ff; Fspuh btapyh vd;gJ nghy; vd; ez;gd; vijg; gw;wpa[k;
ftiyg;glhky; thH;e;J te;jhd;.
1.  miz cil+;R nghd bts;sk; mGjhYk; tuhJ vd;gJ nghy vd; ez;gd;
njh;tpy; njh;r;rp milahjJ Fwpj;Jf; ftiyg;gl;lhd;.
2. ciHf;fpw khLjhd; CUf;Fs;s tpiy nghFk; vd;gJ nghy vd; ez;gd; ed;whf
ciHj;J thH;tpy; btw;wp bgw;whh;.
3. brhg;gzj;jpy; fz;l mhprp nrhj;Jf;F MFkh> vd;gJ nghy KUfd; njh;t[f;Fg;
gof;fhknyna btw;wp mile;J tplyhk; vd;W vz;zpdhd;.
4. ifa Cdpj;jhd; fuzk; nghl Koa[k; vd;gJ nghy je;ijia ,He;j Kj;J fodkhf
ciHj;J bry;te;jd; Mdhd;.
5. Mapuk; fyk; bey;Yf;F xU me;Jg;g{r;rp nghJk; vd;gJ nghy xU khztd; bra;j
jtw;why; mtd; gs;spf;nf mtg;bgah; te;jJ.


,ay; 1 VII  Nh;ah  ,sikj;jkpnH 19

fw;fz;L
,ay;
1 Fw;wpaYfuk;/ Fw;wpaypfuk;

kjpg;gPL
rhpahd tpiliaj; njh;e;bjLj;J vGJf.
1. fPH;f;fhQk; brhw;fisf; Fw;wpaYfu tifapd; mog;gilapy; tifg;gLj;Jf.
MW/ vBF/ fUk;g[/ tpwF/ cHf;F/ vl;L/ VL/ ge;J/ fhR/ bfha;J.
beoy; bjhlh; ? MW/ VL/ fhR
Ma;jj;bjhlh; ? vBF
caph;j;bjhlh; ? tpwF
td;bjhlh; ? cHf;F/ vl;L
bkd;bjhlh; ? fUk;g[/ ge;J
,ilj;bjhlh; ? bfha;J

2. bghUe;jhj brhw;fis vLj;J vGJf.


1. gR/ tpL/ MW/ fU ? fU
2. ghf;F/ g+;R/ ghl;L/ gj;J ? g+;R
3. MW/ khR/ ghF/ mJ ? mJ
4. muR/ va;J/ @H;F/ khh;g[ ? muR
5. gz;g[/ k+;R/ fz;L/ vBF ? vBF

FWtpdh:
1. `Fw;wpaYfuk;~ vd;Dk; brhy;iyg; gphpj;J tpsf;fk; jUf.
FWik + ,ay; + cfuk; = Fw;wpaYfuk;.
FWfpa Xirapy; xypf;Fk; cfuk; Fw;wpaYfuk;. mjhtJ/ jdf;Fhpa xU khj;jpiu
mstpypUe;J Fiwe;J/ miu khj;jpiu msthf xypf;Fk; cfuk; Fw;wpaYfuk; vdg;gLk;.
2. Fw;wpaypfuk; vd;why; vd;d>
FWik + ,ay; + ,fuk; = Fw;wpaypfuk;.
FWfpa Xirapy; xypf;Fk; ,fuk; Fw;wpaypfuk;. mjhtJ/ jdf;Fhpa xU khj;jpiu
mstpypUe;J Fiwe;J/ miu khj;jpiu msthf xypf;Fk; ,fuk; Fw;wpaypfuk; vdg;gLk;.
20 VII  Nh;ah  ,sikj;jkpnH ,ay; 1

TLjy; tpdhf;fs;

rhpahd tpiliaj; njh;e;bjLj;J vGJf.


1. FWfpa Xirapy; xypf;Fk; cfuk;_______
m) Fw;wpaypfuk; M) Fw;wpaYfuk;
,) Kw;wpaYfuk; <) caph;bka; [tpil: M]

2. FWfpa Xirapy; xypf;Fk; ,fuk; _______


m) Fw;wpaYfuk; M) Kw;wpaYfuk;
,) Fw;wpaypfuk; <) Ma;jk; [tpil: ,]

3. jkpH; vGj;Jfis _______ tifahfg; gphpg;gh;.


m) @d;W M) ehd;F ,) Ie;J <) ,uz;L [tpil: <]

4. caph; gd;dpuz;L/ bka; gjpbdl;L Mfpa Kg;gJ vGj;JfSk; _______ vGj;Jfs;


vdg;gLk;.
m) Kjy; M) rhh;g[ ,) caph;bka; <) fil [tpil: m]

5. rhh;bgGj;J _______ tifg;gLk;.


m) 5 M) 6 ,) 10 <) 12 [tpil: ,]

6. rhh;bgGj;Jfspy; xd;W _______.


m) capbuGj;J M) Fw;wpaYfuk;
,) bka;baGj;J <) ,dbtGj;J [tpil: M]

7. Fw;wpaYfuj;jpw;fhd khj;jpiu _______.


m) xd;W M) ,uz;L ,) miu <) fhy; [tpil: ,]

8. Fw;wpaypfuj;jpw;fhd khj;jpiu _______.


m) miu M) xd;W ,) fhy; <) ,uz;L [tpil: m]

9. Fw;wpaYfuk; _______ tifg;gLk;.


m) Ie;J M) MW ,) VG <) vl;L [tpil: M]

10. Fw;wpaypfuk; _______ ,l=;fspy; kl;Lk; tUk;.


m) ,uz;L M) Ie;J ,) vl;L <) MW [tpil: m]
,ay; 1 VII  Nh;ah  ,sikj;jkpnH 21

FWtpdh:
1. vGj;Jfspd; tiffs; ahit>
vGj;J KjbyGj;J/ rhh;bgGj;J vd ,U tifg;gLk;.
2. KjbyGj;Jfs; vd;why; vd;d>
m Kjy; xs tiu cs;s caph; vGj;Jfs; gd;dpbuz;Lk;/ f; Kjy; d; tiu cs;s
bka;baGj;Jfs; gjpbdl;Lk; Mfpa Kg;gJ vGj;JfSk; Kjy; vGj;JfshFk;. ,it
rhh;g[ vGj;Jfs; njhd;Wtjw;F Kjw;fhuzkha; ,Ug;gjhy; Kjy; vGj;Jfs; vdg;gLk;.
3. rhh;bgGj;J vd;why; vd;d>
Kjy; vGj;Jfisr; rhh;e;J ,a=;Fk; vGj;Jfs; rhh;bgGj;Jfs; vdg;gLk;.
4. rhh;bgGj;J vj;jid tifg;gLk;> mit ahit>
rhh;bgGj;J gj;J tifg;gLk;. mit/ caph;bka;/ Ma;jk;/ capusbgil/
xw;wsbgil/ Fw;wpaypfuk;/ Fw;wpaYfuk;/ Ifhuf;FWf;fk;/ xsfhuf;FWf;fk;/ kfuf;
FWf;fk;/ Ma;jf;FWf;fk; MFk;.
5. Kw;wpaYfuk; vd;why; vd;d>
jdpf;Fwpy; vGj;ij mLj;J tUk; ty;ypd cfu=;fs; xU khj;jpiu mst[f;F
KGikahf xypf;Fk;. ty;ypdk; my;yhj cfu=;fs; vg;nghJk; KGikahfnt xypf;Fk;.
,t;thW Xir Fiwahky; xU khj;jpiu mstpy; KGikahf xypg;gij Kw;wpaYfuk;
vd;gh;.
6. Fw;wpaYfuk; vj;jid tifg;gLk;> mit ahit>
Fw;wpaYfuk; MW tifg;gLk;. mit/
1. beoy; bjhlh;f; Fw;wpaYfuk;. 4. td;;bjhlh;f; Fw;wpaYfuk;.
2. Ma;jj; bjhlh;f; Fw;wpaYfuk;. 5. bkd;;bjhlh;f; Fw;wpaYfuk;.
3. caph;j;bjhlh;f; Fw;wpaYfuk;. 6. ,ilj;bjhlh;f; Fw;wpaYfuk;.
7. Fw;wpaypfuk; tUk; ,l=;fs; ahit>
Fw;wpaypfuk; ,uz;L ,l=;fspy; kl;Lk; tUk;.
,lk; ? 1
Fw;wpaYfur; brhw;fisj; bjhlh;e;J afuj;ij Kjy; vGj;jhff; bfhz;l brhw;fs;
tUk;nghJ Fw;wpaYfuj;jpy; cs;s cfuk; ,fukhf khWk;. me;j ,fuk; jdf;Fhpa xU
khj;jpiu mstpypUe;J miu khj;jpiu msthff; Fiwe;J xypf;Fk;.
v.fh. : bfhf;F + ahJ = bfhf;fpahJ
ehL + ahJ = ehoahJ
,lk; ? 2
`kpah~ vd;gJ Xh; mirr; brhy; ,jpy; `kp~apy; (kp = k; + ,) cs;s ,fuk; Fw;wpaypfuk;
MFk;. jdf;Fhpa khj;jpiu mstpypUe;J Fiwe;J xypf;Fk;.
v.fh. : nfs; + kpah = nfz;kpah
bry; + kpah = brd;kpah
22 VII  Nh;ah  ,sikj;jkpnH ,ay; 1

fw;git fw;wgpd;  (gf;fk; 21)


1. xd;W Kjy; gj;J tiua[s;s vz;Qg; bgah;fisg; gl;oaypl;L vGJ=;fs; mtw;wpy;
Fw;wpaYfur; brhw;fis vLj;J vGJ=;fs;.
vz;Qg;bgah;fs; :
xd;W/ ,uz;L/ @d;W/ ehd;F/ Ie;J/ MW/ VG/ vl;L/ xd;gJ/ gj;J.
Fw;wpaYfur; brhw;fs; :
xd;W/ ,uz;L/ @d;W/ ehd;F/ Ie;J/ MW/ vl;L/ xd;gJ/ gj;J

2. Fw;wpaYfu vz;Qg; bgah;fisf; Fw;wpaYfu tifapd; mog;gilapy; tifg;gLj;Jf.


xd;W/ ,uz;L/ @d;W/ ehd;F/ Ie;J ? bkd;bjhlh;f; Fw;wpaYfuk;
MW ? beoy; bjhlh;f; Fw;wpaYfuk;
vl;L/ gj;J ? td;bjhlh;f; Fw;wpaYfk;
xd;gJ ? caph;j;bjhlh;f; Fw;wpaYfuk;
3. Fw;wpaYfu vz;Qg; bgah;fspd; khj;jpiu msitf; fz;Lgpoa[=;fs;.
(v.fh.) :
xd;W ? 1 + 1/2 + 1/2 =2
,uz;L ? 1 + 1 + 1/2 + 1/2 =3
@d;W ? 2 + 1/2 + 1/2 =3
ehd;F ? 2 + 1/2 + 1/2 =3
Ie;J ? 2 + 1/2 + 1/2 =3
MW ? 2 + 1/2 = 2 1/2
vl;L ? 1 + 1/2 + 1/2 =2
xd;gJ ? 1 + 1/2 + 1 + 1/2 =3
gj;J ? 1 + 1/2 + 1/2 =2
4. F/ R/ L/ J/ W Mfpa Fw;wpaYfuj;ij ,Wjpahff; bfhz;l <buGj;Jr; brhw;fisj;
jpul;Lf.
ghF/ thF
khR/ fhR/ J}R/ ngR
ghL/ ehL/ khL/ fhL/ XL/ ML/ @L/ VL/ rhL/ TL/ nfL/ nfhL
fhJ/ nghJ/ XJ/ khJ/ NJ
MW/ rhW/ TW/ VW
,ay; 1 VII  Nh;ah  ,sikj;jkpnH 23

bkhHpia Ms;nthk;
nfl;f.
jkpHpd; rpwg;igg; gw;wpa mwp+h;fspd; brhw;bghHpt[fisf; nfl;L kfpH;f.
fPH;f;fhQk; jiyg;gpy; ,uz;L epkplk; ngRf.
mwp+h; mz;zhtpd; ngr;R
eP kfpGk; fhl;rp ,dpJ:
brd;w Mz;L bgh=;fy; g[J ehsd;W cd; gf;fk; epd;wplt[k; ghprpidg; bgw;W
kfpH;e;jplt[k; ,y;ye;jdpny.
g[dypil @H;fpg; bghHpypil cytpg;
bghd;dpd; ,iHa[k; JfpYk; g{z;L
fdpbkhHp ngrp
eP fspj;jpUf;Fk; fhl;rpapidf; fz;L kfpH;t[ bgWk; epiyapny ,Ue;njd;. m=;=dk;
,Ue;J te;j vd;id/ mjpny bgWk; ,d;gk; ntW vjpYk; ,y;iy vd;w vz;zk;
bfhz;l vd;idg; gpoj;jpGj;;Jf; bfhz;L ngha; xU gPlj;jpy; mkh;j;jptpl;lha;.
,d;dy;fspilna ,J fd;dy;:
vj;jid ,d;dy;fSf;F ,ilapny js;sg;goDk; ,e;jg; bgh=;fw; g[J ehspy;
kl;Lk; ekf;F xU kfpH;t[ ehl;Lf;F xU bghypt[ te;J nrh;e;J tplj;jhd; bra;fpwJ.
ciHg;gpd; bgUik bgh=;fy; tpHh:
eype;njhUk; Tl ,e;ehspy; g[Jj; bjk;g[ tuf; fhz;fpd;wdh;. ,e;ehspy; kl;Lnk
ciHg;gpd; bgUikia czh;e;J ciuaho kfpH;e;jpl tha;g;g[f; fpilf;fpd;wJ.

ehd; mwpe;j gHbkhHpfs;.


``rpW JUk;g[k; gy; Fj;j cjt[k;~~
tpsf;fk;;:
rpwpa bghUs; vd;W vjida[k; ,fHf; TlhJ. cyfpy; cs;s xt;bthU bghUSf;Fk;
gad;ghL cz;L.
thH;f;if epfH;t[k; bghUj;jKk; :
v=;fspd; gf;fj;J tPl;Lf;fhuh; jPuhj nehahsp. mth; jpdKk; jdf;Fj; jhnd
Crp kUe;J nghl;Lf; bfhs;thh;. fhypahd Fg;gpfis v=;fs; tPl;od; vy;iyf;Fs;
J}f;fpg; nghl;L tpLthh;;. ``c=;f kUe;J ghl;oy;fisj; jpdKk; ehd; Fg;igahf ms;spg;
nghfpnwd;~~ vd;W v=;fs; mg;gh mtUld; rpWrpW rz;il nghl;Lf; bfhz;oUe;jhh;.
rpy ehl;fSf;Fg; gpwF/ v=;fs; tPl;Lg; gFjpapy; tpGk; rpW Fg;gpfis xU rhf;Fg;
igapy;/ ehd; nrh;j;J itf;fj; bjhl=;fpndd;. mg;ghtpd; rz;ilf;F Kw;Wg;g[s;sp
itf;fg;gl;lJ. v=;fs; gs;spapy; khtl;l=;fSf;F ,ilapyhd fiyg; nghl;o
ele;jJ. mjpy; tPzhFk; bghUs;fspy; fiyg; bghUs; cUthf;Fk; nghl;o ,Ue;jJ.
kpFjpahf vd;dplk; ,Ue;j Fg;gpfisf; bfhz;L/ xU mHfpa fl;olk; cUthf;fpndd;.
24 VII  Nh;ah  ,sikj;jkpnH ,ay; 1

fz;nlhh; tpae;jdh;. Kjw; ghpRk; vdf;Ff; fpilj;jJ. Mk;- fHpt[g; bghUl;fs; vd;W
vija[nk tPzhf;ff; TlhJ. mJt[k; xU rpy neuj;jpy; gaDs;sjhf khWk; vd;gij
,e;epfH;t[ epqgpj;;Jtpl;lJ.
``nehaw;w thH;nt Fiwtw;w bry;tk;~~
tpsf;fk; :
Mk;/ cyfpy; vt;tst[ bry;tk; gilj;jtuhf ,Ue;jhYk;/ nehapUg;gpd; mth;fs;
twpath;fs;" VH;ik epiyapYs;s xUth; nehaw;w thH;t[ bgw;wpUe;jhy; mtnu cyfpy;
bry;te;jh; Mthh;.
thH;f;if epfH;t[k; bghUj;jKk; :
vd; ghrj;Jf;Fhpa ez;gh; rpwg;ghff; fy;tp fw;W/ xU gl;ljhhpahdhh;. gpd;
gzj;jpd; njitia czh;e;J gy khzth;fSf;Ff; fzpjk; brhy;ypf; bfhLj;J/ gy
khzth;fisj; jpwikahd khzth;fshf cUthf;fpdhh; mtuJ vspikahd Kiw
khzth;fisf; fth;e;jJ. gy gs;spfspypUe;J te;J/ E}w;Wf;fzf;fhd khzth;fs;
mthplk; fy;tp gapd;wdh;.
fod ciHg;ghy; rpy kzp neuk; cly;epiy rhpapy;yhky; ,Ug;gJz;L. mijr;
rhpahff; ftdpf;fhky; ,Ue;jhy;/ fhyg;nghf;fpy; mtUf;F cly;epiy fLikahfg;
ghjpj;J/ kUj;Jthplk; brd;wnghJ/ mst[f;F mjpfkhf khj;jpiufis cz;ljhy;/
mtuJ rpWePufk; ghjpj;jJ vd;W lhf;lh; Twpdhh;. gpwF mth; rk;ghjpj;j gzk; vy;yhk;/
jd; neha;f;Fr; bryt[ bra;jjhy;/ VH;ik epiyf;Fj; js;sg;gl;lhh;.
ehk; gzj;ijr; rk;ghjpj;Jtplyhk;. Mdhy;/ ek; cly;epiy ghjpf;fg;gl;lhy;
kPz;Lk; ey;y epiyf;Ff; bfhz;Ltu ,ayhJ vd;Dk; fUj;J ,g;gHbkhHpapd; @yk;
bgwg;gLfpwJ.
brhy;yf; nfl;L vGJf.
1. ekJ jha;bkhHp jkpHhFk;.
2. jkpH;bkhHp ,dpik/ tsik/ rPh;ik kpf;fJ.
3. jkpGf;Fj; jiybfhLj;jtd; Fkzts;sy;.
4. jkpH;bkhHp ngr;RbkhHp/ vGj;JbkhHp vd;Dk; ,uz;L TWfis cilaJ.
5. ngr;R bkhHpia cyf tHf;F vd;Wk; TWth;.


bfhLf;fg;gl;Ls;s tpdhf;fSf;F Vw;gj; bjhlhpy; mGj;jk; ju ntz;oa brhw;fis
vLj;J vGJf.
nfhij ftpijiag; goj;jhs;.
tpdh mGj;jk; ju ntz;oa brhy;
nfhij vijg; goj;jhs;> vij>
ftpijiag; goj;jJ ahh;> ahh;>
nfhij ftpijia vd;d bra;jhs;> vd;d>
,ay; 1 VII  Nh;ah  ,sikj;jkpnH 25

glj;jpw;Fg; bghUj;jkhd jpizia vGJf.

cah;jpiz mBwpiz cah;jpiz


fPH;f;fhQk; brhw;fis cah;jpiz/ mBwpiz vd tifg;gLj;Jf.
tay;/ Kfpyd;/ Fjpiu/ fay;tpHp/ jiytp/ fly;/ Mrphpah;/ g[j;jfk;/ Rujh/ kuk;.
cah;jpiz mBwpiz
Kfpyd;/ fay;tpHp/ jiytp/ Mrphpah;/ Rujh tay;/ Fjpiu/ fly;/ g[j;jfk;/ kuk;

bfhLf;fg;gl;Ls;s Fwpg;g[fisf; bfhz;L fl;Liu vGJf.
jha;bkhHpg; gw;W
(Kd;Diu ? bkhHp gw;wpa tpsf;fk; ? jha;bkhHp ? jha;bkhHpg;gw;W ? jha;bkhHpg;gw;Wf;
bfhz;l rhd;nwhh; ? rhJtd; tuyhW ? ekJ flik ? Kot[iu)
Kd;Diu :
fz;zhy; fhzKoahj/ epiyahd totj;ijj; jutpayhj fhw;wpdhy; Vw;gLk;
Xiria xypahf;fp/ mjw;F thptotk; je;J/ bkhHpahf epiybgwr; bra;j kdpjdpd;
braYf;F ,izahd gilg;ngh fz;Lgpog;ngh ,e;ehs; tiu njhd;wtpy;iy vd;gnj
cz;ik.
bkhHp gw;wpa tpsf;fk; :
kf;fs; kl;Lk; ngRfpd;wdh; vdf; TWfpd;nwhk;. xUth; jk; czh;r;rpianah/
fUj;ijnah kw;wtUf;F btspg;gLj;jf; fUtpaha; ,Uf;Fk; vjida[k; ehk; bkhHpbad;W
TWjy; bghUe;Jk;. tpy=;Ffspd; xypapid tpy=;F E}y; ty;yth; `tpy=;F bkhHp~ vdf;
Fwpg;gh;. mnjnghd;W gwit xypfisg; `gwit bkhHp~ vd;gh;. kf;fs; jh=;fs; vGg;gpa
xypapidr; rpwpJ rpwpjhfg; bghUs; jUk; xd;whfr; bra;J bkhHpiag; gilj;Js;sdh;
vdyhk;.
jha;bkhHpa[k; jha;bkhHpg;gw;Wk; :
cyfpy; cs;s midj;J kf;fSk; jd; jha;bkhHp kPJ kpFe;j gw;Wilath;fshfnt
tps=;Ffpd;wdh;. ehKk; ek; jha;bkhHpahd jkpH; kPJ gw;Wilatuhjy; ntz;Lk;.
bkhHpg;gw;W ,Ue;jhy;jhd; mjd; rpwg;gpay;g[fis cs;sk; czh;e;J vLj;Jf; Twt[k;/
bkhHpapd; tsh;r;rpf;fhd braypy; <Lgl Koa[k;. mJkl;Lkd;W" gw;wpUe;jhy;jhd;
,yf;fpa E}y;fisa[k;/ ,yf;fz E}y;fisa[k;/ tpUg;gj;njhL gof;Fk; epiy Vw;gLk;.
gpwUf;Fk; RitnahL Tw Koa[k;. vdnt xt;bthU jkpHDf;Fk; bkhHpg;gw;W
,d;wpaikahjJ.
26 VII  Nh;ah  ,sikj;jkpnH ,ay; 1

jha;bkhHpg; gw;Wf; bfhz;l rhd;nwhh; :


jha;bkhHp kPJ gw;Wf; bfhz;l rhd;nwhh;fspd; vz;zpf;if fzf;fpyl=;fh"
,Ug;gpDk;/ ghujpahh;/ ghujpjhrd;/ ftpkzp/ kiwkiyaofs;/ jpU.tp.f./ ts;syhh;/
ehkf;fy; ftp+h;/ bghpahh;/ mz;zh/ MWKf ehtyh;/ ntjehafk; gps;is/ c.nt.rh./
ghpjpkhw; fiy+h; vd;W gyh; Mth;.
rhJtd; tuyhW :
Mjpiuapd; fztdhfpa rhJtd; mtd; thzpgk; bra;a kuf;fyk; Vwp ntw;W ehL
brd;whd;. fyk; ftpH;e;Jnghf/ ehfh;ehl;il mile;jhd;. m=;F thGk; kf;fs; rhJtid
cz;z ntz;Lk; vd;w nehf;fpy; mtid beU=;fpdh;. Mdhy;/ rhJtd; mth;fspd;
bkhHpapnyna/ mth;fsplj;J jd; epiyikiaf; Twpdhd;. mtd; ngr;irf; nfl;lJk;/
mtid tz=;fp mtDld; ciuahlj; bjhl=;fpdh;. gpd;dh; mtDf;Fg; bghd;Dk;
bghUSk; bfhLj;J/ mDg;gp itj;jdh;. ,Jjhd; jha;bkhHpapd; jd;ik.
ekJ flik :
jkpHpd; rpwg;ig ehk; kl;Lk; czh;e;J bfhz;lhy; nghjhJ. kw;w bkhHpapdUf;Fk;
czh;j;j ntz;Lk;. g[fGf;Fk; rpwg;gpw;Fk; chpa ek; jha;bkhHpahk; jkpH;bkhHpia ek;khy;
,ad;w tifapy; vy;yhk; tsh;f;fg; ghLgl ntz;Lk;. mt;thW bra;jhy; jkpH; tsk;
bgWk;" jkpHh; eyk; bgWth;.
Kot[iu :
jkpHpd; rpwg;ig epiyf;fr; bra;tJk; nkYk; tsur; bra;tJk; jkpHuhfpa ekJ
flikahFk;. ,jid czh;e;J jkpHpd; rPhpsikiaf; fhf;f vd;Wk; ghLgLnthk;.

bkhHpnahL tpisahL
bjhifr; brhw;fis tphpj;J vGJf.
v.fh : ,Ujpiz : cah;jpiz/ mBwpiz
Kf;fdp : kh/ gyh/ thiH
Kj;jkpH; : ,ay;/ ,ir/ ehlfk;
ehw;wpir : fpHf;F/ nkw;F/ tlf;F/ bjw;F
Ie;epyk; : Fwp+;rp/ Ky;iy/ kUjk;/ bea;jy;/ ghiy
mWRit : ,dpg;g[/ frg;g[/ g[spg;g[/ Jth;g;g[/ cth;g;g[/ fhh;g;g[
fl;l=;fspYs;s vGj;Jfis khw;wp/ nkypUe;J fPHhft[k; ,lkpUe;J tykhft[k; vGjpdhy;
xnu brhy; tUkhW vGjpdhy; xnu brhy; tUkhW fl;l=;fspy; vGJf.

v.fh : if v J v J if
w J tp J w tp
id if tp if tp id
,ay; 1 VII  Nh;ah  ,sikj;jkpnH 27

F k j k j F
e; jp j j e; jp
iu F jp F jp iu

,U bghUs; bfhz;l xU brhy;yhy; epug;g[f.


v.fh: muRf;Fj; jtwhky; thp brYj;j ntz;Lk;.
Vl;oy; vGJtJ thp totk;.
1. kHiy ngRk; bkhHp mHF.
,dpikj; jkpH; bkhHp vkJ.
2. md;id je;ijapd; ifg; gpoj;Jf; FHe;ij eil gHFk;.
mwp+h; mz;zhtpd; rpwg;g[ mtuJ mLf;F bkhHp eil.
3. eP mwpe;jijg; gpwUf;Fr; brhy;.
vGj;Jf;fs; bjhlh;e;J epd;W bghUs; jUtJ brhy;.
4. cHth;fs; ehw;W el taYf;Fr; bry;th;.
FHe;ijia bkJthf el vd;nghk;.
5. ePjp kd;wj;jpy; bjhLg;gJ tHf;F.
`ePr;rj;jz;zp Fo~ vd;gJ ngr;R tHf;F.
fiyr;brhy; mwpnthk; :
kug[ ? Tradition Clfk; ? Media
bkhHpapay; ? Linguistics bghk;kyhl;lk; ? Puppetry
xypapay; ? Phonology vGj;jpyf;fzk; ? Orthography
,jHpay; ? Journalism ciuahly; ? Dialogue

,izaj;jpy; fhz;f :
rpwe;j nkilg; ngr;rhsh;fspd; bgah;fis ,izaj;jpy; njoj; bjhFj;J tUf.
jpU.tp.f. je;ij bghpahh; bjd;fr;rp nfh. rhkpehjd;
nguwp+h; mz;zh fpUghde;j thhpahh; rhykd; ghg;igah
uh.gp. nrJg;gps;is Fd;wf;Fo mofshh; bfyd; bfy;yh;
ehtyh; nrhkRe;juk; ehkf;fy; ftp+h; njhHh; $Pth
ghujpahh; ghthzh; nfhgpehj;
I.ypnahdp ,uh$h$p uhrh


28 VII  Nh;ah  ,sikj;jkpnH ,ay; 1

khjphp tpdhj;jhs;
,ay; ? 1
neuk; : 1.30 kjpg;bgz;fs; : 50
I. midj;J tpdhf;fSf;Fk; tpilasp : 14 x 1 = 14
m) bghUs; vGJf.
1. tpujk;
2. cgfhhp
3. Kfpy;
M) gphpj;J vGJf.
4. FuyhFk;
5. ,uz;ly;y
,) nrh;j;J vGJf.
6. xg;g[ik + ,y;yhj
7. thd; + xyp
<) chpa tpiliaj; njh;t[ bra;f.
8. `bewp~ vd;Dk; brhy;ypd; bghUs; _________
m) tHp M) Fwpf;nfhs; ,) bfhs;if <) mwk;
9. giftiu btw;wp bfhz;ltiug; ghLk; ,yf;fpak; _________
m) fyk;gfk; M) ghpghly; ,) guzp <) me;jhjp
10. jkpHpd; fpisbkhHpfspy; xd;W _________
m) cUJ M) ,e;jp ,) bjY=;F <) M=;fpyk;
c) nfhol;l ,lj;ij epug;g[f.
11. thdpy; _________ Tl;lk; jpuz;lhy; kiH bghHpa[k;.
12. ngr;RbkhHpia _________ tHf;F vd;Wk; TWth;.
C) rhpah jtwh vd vGJf.
13. bkhHp fhyj;jpw;F Vw;g khWfpwJ.
14. vGj;JbkhHp fhyk; fle;Jk; epiyj;J epw;fpwJ.
II. kdg;ghlk; : 1x4=4
15. `mUs;bewp~ vdj; bjhl=;Fk; `v=;fs; jkpH;~ ghliy vGJf.
III. vitnaDk; Ie;J tpdhf;fSf;F tpilasp: 5 x 2 = 10
16. jkpH;bkhHpapd; gz;g[fshf ehkf;fy; ftp+h; TWtd ahit>
17. jkpH;bkhHpiaf; fw;wthpd; ,ay;g[fis vGJf.
18. jkpH;ehl;od; ,aw;if ts=;fshff; ftp+h; TWtd ahit>
,ay; 1 VII  Nh;ah  ,sikj;jkpnH 29

19. filbaG ts;sy;fs; ahth;>


20. bkhHpapd; ,U tot=;fs; ahit>
21. ngr;RbkhHp vd;why; vd;d>
22. tl;lhubkhHp vdg;gLtJ ahJ>
IV. tpdhf;fSf;F tpilasp : 2 x 5 = 10
23. `v=;fs; jkpH;;~ ghlypy; ehkf;fy; ftp+h; TWk; fUj;Jfisj; bjhFj;J vGJf.
(my;yJ)
jkpGf;F tsk; nrh;f;Fk; ,yf;fpa tiffshff; ftp+h; TWtd ahit>
24. ngr;RbkhHpf;Fk; vGj;JbkhHpf;Fk; ,ilna cs;s ntWghLfSs; ehd;fid tpsf;Ff.
(my;yJ)
fpisbkhHpfs; vt;thW cUthfpd;wd>
V. vitnaDk; @d;Wf;F tpilasp : 3x2=6
25. `Fw;wpaYfuk;~ vd;Dk; brhy;iyg; gphpj;J tpsf;fk; jUf.
26. Fw;wpaypfuk; vd;why; vd;d>
27. Fw;wpaYfuk; vd;why; vd;d>
28. Fw;wpaYfuj;jpd; tiffs; ahit>
29. bghUe;jh brhw;fis vLj;J vGJf.
m) gR/ tpL/ MW/ fU
M) gz;g[/ k+;R/ fz;L/ vBF
VI. fl;Liu tpdh : 1x6=6
30. ghlg;gFjpg; bghk;kyhl;lf; fhl;rpfisr; rpWfijahf vGJf.
(my;yJ)
bfhLf;fg;gl;Ls;s Fwpg;g[fisf; bfhz;L fl;Liu vGJf.
Kd;Diu ? bkhHp gw;wpa tpsf;fk; ? jha;bkhHp ? jha;bkhHpg; gw;W ? jha;bkhHpg; gw;Wf;
bfhz;l rhd;nwhh; ? rhJtd; tuyhW ? ekJ flik ? Kot[iu.


30 ftpijg;
VII  Nh;ahngiH
 ,sikj;jkpnH ,ay; 2

,ay;
2
fhL


E}y;btsp:
Rujhtpd; ,aw;bgah; ,uhrnfhghy;. ,th; ghujpjhrd; kPJ kpFe;j gw;Wf; bfhz;lth;.
ghujpjhrdpd; ,aw;bgah; `Rg;g[uj;jpdk;~. vdnt jk; bgaiur; Rg;g[uj;jpdjhrd; vd;W khw;wpf;
bfhz;lhh;. mjd; RUf;fnk Rujh vd;gjhFk;. ctikfisg; gad;gLj;jpf; ftpijfs; vGJtjpy;
ty;yth; vd;gjhy; ,tiu ctikf; ftp+h; vd;Wk; miHg;gh;. mKJk; njDk;/ njd;kiH/
JiwKfk; cs;spl;l gy E}y;fis ,th; ,aw;wpa[s;shh;. ,g;ghly; Rujh ftpijfs; vd;Dk;
E}ypy; ,aw;if vHpy; vd;Dk; gFjpapypUe;J vLj;Jj; jug;gl;Ls;sJ. ,g;ghly; fpspf;fz;zp
vd;Dk; ghtifiar; nrh;e;jJ. fpspapd; bkhHp nghd;w ,dpa brhw;fisg; ngRk; bgz;iz
nehf;fpf; TWtjhf ,dpa re;jj;jpy; ghlg;gLk; ,irg;ghly; tif `fpspf;fz;zp~ MFk;.

brhy;Yk; bghUSk;
1. <d;W ? bgw;W 4. fspj;jpl ? kfpH;e;jpl
2. bfhk;g[ ? fpis 5. er;rutk; ? tplKs;s ghk;g[
3. mjpkJuk; ? kpFe;j Rit 6. tpLjp ? j=;Fk; ,lk;


kjpg;gPL  (gf;fk; 28)
rhpahd tpiliaj; njh;e;bjLj;J vGJf.
1. thiH/ fd;iw _______
m) <d;wJ M) tH=;fpaJ ,) bfhLj;jJ <) je;jJ [tpil: m]
2. `fhbly;yhk;~ vd;Dk; brhy;iyg; gphpj;J vGjf; fpilg;gJ _______
m) fhL + bly;yhk; M) fhL + vy;yhk;
,) fh + bly;yhk; <) fhd; + vy;yhk; [tpil: M]
3. `fpH=;F + vLf;Fk;~ vd;gjidr; nrh;j;bjGjf; fpilf;Fk; brhy; _______
m) fpH=;F vLf;Fk; M) fpH=;bfLf;Fk;
,) fpH=;FLf;Fk; <) fpH=;bfhLf;Fk; [tpil: M]
eak; mwpf :
ghlypYs;s nkhid/ vJif/ ,iag[r; brhw;fis vLj;J vGJf.
nkhid :
fhh;j;jpif ? fhbly;yhk; fhL ? fha;fdp
ghh;j;jpl ? ghh;it Tof; ? Fsph;e;j
Fu=;F ? bfhk;gpy; gr;ir ? gd;wp
er;ru ? ehpbayhk; g[Jeil ? g{=;Fapy;
rp=;fk; ? rpWj;ij
,ay; 2 VII  Nh;ah  ,sikj;jkpnH 31

vJif:
fhh;j ; ;jpif ? ghh;j;jpl fhL ? To
Fu=;F ? ku=;fs; gr;ir ? er;ru
mjpkJ ? g[Jeil rp=;fk; ? v=;Fk;
,iag[ :
<d;bwLf;Fk; ? epHy; bfhLf;Fk; fdp gwpf;Fk; ? jilapUf;Fk;
fpH=;bfLf;Fk; ? CisapLk; jpd;wgo ? Tt[ko
FWtpdh:
1. fhl;Lg;g{f;fSf;F vjid ctikahff; ftp+h; Rujh Fwpg;gpLfpwhh;>
fhh;j;jpif tpsf;Ffs; nghyf; fhL KGtJk; kyh;fs; kyh;e;jpUf;Fk;.
2. fhl;od; gad;fshff; ftp+h; Rujh TWtd ahit>
fhL gy tifahd bghUs;fisj; jUk;. fha;fdpfisa[k; jUk;. vy;yhUk; To
kfpH;e;jpl Fsph;e;j epHy; jUk;. m=;nf trpf;Fk; Fu=;Ffs;/ kuf;fpisfspy; cs;s fdpfisg;
gwpj;J cz;Qk;. ku=;fs; btapiy kiwj;J epHy; jUk;.
rpWtpdh:
1. `fhL~ ghlypy; tpy=;Ffspd; bray;fshff; ftp+h; TWtdw;iw vGJf.
gr;ir epwk; cila kapy;fs; eldkhLk;. gd;wpfs; fhl;oy; cs;s fpH=;Ffisj;
njhz;o cz;Qk;. mjidf;fz;L e+;rpid cila ghk;g[fs; fyf;fkila[k;. ehpf;Tl;lk;
CisapLk;. kpFe;j Rita[ila jiHia ahidfs; jpd;wgo g[jpa eilnghLk;. g{f;fs;
g{j;Jf; FY=;Fk;. ku=;fspy; Fapy;fs; Tt[k;. ,aw;ifj; j=;Fkplkhfpa fhl;oy; rp=;fk;/
g[yp/ fuo/ rpWj;ij nghd;w tpy=;fpd=;fs; v=;Fk; miye;J jphpa[k;.
rpe;jidtpdh:
1. fhl;il ,aw;if tpLjp vd;W ftp+h; Twf; fhuzk; vd;d>
fhLfspdhy; caphpay; gd;ik tsk; ghJfhf;fg;gLfpd;wJ. fhLfspy; mhpa
tif @ypiffs; fpilf;fpd;wd. tpy=;Ffs;/ gwitfs; Mfpatw;wpw;F g[fypl=;fshf
tps=;Ffpd;wd. tdg;bghUl;fs;/ fdp ts=;fs; fhLfspypUe;J fpilf;fpd;wd.
tpLjp vd;why; kdpjdhy; cUthf;fg;gl;l miwfisf; bfhz;l fl;olkhFk;.
,J braw;ifahf cUthfg;gLgit. Mdhy;/ fhl;oy; cs;s tpy=;FfSf;Fk;/
gwitfSf;Fk; kw;w caphpd=;fSf;Fk; ,aw;ifna cUthf;fpf; bfhLj;j ,aw;if
ciwtplkhFk;. mjdhy;jhd; ftp+h; fhl;il ,aw;if tpLjp vd;W TWfpwhh;. ,=;F
mitfs; vjw;fhft[k; gzk; bfhLf;f ntz;oa mtrpakpy;iy. czt[k; ,ytrkhfnt
fpilf;fpd;wJ. ve;j neuj;jpYk; cz;zyhk;/ cw=;fyhk;. fhL KGtJk; Rw;wpj; jphpayhk;.
v=;F ntz;Lbkd;whYk; j=;fpf; bfhs;syhk;. ve;j tpjkhd fl;Lg;ghLk; fpilahJ.
mg;go ,Uf;Fk; fhl;il/ ,aw;if tpLjp vd;W Mrphpah; TWtJ rhpahd fhuzkhfj;jhd;
mikfpwJ.
32 VII  Nh;ah  ,sikj;jkpnH ,ay; 2

TLjy; tpdhf;fs;
rhpahd tpiliaj; njh;e;bjLj;J vGJf.
1. _______ tpsf;Ffs; nghyf; fhL KGtJk; kyh;fs; kyh;e;jpUf;Fk;.
m) ij M) fhh;j;jpif ,) mfy; <) rpj;jpiu [tpil: M]
2. mlh;e;j fhL _______ bry;nthh;f;Fj; jilahf ,Uf;Fk;.
m) Xo M) ele;J ,) tHp <) jpUo [tpil: ,]
3. _______ fhl;oy; cs;s fpH=;Ffisj; njhz;o cz;Qk;.
m) Fu=;Ffs; M) vypfs;
,) gd;wpfs; <) kapy;fs; [tpil: ,]
4. Rujhtpd; ,aw;bgah; _______
m) Rg;gu[ j;jpdk; M) Rg;gpukzp
,) RFkhh; <) ,uhrnfhghyd; [tpil: <]
5. ctikf; ftp+h; vd;W miHf;fg;Lgth; _______
m) ghujpahh; M) Rujh ,) ghujpjhrd; <) fk;gh; [tpil: M]
6. ghujpjhrdpd; ,aw;bgah; _______
m) Rg;g[uj;jpdk; M) ,uhrnfhghyd;
,) Rg;gpukzp <) fhj;jtuhad; [tpil: m]
FWtpdh:
1. ,g;ghlypy; fhzg;gLk; caphpd=;fs; ahit>
kapy;fs;/ Fu=;Ffs;/ gd;wpfs;/ ghk;g[fs;/ ehpfs;/ ahidfs;/ Fapy;fs;/ rp=;fk;/ g[yp/
fuo/ rpWj;ij nghd;witfs; fhzg;gLfpd;wd.
2. Rujh ,aw;wpa E}y;fis vGJf.
mKJk; njDk;/ njd; kiH/ JiwKfk;/ RtUk; Rz;zhk;g[k;.
rpWtpdh:
1. Rujh Fwpg;g[ vGJf.
bgah; : Rujh
,aw;bgah; : ,uhrnfhghyd;
Ch; : jpUthqh; khtl;lj;jpYs;s giHaD}h;
gpwg;g[ : 23.11.1921
bgw;nwhh; : jpUnt=;flk; ? brz;gfk;
gilg;g[fs; : njd;kiH/ JiwKfk;/ mKJk; njDk;/ RtUk; Rz;zhk;g[k;/ Rujhtpd;
ftpijfs;/ rhtpd; Kj;jk;/ gl;lj;jurp/ thh;j;ij thry;/ vr;rpy; ,ut[/
cjl;oy; cjL.
rpwg;g[ : ctikf; ftp+h;/ fiykhkzpg; gl;lk;/ ghnte;jh; gl;lk;.
,ay; 2 VII  Nh;ah  ,sikj;jkpnH 33

fw;git fw;wgpd;  (gf;fk; 28)


1. fhL vd;Dk; jiyg;gpy; mike;j `fpspf;fz;zpg;~ ghliy ,ira[ld; gho kfpH;f.
fhh;j;jpif jPgbkdf; gr;ir kapy;eof;Fk;
fhbly;yhk; g{j;jpUf;Fk; gd;wp fpH=;bfLf;Fk;
ghh;j;jpl ntz;LkO ? fpspna er;ru t=;fy=;Fk; ? fpspna
ghh;it FspUkO- ehpbayhk; CisapLk;
fhL bghUs;bfhLf;Fk; mjpkJ uj;jiHia
fha;fdp <d;bwLf;Fk; ahidfs; jpd;wgo
Tof; fspj;jplnt ? fpspna g[Jeil nghLkO ? fpspna
Fsph;e;j epHy;bfhLf;Fk; g{=;Fapy; Tt[ko-
Fu=;F FoapUf;Fk; rp=;fk; g[yp fuo
bfhk;gpy; fdpgwpf;Fk; rpWj;ij tpy=;fpd=;fs;
ku=;fs; btapy;kiwf;Fk; ? fpspna v=;Fk; jphpa[kO ? fpspna
tHpapy; jilapUf;Fk; ,aw;if tpLjpapny-
? Rujh
2. gpd;tUk; fpspf;fz;zpg; ghliyg; gho kfpH;f.
be+;rpy; cuKkpd;wp Tl;lj;jpy; Toepd;W
neh;ikj; jpwKkpd;wp Ttpg; gpjw;wyd;wp
t+;rid brhy;thuO- ? fpspna ehl;lj;jpy; bfhs;shuO- ? fpspna
tha;r;brhy;ypy; tPuuo ehspy; kwg;ghuO.
? ghujpahh;


34 VII  Nh;ah  ,sikj;jkpnH ,ay; 2

ftpijg; ngiH
,ay;
2 mg;gona epw;fl;Lk; me;j kuk;

E}y;btsp:
uh$khh;j;jhz;ld; ftp+h;/ ,jHhsh;/ ftpijj; jpwdha;thsh; vdg; gd;Kfj; jpwd;fs;
bgw;wth;. bfhy;ypg;ghit vd;Dk; rpw;wpjiH elj;jpath;. uh$khh;j;jhz;ld; ftpijfs; vd;Dk;
E}Yf;fhfj; jkpH; tsh;r;rpj;Jiwapd; ghpR bgw;wth;. rpwe;j jkpH;f; ftpijfisj; bjhFj;J
bfh=;Fnjh; thH;f;if vd;Dk; jiyg;gpy; E}yhf;fpa[s;shh;.
,tuJ mg;gona epw;fl;Lk; me;j kuk; vd;Dk; E}ypy; cs;s ftpij ,=;Fj;
jug;gl;Ls;sJ.
brhy;Yk; bghUSk;
1. gutrk; ? kfpH;r;rpg; bgUf;F
2. J&;o nfl;ly; ? Jf;fk; tprhhpj;jy;

kjpg;gPL
rhpahd tpiliaj; njh;e;bjLj;J vGJf.
1. ehtw;gHj;jpw;F ctikahff; Twg;gLtJ _______
m) gr;ir ,iy M) nfhypf;Fz;L ,) gr;irf;fha; <) br=;fha;
 [tpil: M]
2. `Rl;l gH=;fs;~ vd;W Fwpg;gplg;gLit _______
m) xl;oa gH=;fs; M) Nlhd gH=;fs;
,) ntf itj;j gH=;fs; <) Rlg;gl;l gH=;fs; [tpil: <]
3. `bgauwpah~ vd;Dk; brhy;iyg; gphpj;J vGjf; fpilg;gJ _______
m) bgau + wpah M) bgah; + uwpah
,) bgah; + mwpah <) bgau + mwpah [tpil: ,]
4. `kdkpy;iy~ vd;Dk; brhy;iyg; gphpj;J vGjf; fpilg;gJ _______
m) kd + kpy;iy M) kdkp + ,y;iy
,) kdk; + kpy;iy <) kdk; + ,y;iy [tpil: <]
5. new;W + ,ut[ vd;gjidr; nrh;j;bjGjf; fpilf;Fk; brhy; _______
m) new;W,ut[ M) new;wput[ ,) new;Wut[ <) new;,ut[
 [tpil: M]
,ay; 2 VII  Nh;ah  ,sikj;jkpnH 35

FWtpdh:
1. ehty; kuk; vj;jid jiyKiwfshf m=;F epd;wpUe;jJ>
jhj;jhtpd; jhj;jh fhyj;jpypUe;J ehty; kuk; m=;F epd;W ,Ue;jJ.
2. rpWth;fSf;F ehtw;gHk; fpilf;f cjtpnahh; ahth;>
rpWth;fSf;F ehtw;gHk; fpilf;f fhf;if/ FUtp/ ikdh/ fpspfs;/ ,d;Dk;
bgauwpahg; gwitfs;/ mzpy;fs;/ fhw;Wk; cjtpd.
rpWtpdh:
1. ehty; kuk; gw;wpa epidt[fshff; ftp+h; TWtd ahit>
Chpd; tlnfhoapy; ehty; kuk; Ie;J tajpy; ghh;j;jnghJk; ,g;gonajhd; ,Ue;jJ.
Ik;gijj; jhz;o ,d;Wk; mg;gonajhd; epd;wJ. jhj;jhtpd; jhj;jh fhyj;jpy; el;L
tsh;j;j kukhk; mg;gh brhy;yf; nfl;oUf;fpnwd;. gr;irf;fha;fs; epwk; khwpr; br=;fha;j;
njhw;wk; bfhz;lJnk rpWth;fs; kd=;fspy; gutrk; bgh=;Fk;.
gsgsf;Fk; gr;ir ,iyfAnl fUePyf; nfhypf;Fz;Lfsha; ehtw;gH=;fs;
fpisfspy; bjh=;Fk;. ghh;f;Fk; nghnj ehtpy; ePqWk;. fhf;if/ FUtp/ ikdh/ fpspfs;/
,d;Dk; bgauwpahg; gwitfSld; mzpy;fSk; fhw;Wk; cjph;j;jpLk; Rl;l gH=;fs;
bghWf;f rpWth; Tl;lk; miynkhJk;.
taJ te;j mf;fhSf;fha; ifapy; bgl;oa[ld; Xo Xog; gHk; bghWf;Fk; j=;fr;rpfs;/
,utpy; bky;ypa epybthspapy; gilbaLj;J tUk; gHe;jpd;dp btsthy; Tl;lk;.
njhg;g[ KGf;fg; gutpf;fplf;Fk; kuj;jpd; Fsph;e;j epHypny fpspahe;jl;od; Rthurpak;
g[spakpshWld; mg;gh tUk; tiu ,Uf;Fk;. new;W kjpak; ez;gh;fSld; vd; kfd;
tpisahoaJ me;j kuj;jpd; epHypy;jhd;.
bgUthH;t[ thH;e;j kuk; new;wput[g; nga;f;fhw;wpy; ntnuhL rha;e;Jtpl;lJ.
tpoe;jJk; tpoahjJkha; J&;o nfl;Fk; gjw;wj;jpy; tpiue;J bry;fpwhh;fs;. Ch; kf;fs;
F+;R FSthd;fnshL. vdf;Fg; nghf kdkpy;iy vd;Wk; vd;kd btspapy;; mg;gona
epw;fl;Lk; me;j kuk;. Fd;Wfspd; eLnt khkiynghy vd;W jd; epidt[fshff; ftp+h;
TWfpwhh;.
rpe;jidtpdh:
1. bgU=;fhw;wpy; tPH;e;j kuj;ijf; ftp+h; Vd; ghh;f;f tpUk;gtpy;iy>
gy jiyKiwfsha; thH;e;J bfhz;oUe;j kuk; bgU=;fhw;wpy; tPH;e;jJ vd;gijf;
nfs;tpg;gl;l ftp+h; mijg; ghh;f;f tpUk;gtpy;iy fhuzk;/ gy jiy Kiwaha; gy
Mapuk; ngUf;Fj; jd; fdpfis tH=;fpa kuk;/ gy Mapuk; gwitfSf;F cztfkhf
tps=;fpa kuk;/ mzpy;fSf;Fk; cztspj;j kuk;/ gy jiyKiwaha; rpWth;fs;
tpisahoa kuk;/ tHpg;nghf;fh;fSf;Fk; Xa;btLg;gth;fSf;Fk; Xa;tfkhf tps=;fpa
kuk;/ ,s=;fhw;iw tPrpa kuk;/ Chpd; bgUikahf tps=;fpa kuk;/ Chpd; milahskhf
tps=;fpa kuk;/ jpj;jpf;Fk; fdpfis tH=;fpa kuk;/ gy egh;fSf;F caph;@r;ir tH=;fpa
kuk;/ ftp+h; jhd; tpisahoaJ kl;Lky;yhky; jd; kfDk; tpisahoa kuk;/
cwt[KiwfSf;fha; gHk; nrfhpf;fg;gl;l kuk;/ fy;yogl;lhYk; fy=;fhJ fdpiaj; je;j
kuk;/ jd; epidtpy; gy Mz;Lfshf epd;w kuk; tPH;e;jJ vd;gij nfs;tpg;gl;l ftp+h;
kdJ mij Vw;Wf; bfhs;s kWf;fpwJ. bgUikahfj; jhd; ngrpa kuk; ,d;W tPH;e;jJ/
ehis ,y;yhky; ngha;tpLk; vd;gij kdJ Vw;ftpy;iy. mjdhy; mJ ,Ug;gjhfnt
jd; kdJs; vz;zpf; bfhs;tjhy; tPH;e;j kuj;ijg; ghh;f;f tpUk;gtpy;iy.
36 VII  Nh;ah  ,sikj;jkpnH ,ay; 2

TLjy; tpdhf;fs;
rhpahd tpiliaj; njh;e;bjLj;J vGJf.
1. epykle;ijf;F ,aw;if Nl;oa kzpkFl=;fns _______
m) epyh M) ku=;fs;
,) gwitfs; <) tpy=;Ffs; [tpil: M]
2. kdpj thH;tpanyhL gpd;dpg; gpize;jit _______
m) g{f;fs; M) ,iyfs;
,) ku=;fs; <) nth;fs; [tpil: ,]
3. ku=;fisg; gw;wpa epidt[fs; bgUk;ghyhd kdpjh;fspd; cs;s=;fSf;Fs; _______
fplf;fpd;wd.
m) Fiwe;J M) epiwe;J
,) g[ije;J <) mHpe;J [tpil: ,]
4. fhy bts;sj;jpy; ku=;fs; kiwayhk;/ mtw;iwg; gw;wpa _______ kiwahJ.
m) epidt[fs; M) mHFfs;
,) Fiwfs; <) beUg;g[ [tpil: m]
5. Chpd; tlnfhoapy; epd;w kuk; _______
m) g[spakuk; M) kh kuk;
,) bjd;id kuk; <) ehty; kuk; [tpil: <]
6. gr;irf;fha;fs; epwk; khwpr; _______ njhw;wk; bgWk;.
m) fU=;fha; M) br=;fha;
,) k+;rs; <) bts;is [tpil: M]
7. gr;ir ,iyfAnl _______ nfhypf;Fz;Lfsha; ehtw;gH=;fs; fpisfspy; bjh=;Fk;.
m) gr;ir M) k+;rs;
,) fUePyk; <) rptg;g[ [tpil: ,]
8. mf;fhSf;fha; ifapy; bgl;oa[ld; Xo Xog; _______ bghWf;Fk; j=;fr;rpfs;.
m) gHk; M) g[sp ,) fha; <) g{ [tpil: m]
9. ,utpy; bky;ypa epybthspapy; gilbaLj;J tUk; _______ Tl;lk;.
m) fGF M) btsthy; ,) Me;ij <) fpsp [tpil: M]
10. bgUthH;t[ thH;e;j kuk; new;wput[ _______ fhw;wpy; ntnuhL rha;e;J tpl;lJ.
m) bjd;wy; M) g[ay; ,) nga; <) thil [tpil: ,]
11. `epybthsp~ vd;Dk; brhy;iyg; gphpj;J vGjf; fpilg;gJ _______
m) epy + bthsp M) epyh + xsp
,) epyk; + xsp <) epyt[ + xsp [tpil: <]
,ay; 2 VII  Nh;ah  ,sikj;jkpnH 37
12. `nfl;oUf;fpnwd;~ vd;Dk; brhy;iyg; gphpj;J vGjf; fpilg;gJ _______
m) nfl;L + ,Uf;fpnwd; M) nfl;o+ ,Uf;fpnwd;
,) nfl; + oUf;fpnwd; <) nfl;L + Uf;fpnwd; [tpil: m]

13. `ePqWk;~ vd;Dk; brhy;iyg; gphpj;J vGjf; fpilg;gJ _______


m) eP+ CWk; M) epq + CWk;
,) ePh; + CWk; <) eP + J}Wk; [tpil: ,]

14. gHk; + jpd;dp vd;gjidr; nrh;j;bjGjf; fpilf;Fk; brhy; _______


m) gHk;jpd;dp M) gHe;jpd;dp
,) gHj;jpd;dp <) gHj;Jd;dp [tpil: M]

15. gutp + fplf;Fk; vd;Dk; brhy;iyg; gphpj;J vGjf; fpilg;gJ _______


m) gutpf;fplf;Fk; M) gue;Jfplf;Fk;
,) gutpf;fplf;Fk; <) gug;gpf;fplf;Fk; [tpil: m]
FWtpdh:
1. ehty; kuk; vg;nghJ elg;gl;lJ>
ehty; kuk; ftp+hpd; jhj;jhtpd; jhj;jh fhyj;jpy; elg;gl;lJ.

2. rpWth; kd=;fspy; vg;nghJ gutrk; bgh=;Fk;>


ehty; kuj;jpy; gr;irf;fha;fs; epwk; khwpr; br=;fha; njhw;wk; bfhz;lJnk rpWth;
kd=;fspy; gutrk; bgh=;Fk;.

3. vg;nghJ ehtpy; ePqWk;>


ehty; kuj;jpy; gsgsf;Fk; gr;ir ,iyfAnl fUePyf; nfhypf;Fz;Lfsha;
ehtw;gH=;fs; fpisfspy; bjh=;Fk;" ghh;f;Fk;nghnj ehtpy; ePqWk;.

4. ahh; ahUf;fhfg; gHk; bghWf;Fth;>


taJ te;j mf;fhSf;fha; ifapy; bgl;oa[ld; Xo Xog; gHk; bghWf;Fth; j=;fr;rpfs;.

5. ,utpy; tUtJ vJ>


,utpy; bky;ypa epybthspapy; gilbaLj;J tUk; gHe;jpd;dp btsthy; Tl;lk;.

6. Ch; kf;fs; v=;nf brd;wdh;>


bgUthH;t[ thH;e;j kuk; new;wput[g; nga;f;fhw;W tPrpajhy; ntnuhL rha;e;J
tpl;ljhy; J&;o nfl;Fk; gjw;wj;jpy; kuj;ijf; fhzr; brd;wdh;.
38 VII  Nh;ah  ,sikj;jkpnH ,ay; 2

fw;git fw;wgpd;  (gf;fk;: 30)

1. 
c=;fs; Rw;Wg;g[wj;jpYs;s VnjDk; xU kuk; Fwpj;J tUzidahf Ie;J bjhlh;fs;
vGJf.
Mykuk; :
hh CUf;Ff; fpilj;j bghpa Fil.
hh rpWth;fs; tpisahl jUfpwJ ey;y C+;ry;.
hh fhy=;fs; fle;Jk; fl;Lf; Fiyahky; fk;gPukha; epw;fpwJ.
hh ghkuDf;Fg; gy; Jyf;f gr;rpsk; tpGijj; jUfpwJ.
hh mjpfkhdg; gH=;fisg; gwitfSf;Ff; bfhLj;Jg; gUt k=;ifnghy; rphpf;fpwJ.

2. c=;fs; gFjpfspy; cs;s ku=;fspd; bgah;fisj; bjhFj;J vGJf.


g{tuR kuk; bfha;ah kuk; mj;jp kuk;
bjd;id kuk; KU=;if kuk; mnrhf kuk;
gid kuk; khJis kuk; kUj kuk;
g[spa kuk; gg;ghsp kuk; rt[f;F kuk;
ghf;F kuk; ntg;g kuk; ,Yg;ig kuk;
kh kuk; mur kuk; ehty; kuk;
gyh kuk; My kuk; vYkpr;ir kuk;
thiH kuk; g[[=;f kuk; ehh;j;j=;fh kuk;
njf;F kuk;


,ay; 2 VII  Nh;ah  ,sikj;jkpnH 39

ciueil cyfk;
,ay;
2 tpy=;Ffs; cyfk;

kjpg;gPL
rhpahd tpiliaj; njh;e;bjLj;J vGJf. (gf;fk;: 12)
1. Mrpa ahidfspy; Mz;?bgz; ahidfis ntWgLj;JtJ _______
m) fhJ M) je;jk;
,) fz; <) fhy;efk; [tpil: M]
2. jkpHfj;jpy; g[ypfs; fhg;gfk; mike;Js;s ,lk; _______
m) ntle;jh=;fy; M) nfhoaf;fiu
,) Kz;le;Jiw <) Te;jd;Fsk; [tpil: ,]
3. `fhl;lhW~ vd;Dk; brhy;iyg; gphpj;J vGjf; fpilg;gJ _______
m) fhL + MW M) fhl;L + MW
,) fhl; + MW <) fhl; + lhW [tpil: m]
4. `midj;Jz;zp~ vd;Dk; brhy;iyg; gphpj;J vGjf; fpilf;Fk; brhy; _______
m) midj;J + Jz;zp M) mid + cz;zp
,) midj;; + Jz;zp <) midj;J + cz;zp [tpil: <)]
5. `neuk; + Mfp~ vd;gjidr; nrh;j;bjGjf; fpilf;Fk; brhy; _______
m) neukhfp M) neuhfp
,) neuk;Mfp <) neh;Mfp [tpil: m]
6. `ntl;il + Moa ~ vd;gjidr; nrh;j;bjGjf; fpilf;Fk; brhy; _______
m) ntl;ilMoa M) ntl;ilahoa
,) ntl;lhoa <) ntlhoa [tpil: M]
nfhol;l ,lj;ij epug;g[f.
1. `fhl;od; tsj;ijf; Fwpf;Fk; FwpaPL~ ? vd;W miHf;fg;gLk; tpy=;F _______.
tpil: g[yp
2. ahidf; Tl;lj;jpw;F xU _______ ahidjhd; jiyik jh=;Fk;.
tpil: bgz;
3. fuofisj; njdPf;fsplkpUe;J fhg;gJ mjd; _______.
tpil: cliyg; nghh;j;jpapUf;Fk; mlh;e;j Kofs;.
40 VII  Nh;ah  ,sikj;jkpnH ,ay; 2

FWtpdh:
1. fhL ? tiuaW.
kdpj Kaw;rpapd;wp tsh;e;j ku=;fs;/ bro/ bfhofs;/ g[y;/ g[jh;fs;/ g{r;rpapd=;fs;/
gwitfs;/ tpy=;Ffs; nghd;w gy;Yaph;fspd; thH;tplkhft[k; ,il ,ilna
fhl;lhWfSk;/ ePnuhilfSk; ,Ug;gJjhd; fhlhFk;.
2. ahidfs; kdpjh;fis Vd; jhf;Ffpd;wd>
ahidfs; bghJthf kdpjh;fisj; jhf;FtJ ,y;iy. mtw;wpd; tHpj;jl=;fspy;
Fwpf;fpLk; nghJjhd; kdpjh;fisj; jhf;Ffpd;wd.
3. fuo `midj;Jz;zp~ vd miHf;fg;gLtJ Vd;>
fuo/ gH=;fs;/ njd; nghd;wtw;iw czthf cz;Qk;. nkYk; cjph;e;j kyh;fs;/
fha;fs;/ g[w;wPry;/ fiuahd; nghd;wtw;iwa[k; czthf cz;gjhy; midj;Jz;zp vd;W
miHf;fg;gLfpwJ.
4. khdpd; tiffs; rpytw;wpd; bgah;fis vGJf.
rUFkhd;/ kpshkhd;/ btspkhd;/ g[s;spkhd; vdg; gy tif cz;L.
rpWtpdh:
1. g[ypfs; Fwpj;J eP=;fs; mwpe;J bfhz;l bra;jpfisj; bjhFj;J vGJf.
g[yp kdpjh;fisj; jhf;Ftjpy;iy. ,utpy; kl;Lnk ntl;ilahLk; jd;ik
bfhz;lJ. g[ypfs; jdpj;J thGk; ,ay;g[ilait. xU Fwpg;gpl;l vy;iyf;Fs; xU
g[yp kl;Lnk thGk;. kw;w g[ypfs; me;j vy;iyf;Fs; bry;yhJ. fUt[w;w g[ypahdJ
bjhz;Q}W ehl;fspy; ,uz;L my;yJ @d;W Fl;ofs; <Dk;. me;jf; Fl;ofis
,uz;L Mz;Lfs; tiu tsh;j;J tUk;. mit ntl;ilahlf; fw;wt[ld; mtw;Wf;fhd
vy;iyfisa[k; gphpj;J jdpahf mDg;gptpLk;.
g[ypjhd; xU fhl;od; tsj;ijf; Fwpf;Fk; FwpaPL. g[yp jdf;fhd czit
ntl;ilahoa gpd;g[ ntW ve;j tpy=;ifa[k; ntl;ilahLtjpy;iy. vdnt/ mjidg;
gz;g[s;s tpy=;F vd;W miHf;fpnwhk;. ePsk;/ cauk;/ gUkd;/ vil/ gyk;/ ntl;ilj;jpwd;
Mfpa midj;jpYk; rp=;fj;ijtpl g[ypna cah;e;jJ. vdnt ,aw;if tp+;+hdpfs;
g[ypiana fhl;Lf;F murd; vd;fpwhh;fs;.

rpe;jidtpdh:
1. fhLfis mHpg;gjhy; Vw;gLk; tpist[fisg; gl;oaypLf.
1. kz; mhpg;g[ Vw;gLjy; :
jw;bghGJ fhLfspd; mHptpd; fhuzkhf kz; mhpg;g[ jtph;f;f ,ayhj gpur;ridahf
khwp tUfpwJ. kz; mhpg;g[ Vw;gLtjhy; tptrhak; bghpJk; ghjpg;g[ mila[k;. tUle;njhWk;
Rkhh; 40 Mapuk; b\f;nlh; epy=;fs; kz; mhpkhdj;jpd; fhuzkhf vJt[k; tpisahj
twl;L epykhf khwp tUfpwJ.
,ay; 2 VII  Nh;ah  ,sikj;jkpnH 41

2. ghiytd=;fs; cUthjy; :
fhLfspd; mHpg;gpdhy; epyj;jpy; ve;j caphpdKk; Ez;Qaph;fSk; thH
Kotjpy;iy. kz;zpd; caphpay; tsk; mHptjhy; me;j epyk; vjw;Fk; gad;glhkYk;/
vJt[k; tpisahkYk; ghiytdkhf khWfpwJ.

3. kiHg;bghHpt[ ghjpg;g[ :
ku=;fspd; mHpthy; fhw;W kz;lyj;jpy; fhh;gd;il Mf;i!od; mst[ mjpfkhfp
tpLfpwJ. ,jdhy; kiH Fiwe;J twl;rp Vw;gLfpwJ.

4. twl;rp :
kiH bghHpa[k; gFjpfspy; cs;s fhLfs; mHpf;fg;gLtjhy; Xilfs; twz;L
tpLfpd;wd. MWfspy; twl;rpf; fhy=;fspy; kpff; Fiwe;j msnt jz;zPh; ,Uf;fpwJ.
,jdhy; twl;rp Vw;gLfpwJ.

5. gy;Yaphpd=;fs; mHpjy; :
xU jhtuk; mHpf;fg;gl;lhy; mij ek;gp thGk;/ mz;o thGk; caphpd=;fs;
mHpfpd;wd. rPdf; fhLfspd; @=;fpy; FUj;Jfis kl;Lnk rhg;gpl;L thGk; ghz;lh
fuofs; jw;nghJ mhpjhfptpl;ld. ,jd; fhuzk; vd;d> @=;fpy; fhLfs; mHpf;fg;gl;L
tpl;lJjhd; fhuzk;.

6. ntiyapy;yhj jpz;lhl;lk; :
fhLfspd; mHpg;gpdhy; fhLfis kl;Lnk ek;gp thGk; kf;fspd; thH;thjhuk;
mHpf;fg;gLfpwJ. ,jdhy;/ mth;fSk; ntiy njo efuj;jpw;F tUfpd;wdh;. mJ/
ntiyapy;yhj; jpz;lhl;lj;ij nkYk; mjpfhpf;fpwJ.

7. gpuhztha[ Fiwjy; :
jhtu=;fs; fhh;gd;il Mf;i!il cl;bfhz;L jdf;Fj; njitahd czitj;
jahh; bra;J ehk; caph; thHj; njitahd gpuhztha[it btspnaw;Wfpd;wd. fhLfis
mHpg;gjdhy; gpuhztha[tpd; mst[ fhw;wpy; Fiwfpd;wJ.

8. thHplk; mHpf;fg;gLjy; :
fhLfis kl;Lnk ek;gp fhl;oy; thH;e;J bfhz;oUf;Fk; gwitfSk;/ tpy=;FfSk;
,lk; bgah;e;J nghtjw;F mtw;wpd; thHpl=;fs; mHpf;fg;gLfpd;wd. mjdhy;
mt;tpy=;Ffs; kf;fs; trpf;Fk; gFjpfSf;Fs; EiHe;J kf;fSf;Fg; bgUk; Jd;gj;ij
Vw;gLj;JfpwJ.
,t;thW fhL mHpg;gpdhy; gy tpist[fs; Vw;gLfpd;wd.
42 VII  Nh;ah  ,sikj;jkpnH ,ay; 2

TLjy; tpdhf;fs;
rhpahd tpiliaj; njh;e;bjLj;J vGJf.
1. fhLfspd; brHpg;g[f;Ff; _______ cjt[fpd;wd.
m) tpy=;Ffs; M) gwitfs;
,) g{r;rpfs; <) fhl;Laphpfs; [tpil: <]

2. gs;spapypUe;J tPL jpUk;gpa _______ jd; mk;kht[f;fhff; fhj;jpUe;jhs;.


m) khyjp M) Mjpdp
,) bry;tp <) kyh;tpHp [tpil: M]

3. gy;Yaph;fspd; thH;tplk;jhd; _______ MFk;.


m) tay; M) ghiytdk; ,) fhL <) tPL [tpil: ,]

4. jkpH;ehl;oy; _______ kpfg;bghpa g[ypfs; fhg;gfk; Kz;le;Jiw MFk;.


m) ,uz;lhtJ M) Kjy; ,) @d;W <) Ie;J [tpil: m]
5. cyfpy; _______ tifahd ahidfs; cs;sd.
m) @d;W M) ,uz;L ,) ehd;F <) Ie;J [tpil: M]

6. xU ahid ehs; xd;Wf;F _______ fpnyh g[y;/ ,iy jiHfis czthf cl;bfhs;Sk;.
m) 100 M) 200 ,) 250 <) 300 [tpil: ,]

7. _______ kpFe;j epidthw;wy; bfhz;l tpy=;F.


m) g[yp M) rp=;fk; ,) ahid <) fuo [tpil: ,]

8. jkpH;ehl;oy; tdf;fy;Y}hp mike;Js;s ,lk; _______


m) kJiu M) nkl;Lg;ghisak;
,) jpUr;rp <) Cl;o [tpil: M]

9. jkpH;ehl;oy; ntshz;ikg; gy;fiyf;fHfk; cs;s ,lk; _______


m) kJiu M) brd;id ,) jpz;Lf;fy; <) nfhit [tpil: <]

nfhol;l ,l=;fis epug;g[f.


1. ahidfs; bghJthf _______ jhf;FtJ ,y;iy. tpil: kdpjh;fis
2. ahidf;Ff; Fof;f _______ ypl;lh; jz;zPh; njitg;gLk;. tpil: mWgj;ije;J
3. _______ ghrk; epiwe;j tpy=;F. tpil: ahid
4. fuo xU _______ cz;zp. tpil: midj;J
5. fuof;F _______ kpft[k; gpoj;j czt[. tpil: fiuahd;
6. ed;F tsh;e;j fuo _______ fpnyh vil tiu ,Uf;Fk;. tpil: 160
,ay; 2 VII  Nh;ah  ,sikj;jkpnH 43

7. _______ ,y; kl;Lnk ntl;ilahLk; jd;ik bfhz;lJ g[yp. tpil: ,utpy;


8. g[ypfs; _______ thGk; ,ay;g[ilait. tpil: jdpj;J
9. fUt[w;w g[ypahdJ _______ ehl;fspy; Fl;ofis <Dk;. tpil: bjhz;Q}W
10. _______ gz;g[s;s tpy=;F vd;W miHf;fg;gLfpwJ. tpil: g[yp
11. F$uhj; khepyj;jpy; _______ ,y; kl;Lnk Mrpar; rp=;f=;fs; cs;sd.
 tpil: fph; ruzhyaj;jpy;
12. ,aw;if tp+;+hdpfs; _______ na fhl;Lf;F murd; vd;fpwhh;fs;.tpil: g[ypia
13. vy;yh tif khd;fspYk; ek; ehl;Lg; _______ khd;fns mHfpy; rpwe;jit vd;gh;.
tpil: g[s;sp
FWtpdh:
1. Kz;le;Jiw ? rpW Fwpg;g[ jUf.
Kz;le;Jiw jkpH;ehl;oy; ,uz;lhtJ kpfg;bghpa g[ypfs; fhg;gfk;. 895 rJu fpnyh
kPl;lh; gug;gst[ bfhz;lJ. ,=;F ahid/ g[yp/ rpWj;ij/ khd;/ fuo/ fhl;LkhL nghd;w
mhpa tpy=;Ffs; thH;fpd;wd.
2. ahidfs; vj;jid tifg;gLk;> mit ahit>
ahidfs; ,uz;L tifg;gLk;. mit: Mrpa ahid/ Mg;gphpf;fh ahid.
3. fuo vtw;iw czthf cl;bfhs;Sk;>
fuo/ gH=;fs;/ njd;/ fha;fs;/ cjph;e;j kyh;fs;/ g[w;wPry;/ fiuahd; Mfpatw;iw
czthf cl;bfhs;Sk;.
4. g[ypapd; ntl;ilahLk; gz;igf; TWf.
g[yp ,utpy; kl;Lnk ntl;ilahLk; jd;ik bfhz;lJ. g[yp jdf;fhd czit
ntl;ilahoa gpd;g[ ntW ve;j tpy=;ifa[k; ntl;ilahLtjpy;iy.
5. rp=;fj;jpd; tiffs; ahit>
rp=;f=;fs; ,uz;L tifg;gLk;. mit: Mrpa rp=;fk;/ Mg;gphpf;fr; rp=;fk;.
rpWtpdh:
1. ahidfs; Fwpj;j bra;jpfis vGJf.
cyfpy; ,uz;L tifahd ahifs; cs;sd. xd;W Mrpa ahid" ,d;bdhd;W
Mg;gphpf;f ahid. Mrpa ahidfspy; Mz; ahidf;Fj; je;jk; cz;L. bgz; ahidf;Fj;
je;jk; ,y;iy. Mdhy; Mg;gphpf;f ahidfspy; ,uz;Lf;Fnk je;jk; cz;L. mJ kl;Lkd;wp
mtw;wpd; cauk;/ epwk;/ efk; Mfpatw;wpYk; rpy ntWghLfs; cs;sd. ahidfs;
vg;bghGJk; Tl;lkhfj;jhd; thGk;. ,e;jf; Tl;lj;jpw;F xU bgz; ahidjhd; jiyik
jh=;Fk;. ahidfs; j=;fSf;Fj; njitahd jz;zPh; kw;Wk; czt[ Mfpatw;wpw;fhf ,lk;
bgah;e;J bfhz;nl ,Uf;Fk;. xU ahid ehs; xd;Wf;F 250 fpnyh g[y;/ ,iy/ jiHfis
czthf cl;bfhs;Sk;. mjw;Ff; Fof;f mWgj;ije;J ypl;lh; jz;zPh; njitg;gLk;.
ahid kpFe;j epidthw;wy; bfhz;l tpy=;F. mJ ghrk; epiwe;j tpy=;Fk; Tl.
44 VII  Nh;ah  ,sikj;jkpnH ,ay; 2

ahidfs; bghJthf kdpjh;fisj; jhf;FtJ ,y;iy. mtw;wpd; tHpj;jl=;fspy;


FWf;fpLk; nghJjhd; kdpjh;fisj; jhf;Ffpd;wd. nkYk; ahidf;Ff; fz; ghh;it
Fiwt[" nfl;Fk; Mw;wYk; nkhg;g Mw;wYk; kpFjp.

fw;git fw;wgpd;  (gf;fk; 36)


1. tpy=;Ffs; bjhlh;ghd gHbkhHpfisj; jpul;o tUf.
v.fh: g[yp grpj;jhYk; g[y;iyj; jpd;dhJ.
hh g[ypf;Fg; gpwe;jJ g{idahfhJ.
hh Fiuf;fpw eha; fof;fhJ.
hh g[yp gJ=;FtJ gha;r;rYf;F milahsk;.
hh gd;wpfspd; Kd;dhy; Kj;Jf;fisg; nghl khl;lhh;fs;.
hh fGij mwpa[kh fw;g{u thrid>
hh Mid tUk; gpd;nd kzpnahir tUk; Kd;nd.
hh jhdk; bfhLj;j khl;ilg; gy;iyg; gpoj;Jg; ghh;f;fhnj.
hh ahidf;Fk; mo rWf;Fk;.
hh Fjpiuapy;yh ehl;oy; fGij murhSk;.
hh ghh;j;jhy; g{id/ gha;e;jhy; g[yp.
hh ey;y khl;Lf;F xU NL.
hh NLgl;l g{id mLg;gz;il nruhJ.
hh moahj khL gzpahJ.


,ay; 2 VII  Nh;ah  ,sikj;jkpnH 45

tphpthdk;
,ay; ,e;jpa tdkfd;
2 (neh;fhzy;)

kjpg;gPL
$hjt;gna=; fhl;il vt;thW cUthf;fpdhh;>
Kd;Diu :
m!;!hk; khepyj;jpd; n$hh;tpuhl; khtl;lj;ijr; nrh;e;j $hjt;gna=;/ gpuk;kg[j;jpuh
Mw;wpd; eLtpy; cs;s kpfg; bghpa jPtpy; Kg;gJ Mz;Lfs; jdJ fod ciHg;ghy; xU
fhl;il cUthf;fpath;. `,e;jpahtpd; tdkfd;~ vd;W miHf;fg;gLgth;.
ku=;fspd; kPJ Mir :
1979Mk; Mz;L gpuk;kg[j;jpuh Mw;wpy; Vw;gl;l bts;sj;jhy; moj;J tug;gl;l
ghk;g[fs; mj;jPtpy; fiu xJ=;fpd. m=;F ku=;fs; ,y;yhjjhy; gy brj;Jg;nghapd. ,ijf;
fz;l mtUf;F m=;F ku=;fs; tsh;f;f ntz;Lk; vd;W vz;zk; njhd;wpaJ. mjw;fhf
Ch; kf;fsplk; cjtpia ehoa bghGJ/ ahUk; cjt Kd; tutpy;iy.
@=;fpy; fhL :
jd; iffspy; fpilj;j tpijfis tpijj;J ehs;njhWk; jz;zPh; Cw;wpdhh;.
MapDk; xU tpijTl Kisf;ftpy;iy. gpwF tdj;Jiwapdiu mQfpanghJ
`mj;jPtpy; @=;fpy; kuk; kl;Lnk tsUk;~ vd;W Twpdh;. clnd @=;fpy;fisf; bfhz;L
tsh;f;fj; bjhl=;fpdhh;.
kz;zpd; khw;wk; :
@=;fpiyj; jtpu ntW ve;j kuKk; tsutpy;iy. mg;nghJjhd; mrhk; ntshz;ikg;
gy;fiyf;fHfg; nguhrphpah; $hJehjplk; brd;W kuk; tsh;f;Fk; jpl;lk; gw;wpf; Twpdhh;.
clnd mth;/ `kz;zpd; jd;ikia mjw;F Vw;g khw;w ntz;Lk;. mjw;F kz; g[Gf;fs;
kl;Lkpd;wpr; rptg;g[f; fl;blWk;g[fSk; cjt[k;~ vd;W Twpdhh;.
vWk;g[fisf; bfhz;L te;J m=;F tpl Muk;gpj;jhh;. fl;blWk;g[fs; Ch;e;J bry;yr;
bry;y kz;zpd; jd;ik rpwpJ rpwpjhf khwj; bjhl=;fpaJ. mth; el;l ku=;fs; midj;Jk;
tsh;e;jd.
g[jpa fhL cUthf;Fjy; :
xU gHk; rhg;gpl;lhy; Tl mjd; bfhl;ilia tPrp vwpahky; tpijahfr; nrh;j;J
itj;jhh;. gpwF kiHf;fhyk; bjhl=;Ftjw;F Kd; tpijfis vLj;J mj;jPtpy; J}tj;
46 VII  Nh;ah  ,sikj;jkpnH ,ay; 2

bjhl=;fp tpLthh;. ,g;go xt;nthh; Mz;Lk; mth; J}tpa tpijfs;jhk; ,d;W fhlhf
m=;Ff; fhl;rp mspf;fpd;wJ.
Kot[iu :
fhl;oy; gwitfs; te;J j=;fpd. gwitfspd; vr;rj;jhy; gutpa tpijfs; me;jf;
fhL tsu nkYk; Jiz g[hpe;jd. gpwF Kay;/ khd;/ fhl;LkhLfs;/ ahidfs;/ ghk;g[fs;/
fGFfs;/ fhz;lh kpUf=;fs;/g[ypfs; vd;W midj;J caphpd=;fSk; te;J j=;f fhL
KGik mile;jJ. ,t;thW $hjt;gna=; fhl;il cUthf;fpdhh;.


,ay; 2 VII  Nh;ah  ,sikj;jkpnH 47

fw;fz;L
,ay;
2 ehy;tiff; FWf;f=;fs;

kjpg;gPL
rhpahd tpiliaj; njh;e;bjLj;J vGJf.
1. `ntl;if~ vd;Dk; brhy;ypy; Ifhuf; FWf;fk; bgWk; khj;jpiu mst[ __________
m) xd;W M) ,uz;L ,) xd;wiu <) miu [tpil: m]
2. kfuf; FWf;fk; ,lk; bgwhj brhy; __________
m) nghd;k; M) kUz;k; ,) gHk; tpGe;jJ <) gzk; fpilj;jJ
 [tpil: <]
3. brhy;ypd; Kjypy; kl;Lnk ,lk; bgWtJ __________
m) Ifhuf; FWf;fk; M) xsfhuf; FWf;fk;
,) kfuf; FWf;fk; <) Ma;jf; FWf;fk; [tpil: M]
FWtpdh:
1. xsfhuk; vg;bghGJ KGikahf xypf;Fk;>
xs/ bts vd xsfhu vGj;J/ jdpj;J tUk; ,l=;fspy; jdf;Fhpa ,uz;L khj;jpiu
mstpy; KGikahf xypf;fpwJ.
2. brhy;ypd; Kjy;/ ,il/ ,Wjp Mfpa ,l=;fspy; Ifhuf; FWf;fk; bgWk; khj;jpiu mst[
ahJ>
itak; ? brhy;ypd; Kjy; xd;wiu khj;jpiu
rikay; ? brhy;ypd; ,ilapy; xU khj;jpiu
gwit ? brhy;ypd; ,Wjp xU khj;jpiu
3. kfuf; FWf;fj;Jf;F ,uz;L vLj;Jf;fhl;Lfs; jUf.
v.fh : tyk; te;jhd;
kUz;k;

TLjy; tpdhf;fs;
rhpahd tpiliaj; njh;e;bjLj;J vGJf.
1. FWf;f=;fs; _______ tifg;gLk;.
m) ,uz;L M) @d;W ,) ehd;F <) Ie;J [tpil: ,]
48 VII  Nh;ah  ,sikj;jkpnH ,ay; 2

2. xt;nthh; vGj;Jf;Fk; mij xypg;gjw;F chpa fhy mst[ _______ vdg;gLk;.


m) vil M) mst[ ,) khj;jpiu <) xypg;g[ [tpil: ,]
3. jkf;Fhpa fhy msittplf; Fiwthf xypg;gij _______ vd;fpnwhk;.
m) bel;blGj;J M) msbgil ,) Fwpy; <) FWf;fk; [tpil: ,]
4. Ifhuf; FWf;fk; _______ ,l=;fspy; tUk;.
m) ,uz;L M) @d;W ,) xd;W <) ehd;F [tpil: M]
5. xsfhuf; FWf;fj;jpw;fhd khj;jpiuapd; mst[ _______ MFk;.
m) xd;W M) xd;wiu ,) ,uz;L <) @d;W [tpil: M]
6. nghd;k;/ kUz;k; vd;Dk; brhw;fis bra;a[spy; _______ rPh;ikf;fhfg; gad;gLj;jpdh;.
m) Xir M) mst[ ,) mHF <) jis [tpil: m]
7. kfuf; FWf;fj;jpw;fhd khj;jpiuapd; mst[ _______
m) xd;W M) fhy; ,) miu <) xd;wiu[tpil: M]
8. Ma;jf; FWf;fj;jpw;fhd khj;jpiuapd; mst[ _______
m) fhy; M) miu ,) xd;W <) ,uz;L [tpil: m]
9. Ma;j vGj;jpw;fhd khj;jpiuapd; mst[ _______
m) fhy; M) miu ,) xd;W <) xd;wiu[tpil: M]
10. Ifhuj;jpw;fhd khj;jpiuapd; mst[ _______
m) miu M) xd;W ,) xd;wiu <) ,uz;L [tpil: <]
FWtpdh:
1. FWf;f=;fs; vj;jid tifg;gLk;> mit ahit>
FWf;f=;fs; ehd;F tifg;gLk;. mit Ifhuf; FWf;fk;/ xsfhuf; FWf;fk;/ kfuf;
FWf;fk;/ Ma;jf; FWf;fk; MFk;.
2. khj;jpiu vd;why; vd;d>
xt;bthU vGj;Jf;Fk; mij xypg;gjw;F chpa fhy mst[ cz;L. mijna
khj;jpiu vd;gh;.
3. Ifhuf; FWf;fk; vd;why; vd;d> v.fh. jUf.
I/ if/ ig vd Ifhu vGj;J/ jdpj;J tUk; ,l=;fspy; jdf;Fhpa ,uz;L khj;jpiu
mstpy; KGikahf xypf;fpwJ. itak;/ rikay;/ gwit vd brhw;fspd; Kjy;/ ,il/
,Wjp Mfpa ,l=;fspy; tUk;nghJ jdf;Fhpa ,uz;L khj;jpiu mstpypUe;J Fiwe;J
xypff;fpwJ. ,t;thW Fiwe;J xypf;Fk; Ifhuk; Ifhuf; FWf;fk; vdg;gLk;.
v.fh : itak; ? Kjy; xd;wiu khj;jpiu
rikay; ? ,il xU khj;jpiu
gwit ? ,Wjp xU khj;jpiu
,ay; 2 VII  Nh;ah  ,sikj;jkpnH 49

4. xsfhuf; FWf;fk; vd;why; vd;d>


xs/ bts vd xsfhu vGj;J/ jdpj;J tUk; ,l=;fspy; jdf;Fhpa ,uz;L khj;jpiu
mstpy; KGikahf xypf;fpwJ. xsitahh;/ btsthy; vdr; brhw;fspd; Kjypy;
tUk;nghJ jdf;Fhpa ,uz;L khj;jpiu mstpypUe;J Fiwe;J xd;wiu khj;jpiu mstpy;
xypf;fpwJ. ,t;thW Fiwe;J xypf;Fk; xsfhuk; xsfhuf; FWf;fk; vdg;gLk;. xsfhuk;
brhy;ypd; ,ilapYk; ,WjpapYk; tuhJ.
v.fh : xsitahh;/ bksty;.
5. kfuf; FWf;fk; vd;why; vd;d>
mk;kh/ ghlk; goj;jhd; Mfpa brhw;fspy; kfu bka;baGj;J jdf;Fhpa miu
khj;jpiu mstpy; KGikahf xypf;fpwJ.
tyk; te;jhd; vd;gjpy; kfu bka;baGj;ij mLj;J tfu vGj;J tUtjhy;
kfubka;ahdJ jdf;Fhpa miu khj;jpiu mstpypUe;J Fiwe;J fhy; khj;jpiu mstpy;
xypf;fpwJ.
nghYk; vd;Dk; brhy;iyg; nghd;k; vd;Wk;/ kUSk; vd;Dk; brhy;iy kUz;k;
vd;Wk; bra;a[spy; Xirr; rPh;ikf;fhfg; gad;gLj;jpdh;. ,r;brhw;fspy; kfu bka;ahdJ
d;/ z; Mfpa vGj;Jfis mLj;J tUtjhy; jdf;Fhpa miu khj;jpiu mstpypUe;J
Fiwe;J fhy; khj;jpiu mstpy; xypf;fpwJ. ,t;thW Fiwe;J xypf;Fk; kfuk; kfuf;
FWf;fk; vdg;gLk;.
6. Ma;jf; FWf;fk; vd;why; vd;d>
mBJ/ vBF Mfpa brhw;fspy; Ma;j vGj;J/ jdf;Fhpa miu khj;jpiu mstpy;
KGikahf xypf;fpwJ.
Ks;+jPJ vd;gJ KBOJ vdt[k;/ fy;+jPJ vd;gJ fBwPJ vdt[k; nrUk;/
,r;brhw;fspy; cs;s Ma;j vGj;J/ jdf;Fhpa miu khj;jpiu mstpypUe;J Fiwe;J
fhy; khj;jpiu mstpy; xypf;fpwJ. ,t;thW Fiwe;J xypf;Fk; Ma;jk; Ma;jf; FWf;fk;
vdg;gLk;.
fw;git fw;wgpd;  (gf;fk; 43)

Ifhu/ xsfhu/ kfu/ Ma;jf;FWf;f=;fSf;F vLj;Jf;fhl;lhf mika[k; brhw;fisj;
bjhFj;J vGJf.
1. Ifhuf;FWf;fk; :
itak;/ rikay;/ gwit/ Ig;grp/ ,ilad;/ Ftis/ jtis/ jiytd;/ jiytp/
fiy+d;/ Ik;gJ/ fliy/ ,iwtd;/ ikjpyp/ igad;/ tisay;/ fiythzp/ gilg;g[/
fil/ kzpnkfiy/ rpiy/ fiy/ kiy/ khiy/ fhiy.
2. xsfhuf;FWf;fk; :
xsitahh;/ xstpak;/ xsljk;/ btsthy;/ bfsjkd;/ bfshp/ bfsjkp/ bksty;/
xsjhhpak;/ xsghrdk;/ xsjh/ xsltk;/ xst[jy;/ brsuh&;oud;/ brskd;/ brse;jhpak;/
bgsj;jk;/ bgskp/ bgsuiz/ bgsud;.
3. kfuf;FWf;fk; :
kUz;k;/ nghd;k;/ jUk; tstd;/ tUk; tstd;/ tUk; tz;o/ tyk; te;jhd;.
4. Ma;jf;FWf;fk; :
KBOJ/ fBwPJ/ mBwpiz.
50 VII  Nh;ah  ,sikj;jkpnH ,ay; 2

bkhHpia Ms;nthk;

1. fPH;f;fhQk; jiyg;g[fSs; xd;iwg; gw;wp ,uz;L epkplk; ngRf.


1. fhl;L tsnk ehl;L tsk;! 2. fhl;od; gad;fs;.
fhl;L tsnk ehl;L tsk;!
xU ehl;od; Kd;ndw;wj;jpw;Fk;/ nkk;ghl;ow;Fk; tdtsk; kpft[k; Kf;fpa?
khdjhFk;. ku=;fs; ek; thH;nthLk;/ kjj;njhLk;/ fyhr;rhuj;njhLk; ,ize;Js;sd.
fh=;nfh kw;Wk; mnkrhd; nghd;w btg;g kz;lyf; fhLfspy; kiH mjpfkhfg;
bga;af; fhuzk; m=;F ku=;fs; epiwe;jpUg;gJjhd;. ,d;W bgUkstpy;
td=;fs; mHpf;fg;gl;L tpisepy=;fshf khw;wg;gl;Ltpl;ljhy; gUtkiH jtw
Muk;gpj;Jtpl;lJ. ek; ehl;oYs;s jhh; nghd;w ghiytdg; gFjp fhLfs; mHpe;jjhy;
Vw;gl;lit vd;W fUjg;gLfpd;wJ. fhLfs; bghJthf ,uz;Ltpjg; gzpfisr;
bra;J tUfpd;wd. fhLfs; ekf;Fj; njitahd gy mj;jpahtrpakhd bghUl;fisf;
bfhLj;J tUfpd;wd. ehk; Mnuhf;fpakhd thH;t[ thH ekJ Rw;Wg;g[wr; NH;epiyiag;
ghJfhj;J tUfpd;wd. Rkhh; 160 nfho kf;fs; fhLfspd; @yk; ntiy tha;g;gpidg;
bgWfpd;wdh;. fhLfs; kiHePh; bgUkstpy; fHpt[ ePnuhl;lkhf bry;tijj; jLj;J
jiu fPH; ePuhf cs;spGf;fg;gl;L epyj;jo ePhpd; msita[k; tsk;gl itj;J ehl;ow;F
tsk; nrh;f;fpwJ.
fhl;od; gad;fs;
fhLfs; gy;yhapuk; caphpd=;fspd; ciwtplkhf mikfpd;wd. fhLfs; ekf;F
Vuhskhd @ypifg; bghUs;fisj; jUfpd;wd. ,iyfs;/ g{f;fs;/ fha;fs;/ fdpfs;/
nth;fs;/ jz;Lfs;/ gytpj kUe;Jfs; nghd;wtw;iwa[k; jUfpd;wd. kuj;jz;Lfs;
Foirj; bjhHpYf;Fk; fl;Lkhd bjhHpYf;Fk; bgUk; g=;fhw;Wfpd;wd. fhLfs;
kdpjd; Rthrpf;f caph;tsp fhw;iwj; je;J fhpf;fhw;iwf; fpufpj;Jf; bfhs;fpd;wd.
fhLfs; fLikahd kiH/ g[ay; nghd;wtw;wpdhy; Vw;gLk; kz; mhpg;igj; jLj;J
kz; tsj;ijg; ghJfhf;fpd;wd. fhLfs; g[tpapd; btg;gj;jd;ikiaf; Fiwj;J
kiH nkf=;fis cUthf;fp kiH bghHpar; bra;fpd;wd. kuf;fl;ilfs; nkir/
ehw;fhyp/ fjt[/ rd;dy; nghd;w vz;zw;w bghUl;fisj; jahhpf;fg; gad;gLfpd;wd.
,it kl;Lkpd;wp/ fhl;L ku=;fs; fhfpjk;/ jPg;bgl;o/ kug;bgl;o nghd;w bghUl;fs;
bra;at[k; tPL/ ghyk;/ fg;gy; nghd;w fl;Lkhd bjhHpy;fSf;Fk; gad;gLfpd;wd.
vjph;g;ghYf;Fhpa bgah;fis vGJf.
1. kfsph; × Mlth;
2. murd; × murp
3. bgz; × Mz;
4. khztd; × khztp
5. rpWtd; × rpWkp
6. njhHp × njhHd;
,ay; 2 VII  Nh;ah  ,sikj;jkpnH 51

glj;jpw;F bghUj;jkhd ghiy vGJf.

xd;wd; ghy; Mz;ghy; xd;wd; ghy;

bgz;ghy; gyh;ghy; gytpd; ghy;;


gpiHiaj; jpUj;jpr; rhpahf vGJf.
v.fh : fz;zfp rpyk;g[ mzpe;jhd;.
fz;zfp rpyk;g[ mzpe;jhs;.
1. nfhtyd; rpyk;g[ tpw;fg; nghdhs;.
nfhtyd; rpyk;g[ tpw;fg; nghdhd;.
2. murh;fs; ey;yhl;rp bra;jhh;.
murh;fs; ey;yhl;rp bra;jdh;.
3. gR fd;iw <d;wd.
gR fd;iw <d;wJ.
4. nkf=;fs; NH;e;J bfhz;lJ.
nkf=;fs; NH;e;J bfhz;ld.
5. FHyp eldk; MoaJ.
FHyp eldk; Modhs;.
fojk; vGJf.
eP=;fs; brd;W te;j Rw;Wyh Fwpj;J c=;fs; ez;gDf;Ff; fojk; vGJf.
ghisa=;nfhl;il/
01.03.2019.
md;g[ ez;gd; Kj;Jt[f;F/
,=;F ehDk; vd; bgw;nwhUk; vd; ez;gh;fSk; eykha; cs;nshk;. ,Jnghy; m=;F
cd; eyDk; cd; bgw;nwhh; kw;Wk; ez;gh;fs; eyDk; mwpa Mty;.
52 VII  Nh;ah  ,sikj;jkpnH ,ay; 2

ehd; fle;j tpLKiwapy; brd;id brd;W te;njd;. m=;F vd; khkh czt[ tpLjp
elj;Jfpwhh;. m=;Fr; bry;Yk; tha;g;g[f; fpilj;jJ xU thuk; j=;fpndd;.
brd;id bghpa efukha; cs;sJ. mjdhy;/ m=;Ff; fhz;gjw;F Kf;fpa ,l=;fSk;
epiwa cz;L. mtw;iwbay;yhk; ehd; fz;L kfpH ntz;Lk; vd;gjw;fha; vd; khkh
m=;bfy;yhk; miHj;Jr; brd;whh;.
jpUty;ypf;nfzp/ kapyhg;g[{h;/ fghyP!;tuh; nfhtpy;/ tlgHdp nghd;w nfhapy;fSf;F
Kjy;ehs; brd;W te;njhk;. mz;zh rJf;fk;/ vk;.$p.Mh;. rJf;fk;/ brd;id flw;fiu/
rl;lg;nguit nghd;w ,l=;fis mLj;jehs; brd;W fz;L te;njhk;. fhe;jp epidthyak;/
jpUts;Sth; nfhl;lk;/ mU=;fhl;rpafk;/ ghk;g[g; gz;iz nghd;wtw;iw @d;whk; ehs;
fz;L te;njhk;.
brd;idf;F mUnf cs;s ntle;jh=;fy;/ jpUf;FGf;Fd;wk;/ khky;yg[uk; Mfpa
,l=;fSf;Fk; brd;W te;njhk;. ePa[k; tUk; nfhil tpLKiwapy; m=;bfy;yhk; brd;W
tu ntz;Lk; vd;gJ vd; MirahFk;.
,g;gof;F
cd; MUaph; ez;gd;
Mjpj;jpad;.
ciwnky; Kfthp :
bry;td;. j. Kj;J/
j'bg. jkpH;r;bry;td;/
6'87/ ghujpahh; bjU/
Mug;ghisak;/
kJiu ? 625 015.

bkhHpnahL tpisahL
tl;lj;jpYs;s vGj;Jfisg; gad;gLj;jpr; brhw;fis mikf;f.
g[ijay; fy;
,iy ijay;
fiy ,ay;
g[y; fly;
fij fliy
brhw;fis ,izj;Jg; g[jpa brhw;fs; mikf;f.
thiH japh; TL jply; ghl;L
FUtp bfha;ah nrhW gHk; gwit
tpisahl;L Tl;lk; mtiu nghl;o fha;
v.fh : thiH + fha; = thiHf;fha;
thiH + gHk; = thiHg;gHk;
FUtp + TL = FUtpf;TL
,ay; 2 VII  Nh;ah  ,sikj;jkpnH 53
FUtp + Tl;lk; = FUtpf;Tl;lk;
tpisahl;L + jply; = tpisahl;Lj;jply;
tpisahl;L + nghl;o = tpisahl;Lg;nghl;o
japh; + TL = japh;f;TL
japh; + nrhW = japh;r;nrhW
bfha;ah + fha; = bfha;ahf;fha;
bfha;ah + gHk; = bfha;ahg;gHk;
mtiu + fha; = mtiuf;fha;
ghl;L + nghl;o = ghl;Lg;nghl;o
gwit + TL = gwitf;TL
gwit + Tl;lk; = gwitf;Tl;lk;
tpLfijfSf;F tpil vGJf.
1. kuk; tpl;L kuk; jht[ntd;" Fu=;F my;y.
tise;j thYz;L : g[yp my;y.
bfhl;ilfisf; bfhwpg;ngd;" fpsp my;y.
KJfpy; @d;W nfhLfis cilatd;. ehd; ahh;> mzpy;
2. vd; bgah; @d;W vGj;Jfisf; bfhz;lJ.
KjbyGj;ij ePf;fpdhy; kiwg;ngd;.
,uz;lhk; vGj;ij ePf;fpdhy; Fiug;ngd;.
@d;whk; vGj;ij ePf;fpdhy; Fjpg;ngd;. ehd; ahh;> Fjpiu
3. bts;isaha; ,Ug;ngd;" ghy; my;y.
kPd; gpog;ngd; : J}z;oy; my;y
jtkpUg;ngd; : Kdptuy;y. ehd; ahh;> bfhf;F
fiyr;brhy; mwpnthk; :
ePnuhil ? Stream
,aw;if tsk; ? Natural Resource
td tpy=;Ffs; ? Wild Animals
tdg; ghJfhtyh; ? Forest Conservator
ctik ? Parable
fhL ? Jungle
tdtpay; ? Forestry
gy;Yaph; kz;lyk; ? Bio Diversity
54 VII  Nh;ah  ,sikj;jkpnH ,ay; 2

,izaj;jpy; fhz;f :
,e;jpahtpYs;s td tpy=;Ff; fhg;gf=;fs; gw;wpa tptu=;fisj; jpul;o tUf.

jkpH;ehL : gPfhh; :
hh fpz;o khd; njrpag; g{=;fh. hh \$hhpghf; ruzhyak;.
hh fsf;fhL Kz;le;Jiw g[ypfs; hh gyhkht[ ruzhyak;.
ruzhyak;.
kfhuh&;ouh :
hh Midkiy tdf;fhg;gfk;.
hh uhjhefhp fhl;blUik fhg;gfk;.
hh KJkiy ruzhyak;.
hh bghhpt;yp njrpag; g{=;fh
hh ty;yehL tiuahL ruzhyak;.
hh lnlhgh ruzhyak;.
hh f=;if bfhz;lhd; khd; fhg;gfk;.
hh njf;fo/ bghpahh; g[ypfs; fhg;gfk;. F$uhj; :
Me;jpuh : hh fph; rp=;ff; fhg;gfk;.
hh ehfhh;$Pdrhfh; g[ypfs; ruzyhak;. hh Rnue;jpu efh; fhl;Lf; fGijfs;
fhg;gfk;.
fh;ehlfh : hh gtefh; btspkhd;/ fGijg;g[yp
hh ge;jpg;g{h; tdtpy=;F njrpag; g{=;fh.
fhg;gfk;.
hh efh;n\hny tdtpy=;F njrpag;
g{=;fh. kj;jpag; gpunjrk; :
hh gd;dh;fl;lh khd;fs; fhg;gfk;. hh fd;\h ruzhyak;.
nfush : hh ge;jt;fh; bts;isg; g[ypfs; fhg;gfk;.
hh bghpahW tdtpy=;F ruzhyak;. hh rpt;g[hp flk;ig khd; fhg;gfk;.
hh taehL fhg;gfk;.
uh$!;jhd; :
m!;!hk; : hh uz;jk;nghh; ruzhyak;.
hh fhrpu=;fh fhz;lhkpUfk; ruzhyak;. hh guj;g{h; ruzhyak;.
hh khd!; g[ypfs; fhg;gfk;. hh rhhp!;fh ruzhyak;.
hh b$a;ry;nkh; ghh;kh; ghiytdr;
nkw;F t=;fhsk; :
ruzhyak;.
hh $y;lghuh tdtpy=;F ruzhyak;.
hh r$;ufyp ruzhyak;.
hh byhbja;d; jPt[ ruzhyak;.


,ay; 2 VII  Nh;ah  ,sikj;jkpnH 55

thH;tpay;
,ay;
2
jpUf;Fws;

E}y; btsp :
jpUf;Fwisj; je;j jpUts;Sth; ,uz;lhapuk; Mz;LfSf;F Kw;gl;lth; vd;W
TWth;. ,th; Kjw;ghtyh;/ bgha;apy; g[yth;/ bre;ehg;nghjhh; nghd;w rpwg;g[ bgah;fshYk;
Fwpg;gplg;gLfpwhh;.
jkpH; E}y;fspy; `jpU~ vd;Dk; milbkhHpnahL tUfpd;w Kjy; E}y; jpUf;Fws;
MFk;. jpUf;Fws; mwj;Jg;ghy;/ bghUl;ghy;/ ,d;gj;Jg;ghy; vd;w @d;W gFg;g[f;
bfhz;lJ. ,jpy; mwk;?38/ bghUs;?70/ ,d;gk;?25 vd bkhj;j 133 mjpfhu=;fs; cs;sd.
mjpfhuj;jpw;F 10 Fws;fs; tPjk; 1330 Fwl;ghf;fs; cs;sd. ,jw;F Kg;ghy;/ bja;tE}y;/
bgha;ahbkhHp nghd;w gpw bgah;fSk; cs;sd.

kjpg;gPL
rhpahd tpiliaj; njh;e;bjLj;J vGJf.
1. tha;ik vdg;gLtJ _______
m) md;ghfg; ngRjy; M) jP=;Fjuhj brhw;fisg; ngRjy;
,) jkpHpy; ngRjy; <) rj;jkhfg; ngRjy; [tpil: M]
2. _______ bry;tk; rhd;nwhh;fshy; Muhag;gLk;.
m) kd;dd; M) bghwhik ,y;yhjtd;
,) bghwhik cs;std; <) bry;te;jd; [tpil: ,]
3. `bghUl;bry;tk;~ vd;Dk; brhy;iyg; gphpj;J vGjf; fpilg;gJ _______
m) bghU+ bry;tk; M) bghUl;+ bry;tk;
,) bghUs; + bry;tk; <) bghUk; + bry;tk; [tpil: ,]
4. `ahbjdpd;~ vDk; brhy;iyg; gphpj;J vGjf; fpilg;gJ _______
m) ah + vdpd; M) ahJ + bjdpd;
,) ah + bjdpd; <) ahJ + vdpd; [tpil: <]
5. jd; + be+;R~ vd;gjidr; nrh;j;bjGjf; fpilg;gJ _______
m) jd;be+;R M) jd;bd+;R
,) jhbd+;R <) jbd+;R [tpil: m]
6. jPJ + cz;nlh vd;gjidr; nrh;j;bjGjf; fpilf;Fk; brhy; _______
m) jPJz;nlh M) jPJ cz;nlh
,) jPjpz;nlh <) jPa[z;nlh [tpil: m]
56 VII  Nh;ah  ,sikj;jkpnH ,ay; 2

rpwe;j murpd; gzpfis thpirg;gLj;jp vGJf.


m) bghUisg; gphpj;Jr; bryt[ bra;jy;.
M) bghUs; tUk; tHpfis mwpjy;.
,) nrh;j;j bghUisg; ghJfhj;jy;.
<) bghUs;fisr; nrh;j;jy;.
thpirg;gLj;jpaJ
m) bghUs; tUk; tHpfis mwpjy;.
M) bghUs;fisr; nrh;j;jy;.
,) nrh;j;j bghUisg; ghJfhj;jy;.
<) bghUisg; gphpj;Jr; bryt[ bra;jy;.
FWtpdh:
1. vg;nghJ jd;be+;nr jd;id tUj;Jk;>
xUth; jd; be+;rwpa bgha; brhy;yf;TlhJ. mt;thW Twpdhy; mth; be+;rnk
mtiu tUj;Jk;.
2. thGk; bewp ahJ>
xUth; jd; be+;rpy; bghwhikapy;yhj Fzj;ijna xGf;f bewpahff; bfhz;L
thH ntz;Lk;.
3. cyfj;jhh; cs;s=;fspy; vy;yhk; ,Ug;gtd; ahh;>
cs;sj;jpy; bgha; ,y;yhky; thH;gth;/ cyfj;jhh; cs;s=;fspy; vy;yhk; ,Ug;gth;
Mthh;.
fPH;f;fhQk; brhw;fisf; bfhz;L jpUf;Fws; mikf;f.
bghUl;bry;tk; vy;yhk; g{hpahh; bry;tj;Js;
fz;Qk; mUl;bry;tk; cs brtpr;bry;tk;
mr;bry;tk; jiy bry;tk; ?
1. mUl;bry;tk; bry;tj;Js; bry;tk; bghUl;bry;tk;
g{hpahh; fz;Qk; cs.
2. bry;tj;Js; bry;tk; brtpr;bry;tk; mr;bry;tk;
bry;tj;Js; vy;yhk; jiy.
gpd;tUk; gj;jpf;Fg; bghUj;jkhd jpUf;Fwisj; njh;e;bjL.
mwtHp vd;wt[ld; ek; epidt[f;F tUgth; njrj;je;ij fhe;jpaofs;. mth; jk; rpW
tajpy; `mhpr;re;jpud;~ ehlfj;ijg; ghh;j;jhh;. mjpy; mhpr;re;jpud; vd;Dk; kd;dh; `bgha;
ngrhik~ vd;Dk; mwj;ij vj;jifa NH;epiyapYk; jtwhky; filg;goj;jhh;. ,e;j
ehlfj;ijf; fz;l fhe;jpaofs; jhKk; bgha; ngrhikiaf; filg;gpof;f ntz;Lk; vd;W
cWjp g{z;lhh;. mjidj; jk; thH;ehs; KGtJk; gpd;gw;wpdhh;. ,g;gz;ng fhe;jpaofs;
vy;yhh; ,jaj;jpYk; ,lk; gpof;ff; fhuzkhf mike;jJ.
,ay; 2 VII  Nh;ah  ,sikj;jkpnH 57
1. xGf;fhwhf; bfhs;f xUtd;jd; be+;rj;J
mGf;fhW ,yhj ,ay;g[.
2. tha;ik vdg;gLtJ ahbjdpd; ahbjhd;Wk;
jPik ,yhj brhyy;.
3. cs;sj;jhy; bgha;ahJ xGfpd; cyfj;jhh;
cs;sj;Js; vy;yhk; csd;.
tpil :
3. cs;sj;jhy; bgha;ahJ xGfpd; cyfj;jhh;
cs;sj;Js; vy;yhk; csd;

TLjy; tpdhf;fs;
rhpahd tpiliaj; njh;e;bjLj;J vGJf.
1. xUth; jd; be+;rpy; _______ ,y;yhj Fzj;ijna xGf;f bewpahff; bfhz;L thH
ntz;Lk;.
m) bghWik M) bghwhik ,) md;g[ <) mlf;fk; [tpil: M]

2. xUth; ,y;yhjnghJ _______ TWjy; TlhJ.


m) md;g[ M) g[wk; ,) bgha; <) cz;ik[tpil: M]

3. gpwUila Fw;wj;ijf; fhz;gJ nghy;/ jd;Dila Fw;wj;ija[k; fhz;gtUila thH;tpy;


_______ ,y;iy.
m) Jd;gk; M) ,d;gk; ,) e&;lk; <) brhe;jk; [tpil: m]

4. _______ Mfpa bry;tnk bry;t=;fSs; rpwe;j bry;tkhFk;.


m) fy;tp M) nfs;tp ,) bghUs; <) mUs; [tpil: <]

5. xUth; jd; _______ mwpa bgha; brhy;yf;TlhJ.


m) gpwh; M) je;ij ,) be+;R <) kidtp [tpil: ,]

6. _______ ,y; bgha; ,y;yhky; thH;gth; cyfj;jh; cs;s=;fspy; vy;yhk; ,Ug;gth;.


m) tha; M) cs;sk; ,) if <) fz; [tpil: M]

7. ghJfhj;j bghUisg; gaDs;s tifapy; jpl;lkpl;Lr; brytpLjy; rpwe;j _______


brayhFk;.
m) fztd; M) kidtp ,) muR <) mikr;rh;[tpil: ,]

8. `bewpahf~ vd;Dk; brhy;iyg; gphpj;J vGjf; fpilg;gJ _______


m) bewp + ahf M) bewp + Mf
,) bewp + <f <) bewpaha; + Mf [tpil: M]
58 VII  Nh;ah  ,sikj;jkpnH ,ay; 2

9. `g[w=;TWjy;~ vd;Dk; brhy;iyg; gphpj;J vGjf; fpilg;gJ _______


m) g[wk; + TWjy; M) g[wd; + TWjy;
,) g[w=; + TWjy; <) g[wik + TWjy; [tpil: m]

10. `gpwUila~ vd;Dk; brhy;iyg; gphpj;J vGjf; fpilg;gJ _______


m) gpwh; + ,ila M) gpwd; + ila
,) gpwh; + cila <) gpw + Uila [tpil: ,]

11. `mUshfpa~ vd;Dk; brhy;iyg; gphpj;J vGjf; fpilg;gJ _______


m) mU + shfpa M) mUsh + fpa
,) mUs; + Vfpa <) mUs; + Mfpa [tpil: <]

12. jd; + cila vd;gjidr; nrh;j;bjGjf; fpilg;gJ _______


m) jd;cila M) jz;Qila
,) jd;Dila <) jd;mila [tpil: ,]

13. ahJ + xd;Wk; vd;gjidr; nrh;j;bjGjf; fpilg;gJ _______


m) ahbjhd;Wk; M) ahbjd;Wk;
,) ahJxd;Wk <) ahbjd;W [tpil: m]

14. fz;; + epd;W vd;gjidr; nrh;j;bjGjf; fpilg;gJ _______


m) fdpepd;W M) fd;dpd;W
,) fz;epd;W <) fzpd;W [tpil: ,]

15. mUs; + bry;tk; vd;gjidr; nrh;j;bjGjf; fpilg;gJ _______


m) mUs;bry;tk; M) mUl;bry;tk;
,) mUshr;bry;tk; <) mUSk;bry;tk; [tpil: M]

FWtpdh:
1. rhd;nwhuhy; Muhag;gLtJ ahJ>
bghwhik bfhz;ltUila bry;tKk;/ bghwhik ,y;yhjtUila tWika[k;
rhd;nwhuhy; Muhag;gLk;.

2. vg;nghJ g[w=;TWjy; TlhJ>


xUtUf;F neh;epd;W fLikahd brhw;fisr; brhd;dhYk; brhy;yyhk;. Mdhy;/
mth; ,y;yhjnghJ g[w=;TWjy; TlhJ.

3. ahUila thH;tpy; Jd;gk; ,y;iy>


gpwUila Fw;wj;ijf; fhz;gJ nghy;/ jd;Dila Fw;wj;ija[k; fhz;gtUila
thH;tpy; Jd;gk; ,y;iy.
,ay; 2 VII  Nh;ah  ,sikj;jkpnH 59

4. rpwe;j bry;tkhtJ vJ>


mUshfpa bry;tnk bry;t=;fSs; rpwe;j bry;tkhFk;. bghUl; bry;tk;
,Hpe;jthplj;jpYk; cs;sJ.

5. Vd; Jd;g[Wj;jy; TlhJ>


xUth; jd;idtpl bkype;jtiu Jd;gW [ j;Jk;nghJ/ jd;idtpl typika[ilathpd;
Kd; jhd; m+;rp epw;Fk; epiyia vz;zpg; ghh;j;jy; ntz;Lk;.

6. tha;ik vdg;gLtJ ahJ>


tha;ik vdg;gLtJ kw;wth;f;F xU jP=;Fk; juhj brhw;fisr; brhy;Yjy; MFk;.

7. rpwe;j murpd; bray; ahJ>


bghUs; tUk; tHpfis mwpjYk;/ mt;tHpfspy; bghUs;fisr; nrh;j;jYk;/
nrh;j;j bghUisg; ghJfhj;jYk;/ fhj;j bghUisg; gaDs;s tifapy; jpl;lkpl;Lr;
brytpLjYk; rpwe;j murpd; brayhFk;.

8. jpUf;Fwspd; gphpt[fs; ahit>


jpUf;Fws; mwk;/ bghUs;/ ,d;gk; vd;Dk; Kg;gphpt[fis cilaJ.

9. jpUf;Fwspd; Kg;gphpt[fSf;fhd mjpfhu=;fs; ahit>


mwk;?38/ bghUs;?70/ ,d;gk;?25.

10. jpUts;StUf;F tH=;Fk; ntWbgah;fs; ahit>


Kjw;ghtyh;/ bgha;apy; g[yth;/ bre;ehg;nghjhh;/ bja;tg;g[yth;/ bgUehtyh;/
ehadhh;/ ehd;Kfdhh;/ khjhDg=;fp/ njth;.

11. jpUf;FwSf;F tH=;Fk; ntW bgah;fs; ahit>


Kg;ghy;/ bja;t E}y;/ bgha;ahbkhHp/ jkpH; kiw/ bghJ kiw/ jpUts;Stk;/
cj;juntjk;/ bghUSiu/ tha[iu thH;j;J/ vGJz;lkiw.


60 VII  Nh;ah  ,sikj;jkpnH ,ay; 2

khjphp tpdhj;jhs;
,ay; ? 2
neuk; : 1.30 kjpg;bgz;fs; : 50
I. midj;J tpdhf;fSf;Fk; tpilasp : 14 x 1 = 14
m) bghUs; vGJf.
1. er;rutk;
2. gutrk;
3. bfhk;g[
M) gphpj;J vGJf.
4. fhbly;yhk;
5. bgauwpah
,) nrh;j;J vGJf.
6. new;W + ,ut[
7. fpH=;F + vLf;Fk;
<) chpa tpiliaj; njh;t[ bra;f.
8. thiH/ fd;iw _________
m) <d;wJ M) tH=;fpaJ ,) bfhLj;jJ <) je;jJ
9. `Rl;l gH=;fs;~ vd;W Fwpg;gplg;gLgit _________.
m) xl;oa gH=;fs; M) Nlhd gH=;fs;
,) ntf itj;j gH=;fs; <) Rlg;gl;l gH=;fs;
10. jkpHfj;jpy; g[ypfs; fhg;gfk; mikj;Js;s ,lk; _________.
m) ntljh=;fy; M) nfhoaf;fiu ,) Kz;le;Jiw <) Te;jd;Fsk;
c) nfhol;l ,lj;ij epug;g[f.
11. `fhl;od; tsj;ijf; Fwpf;Fk; FwpaPL~ vd;W miHf;fg;gLk; tpy=;F _________.
12. fuofisj; njdPf;fsplkpUe;J fhg;gJ mjd; _________.
C) vjph;r;brhy; vGJf.
13. kfsph;
14. njhHp
II. kdg;ghlk; : 2+2=4
15. `mjpkJ~ vdj; bjhl=;Fk; `fhL~ vd;Dk; jiyg;gpy; mike;j ghliy vGJf.
16. `cs;sj;jhy;~ vdj; bjhl=;Fk; jpUf;Fwis vGJf.
III. vitnaDk; Ie;J tpdhf;fSf;F tpilasp: 5 x 2 = 10
17. fhl;od; gad;fshff; ftp+h; Rujh TWtd ahit>
18. ehty; kuk; vj;jid jiyKiwfshf m=;F epd;wpUe;jJ>
,ay; 2 VII  Nh;ah  ,sikj;jkpnH 61

19. rpWth;fSf;F ehtw;gHk; fpilf;f cjtpnahh; ahth;>


20. thGk; bewp ahJ>
21. vg;nghJ jd;be+;nr jd;id tUj;Jk;>
22. fhL ? tiuaWf;f.
23. ahidfs; kdpjh;fis Vd; jhf;Ffpd;wd>
IV. tpdhf;fSf;F tpilasp : 2 x 5 = 10
24. `fhL;~ ghlypy; tpy=;Ffspd; bray;fshff; ftp+h; TWtdtw;iw vGJf.
(my;yJ)
ehty; kuk; gw;wpa epidt[fshff; ftp+h; TWtd ahit>
25. g[ypfs; Fwpj;J eP=;fs; mwpe;J bfhz;l bra;jpfisj; bjhFj;J vGJf.
(my;yJ)
fhLfis mHpg;gjhy; Vw;gLk; tpist[fisg; gl;oaypLf.
V. vitnaDk; @d;W tpdhf;fSf;F tpilasp : 3x2=6
26. xsfhuk; vg;bghGJ KGikahf xypf;Fk;>
27. Ifhuf; FWf;fk; vd;why; vd;d>
28. kfuf;FWf;fj;Jf;F ,uz;L vLj;Jf;fhl;Lfs; jUf.
29. brhy;ypd; Kjy;/ ,il/ ,Wjp Mfpa ,l=;fspy; Ifhuf; FWf;fk; bgWk; khj;jpiu mst[
ahJ>
30. Ma;jf; FWf;fk; vd;why; vd;d>
VI. fl;Liu tpdh : 1x6=6
31. $hjt;gna=; fhl;il vt;thW cUthf;fpdhh;>
(my;yJ)
eP=;fs; brd;W te;j Rw;Wyh Fwpj;J c=;fs; ez;gDf;Ff; fojk; vGJf.


62 VII  Nh;ah  ,sikj;jkpnH ,ay; 3
ftpijg; ngiH
,ay;
3 g[yp j=;fpa Fif

E}y;btsp :
fhtw;bgz;L r=;ffhyg; bgz;ghw;g[yth;fSs; xUth;. nrhH kd;dd; nghuitf;
nfhg;bgU ew;fps;spapd; brtpypj;jhahf tps=;fpath; vd;gh;. fy;tpapy; njh;r;rpa[k; ftpghLk;
Mw;wYk; kpf;f ,th;/ r=;f fhy kf;fspd; tPuj;ijg; fUg;bghUshff; bfhz;L ,g;ghliyg;
ghoa[s;shh;. ,th; ghoa xnu xU ghly; g[wehD}w;wpy; ,lk; bgw;Ws;sJ.
g[wehD}W vl;Lj;bjhif E}y;fSs; xd;W. ,e;E}y; gz;ilf;fhyj; jkpH; kf;fspd;
thH;f;if Kiw/ ehfhpfk;/ gz;ghL/ tPuk; Kjypatw;iw btspg;gLj;Jk; E}yhf tps=;FfpwJ.
,e;E}ypy; 86Mk; ghly; ,=;Fj; jug;gl;Ls;sJ.
brhy;Yk; bghUSk; :
1. rpw;wpy; ? rpW tPL
2. fy;mis ? Fw;Fif
3. ahz;L ? v=;nf
4. <d;w tapW ? bgw;bwLj;j tapW

kjpg;gPL
rhpahd tpiliaj; njh;e;bjLj;J vGJf.
1. `ahz;L~ vd;Dk; brhy;ypd; bghUs; _______
m) vdJ M) v=;F
,) vt;tst[ <) vJ [tpil: M]
2. `ahz;Lsndh>~ vd;Dk; brhy;iyg; gphpj;J vGjf; fpilg;gJ _______
m) ahz;L + csndh> M) ahz; + csndh>
,) ah + csndh> <) ahz;L + cndh> [tpil: m]
3. `fy; + mis~ vd;gjidr; nrh;j;bjGjf; fpilf;Fk; brhy; _______
m) fy;yis M) fy;mis
,) fyyis <) fy;Yis
 [tpil: m]
FWtpdh:
1. jk; tapw;Wf;Fj; jha; vjid ctikahff; TWfpwhh;>
g[yp j=;fpr; brd;w Fifia ctikahff; TWfpwhh;.
,ay; 3 VII  Nh;ah  ,sikj;jkpnH 63

rpWtpdh:
1. jk; kfd; Fwpj;Jj; jha; Twpa bra;jpfisj; bjhFj;J vGJf.
`rpW mstpyhd vk; tPl;od; J}izg; gw;wpf; bfhz;L/ VJk; mwpahjts; nghy eP ``cd;
kfd; v=;nf>~~ vd vd;idf; nfl;fpwha;. mtd; v=;Fs;shd; vd;W vdf;Fj; bjhpatpy;iy.
MapDk; g[yp j=;fpr; brd;w Fif nghy mtidg; bgw;bwLj;j tapW vd;dplk; cs;sJ.
mtd; ,=;fpy;iy vdpy; nghh;f;fsj;jpy; ,Uf;ff;TLk;. ngha;f; fhz;ghahf~ vd;W jk;
kfd; Fwpj;Jj; jha; Twpdhs;.
rpe;jid tpdh:
1. jha; jd; tapw;iwg; g[yp j=;fpr; brd;w FifnahL xg;gpLtJ Vd;>
g[yp v=;F ntl;ilahlr; brd;whYk; ntl;ilahoa gpd;dh; jd; Fiff;Fj;
jpUk;gptpLk;. tPuh;fSk; nghhpd; bghUl;L v=;Fr; brd;whYk; nghh; Koe;jt[ld; jk;
tPl;ow;nf jpUk;g[th;. g[yp tPuj;jpd; milahsk;. tPuDk; tPuj;jpd; milahshk;. g[yp
gLj;Jw=;Fkplk; Fif. kdpjd; gj;J khjk; gLj;Jw=;fpa ,lk; jhapd; fUtiw
mjdhy;jhd; jha; jd; tapw;iwg; g[yp j=;fpr; brd;w FifnahL xg;gpLfpwhh;.

TLjy; tpdhf;fs;
rhpahd tpiliaj; njh;e;bjLj;J vGJf.
1. _______ gH=;fhyk; Kjny fy;tpapYk; tPuj;jpYk; rpwe;J tps=;fpdh;.
m) bjY=;fh; M) Mhplh; ,) jkpHh; <) Mhplh; [tpil: ,]
_______ fhf;fg; nghh;f;fsk; bry;tijj; jk; Kjd;ikahd flikfSs; xd;whff;
2. 
fUjpdh;.
m) ehl;il M) tPl;il
,) khepyj;ij <) kidtpia [tpil: m]
3. _______ j=;fpr; brd;w Fifnghy mtidg; bgw;bwLj;j tapW vd;dplk; cs;sJ.
m) rp=;fk; M) g[yp ,) fuo <) g{id [tpil: M]
4. mtd; ,=;fpy;iybadpy; _______ fsj;jpy; ,Uf;ff;TLk;.
m) mit M) nghh; ,) bey; <) ehl;oa [tpil: M]
5. _______ r=;ff;fhyg; bgz;ghw;g[yth;fSs; xUth;.
m) Mz;lhs; M) ehfk;ik
,) ts;spak;ik <) fhtw;bgz;L [tpil: <]
6. fhtw;bgz;L/ nrhH kd;ddpd; nghuitf; nfhg;bgU ew;fps;spapd; ______ tps=;fpath;.
m) jhahf M) brtpypj;jhahf
,) j=;ifahf <) njhHpahf [tpil: M]
64 VII  Nh;ah  ,sikj;jkpnH ,ay; 3

7. g[wehD}W _______ E}y;fSs; xd;W.


m) vl;Lj;bjhif M) gj;Jg;ghl;L
,) ,f;fhy <) ,ilf;fhy [tpil: m]
8. gz;ilf;fhyj; jkpH; kf;fspd; thH;f;ifKiw/ ehfhpfk;/ gz;ghL/ tPuk; Kjypatw;iw
btspg;gLj;Jk; E}y; _______
m) mfehD}W M) ghpghly;
,) g[wehD}W <) FWe;bjhif [tpil: ,]
9. `bgw;bwLj;j~ vd;Dk; brhy;iyg; gphpj;J vGjf; fpilg;gJ _______
m) bgw; + bwLj;j M) bgw;W + vLj;j
,) bgw;bw + Lj;j <) gapw;W + vLj;j [tpil: M]
10. `g[wehD}W~ vd;Dk; brhy;iyg; gphpj;J vGjf; fpilg;gJ _______
m) g[wk; + ehD}W M) g[w + ehD}W
,) g[wk; + ehd;F + E}W <) g[wd; + ehD}W [tpil: ,]
11. `,=;fpy;iy~ vd;Dk; brhy;iyg; gphpj;J vGjf; fpilg;gJ _______
m) ,=;F + ,y;iy M) , + ,y;iy
,) ,=;F + ,iy <) ,=;+ fpy;iy [tpil: m]
12. v=;F + cs;shd; vd;gjidr; nrh;bjGjf; fpilf;Fk; brhy; _______
m) v=;Fcs;shd; M) v=;Fs;shd;
,) v=;Fcshd; <) v=;fps;shd; [tpil: M]
13. nghh; + fsk;; vd;gjidr; nrh;bjGjf; fpilf;Fk; brhy; _______
m) nghh;f;fsk; M) nghh;f;Fsk;
,) nghh;f;fsk; <) nghfsk; [tpil: ,]
14. vd; + ,lk; vd;gjidr; nrh;bjGjf; fpilf;Fk; brhy; _______
m) vd;,lk; M) cd;dplk; ,) jd;dplk; <) vd;dplk; [tpil: <]
FWtpdh:
1. rhy;g[ila bgz; vt;thW epd;whs;>
rhy;g[ila bgz; rpW mstpyhd tPl;od; J}izg; gw;wpf; bfhz;L epd;whs;.
2. vJ Kjd;ikahd flikfSs; xd;W>
ehl;ilf; fhf;fg; nghh;f;fsk; bry;tijj; jk; Kjd;ikahd flikfSs; xd;whf
gz;ilj; jkpHh; fUjpdh;.
3. gHe;jkpHh; vtw;wpy; rpwe;J tps=;fpdh;>
gHe;jkpHh;fs; gH=;fhyk; Kjny fy;tpapYk; tPuj;jpYk; rpwe;J tps=;fpdh;.
4. fhtw;bgz;L ahUf;F brtpypj;jhahf tps=;fpdhh;>
nrhH kd;dd; nghuitf; nfhg;bgU ew;fps;spapd; brtpypj;jhahff; fhtw;bgz;L
tps=;fpdhh;.
,ay; 3 VII  Nh;ah  ,sikj;jkpnH 65

rpWtpdh:
1. g[wehD}W Fwpg;g[ vGJf.
g[wk; + ehd;F + E}W = g[wehD}W g[wk; gw;wpa ehD}W ghly;fisf; bfhz;l
E}y; vd;gjhy; g[wehD}W vd;W miHf;fg;gLfpwJ. g[wehD}W vl;Lj;bjhif E}y;fSs;
xd;W. ,e;E}y; gz;ilf;fhyj; jkpH; kf;fspd; thH;f;ifKiw/ ehfhpfk;/ gz;ghL/ tPuk;
Kjypatw;iw btspg;gLj;Jk; E}yhf tps=;FfpwJ.

fw;git fw;wgpd;  (gf;fk; 53)


1. r=;f fhyg; bgz;ghw; g[yth;fspd; bgah;fis mwpe;J vGJf.
xsitahh; er;brs;isahh; ehifahh;
bts;sp tPjpahh; fhtw;bgz;L bgU=;nfhg;bgz;L
fhkf;fz;zpahh; Mjpke;jpahh; bghd;Koahh;
ef;fz;izahh; ghhp kfsph; ed;Ky;iyahh;
fhf;ifg; ghodpahh; xf;Th; khrhj;jpahh; ,sbtapdp
? nghd;nwhh; r=;f fhyg; bgz;ghw; g[yth;fs; Mth;.

2. gz;ilf;fhyg; nghh;f;fUtpfs; rpytw;iwg; glk; tiue;J mtw;wpd; bgah;fis vGJf.

nty; ths; <l;o tpy;


66 VII  Nh;ah  ,sikj;jkpnH ,ay; 3

ftpijg; ngiH
,ay;
3 gh+;ir tsk;

E}y;btsp:
fl;lbghk;kd; fijg;ghly;fs; gy tot=;fspy; tH=;fp tUfpd;wd. mit gyuhy;
gjpg;gpf;fl;Ls;sd. ek; ghlg;gFjp eh.thdkhkiy bjhFj;J btspapl;Ls;s tPughz;oa
fl;lbghk;K fijg;ghly; vd;Dk; E}ypy; ,Ue;J vLf;fg;gl;lJ.
brhy;Yk; bghUSk;
1. Nud; ? tPud; 5. thuzk; ? ahid
2. bghf;fp&k;? bry;tk; 6. ghp ? Fjpiu
3. rh!;jp ? kpFjp 7. rp=;fhuk; ? mHF
4. tp!;jhuk; ? bgUk;gug;g[ 8. fKF ? ghf;F

kjpg;gPL
rhpahd tpiliaj; njh;e;bjLj;J vGJf.
1. Ch;tyj;jpd; Kd;dhy; _______ mire;J te;jJ.
m) njhuzk; M) thduk; ,) thuzk; <) re;jdk; [tpil: ,]
2. gh+;rhy=;Fwpr;rpapy; _______ ehia tpul;oLk;.
m) Kay; M) ehp ,) ghp <) g[yp [tpil: m]
3. bkj;ij tPL vd;W Fwpg;gplg;gLtJ _______
m) bkj;ij tphpf;fg;gl;l tPL M) gLf;ifaiw cs;s tPL
,) nkl;Lg; gFjpapy; cs;s tPL <) kho tPL [tpil: <]
4. `g{l;L=;fjt[fs;~ vd;Dk; brhy;iyg; gphpj;J vGjf; fpilg;gJ _______
m) g{l;L + fjt[fs; M) g{l;Lk; + fjt[fs;
,) g{l;od; + fjt[fs; <) g{l;oa + fjt[fs; [tpil: M]
5. `njhuznkil~ vd;Dk; brhy;iyg; gphpj;J vGjf; fpilg;gJ _______
m) njhuzk; + nkil M) njhuz + nkil
,) njhuzk; + xil <) njhuzk; + Xil [tpil: m]
6. thry; + my=;fhuk; vd;gjidr; nrh;j;bjGjf; fpilf;Fk; brhy; _______
m) thry;my=;fhuk; M) thry=;fhuk;
,) thryy=;fhuk; <) thryp=;fhuk; [tpil: ,]
,ay; 3 VII  Nh;ah  ,sikj;jkpnH 67

bghUj;Jf :
bghf;fp&k; ? mHF
rh!;jp ? bry;tk;
tp!;jhuk; ? kpFjp
rp=;fhuk; ? bgUk;gug;g[
bghUj;jpaJ :
bghf;fp&k; ? bry;tk;
rh!;jp ? kpFjp
tp!;jhuk; ? bgUk;gug;g[
rp=;fhuk; ? mHF
FWtpdh:
1. gh+;rhy=;Fwpr;rpapd; nfhl;ilfs; gw;wpf; TWf.
gh+;rhy=;Fwpr;rpapy; gy Rw;Wfshff; nfhl;ilfs; ,Uf;Fk;. mit kjpy;fshy;
NHg;gl;litahf kpft[k; typikahff; fl;lg;gl;oUf;Fk;.
2. gh+;rhy=;Fwpr;rpapd; ,aw;if tsk; vj;jifaJ>
g{+;nrhiyfSk;/ re;jd kur;nrhiyfSk;/ MWfSk;/ bey; tay;fSk;/ ghf;Fj;
njhg;g[fSk; ehl;ow;F mHF nrh;f;Fk;.
rpWtpdh:
1. gh+;rhy=;Fwpr;rpapy; tPLfs; vt;thW ,Uf;Fk;>
tPLfs; njhWk; kzpfshy; mHF bra;ag;gl;l nkilfs; ,Uf;Fk;. tPLfs; vy;yhk;
kjpy;fshy; NHg;gl;L kho tPLfshf ,Uf;Fk;. tPl;Lf; fjt[fs; kpft[k; neh;j;jpahft[k;
tPLfs; bry;tk; epiwe;jitahft[k; ,Uf;Fk;.
2. gh+;rhy=;Fwpr;rpapd; tPuj;Jf;Fr; rhd;whFk; epfH;t[fs; gw;wp vGJf.
tPuk; kpFe;j ehlhfpa gh+;rhy=;Fwpr;rpapy; cs;s KayhdJ jd;idg; gpof;f tUk;
ntl;il ehia vjph;j;J tpul;otpLk;. gRt[k;/ g[ypa[k; ePh;epiyapd; xnu Jiwapy; epd;W
ghy; nghd;w jz;zPiuf; Fof;Fk; kd;dd; fl;lg;bghk;kdpd; bgaiur; brhd;dhy; fwe;J
itj;j ghiyf;Tl fhfk; Fof;fhJ.
rpe;jidtpdh:
1. ehl;Lg;g[wf;fijg; ghly;fspy; fl;lbghk;kd; bghpJk; g[fHg;glf; fhuzk; vd;d>
tPughz;oa fl;lbghk;kd; rpwg;g[g; bgw;w tPuuhfj; jpfH;e;jjdhy; mth; g[fH;
bghpJk; nghw;wg;gl;lJ. md;iwa fhyk; M=;fpnyaUf;F moikg;gl;oUe;jnghJ
kf;fis xd;Wj; jpul;lt[k;/ kf;fspd; kdjpy; tPuj;ija[k; Cl;l fijfs; njitg;gl;lJ.
mJt[k; jiyrpwe;j jiyth;fspd; fijfis kf;fs; tpUk;gpdh; njodh;. me;jf; fhy
fl;lj;jpy;jhd; fl;lbghk;kd; fijg;ghly; kf;fspilna ntfkhfg; gutpaJ. mjdhy;jhd;
ehl;Lg;g[wf;fijg; ghly;fspy; fl;lbghk;kd; bghpJk; nghw;wg;glf; fhuzkha;
mike;jhh;. mJ kl;Lky;yhky; mtuJ tPu thH;f;ifa[k; kf;fis mjpfkhff; fth;e;jd.
68 VII  Nh;ah  ,sikj;jkpnH ,ay; 3

mjw;nfw;whh; nghy; trdeila[k; fij mikg;g[k; mike;jjhy; mjpfkhf g[fHg;gl;lhh;.


mJ kl;Lky;yhky; tpLjiy nghhpd; Kjy; KHf;fkhf ``thdk; bghHpa[J" g{kp tpisa[J"
cdf;nfd; ju ntz;Lk; thp~~ vd;W KH=;fpaJ xU fhuzkhf mike;jJ. ,e;j KHf;fk;
cybf=;Fk; xypj;jJ. ,ij tpUk;ghj kf;fns ,y;iy. ,t;thW fl;lbghk;kd; g[fHg;gl
gy fhuz=;fs; mike;jd.

TLjy; tpdhf;fs;
rhpahd tpiliaj; njh;e;bjLj;J vGJf.
1. gh+;rhy=;Fwpr;rpia Mz;l kd;dd; _______
m) g{ypj;njtd; M) kUJghz;o
,) fl;lbghk;kd; <) njrp=;Fuh$h [tpil: ,]
2. gh+;rhy=;Fwpr;rpapy; gy Rw;Wfshf _______ ,Uf;Fk;.
m) nfhl;ilfs; M) tPLfs; ,) filfs; <) bjhGtk; [tpil: m]
3. tPLfs; njhWk; _______ fshy; mHF bra;ag;gl;l nkilfs; ,Uf;Fk;.
m) Kj;J M) khzpf;fk; ,) kzp <) re;jdk; [tpil: ,]
4. tPl;Lf; fjt[fs; kpft[k; neh;j;jpahft[k; tPLfs; _______ epiwe;jitahft[k; ,Uf;Fk;.
m) mHF M) bry;tk; ,) mGf;F <) Tl;lk; [tpil: M]
5. _______ thapy; Kiwg;go mHFg;gLj;jg;gl;L ,Uf;Fk;.
m) tPL M) bjhGtk;
,) Ch; <) muz;kid [tpil: <]
6. _______ kpFe;j murdhfpa fl;lbghk;kd; muritapy; tPw;wpUg;ghd;.
m) mwpt[ M) mHF ,) tPuk; <) bry;tk; [tpil: M]
7. _______ ehl;od; tsj;ijf; Twp tpisahLk;.
m) Fapy;fs; M) kapy;fs; ,) fpspfs; <) bfhf;Ffs; [tpil: M]
8. tPuk; kpFe;j ehL _______
m) tPutey;Y}h; M) tPuhzk;
,) gh+;rhy=;Fwpr;rp <) Jiwa{h; [tpil: ,]
9. gRt[k;/ g[ypa[k; ePh;epiyapd; xnu Jiwapy; epd;W _______ nghd;w jz;zPiuf; Fof;Fk;.
m) ghy; M) njd; ,) fUk;g[ <) fdp [tpil: m]
10. fl;lbghk;kdpd; bgaiur; brhd;dhy; fwe;J itj;j ghiyf;Tl _______ Fof;fhJ.
m) md;dk; M) fd;W ,) FHe;ij <) fhfk; [tpil: <]
11. _______ gh+;rhy=;Fwpr;rpf;Fj; jpUthf;F mUs;ths;.
m) Uj;ukhnjtp M) rf;fkhnjtp ,) gftjp <) kPdhl;rp [tpil: M]
,ay; 3 VII  Nh;ah  ,sikj;jkpnH 69

12. `Fiwapy;yhj~ vd;Dk; brhy;iyg; gphpj;J vGjf; fpilg;gJ _______


m) Fiwt[ + ,y;yhj M) Fiw + ,y;yhj
,) Fiw + apy;yhj <) Fiwap + ,y;yhj [tpil: M]
13. `murdhfpa~ vd;Dk; brhy;iyg; gphpj;J vGjf; fpilg;gJ _______
m) mur + dhfpa M) m + urdhfpa
,) murd; + Mfpa <) muR + Mfpa [tpil: ,]
14. ehL + Mfpa vd;gjidr; nrh;j;bjGjf; fpilf;Fk; brhy; _______
m) ehlhfpa M) ehLMfpa ,) ehl;lhfpa <) ehoahfpa [tpil: m]
FWtpdh:
1. fl;lbghk;kd; Ml;rp bra;j Ch; vJ>
gh+;rhy=;Fwpr;rpiaf; fl;lbghk;kd; Ml;rp bra;jhh;.
2. gh+;rhy=;Fwpr;rp tPjp vt;thW ,Uf;Fk;>
g[Jikahd bjU tPjpfSk; bgUk;gug;gpy; mike;j filfSk; ,Uf;Fk;.
3. fhfk; vjw;F ghiyf;Fof;fhJ>
kd;dd; fl;lbghk;kdpd; bgaiur; brhd;dhy; fwe;J itj;j ghiyf;Tlf; fhfk;
Fof;fhJ. fl;lbghk;kdpd; bgaUf;F mBwpiz capuhd fhfk; Tl kjpg;g[ jUk;.
4. gh+;rhy=;Fwpr;rpapy; ,U g[w=;fspy; mike;J ,Ug;git vit>
ahidf; TlKk; Fjpiuf; bfhl;oYk; xUg[wk; ,Uf;Fk;. njhuz=;fs; fl;lg;gl;l
nkila[k; jhak; MLtjw;fhd ,lKk; xUg[wk; ,Uf;Fk;.
5. Fapy;fs;/ kapy;fspd; bray;fs; ahit>
nrhiyfspy; Fapy;fs; Tt[k;. kapy;fs; ehl;od; tsj;ijf; Twp tpisahLk;.
6. jpUthf;F mUs;gts; ahh;>
rf;fkhnjtp gh+;rhy=;Fwpr;rpf;Fj; jpUthf;F mUs;ths;.
rpWtpdh:
1. eh. thdkhkiy gw;wp vGJf.
ehl;lhh; tHf;fhw;wpaypd; Kd;ndho. ,th; 1917Mk; Mz;L ork;gh; 7 md;W
bey;iy khtl;lk; eh=;Fndhpapy; gpwe;jth;. rhjhuz kf;fspd; gz;ghl;ilg; gjpt[
bra;a[k; ehl;lhh; ,aiy xU fy;tprhh; gog;ghf khw;wpajpy; ,thpd; g=;F Kf;fpakhdJ.
ehl;lhh; ghly;fisa[k; fijfisa[k; njor; nrfhpj;Jg; gjpg;gpj;jhh;.
jkpH;ehl;Lg; ghkuh; ghly;fs;/ Ith; uhrhf;fs; fij/ fl;lbghk;K Tj;J/
fl;lbghk;kd; fijg;ghly;/ fhj;jtuhad; fijg;ghly;/ fhd;rhfpg[ rz;il/ Kj;Jg;gl;ld;
fij/ tPzhjptPzd; fij nghd;wit mtw;Ws; Kf;fpakhdit. ,e;jg; g[j;jf=;fs;
@yk; gjpt[ bra;ag;glhj btF kf;fs; gz;ghl;ilg; gpujpepjpj;Jtg;gLj;jpdhh;.
70 VII  Nh;ah  ,sikj;jkpnH ,ay; 3

fw;git fw;wgpd;  (gf;fk; 56)



c=;fs; tPl;oy; cs;s bghpnahhplk; ehl;Lg;g[wf;fijg; ghly;fisf; nfl;L te;J
tFg;giwapy; gfph;f.

ghujpahh; fijg;ghly; :
vl;la g[uj;J kd;dUld; ,dpjha;f; fhyk; fHpj;jplnt gl;lzk; brd;whh; ghujpahh;.

gyehs; brd;W jpUk;gpdnu vdf;Fg; gpoj;jjha; VJkpy;iy/


thrypy; Fjpiu tz;oa[nk ,g;gof; fhirf; bfLg;gJnth>
te;J epd;wijf; fz;lJnk/ rpdj;Jld; kidtp ngrplnt
Miraha; thriy nehf;fp rphpj;Jnk ghujp Twpdnu"
te;jhh; mtuJ kidtp bry;yk;kh. gl;;Lg;g[lit bts;spapny
ghj;jpuk;/ gz;l=;fs; th=;fhky;
tz;oia tpl;nl ghujpahh; gl;lzk; brd;nw tPzhfg;
kfpH;t[ld; fPnH ,w=;fp te;jhh;. gzj;ijf; bfLj;jha; vz;Qfpwha;.
tz;oapypUe;j bghl;ly=;fs;
te;jd ghujp gpd; bjhlh;e;nj! mHpfpd;w bry;tk; ehd; bfhLj;nj
gl;Lg; g[lit/ ghj;jpu=;fs;/ mHpahj bry;tk; bfhz;L te;nj
gw;gy ey;y bghUs;fSnk mHfhd fUj;ijbay;yhk;
Mde;jkha; goj;jwpnthk;.
bghl;lzj;Js;ns ,Uf;Fbkdg;
gphpj;Jnk ghh;j;jdh; bry;yk;kh.

gl;Lg; g[lita[k;/ m=;F ,y;iy"


ghj;jpu gz;lKk;/ m=;F ,y;iy"
bghl;lzj;Js;ns ,Ue;jbjy;yhk;
g[j;jfk;/ g[j;jfk;/ g[j;jfnk!
murh; bfhLj;jJ Ie;J E}W/
mj;bjhif aht[nk g[j;jfkha;
,Ug;gjwpe;jJk; `Iianah~/
Vndh ,g;gor; bra;J tpl;Oh;!


,ay; 3 VII  Nh;ah  ,sikj;jkpnH 71

ciueil cyfk;
,ay; njrpak; fhj;j brk;ky;
3 gRk;bghd; Kj;Juhkyp=;fj;njth;

kjpg;gPL
rhpahd tpiliaj; njh;e;bjLj;J vGJf.
1. Kj;Juhkyp=;fj;njth; Kjd; Kjypy; ciuahw;wpa ,lk; _______
m) J}j;Jf;Fo M) fhiuf;Fo
,) rhay;Fo <) kd;dhh;Fo [tpil: ,]
2. Kj;Juhkyp=;fj;njth; elj;jpa ,jHpd; bgah; _______
m) ,uh$h$p M) nejh$p ,) fhe;jp$p <) neU$p [tpil: M]
3. njrpak; fhj;j brk;ky; vdg; gRk;bghd; Kj;Juhkyp=;fj; njtiug; ghuhl;oath; _______
m) ,uh$h$p M) bghpahh; ,) jpU.tp.f. <) nehjh$p [tpil: ,]
FWtpdh:
1. Kj;Juhkyp=;fj; njtiug; ghuhl;og; bghpahh; TwpaJ ahJ>
tPug;ngr;rhy; vj;jidnah jpahfpfisa[k;/ tpntfg; ngr;rhy; vj;jidnah
mwpthspfisa[k; cz;lhf;fpath;" cz;ikia kiwf;fhky; btspapLtjpy; jdpj;?
Jzpr;ry; bgw;wth; " Rj;jj; jpahfp vdg; bghpahh; Kj;Juhkyp=;fj; njtiug; ghuhl;of;
Twpa[s;shh;.

2. 
Kj;Juhkyp=;fj; njthpd; ngr;Rf;F tha;g;g{l;Lr; rl;lj;jpd; @yk; jil tpjpf;fg;glf;
fhuzk; ahJ>
Kj;Juhkyp=;fj; njth; ,e;jpa tpLjiyg; nghuhl;lj;jpy; jPtpukhfg; g=;nfw;whh;.
jkJ ngr;rhw;wyhy; M=;fpy Ml;rpf;F vjpuhf kf;fsplk; bgUk; vGr;rpia Vw;gLj;jpdhh;.
nkilfspy; mth; Mw;wpa tPu ciuiaf; nfl;l kf;fs; M=;fpy Ml;rpf;F vjpuhf
tPWbfhz;L vGe;jdh;. mjdhy; mr;rkile;j M=;fpy muR gyKiw mtiuf; ifJ
bra;J rpiwapy; milj;jJ. nkYk; tha;g;g{l;Lr; rl;lk; @yk; nkilfspy; murpay; ngrf;
TlhJ vd;W mtUf;Fj; jil tpjpj;jJ.

3. Kj;Juhkyp=;fj; njth; bgw;wpUe;j gy;Jiw Mw;wiyg; gw;wp vGJf.


Kj;Juhkyp=;fj; njth; jkpH;/ M=;fpyk; Mfpa ,UbkhHpfspYk; brhw;bghHpt[
Mw;Wk; jpwd; bgw;wpUe;jhh;. rpyk;gk;/ Fjpiunaw;wk;/ Jg;ghf;fpr; RLjy;/ n$hjplk;/
kUj;Jtk; nghd;w gy JiwfspYk; Mw;wy; cilatuhf tps=;fpdhh;. ,sikapnyna
murpaypy; Mh;tk; bfhz;oUe;jhh;.
72 VII  Nh;ah  ,sikj;jkpnH ,ay; 3

rpWtpdh:
1. nejh$pa[ld; Kj;Juhkyp=;fj;njth; bfhz;l bjhlh;g[g; gw;wp vGJf.
t=;fr; rp=;fk; vd;W nghw;wg;gl;l nejh$p Rgh&; re;jpunghRld; beU=;fpa bjhlh;g[
bfhz;oUe;jhh;. mtiuj; jkJ murpay; FUthf Vw;Wf; bfhz;lhh;. Kj;Juhkyp=;fj;
njthpd; miHg;ig Vw;W fp.gp.1939 Mk; Mz;L brg;lk;gh; jp=;fs; Mwhk; ehs; nejh$p
kJiuf;F tUif je;jhh;. nejh$p bjhl=;fpa ,e;jpa njrpa ,uhQtj;jpy; Kj;Juhkyp=;fj;
njthpd; Kaw;rpahy; Vuhskhd jkpHh;fs; ,ize;jdh;. tpLjiyf;Fg;gpd; nejh$p vd;Dk;
bgahpy; thu ,jH; xd;iwa[k; njth; elj;jpdhh;.
2. bjhHpyhsh; eyDf;fhf Kj;Juhkyp=;fj; njth; bra;j bjhz;Lfs; ahit>
1938 fhyf;fl;lj;jpy; kJiuapy; 23 bjhHpyhsh; r=;f=;fspd; jiytuhfj; njth;
jpfH;e;jhh;. kJiuapypUe;J E}w;g[ Miy xd;wpy; ntiy bra;j bjhHpyhsh;fspd;
chpikf;fhfj; njhHh; g.$Pthde;jj;Jld; ,ize;J 1938 Mk; Mz;L nghuhl;lk;
elj;jpdhh;. mjw;fhf VG jp=;fs; rpiwj; jz;lid bgw;whh;. cHth;fspd; eyd;
fhf;f ,uh$ghisaj;jpy; kpfg; bghpa mstpyhd khehL xd;iw elj;jpdhh;. bgz;
bjhHpyhsh;fSf;F kfg;ngW fhyj;jpy; Cjpaj;Jld; Toa tpLg;g[ ntz;Lk; vd;W
nghuhodhh;.
rpe;jidtpdh:
1. rpwe;j jiytUf;Fhpa gz;g[fs; vit vd eP=;fs; fUJfpwPh;fs;>
kdpj neaj;Jld; ele;J bfhs;s ntz;Lk;. gpwh; Kd;ndWk; re;jh;g;gj;ij cUthf;f
ntz;Lk;. rhpahd jpl;lkply; ntz;Lk;. neuj;jpd; mUikia czu ntz;Lk;.
,Ug;gjpy; epiwt[ fhz ntz;Lk;. bghWik fhj;jy; ntz;Lk;. gif czh;t[ ePf;fy;
ntz;Lk;. bghwhik bfhs;sy; TlhJ. Fiwfisf; fisa ntz;Lk;. bghWg;nghL
KobtLf;f ntz;Lk;.
njhy;tpiaf; fz;L Jtz;L tplf;TlhJ. xGf;fk; ngQjy; ntz;Lk;.
vLj;Jf;fhl;L thH;t[ thH ntz;Lk;. ghpt[/ ,uf;fk;/ fUiz ntz;Lk;. mjpfhuj;ij
mh;j;jKs;sjhf gad;gLj;jy;. mwpit tsh;f;f ntz;Lk;. bghJey kdg;ghd;ik
ntz;Lk;. rnfhjuj;Jtk;/ rkj;Jtk; fhj;jy;. ehl;Lg;gw;W ntz;Lk;. ViHfspd;ghy;
md;g[ ntz;Lk;. jd; Koit gpwUld; gfph;jy; ntz;Lk;. neh;ika[ld; elj;jy;
ntz;Lk;. kdjpy; J}a;ik ntz;Lk;. jhahft[k; je;ijahft[k; mizf;f ntz;Lk;.
bfhLj;j thf;if epiwntw;w ntz;Lk;.

TLjy; tpdhf;fs;
rhpahd tpiliaj; njh;e;bjLj;J vGJf.
1. njrpak; cly;/ bja;tPfk; caph; vdf; fUjp kf;fs; bjhz;L bra;jth; _______
m) neU M) jpU.tp.f.
,) bghpahh; <) Kj;Juhkyp=;fj;njth; [tpil: <]
,ay; 3 VII  Nh;ah  ,sikj;jkpnH 73
2. Kj;Juhkyp=;fj;njth; gpwe;j Mz;L _______
m) fp.gp.1908 M) fp.gp.1907
,) fp.gp.1909 <) fp.gp.1910[tpil: m]
3. Kj;Juhkyp=;fj;njth; gpwe;j Ch; _______
m) fKjp M) gRk;bghd;
,) rhay;Fo <) ,ilahd;Fo[tpil: M]
Kj;Juhkyp=;fj;njthpd; md;id ,we;jjhy; _______ jha; xUtuhy; ghY}l;o
4. 
tsh;f;fg;gl;lhh;
m) fpwp!;jt M) ,!;yhkpa ,) ,e;J <) g[jj
; h; [tpil: M]
5. ,uhkehjg[uj;jpy; _______ neha; gutpaJ.
m) va;l;!; M) fhrneha;
,) gpnsf; <) g[w;Wneha; [tpil: ,]
6. Kj;Juhkyp=;fj;njth; _______ bkhHpfspYk; brhw;bghHpt[ Mw;Wk; jpwd; bgw;wth;.
m) ,uz;L M) @d;W ,) ehd;F <) Ie;J [tpil: m]
7. Kj;Juhkyp=;fj;njth; ,sikapnyna _______ Mh;tk; bfhz;oUe;jhh;.
m) rpdpkhtpy; M) ,irapy;
,) ehl;oaj;jpy; <) murpaypy; [tpil: <]
8. tl ,e;jpahtpy; tha;g;g{l;Lr; rl;lj;jpd;go ngrj;jil tpjpf;fg;gl;l jiyth; _______
m) nejh$p M) neU$p
,) ghyf=;fhju jpyfh; <) fhe;jp$p [tpil: ,]
9. bjd;dhl;oy; tha;g;g{l;Lr; rl;lk; @yk; ngrj; jil tpjpf;fg;gl;l jiyth; _______
m) mz;zh M) Kj;Juhkyp=;fj;njth;
,) bghpahh; <) ghujpahh; [tpil: M]
10. t=;fr;rp=;fk; vd;W nghw;wg;gLgth; _______
m) neU$p M) fhe;jp$p
,) nejh$p <) ,uh$h$p[tpil: ,]
11. Kj;Juhkyp=;fj;njth; jkJ murpay; FUthf _______ ia Vw;Wf; bfhz;lhh;.
m) neU$p M) nejh$p
,) fhe;jp$p <) ,uh$h$p [tpil: M]
12. nejh$p _______ Mk; Mz;L kJiuf;F te;jhh;.
m) 1938 M) 1939 ,) 1940 <) 1937 [tpil: M]
74 VII  Nh;ah  ,sikj;jkpnH ,ay; 3

13. Kj;Juhkyp=;fj;njth;/ rhay;Foapy; _______ bgUik vd;Dk; jiyg;gpy;


ciuahw;wpdhh;.
m) jkpHpd; M) tpntfhde;jhpd;
,) fjhpd; <) njrj;jpd; [tpil: M]
14. bjd;dhl;Lr; rp=;fk; vd;W ghuhl;lg;gLgth; _______.
m) mz;zh M) fiy+h;
,) Kj;Juhkyp=;fj;njth; <) bghpahh; [tpil: ,]
15. Fw;wg;guk;giur; rl;lk; ePf;fg;gl;l Mz;L _______.
m) 1947 M) 1949 ,) 1946 <) 1948 [tpil: <]
16. 1938 fhyf;fl;lj;jpy; kJiuapy; _______ bjhHpyhsh; r=;f=;fspd; jiytuhfj; njth;
jpfH;e;jhh;.
m) 22 M) 23 ,) 24 <) 25 [tpil: M]
cHth;fspd; eyd; fhf;f _______ kpfg; bghpa mstpyhd khehL xd;iwj; njth;
17. 
elj;jpdhh;.
m) nkl;Lghisaj;jpy; M) nkyg;ghisaj;jpy;
,) brd;idapy; <) ,uh$ghisaj;jpy; [tpil: <]
18. Kj;Juhkyp=;fj;njth; ,we;j Mz;L _______
m) 1963 M) 1954 ,) 1945 <) 1966 [tpil: m]

FWtpdh:
1. Kj;Juhkyp=;fj;njth; v=;F/ vg;nghJ gpwe;jhh;>
1908 Mz;L mf;nlhgh; jp=;fs; Kg;gjhk; ehs; ,uhkehjg[uk; khtl;lj;jpy; gRk;bghd;
vd;Dk; Chpy; bry;tr; brHpg;g[ kpFe;j FLk;gj;jpy; gpwe;jhh;.
2. Kj;Juhkyp=;fj;njth; fy;tp v=;F gapd;whh;>
Kj;Juhkyp=;fj;njth; jd; bjhlf;ff; fy;tpiaf; fKjpapYk;/ cah;epiyf; fy;tpia
kJiu gRkiyg; gs;spapYk; ,uhkehjg[uj;jpYk; gapd;whh;.
3. Kj;Juhkyp=;fj;njthpd; Kjy; ciu v=;F eilbgw;wJ>
Kj;Juhkyp=;fj;njth; Kjd; Kjypy; rhay;Fo vd;Dk; Chpy; tpntfhde;jhpd;
bgUik vd;Dk; jiyg;gpy; @d;W kzp neuk; ciuahw;wpdhh;.
4. fhkuhrh;/ Kj;Juhkyp=;fj;njth; Fwpj;J vt;thW kfpH;e;jhh;>
Kj;Juhkyp=;fj;njth; ciuahw;wpa rhay;Fo Tl;lj;jpy; fhkuhrUk; ,Ue;jhh;. `,J
nghd;w xU ngr;ir ,Jtiu ehd; nfl;ljpy;iy" Kj;Juhkyp=;fj;njthpd; tPukpf;f ngr;R
tpLjiyg;nghUf;F kpft[k; cjt[k;~ vd;W fhkuhrh; kfpH;e;jhh;.
,ay; 3 VII  Nh;ah  ,sikj;jkpnH 75

5. Kj;Juhkyp=;fj;njtiu mwp+h; mz;zh vt;thW g[fH;e;Jiuj;Js;shh;>


`bjd;dhl;Lr; rp=;fk; vd;W njtiur; brhy;fpwhh;fns/ mJ rhyg;bghUe;Jk; vd
mtuJ njhw;wj;ijg; ghh;j;j clndna epidj;njd;. mth; ngrj; bjhl=;fpaJk; rp=;fj;jpd;
KHf;fk; nghynt ,Ue;jJ~ vd;W mwp+h; mz;zh g[fH;e;Jiuj;Js;shh;.
6. njtiu @jwp+h; ,uh$h$p vt;thW ghuhl;oa[s;shh;>
`Kj;Juhkyp=;fj;njthpd; ngr;R cs;sj;jpy; ,Ue;J btsp tUfpwJ" cjLfspy;
my;y. cs;sj;jhy; vjpYk; gw;ww;W cz;ikbadg; gl;lij kiwf;fhky; mg;gona
ngrptpLtJ mth; tHf;fk;~ vd;W @jwp+h; ,uh$h$p ghuhl;oa[s;shh;.
7. njtiu tl,e;jpa ,jH;fs; vt;thW ghuhl;od>
ghuhSkd;wj;jpy; njth; M=;fpyj;jpy; ngrpa ngr;R bts;isah; fhyj;jpy;
tpl;ly;gha;/ ty;yggha; gl;nly; nghd;w nkijfs; ngrpa ngr;irg; nghy; ,Ue;jjhf
tl,e;jpa ,jH;fs; ghuhl;od.
8. Fw;wg;guk;giur; rl;lk; Fwpj;J vGJf.
M=;fpy Ml;rpapy; kf;fis xLf;Ftjw;fhff; bfhz;L tug;gl;lJ Fw;wg;guk;giur;
rl;lk; MFk;. gpwg;ghnyna xUtiuf; Fw;wthspahff; fUJk; rl;lk; mJ. 1948Mk;
Mz;L mr;rl;lk; ePf;fg;gl;lJ.
9. njth; elj;jpa Mya EiHt[g; nghuhl;lk; Fwpj;J vGJf.
mf;fhyj;jpy; kJiu kPdhl;rpak;kd; nfhapYf;Fs; bry;y xU rhuhUf;Fj; jil
,Ue;jJ. mj;jilia vjph;j;J 1939 Mk; Mz;L $Piyj; jp=;fs; vl;lhk; ehs; kJiu
itj;jpaehj Iah; nfhtpy; EiHt[g; nghuhl;lk; elj;jj; jpl;lkpl;lhh;. mjid vjph;j;J
mh;r;rfh;fs; Myag;gzpiag; g[wf;fzpj;jdh;. njth; jpUr;RHpapy; ,Ue;J mh;r;rfh;fs;
,Utiu miHj;J te;J Mya EiHt[g; nghuhl;lj;ij btw;wp bgwr; bra;jhh;.
10. njthpd; rpwg;g[g; bgah;fs; ahit>
njrpak; fhj;j brk;ky;/ ntjhe;j gh!;fh;/ gpuzt nfrhp/ rd;khh;f;f rz;lkhUjk;/
,e;J g[j;jrka nkij.
11. njth; tptrhapfspd; njhHh; vd;W miHf;fg;glf; fhuzk; ahJ>
$kPd; tptrhapfs; r=;fk; Vw;gLj;jp tptrhapfs; Jah;Jilf;fg; ghLgl;lhh;.
cGgth;fSf;nf epyk; vd;whh;. jkf;Fr; brhe;jkhf 32 rpw;W}h;fspy; ,Ue;j tpisepy=;fisf;
Fj;jif ,y;yhky; cGgth;f;nf g=;fpl;Lf; bfhLj;jhh;. mtw;iw xLf;fg;gl;l kf;fSf;Fk;
mspj;J kfpH;e;jhh;. mjdhy; njth; tptrhapfspd; njhHh; vd;W miHf;fg;gl;lhh;.
12. Tl;Lwt[g; gz;lfrhiyia Vd; epWtpdhh;>
fKjpapy; tpahghhpfs; tptrha cw;gj;jpg; bghUs;fisf; Fiwe;j tpiyf;F
th=;fpajhy; tptrhapfs; ghjpf;fg;gl;ldh;. ghujkhjh Tl;Lwt[g; gz;lfrhiyia
Vw;gLj;jp tptrhapfspd; tpis bghUs;fSf;Fr; rhpahd tpiy fpilf;fr; bra;jhh;.
76 VII  Nh;ah  ,sikj;jkpnH ,ay; 3

13. njthpd; rpiwthrk; Fwpj;J vGJf.


Rje;jpug; nghuhl;lj;jpy; kpfj; jPtpukhf <Lgl;ljhy; ifJ bra;ag;gl;L mypg;g{h;/
mkuhtjp/ jhnkh/ fy;fj;jh/ brd;id/ ntY}h; nghd;w rpiwfspy; rpiw itf;fg;gl;oUe;jhh;.
,uz;lhk; cyg;nghh; rkaj;jpy; kj;jpa gpunjrj;jpd; jhnkh vd;Dk; efhpy; cs;s ,uhQtr;
rpiwapy; milf;fg;gl;Lg; nghh; Koe;j gpwFjhd; tpLjiy bra;ag;gl;lhh;. jd;
thH;ehspy; Ie;jpy; xU g=;fpidr; rpiwapy; fHpj;j jpahfr; brk;ky; njth;.
14. njtUf;F muR bra;j rpwg;g[ ahJ>
gRk;bghd;dpy; cs;s njthpd; epidtplj;jpy; mth; njhd;wp kiwe;j mf;nlhgh;
Kg;gjhk; ehs; Mz;L njhWk; jkpHf murpd; rhh;gpy; muR tpHh vLf;fg;gLfpwJ. jkpHfr;
rl;lkd;wj;jpy; mtuJ jpUt[Ug;glk; jpwe;J itf;fg;gl;Ls;sJ. brd;idapy; muR rhh;ghfr;
rpiy mikf;fg;gl;Ls;sJ. ,e;jpa ehlhSkd;w tshfj;jpYk; rpiy itf;fg;gl;Ls;sJ.
,e;jpa murhy; 1995,y; Kj;Juhkyp=;fj;njth; jghy; jiy btspaplg;gl;lJ.
rpWtpdh:
1. ehL nghw;Wk; ed;kfdhfj; njth; vt;thW tps=;fpdhh;>
bghJj;bjhz;Lf;F ,ila{whf ,Uf;Fk; vdf; fUjpj; jpUkzk; bra;J bfhs;shky;
jpahf thH;t[ thH;e;jhh;. tpntfhde;jhpd; J}juhf/ nejh$papd; jsgjpahf/ rj;jparPyuhf/
KUfgf;juhf/ Md;kpfg; g[j;jpuuhf/ jkpH;ghLk; rpj;juhf/ bjd;ghz;or; rPikapd; @oNlh
kd;duhf/ ePjptGth neh;ikahsuhf/ g[yikapy; fgpyuhf/ typikapy; fhpfhydhf/
bfhilapy; fh;zdhf/ gf;jpapy; guk\k;ruhf/ ,e;jpaj;jhapd; ed;kfdhf tps=;fpdhh;.
2. njthpd; ,sikf;fhyk; Fwpj;J vGJf.
Kj;Juhkyp=;fj;njth; fp.gp.1908 Mk; Mz;L mf;nlhgh; jp=;fs; Kg;gjhk;
ehs; ,uhkehjg[uk; khtl;lj;jpy; gRk;bghd; vd;Dk; Chpy; bry;tr; brHpg;g[ kpFe;j
FLk;gj;jpy; gpwe;jhh;. mtUil bgw;nwhh; cf;fpu ghz;oj;njth; ? ,e;jpuhzp mk;ikahh;.
,th; ,sikapnyna md;idia ,He;jjhy; ,!;yhkpaj; jha; xUtuhy; ghY}l;o
tsh;f;fg;gl;lhh;.
jd; bjhlf;ff; fy;tpiaf; fKjpapYk; cah;epiyf; fy;tpia kJiu gRkiyg;
gs;spapYk; ,uhkehjg[uj;jpYk; gapd;whh;. ,th; ,uhkehjg[uj;jpy; goj;Jf; bfhz;oUe;j
nghJ mt;t{hpy; gpnsf; neha; gutpajhy; mtuJ gog;g[ ghjpapy; epd;wJ. mjd; gpwF
jhkhfnt epiwa E}y;fisg; goj;Jj; jkJ mwpita[k;/ Mw;wiya[k; tsh;j;Jf; bfhz;lhh;.
3. njthpd; njh;jy; btw;wpfs; Fwpj;J vGJf.
kf;fspd; nguhjut[ bgw;w jiytuhf tps=;fpath; gRk;bghd; Kj;Juhkyp=;fj;njth;.
1937 ,y; eilbgw;w rl;lkd;wj; njh;jypy; ,uhkehjg[uk; murh; rz;Kf uhn$!;tu
nrJgjpia vjph;j;Jg; nghl;oapl;L btw;wp bgw;whh;. mg;nghJ ,yz;ldpy; ghhp!;lUf;Fg;
goj;J te;j njhHh; nf.o.nf. j=;fkzp/ ,e;jpaj; njh;jypy; ,uhkehjg[uk; kd;diu vjph;j;Jg;
nghl;oapl;l njth; mth;fspd; btw;wpiaa[k; bghg;gpyp muriu vjph;j;Jg; nghl;oapl;l
tp.tp.fphp mth;fspd; btw;wpiaa[nk ,e;jpa khzth;fs; vjph;ghh;j;jpUe;njhk; vdf;
Fwpg;gpl;oUe;jhh;. 1946 ,y; nghl;oapd;wp btw;wp bgw;whh;. 1952/ 1956 Mfpa Mz;Lfspy;
,ay; 3 VII  Nh;ah  ,sikj;jkpnH 77

ele;j rl;lkd;w/ ehlhSkd;wj; njh;jy;fspy; nghl;oapl;L ,uz;oYk; btw;wp bgw;whh;.


1962 ,y; eilbgw;w ehlhSkd;wj; njh;jypy; cly; eyf;Fiwt[ fhuzkhf/ gug;gi [ u
bra;a ,ayhj nghjpYk; njh;jypy; btw;wp bgw;whh;.

fw;git fw;wgpd;  (gf;fk; 62)


1. ehl;Lf;F ciHj;j rpwe;j gpw jiyth;fisg; gw;wpa bra;jpfisj; jpul;o vGJf.
1. fhe;jpaofs; :
bts;isah; Ml;rpia mfw;Wk; nghuhl;lj;ij mz;zy; mwtHpapy; elj;jpdhh;.
cg;g[f; fha;r;Rk; mwg;nghh;/ thpbfhlh ,af;fk;/ xj;JiHahik ,af;fk;/ fs;Sf;fil
kwpay;/ may;ehl;Lg; bghUs; g[wf;fzpg;g[/ jdpegh; mwg;nghh;/ cz;zhnehd;g[ vd;Dk;
tifapy; mz;zypd; mwg;nghh; mike;jJ. ,Wjpahf bts;isand btspnaW vd;Dk;
mwg;g[ul;rpapy; <Lgl;lhh; " btw;wpa[k; bgw;whh;.
2. bgUe;jiyth; fhkuhrh; :
braw;fhpa bray;fs; gy g[hpe;J/ bray; tPuh; vd;W g[fHg;gLgth; fhkuhrh;. ghujj;jpd;
tpLjiyf;fhf kl;Lky;yhky;/ tpLjiy bgw;w ghujg; bgUehl;od; cah;t[f;fhft[k;
mauhJ ghLgl;l jiyth;fSs; xUth; fhkuhrh;. jiy epkph;e;j jkpHfj;ijf; fhz tpUk;gp/
mauhJ ciHj;j jd;dykw;w jiyth; fhkuhrh;.
3. je;ij bghpahh; :
bghpahh; <nuhL efh;kd;wj; jiytuhapUe;j fhyk;; Kjy; fh=;fpurpd; murpay;
eltof;iffspy; ehl;lk; bfhz;lhh;. rKjhaj;jpw;Fj; bjhz;L bra;a[k; tpUg;gj;jhy;
M=;fpy muR mspj;j bfsutg; gjtpfisj; Jwe;jhh;. ViH vspath;f;F cjt/ fhe;jpaofspd;
fl;lisg;go kJtpyf;Ff; bfhs;iff;F Mjut[ mspj;jhh;. jk; j=;ifnahLk; Jiztp?
ahnuhLk; fs;Sf;fil kwpaypy; <Lgl;lhh;. jkf;Fr; brhe;jkhd 500 bjd;id ku=;fis
btl;or; rha;j;jhh;. itf;fk; tPuh; vd;W miHf;fg;gLgth;.
4. neU :
kdpjUs; khzpf;fk;/ nuh$htpd; uh$h/ etghujr; rpw;gp vd;bwy;yhk; ghuhl;lg;gLgth;
Mrpa n$hjp gz;oj $tfh;yhy; neU Mthh;. Rje;jpu ghujj;jpd; Kjy; gpujkuhd mth;/
ehl;od; tpLjiyf;fhft[k;/ tpLjiy bgw;w ehl;od; Kd;ndw;wj;Jf;fhft[k;/ cyf
rkhjhdj;Jf;fhft[k; ghLgl;ltuhthh;. mz;zy; fhe;jpaofSld; ,ize;J ehl;L
tpLjiyg; nghiu elj;jpdhh;.
5. t.c.rpjk;gudhh; :
t.c.rp. Rnjrp ,af;fj;jpy; nrh;e;jhh;. mf;fhyj;nj tzpff; fg;gy;fs; midj;Jk;
M=;fpnyahplnk ,Ue;jd. mth;fs; M=;fpy tzpfh;fSf;F Mjut[ mspj;jdh;. ,e;jpa
tzpfh;fSf;F ,d;dy; tpistpj;jdh;. rpjk;gudhh; ,e;epiyiaf; fz;lhh;. Rnjrp fg;gy;
ntz;Lk; " ek; flypy; ehnk fg;gy; tpl ntz;Lbkd;W fUjpdhh;. yhnth/ fhypnah vd;Dk;
,U fg;gy;fis th=;fp t=;ff; flypy; Xlr; bra;jhh;. ,jdhy; rpjk;gudhh; `fg;gnyhl;oa
jkpHd;~ vdg; nghw;wg;gl;lhh;.


78 VII  Nh;ah  ,sikj;jkpnH ,ay; 3

tphpthdk;
,ay;
3 fg;gnyhl;oa jkpHh;

E}y; btsp :
,uh.gp. nrJ ? jkpHwp+h;/ vGj;jhsh;/ tHf;Fiu+h;/ nkilg; ngr;rhsh; vdg; gd;Kfj; jpwd;
bgw;wth;. ,tiur; brhy;ypd; bry;th; vdg; nghw;Wth;. bra;a[Sf;nf chpa vJif/ nkhid
vd;gtw;iw ciueilf;Fs; bfhz;L te;jth; ,tnu vd;gh;. ,tuJ jkpHpd;gk; vd;Dk;
E}y; ,e;jpa murpd; rhfpj;jpa mfhbjkp tpUJ bgw;w Kjy; E}y; MFk;. Mw;w=;fiuapdpny/
flw;fiuapdpny/ jkpH; tpUe;J/ jkpHfk; ? CUk; ngUk;/ nkilg; ngr;R cs;spl;l gy
E}y;fis ,th; vGjpa[s;shh;.
t.c.rpjk;gudhh; ngRtjhf mike;j ek; ghlg;gFjp flw;fiuapdpny vd;Dk;
E}ypypUe;J vLj;jhsg;gl;Ls;sJ.

kjpg;gPL
t.c.rpjk;gudhhpd; ciuia thH;f;if tuyhwhfr; RUf;fp vGJf.

Kd;Diu :
bjd;dhl;oy; cs;s J}j;Jf;Fo me;ehspy; ve;ehl;ltUk; mwpe;j JiwKf efuk;.
me;efhpd; bgUikiaj; jk; bgUikahf;fpf; bfhz;lth; rpjk;gudhh;. mth; jd;dyk; Jwe;j
jdpg;bgUk; bjhz;lh;. `,e;jpa flyhl;rp vknj~ vdf; fUjp ,Wkhe;jpUe;j M=;fpnyah;
bghwp fy=;fp/ bewp ka=;ff; fg;gnyhl;oa jkpHh; rpjk;gudhh;.

Rnjrp fg;gy; :
,e;efhpy; Rnjrf; fg;gy; fk;bgdp xd;W cUthdJ. ghujehl;Lr; bry;tUk;
mwp+Uk; me;jf; fk;bgdpapy; g=;F bfhz;lhh;fs;. ghz;oj;Jiuahh; mf;fk;bgdpapd;
jiyth; Mdhh;. rpjk;gudhh; brayhsh; Mdhh;. fg;gy; bts;nshl;lk; ghh;g;gjw;fhf
J}j;Jf;Foapy; ,Ue;J bfhGk;g[j; Jiwia nehf;fpg; g[wg;gl;l ehspy;/ rpjk;gudhh;
cs;sj;jpy; ,d;gk; bgh=;fp vGe;jJ" fz;fspy; Mde;jf; fz;zPh; tHpe;jJ.

M=;fpnyahpd; mlf;FKiw :
md;W Kjy; Rnjrf;fg;gy; thzpfk; tsh;e;jJ" bts;isah; thzpfk; jsh;e;jJ.
mjdhy; mth;fspd; cs;sk; vhpe;jJ. btWf;fj;jf;f NH;r;rpfisf; ifahz;ldh;. Rnjrpf;
fk;bgdp ntiyapdpd;W rpjk;gudhh; tpyfpf; bfhz;lhy; E}whapuk; qgha; ifalf;fk;
jUtjhf kiwKfkhff; Twpdh;. rpjk;gudhUf;F cw;w Jizahf ,Ue;j ez;gh;fisa[k;
gythW gaKWj;jpdh;.
,ay; 3 VII  Nh;ah  ,sikj;jkpnH 79

rpiwthrk; :
bghJf; Tl;l=;fspYk; rpjk;gudhh; ngRk;bghGJ/ te;nj khjuj;ij mGj;jkhfr;
brhy;tJ tHf;fk;. mijf; nfl;L ehl;L kf;fs; Cf;fKw;wth;fs;" czh;r;rp bgw;whh;fs;.
mjdhy; rpjk;gudhh; kPJ Fw;wk;rhl;of; ifJ bra;jJ M=;fpnya muR. rpjk;gudhh;f;F/
,ul;ilj; jPthe;ju jz;lid tH=;fg;gl;lJ. Mwhz;L nfhitr; rpiwapYk;/ fz;Q}h;r;
rpiwapYk; bfhLk;gzp bra;jhh;. rpiwapy; brf;fpGj;jhh;. Mdhy;/ rpiwapy; ,Uf;Fk;nghJ
jkpH; E}y;fisg; goj;Jj; jd; Jaiug; nghf;fpdhh;.

vGj;Jg;gzp :
Myd; vd;gth; ,aw;wpa mwpt[ E}y;fspy; xd;iw kdk;nghy; thH;t[ vd;W jkpHpy;
bkhHpbgah;j;jhh;. bka;awpt[/ bka;awk; vd;w rpW E}y;fis ,aw;wpdhh;. ,tw;iwj;
jkpH;j;jhapd; jpUtofspy; ifa[iwahf itj;jhh;. rpiwapy; ,Ue;J ,aw;wpa E}y;fisa[k;
cte;J Vw;Wf; bfhs;SkhW bre;jkpH;j;jhapd; jpUtUis ntz;odhh;.

tpLjiy :
rpiw thH;t[ Koe;jJk;/ J}j;Jf;Foia te;jile;jhh;. mUik FHe;ijfisf;
fz;L Mde;jKw;whh;. MapDk; Mirf;FHe;ijahd njrf;fg;giyj; JiwKfj;jpy;
fhzhJ Mwhj;JaUw;whh;. `gl;l ghbly;yhk; gadw;Wg; nghapw;nw~ vd;W ghpjtpj;jhh;.
`vd;W tUnkh ew;fhyk;~ vd;W V=;fpdhh;.

Kot[iu :
,d;W ,y;yhtpl;lhYk; vd;nwDk; Rje;jpuk; te;nj jPUk;. tPuRje;jpu bts;sk;
g[wg;gl;Ltpl;lJ. mijj; jLj;J epWj;j ahuhy; MFk; ghujehl;ony> vd;W jk;kdjpy;
brhy;ypf; bfhz;L flw;fiuia tpl;L mfd;whh;.

fw;git fw;wgpd;  (gf;fk; 66)



ghujpahh;/ bfhofhj;j Fkud; nghd;w tpLjiyg; nghuhl;l tPuh;fSs; xUtuhf c=;fisf;
fw;gid bra;J bfhz;L tFg;gpy; ciuahw;Wf.
bfhofhj;j Fkud; :
ehd;/ brd;dpkiyapy; gpwe;njd;. vd; je;ijahh; ehr;rpKj;J/ jhahh; fUg;ghap
mk;ikahh;. mth;fSf;F ehd;fhtJ gps;isahf 1904 Mk; Mz;L mf;nlhghpy; gpwe;njd;.
bgw;nwhh; ,l;l bgah; Fkhurhkp. v=;fs; FLk;gk; bert[j; bjhHpiy nkw;bfhz;l
twpa tWikf;FLk;gk;. nghjpa tUtha; brd;dpkiyapy; fpilf;ftpy;iy. ,jdhy;/
v=;fisg; gof;f itf;ft[k; Koahky; bgw;nwhh; f&;lg;gl;ldh;. MdnghJk; ehd;
,sikapnyna bfl;of;fhud; vdj; bjhpe;jjhy;/ vd; mg;gh kpf;f f&;lj;jpw;F ,ilna
gs;spf;F mDg;gpdhh;.
ehDk;/ f&;lk; czh;e;J/ nfhapy;rhjk; th=;fp rhg;gpl;L/ bjUtpsf;fpy; goj;njd;.
tWik Juj;jpaJ. Ie;jhk; tFg;g[f;F nky; gog;igj; bjhlu KoahJ nghapw;W. gog;ig
80 VII  Nh;ah  ,sikj;jkpnH ,ay; 3

epWj;jpndd;. gUj;jp bertpy; tUtha; rhpahf ,y;yhjjhy;/ gs;spg;ghisak; vd;w Chpy;/


thGk; vd; khkh tPl;Lf;Fr; brd;nwd;. m=;nf gl;L bertpy; gapw;rp bgw;nwd;. ey;y
njh;r;rp bgw;W 19 Mk; tajpy; kWgoa[k; brd;dpkiy jpUk;gpndd;.
gpwF vdf;Fj jpUkzk; eilbgw;wJ. vd; kidtpapd; bgah; ,uhkhap. FLk;gk;
te;jJk; Tlnt tWika[k; te;jJ. vdnt/ gpiHg;g[ njo mjpf bert[f;F Mjut[ mspf;Fk;
jpUg;g{h; bry;y Kot[ bra;njd;. ,Wjpf; fhyk; tiu m=;nfna thH;e;njd;. mjdhy;jhd;/
ehd; jpUg;g{h; Fkud; vd;W miHf;fg;gl;nld;.
kfhj;khtpd; fjh;bfhs;ifapy; Vw;gl;l gw;why; fjuhil cLj;j Muk;gpj;njd;.
kidtpf;Fk; vLj;Jf;Twp fjh; fl;l bra;njd;. ,uhl;il @yk; tPl;oy; fjh; E}y; E}w;ft[k;
bra;njd;.
1932 Mk; Mz;L $dthp 4,y; fhe;jp$p rpiw itf;fg;gl;lhh;. mJ ehl;oy; bghpa
nghuhl;lj;ijj; J}z;oaJ. kwpay; nghuhl;lk; ele;jJ.
njrpaf; bfhoa[ld; tPuh; gilahf Ch;tyk; g[wg;gl;lJ. te;nj khjuk; gtdp te;jJ.
mJ fz;L nfhgk; bfhz;l fhtyh;fs; joahy; btwpj;jdkhf Tl;lj;ijj; jhf;fpdh;.
mjpy; ehd; gykhf jhf;fg;gl;nld;. kz;il cile;J ,uj;jk; rpe;jpaJ. mg;nghJk;
te;nj khjuk;/ b$a;\pe;j; vd tplhJ nfh&k; nghl;nld;. jPtpukhff; fhak;gl;l ehd;
kUj;Jtkidapy; nrh;f;fg;gl;l epiyapy; c=;fsplk; ngRfpnwd;. ehKk; jha; ehl;ow;fhf
capiuf; bfhLf;ft[k; Jzpa ntz;Lk; vd;W Twp Xa;t[ epiyf;Fj; jpUk;gpdhh;.


,ay; 3 VII  Nh;ah  ,sikj;jkpnH 81

fw;fz;L
,ay;
3 tHf;F

kjpg;gPL
bghUj;Jf.
1. ge;jh; ? Kjw;nghyp
2. ik+;R ? Kw;Wg;nghyp
3. m+;R ? ,ilg;nghyp
4. miuah; ? filg;nghyp
bghUj;jpaJ
1. ge;jh; ? filg;nghyp
2. ik+;R ? Kjw;nghyp
3. m+;R ? Kw;Wg;nghyp
4. miuah; ? ,ilg;nghyp
FWtpdh:
1. tHf;F vd;why; vd;d>
vGj;jpYk; ngr;rpYk; brhw;fisg; gad;gLj;Jk; Kiw tHf;F vdg;gLk;.
ek; Kd;ndhh; ve;bje;jr; brhw;fis vd;bdd;d bghUspy; gad;gLj;jpdhh;fnsh/
mr;brhw;fis mt;thnw gad;gLj;Jtij tHf;F vd;gh;.
2. jFjp tHf;fpd; tiffs; ahit>
jFjp tHf;F @d;W tifg;gLk;. mit
1) ,lf;fulf;fy; 2) k=;fyk; 3) FGcf;Fwp
3. 
thiHg;gHk; kpft[k; e+;R tpl;lJ. ,j;bjhlhpy; ,lk; bgw;Ws;s nghypr; brhy;iyf;
fz;lwpf. mjd; rhpahd brhy;iy vGJf.
e+;R ? vd;gJ nghypr;brhy;. ,J Kw;Wg;nghyp MFk;.
iee;J ? vd;gJ rhpahd brhy; MFk;.

TLjy; tpdhf;fs;
rhpahd tpiliaj; njh;e;bjLj;J vGJf.
1. vGj;jpYk; ngr;rpYk; cs;sJ _______ vdg;gLk;.
m) cwt[ M) tHf;F ,) ,ay;g[ <) nghyp [tpil: M]
82 VII  Nh;ah  ,sikj;jkpnH ,ay; 3

2. tHf;F _______ tifg;gLk;.


m) ,uz;L M) @d;W ,) ehd;F <) Ie;J [tpil: m]
3. ,ay;g[ tHf;F _______ tifg;gLk;.
m) ,uz;L M) @d;W ,) ehd;F <) Ie;J [tpil: M]
4. jFjp tHf;F _______ tifg;gLk;.
m) ,uz;L M) @d;W ,) ehd;F <) Ie;J [tpil: M]
5. nghyp _______ tifg;gLk;.
m) ,uz;L M) @d;W ,) ehd;F <) Ie;J [tpil: M]
6. xU bghUis mjw;nf chpa ,ay;ghd brhw;fshy; Fwpg;gpLtJ _______ MFk;.
m) ,yf;fpak; M) jFjp tHf;F ,) ,ay;g[ tHf;F <) nghyp [tpil: ,]
7. `kuk;~ vd;gJ vt;tifr; brhy;>
m) ,yf;fzg;nghyp M) kqc
,) ,yf;fzKilaJ <) k=;fyk; [tpil: ,]
8. `g[wefh;~ vd;gJ vt;tifr; brhy;>
m) ,yf;fzKilaJ M) kqc
,) FZcf;Fwp <) ,yf;fzg;nghyp [tpil: <]
9. `nfhit~ vd;gJ vt;tifr; brhy;>
m) ,yf;fzKilaJ M) kqc
,) ,yf;fzg;nghyp <) k=;fyk; [tpil: M]
10. `fhy; fGtp te;jhd;~ vd;gJ vt;tifr; brhy;>
m) ,lf;fulf;fy; M) k=;fyk; ,) FZcf;Fwp <) nghyp [tpil: m]
11. `RLfhL ? ed;fhL~ vd;W Fwpg;gJ.
m) ,lf;fulf;fy; M) k=;fyk; ,) FZcf;Fwp <) kqc [tpil: M]
12. bghd;idg; gwp vdy;.
m) k=;fyk; M) nghyp
,) ,lf;fulf;fy; <) FZcf;Fwp [tpil: <]
13. `ik+;R~ vd;gJ vt;tifg; nghyp>
m) fil M) ,il ,) Kw;W <) Kjy; [tpil: <]
14. `mikr;R~ vd;gJ vt;tifg;nghyp>
m) Kjy; M) ,il ,) fil <) Kw;W [tpil: M]
15. `Kfd;~ vd;gJ vt;tifg; nghyp>
m) Kjy; M) ,il ,) fil <) Kw;W [tpil: ,]
,ay; 3 VII  Nh;ah  ,sikj;jkpnH 83

16. `m+;R~ vd;gJ vt;tifg; nghyp>


m) Kjy; M) ,il ,) fil <) Kw;W [tpil: <]

FWtpdh:
1. tHf;F vj;jid tifg;gLk;>
tHf;F ,uz;L tifg;gLk;. mit: ,ay;g[ tHf;F/ jFjp tHf;F.

2. ,ay;g[ tHf;fpd; tiffs; ahit>


,ay;g[ tHf;F @d;W tifg;gLk;. mit: ,yf;fzKilaJ/ ,yf;fzg;nghyp/ kqc.

3. ,ay;g[ tHf;F vd;why; vd;d>


xU bghUis mjw;nf chpa ,ay;ghd brhw;fshy; Fwpg;gpLtJ ,ay;g[ tHf;F
MFk;.

4. ,yf;fzKilaJ vd;why; vd;d>


epyk;/ kuk;/ thd;/ vGJ ? Mfpa brhw;fis nehf;F=;fs;. ,it jkf;Fhpa bghUis
vt;tif khWghLk; ,y;yhky; ,ay;ghfj; jUfpd;wd. ,t;thW ,yf;fz bewpkhwhky;
Kiwahf mike;j brhy; ,yf;fzKilaJ MFk;.

5. ,yf;fzg;nghyp vd;why; vd;d>


,y;yj;jpd; Kd; gFjpia ,y;Kd; vdf; Fwpf;f ntz;Lk;. Mdhy; mjid ek;
Kd;ndhh; Kd;wpy; vd khw;wp tH=;fpdh;. fpisapd; Edpiaf; fpisEdp vdf; Twhky;
Edpf;fpis vdf; Fwpg;gpLfpnwhk;. ,t;thW ,yf;fz Kiwg;go mikahtpoDk;/
,yf;fzKilait nghynt Vw;Wf; bfhs;sg;gLk; brhw;fs; ,yf;fzg;nghyp
vdg;gLk;.

6. kqc vd;why; vd;d>


ehk; vy;yhr; brhw;fisa[k; vy;yh ,l=;fspYk; KGikahd totj;jpy;
gad;gLj;JtJ ,y;iy. j+;rht{h; vd;Dk; bgaiuj; j+;ir vd;Wk;/ jpUbey;ntyp
vd;Dk; bgaiu bey;iy vdt[k; tH=;Ffpnwhk;. ,t;thW ,yf;fz bewpapypUe;J
gpwH;e;J/ rpije;J tH=;Fk; brhw;fs; kqc vdg;gLk;.
v.fh : nfhit/ Fle;ij/ ve;ij/ nghJ/ nrhzhL.

7. jFjp tHf;F vd;why; vd;d>


VnjDk; xU fhuzj;jpdhy; gpwhplk; brhy;yj; jFjpaw;w brhw;fisj; jFjpahd
ntW brhw;fshy; Fwpg;gpLtJ jFjp tHf;F MFk;.

8. ,lf;fulf;fy; vd;why; vd;d>


gpwhplk; btspg;gilahfr; brhy;yj; jfhj brhw;fisj; jFjpa[ila ntW
brhw;fshy; TWtJ ,lf;fulf;fy; MFk;.
v.fh : fhy; fGtp te;jhd;.
84 VII  Nh;ah  ,sikj;jkpnH ,ay; 3

9. k=;fyk; vd;why; vd;d>


brj;jhh; vd;gJ k=;fykpy;yhj brhy; vd ek; Kd;ndhh; fUjpdh;. vdnt/ brj;jhh;
vdf; Fwpg;gplhky; J+;rpdhh; vdf; Fwpg;gpl;ldh;. ehk; ,f;fhyj;jpy; ,aw;if va;jpdhh;
vd;W Fwpg;gpLfpnwhk;. ,t;thW k=;fykpy;yhj brhw;fis k=;fykhd ntW brhw;fshy;
Fwpg;gij k=;fyk; vd;gh;.
v.fh :  Xiy ? jpUKfk;
 fWg;ghL ? bts;shL
 RLfhL ? ed;fhL
 tpsf;if miz ? tpsf;iff; Fspuit.
10. FZcf;Fwp vd;why; vd;d>
gyh; ToapUf;Fk; ,lj;jpy; rpyh; kl;Lk; jkf;Fs; rpy bra;jpfisg; gfph;e;J bfhs;s
tpUk;gpdhy; kw;wth;fs; g[hpe;J bfhs;s ,ayhj tifapy; brhw;fisg; gad;gLj;Jth;.
,t;thW xU FGtpdh; xU bghUs; my;yJ braiyf; Fwpf;fj; jkf;Fs; gad;gLj;jpf;
bfhs;Sk; brhw;fs; FZcf;Fwp vdg;gLk;.
v.fh :  bghd;idg; gwp vdy; (bghw;bfhy;yh;)
 Miliaf; fhiu vdy; (ahidg;ghfh;)
11. nghyp vd;why; vd;d>
brhy;ypd; Kjypnyh/ ,ilapnyh/ ,Wjpapnyh ,ay;ghf ,Uf;f ntz;oa Xh;
vGj;jpw;Fg; gjpyhf ntW Xh; vGj;J ,lk; bgw;W mnj bghUs; jUtJ nghyp vdg;gLk;.
nghyp vd;Dk; brhy; nghy ,Uj;jy; vd;gjpypUe;J njhd;wpaJ.
12. nghyp vj;jid tifg;gLk;> mit ahit>
nghyp @d;W tifg;gLk;. mit/ Kjw;nghyp/ ,ilg;nghyp/ filg;nghyp MFk;.
13. Kjw;nghyp vd;why; vd;d>
brhy;ypd; Kjypy; ,Uf;f ntz;oa vGj;jpw;Fg; gjpyhf ntW Xh; vGj;J mike;J
mnj bghUs; jUtJ Kjw;nghypahFk;.
v.fh : gry; ? igry;
14. ,ilg;nghyp vd;why; vd;d>
brhy;ypd; ,ilapy; ,Uf;f ntz;oa vGj;jpw;Fg; gjpyhf ntW Xh; vGj;J mike;J
mnj bghUs; jUtJ ,ilg;nghypahFk;.
v.fh : mkr;R ? mikr;R
15. filg;nghyp vd;why; vd;d>
brhy;ypd; ,Wjpapy; ,Uf;f ntz;oa vGj;jpw;Fg; gjpyhf ntW Xh; vGj;J mike;J
mnj bghUs; jUtJ filg;nghypahFk;.
v.fh : mfk; ? mfd;
,ay; 3 VII  Nh;ah  ,sikj;jkpnH 85

16. Kw;Wg;nghyp vd;why; vd;d>


xU brhy;ypy; ,ay;ghf mike;j vGj;JfSf;Fg; gjpyhf vGj;Jfs; midj;Jk;
ntWgl;lhYk; bghUs; khwhky; ,Ug;gJ Kw;Wg;nghyp vdg;gLk;.
v.fh : Ie;J ? m+;R

fw;git fw;wgpd;  (gf;fk; 70)



@tifg; nghypfspYk; ve;bje;j vGj;Jfs; ve;bje;j vGj;Jfshf khWfpd;wd vd;gij
mwpe;J bjhFf;f.

Kjw;nghyp :
gry; ? igry; g ? ig ahf khWfpwJ.
k+;R ? ik+;R k ? ik ahf khWfpwJ.
Ik;gJ ? mk;gJ I ? m thf khWfpwJ.
ez;L ? +z;L e ? + thf khWfpwJ.

,ilg;nghyp :
muR ? miuR u ? iu ahf khWfpwJ.
neak; ? nerk; a ? r thf khWfpwJ.
,y+;R ? ,iy+;R y ? iy ahf khWfpwJ.
ca;e;jdd;?ca;+;rdd; e;j ? +;r thf khWfpwJ.

filg;nghyp :
mfk; ? mfd; k; ? d; Mf khWfpwJ
epyk; ? epyd; k; ? d; Mf khWfpwJ
Kfk; ? Kfd; k; ? d; Mf khWfpwJ
ge;jy; ? ge;jh; y; ? h; Mf khWfpwJ

bkhHpia Ms;nthk;

1. fPH;f;fhQk; jiyg;g[fSs; xd;iwg; gw;wp ,uz;L epkplk; ngRf.


1. njrpak; fhj;j brk;ky; 2. fg;gnyhl;oa jkpHh;
njrpak; fhj;j brk;ky;
njrpak; fhj;j brk;ky; vd;W miHf;fg;gLgth; gRk;bghd; Kj;Juhkyp=;fj;njth;
Mthh;. ,th; mf;nlhgh; 30 1963Mk; Mz;L ,uhkehjg[uk; khtl;lk; gRk;bghd;dpy;
gpwe;jhh;. ,th; Md;kpfthjpahft[k; rhjp ghFghl;il vjph;g;gtuhft[k; Rje;jpug;
nghuhl;lj; jpahfpahft[k; tps=;fpath;. nejh$p Rgh&; re;jpunghrpd; jiyikapy;
86 VII  Nh;ah  ,sikj;jkpnH ,ay; 3

gphpj;jhdpa muir vjph;j;j ,e;jpa njrpa ,uhQtj;jpw;Fj; jkpHfj;jpypUe;J bgUk;


giliaj; jpul;o mDg;gpa bgUik ,tiur; rhUk;. jiyrpwe;j ngr;rhsuhft[k;
Md;kPfthjpahft[k; jpfH;e;j ,tuJ gpwe;j ehis muR gRk;bghd;dpy; tUle;njhWk;
bfhz;lho tUfpwJ.

gRk;bghd; Kj;Juhkyp=;fj;njth; vd;W mwpag;gl;l ,th; mfpy ,e;jpa ghh;thh;l;


gpshf; fl;rpapd; jkpHfj; jiytuhft[k; njrpaj; Jizj; jiytuhft[k; ,Ue;jhh;.
,f;fl;rp nejh$p/ njtUld; ,ize;J Jtf;fpajhFk;. njth; @d;W Kiw ,f;fl;rp
rhh;ghf ,e;jpa ghuhSkd;wj; njh;jypy; nghl;oapl;L btw;wp bgw;Ws;shh;. njth;
,e;jpa tpLjiyg; nghuhl;lj;jpy; jPtpukhfg; g=;nfw;whh;. jkJ ngr;rhw;wyhy; M=;fpy
Ml;rpf;F vjpuhf kf;fsplk; bgUk; vGr;rpia Vw;gLj;jpdhh;. nkilfspy; mth; Mw;wpa
ciuahy; Ml;rpf;F vjpuhf tPWbfhz;L vGe;jdh;. mjdhy; mr;rkile;j M=;fpy
muR gyKiw mtiuf; ifJ bra;J rpiwapy; milj;jJ.

fg;gnyhl;oa jkpHh;
t.c.rp. vd;W RUf;fkhft[k;/ `fg;gnyhl;oa jkpHd;~ vd;W bgUikahft[k;/
`brf;fpGj;j brk;ky;~ vd;W rpwg;ghft[k; miHf;fg;gLk; t.c.rpjk;guk; jkpH;
kz;Qf;Fg; bgUik nrh;j;j Rje;jpug; nghuhl;l tPuh;/ jPuh;. jPtpukhf M=;fpnyaiu
vjph;j;Jg; nghhpl;lth;. M=;fpnyaUf;F vjpuhf xU tzpf epWtdk; epWtp/ brhe;jkhf
fg;gy; th=;fp/ tzpfj;jpYk; M=;fpnyaUf;F vjpuhfg; nghhpl;lhh;.
J}j;Jf;Fo khtl;lk; Xl;lg;gplhuj;jpy; 5.9.1872y; cyfehjg;gps;is ? gukhap
mk;ikahh;f;F kfdha;g; gpwe;jhh;. bkhj;jk; ,tnuhL gpwe;jth;fs; VG ngh;. ehd;F
rnfhjuh;fs;/ ,uz;L rnfhjhpfs; Mth;. bkl;hpFny&d; gog;ig rpjk;guk; fhy;Lbty;
fy;Y}hpapy; Koj;jhh;. Xl;;lg;gplhuk; jhYfh mYtyfj;jpy; gzpapy; nrh;e;jhh;. jhYfh
mYtyfg; gzp ,tUf;Fg; gpof;ftpy;iy. rl;lk; goj;J tHf;fwp+h; gzp bra;ant
tpUk;gpdhh;. jpUr;rp brd;W 1895,y; tHf;fwp+h; njh;tpy; njh;r;rp bgw;whh;. ,jw;F
,ilapy; ,th; jpUkzk; eilbgw;wJ. ,th; kidtpapd; bgah; ts;spak;ik.
gog;ig Koj;J Xl;lg;gplhuj;jpy; tHf;fwp+h; gzpiaj; bjhl=;fpdhh;.
jpwikahf thjhodhh;. ePjpf;fhfg; nghuhodhh;. gy tHf;Ffis ,tnu ngrpj; jPh;j;jhh;.
epuguhjpf;fhfg; gzj;ijg; bghUl;gLj;jhJ thjpl;L/ btd;W g[fiHa[k; btd;whh;.
,e;j rkaj;jpy; M=;fpnyah; mlf;FKiw/ t=;fg;gphptpid nghd;wtw;why; ,tUf;Fk;
M=;fpnyah;ghy; btWg;g[ tsh;e;jJ. Rje;jpu czh;t[ njhd;wpaJ. tHf;fwp+h; bjhHpiy
cjwptpl;Lr; Rje;jpug; nghhpy; <Lgl;lhh;. brhe;jkhf t=;ff; flypy; fg;gy; tpl;Lf;
fg;gnyhl;oa jkpHh; vd;w bgaiua[k; bgw;whh;.

gpd;tUk; bjhlh;fis vGtha;/ gadpiy/ brag;gLbghUs; vdg; gphpf;f.


1. tPuh;fs; ehl;ilf; fhj;jdh;.
2. bghJkf;fs; me;epaj;Jzpfisj; jPapl;L vhpj;jdh;.
3. bfhw;ifj; JiwKfj;jpy; ghz;oaDila kPdf;bfho gwe;jJ.
,ay; 3 VII  Nh;ah  ,sikj;jkpnH 87

4. jpUf;Fwis vGjpath; ahh;>


5. fgpyh; Fwp+;rpg;ghl;il vGjpa g[yth;.

t.vz;. vGtha; brag;gLbghUs; gadpiy


1. tPuh;fs; ehl;ilf; fhj;jdh;
2. bghJkf;fs; me;epaj;Jzpfisj; jPapl;L vhpj;jdh;
3. bfhw;ifj; JiwKfj;jpny ghz;oaDila kPdf;bfho gwe;jJ
4. jpUf;Fwis vGjpath; ahh;>
5. fgpyh; Fwp+;rpg;ghl;il vGjpa g[yth;

vGtha;/ gadpiy/ brag;gLbghUs; Mfpa @d;Wk; mika[k;go Ie;J bjhlh;fis
vGJf.
1. jpUts;Sth; jpUf;Fwis ,aw;wpdhh;.
2. mHfd; ghlk; vGJfpwhd;.
3. khtl;l Ml;rpah; bfho Vw;wpdhh;.
4. FoauRj; jiyth; cyfj;jkpH; khehl;ilj; bjhl=;fp itj;jhh;.
5. taypy; MLfs; nka;e;jd.
fPH;f;fhQk; jiyg;gpy; fl;Liu vGJf.
ehd; tpUk;g[k; jiyth;
bgUe;jiyth; fhkuhrh;
Kd;Diu :
`braw;fhpa bra;thh; bghpah;~ vd;Dk; ts;Sthpd; tha;bkhHpf;nfw;g braw;fhpa
bray;fs; g[hpe;J/ `bray;tPuh;~ vd;W g[fHg;gLgth; fhkuhrh;. jiy epkph;e;j jkpHfj;ijf;
fhztpUk;gp/ mauhJ ciHj;j jd;dykw;w jiyth; fhkuhrh;.

njhw;wKk; ,sika[k; :
fhkuhrh; 1903 $Piy 15Mk; ehs; tpUJefhpy; gpwe;jhh;. je;ij Fkhurhkp/ jhahh;
rptfhkp mk;ikahh;. je;ijia ,sikapnyna ,He;j fhkuhrh; jk; gog;ig ,ilapnyna
epWj;jptpl;lhh;. jk; khkhtpd; filapy; ntiy bra;jhh;. bra;jpj;jhs;fisg; goj;Jk;/
jiyth;fspd; brhw;bghHpt[fisf; nfl;Lk;/ murpaywpita[k;/ ehl;Lg;gw;iwa[k;
tsh;j;Jf; bfhz;lhh;. mitna mtiu tpLjiyg; nghhpy; <Lglj; J}z;od.

tpLjiyg; nghhpy; fhkuhrh; :


tpLjiy tPuh; rj;jpa@h;j;jpapd; thhprhf tps=;fpath; fhkuhrh;. mz;zy;
fhe;jpaofspd; miwTtiy Vw;W cg;g[r; rj;jpahf;fpufg; nghhpy; fye;J bfhz;lhh;.
mz;zypd; xj;JiHahik ,af;fk;/ me;epaj; Jzp vhpg;g[/ rl;l kWg;g[ ,af;fk;/ 1942,y;
ele;j Mf!;Lg; g[ul;rp Kjypa nghuhl;l=;fspy; fye;J bfhz;lhh;. jkJ gd;dpuz;lhk;
mfitapy; mokl;lj; bjhz;luha; murpaypy; EiHe;j fhkuhrh; vl;L(8) Mz;Lfs;
rpiwapy; my;yw;gl;lhh;.
88 VII  Nh;ah  ,sikj;jkpnH ,ay; 3

fy;tpg; gzpfs; :
bray; tPuuha; tps=;fpa fhkuhrh; 1954 Kjy; 1963 tiu xd;gJ Mz;Lfs;
jkpHfj;jpd; Kjyikr;ruha; tps=;fpdhh;. Ch;njhWk; gs;spfisj; jpwe;jhh;. fl;lhaf;
fy;tp/ ,ytrf; fy;tp/ gfy; czt[ld; Toa fy;tp vdg; gy jpl;l=;fis cUthf;fpj;
jkpH;ehl;od; fy;tp tsh;r;rpf;F monfhypdhh;.

ehl;Lg;gw;W :
jkpHfbk=;Fk; gy;ntW mizfisf; fl;o ePh;tsj;ijg; bgUf;fpdhh;" ehbl=;Fk;
gy;ntW bjhHpw;rhiyfis epWtpdhh;" kpd; cw;gj;jpiag; bgUf;fpj; bjhHpy; Jiwapy;
jkpH;ehL Kd;ndw;wk; milar; bra;jhh;" Mrphpah;fSf;Fk; muR CHpah;fSf;Fk; fhg;g[Wjp/
Xa;t[{jpak;/ itg;g[epjp Mfpa Kg;bgUe;jpl;l=;fisf; bfhz;L te;jhh;.

Kot[iu :
vspa FLk;gj;jpy; gpwe;J/ fLikahd ciHg;ghYk; jd;dykw;w ehl;Lg;gw;whYk;
ehL nghw;Wk; ey;y jiytuhf tps=;Ffpd;whh;. mtuJ thH;f;ifbewp ,d;iwa murpay;
thjpfs; gpd;gw;wj; jf;fjhFk;.

bkhHpnahL tpisahL
,ilr;brhy; `F~ nrh;j;Jj; bjhliu vGJf.
v.fh : tPL brd;whd; ? tPL + F + brd;whd;
? tPl;Lf;Fr; brd;whd;.
1. khL g[y; bfhLj;jhh; ? khl;Lf;Fg; g[y; bfhLj;jhh;
2. ghl;L bghUs; vGJf ? ghl;Lf;Fg; bghUs; vGJf
3. bro gha;e;j ePh; ? brof;Fg; gha;e;j ePh;
4. Ky;iy njh; je;jhd; ghhp ? Ky;iyf;Fj; njh; je;jhd; ghhp
5. Rth; rhe;J g{rpdhs; ? RtUf;Fr; rhe;J g{rpdhs;.
,uz;L brhw;fis ,izj;Jg; g[jpa brhw;fis cUthf;Ff.
fz; fz;zHF fz;Qz;L
kz; mHF kz;zHF kz;Qz;L
tpz; cz;L tpz;zHF tpz;Qz;L
gz; gz;zHF gz;Qz;L

mfk; vd Koa[k; brhw;fis vGJf.


v.fh : E}yfk;
1. vHpyfk; 2. brayfk; 3. jiyikafk; 4. mYtyfk; 5. kUe;jfk;
,ay; 3 VII  Nh;ah  ,sikj;jkpnH 89
nfhol;l ,l=;fisj; jkpH; vz; bfhz;L epug;g[f.
v.fh : jpUf;Fws; ௩ ghy;fisf; bfhz;lJ.
1. vdJ taJ f௩ (13)
2. ehd; gof;Fk; tFg;g[ v (7)
3. jkpH; ,yf;fzk; U tifg;gLk;. (5)
4. jpUf;Fwspy; f௩௩ mjpfhu=;fs; cs;sd. (133)
5. ,e;jpah f௯௪v Mk; Mz;L tpLjiy bgw;wJ. (1947)


Fwpg;g[fisf; bfhz;L jiyth;fspd; bgah;fisf; fl;l=;fspypUe;J fz;Lgpoj;J
vGJf.

jp U g; g{ u; F k u d;
U jh fh d; f f; f eh iy
t e; k ah u; L l; f k
s; $p uh $h ah u; l k; d
sp $h r u jp ah bgh ik d;
a uh u; dh u g k; j rp
k; , o z; gh u k kp w
ik th +; rp eh j d; Hp g;
u; ah rp r; eh Y nt y; g[

1. @jwp+h; 7. jpy;iyahoapd; bgUik


2. tPuk=;if 8. fg;gnyhl;oa jkpHd;
3. gh+;rhy=;Fwpr;rp tPud; 9. ghl;Lf;bfhU g[ytd;
4. bts;isaiu vjph;j;j jPud; 10. tpUJg;gl;o tPuh;
5. bfhofhj;jth; 11. fs;Sf;fil kwpay; bgz;kzp
6. vspikapd; ,yf;fzk; 12. kzpahl;rpapd; jpahfp

tpilfs; :
1. ,uh$h$p 7. ts;spak;ik
2. ntYehr;rpahh; 8. rpjk;gudhh;
3. fl;lbghk;kd; 9. ghujpahh;
4. rpd;dkiy 10. fhkuhrh;
5. jpUg;g{h; Fkud; 11. ehfk;ik
6. ff;fd; 12. th+;rpehjd;
90 VII  Nh;ah  ,sikj;jkpnH ,ay; 3

fiyr;brhy; mwpnthk; :
fijg;ghly; ? Ballad ngr;rhw;wy; ? Elocution
Jzpt[ ? Courage xw;Wik ? Unity
jpahfk; ? Sacrifice KHf;fk; ? Slogan
murpay; nkij ? Political Genuius rkj;Jtk; ? Equality

,izaj;jpy; fhz;f :
t.c.rpjk;gudhh; thH;f;iff; Fwpg;g[fis ,izaj;jpy; njo vGJf.
bgah; : t.c.rpjk;gudhh;
Ch; : J}j;Jf;Fo khtl;lk; xl;lg;gplhuk;
bgw;nwhh; : je;ij ? cyfehjg; gps;is
jha; ? gukhap mk;ikahh;
gpwg;g
[ : 5.9.1872
Muk;gf;fy;tp : Xl;lg;gplhuk;
cah;epiyg;gs;sp : brapz;l; gpuhd;!p!; nrtpah; (J}j;Jf;Fo)
bkl;hpFny&d; : fhy;Lbty; fy;Y}hp (J}j;Jf;Fo)
rl;lg;gog;g
[ : jpUr;rp
gzp : jhYfh mYtyfg; gzp/ tHf;Fiu+h; gzp/ ehl;Lg;gzp
cld; gpwg;g[fs; : ehd;F rnfhjuh;fs;/ ,uz;L rnfhjhpfs;
kidtp : ts;spak;ik
epWtpa r=;fk; : 1908,y; njrhgpkhd r=;fk;
rpiwj;jz;lid : 1908 ? 1912 (nfhit/ fz;zD}h;)
ez;gh; : Rg;gpukzpa rpth
rpiwapy; bra;j gzp : brf;fpGj;jy;/ fy;Yilj;jy;
th=;fpa fg;gy;fs; : yhnth/ fhypnah
rpwg;g[ bgah; : fg;gnyhl;oa jkpHd;/ brf;fpGj;j brk;ky;
,aw;wpa E}y;fs; : mfnk g[wk;/ kdk; nghy; thH;t[/ typikf;F khh;f;fk;/ rhe;jpf;F
khh;f;fk;/ ,sk; g{uzhpd; bjhy;fhg;gpa ciuiag; g[Jg;gpj;jhh;/
jpUf;Fwspy; mwj;Jg;ghYf;Fg; g[jpa ciu vGjpdhh;/bka;awpt[/
bka;awk;/ ts;spak;ik rhpj;jpuk;.
,wg;g[ : 18.11.1936


khjphp tpdhj;jhs; VII  Nh;ah  ,sikj;jkpnH 91

khjphp tpdhj;jhs;
,ay; ? 3
neuk; : 1.30 kjpg;bgz;fs; : 50
I. midj;J tpdhf;fSf;Fk; tpilasp : 14 x 1 = 14

m) bghUs; vGJf.
1. rpw;wpy;
2. fKF
3. ghp

M) gphpj;J vGJf.
4. ahz;Lsndh
5. g{l;L=;fjt[fs;

,) nrh;j;J vGJf.
6. fy; + mis
7. thry; + my=;fhuk;

<) chpa tpiliaj; njh;t[ bra;f.


8. `ahz;L~ vd;Dk; brhy;ypd; bghUs; _________
m) vdJ M) v=;F ,) vt;tst[ <) vJ
9. Ch;tyj;jpd; Kd;dhy; _________ mire;J tUk;.
m) njhuzk; M) thduk; ,) thuzk; <) re;jdk;
10. gh+;rhy=;Fwpr;rpapy; _________ ehia tpul;otpLk;.
m) Kay; M) ehp ,) ghp <) g[yp

c) nfhol;l ,lj;ij epug;g[f.


11. Kj;Juhkyp=;fj;njth; elj;jpa ,jHpd; bgah; _________
12. njrpak; fhj;j brk;ky; vdg; Kj;Juhkyp=;fj; njtiug; ghuhl;oath; _________

C) jkpH; vz; vGJf.


13. 1947 ?
14. 133 ?

II. kdg;ghlk; : 1x4=4


15. `rpw;wpy;~ vdj; bjhl=;Fk; g[yp j=;fpa Fif ghliy vGJf.
92 VII  Nh;ah  ,sikj;jkpnH khjphp tpdhj;jhs;

III. vitnaDk; Ie;J tpdhf;fSf;F tpilasp: 5 x 2 = 10


16. jk; tapw;Wf;Fj; jha; vjid ctikahff; TWfpwhh;>
17. gh+;rhy=;Fwpr;rpapd; nfhl;ilfs; gw;wpf; TWf.
18. gh+;rhy=;Fwpr;rpapd; ,aw;if tsk; vj;jifaJ>
19. njtiug; ghuhl;og; bghpahh; TwpaJ ahJ>
20. Kj;Juhkyp=;fj;njth; bgw;wpUe;j gy;Jiw Mw;wiyg; gw;wp vGJf.
21. njth; fy;tp v=;F gapd;whh;>
22. njthpd; rpwg;g[ bgah;fs; ahit>

IV. tpdhf;fSf;F tpilasp : 2 x 5 = 10


23. jk; kfd; Fwpj;Jj; jha; Twpa bra;jpfisj; bjhFj;J vGJf.
(my;yJ)
gh+;rhy=;Fwpr;rpapd; tPuj;Jf;Fr; rhd;whFk; epfH;t[fs; gw;wp vGJf.
24. nejh$pa[ld; Kj;Juhkyp=;fj;njth; bfhz;l bjhlh;g[g; gw;wp vGJf.
(my;yJ)
bjhHpyhsh; eyDf;fhf Kj;Juhkyp=;fj;njth; bra;j bjhz;Lfs; ahit>

V. vitnaDk; @d;W tpdhf;fSf;F tpilasp : 3x2=6


25. tHf;F vd;why; vd;d>
26. jFjp tHf;fpd; tiffs; ahit>
27. nghyp vd;why; vd;d>
28. ,ay;g[ tHf;F vd;why; vd;d>
29. Kw;Wg;nghyp vd;why; vd;d>

VI. fl;Liu tpdh : 1x6=6


30. t.c.rpjk;gudhhpd; ciuia thH;f;if tuyhwhfr; RUf;fp vGJf.
(my;yJ)
`ehd; tpUk;g[k; jiyth;~ vd;Dk; jiyg;gpy; fl;Liu vGJf.


khjphp tpdhj;jhs; VII  Nh;ah  ,sikj;jkpnH 93

bjhFj;jwp kjpg;gPl;Lj; njh;t[


Kjy; gUtk;
jkpH;
neuk; : 2.00  kjpg;bgz;fs; : 60

I. midj;J tpdhf;fSf;Fk; tpilasp : 14 x 1 = 14


m) bghUs; vGJf.
1. <d;W
2. Nud;

M) gphpj;J vGJf.
3. fhl;lhW
4. midj;Jz;zp

,) nrh;j;J vGJf.
5. xg;g[ik + ,y;yhj
6. ntl;il + Moa

<) chpa tpiliaj; njh;t[ bra;f.


7. ehtw;gHj;jpw;F ctikahff; Twg;gLtJ _________.
m) gr;ir ,iy M) nfhypf;;Fz;L ,) gr;irf;fha; <) br=;fha;
8. `ahz;L~ vd;Dk; brhy;ypd; bghUs; _________.
m) vdJ M) v=;F ,) vt;tst[ <) vJ

c) nfhol;l ,lj;ij epug;g[f.


9. ahid Tl;lj;jpw;F xU _________ ahidjhd; jiyik jh=;Fk;.
10. Kj;Juhkyp=;fj;njth; Kjd; Kjypy; ciuahw;wpa ,lk; _________.

C) bghUj;Jf.
11. bghf;fp&k; ? mHF
12. rh!;jp ? bry;tk;
13. tp!;jhuk; ? kpFjp
14. rp=;fhuk; ? bgUk; gug;g[

II. kdg;ghlk; : 4+2=6


15. `gr;ir~ vdj; bjhl=;Fk; fhL ghliy vGJf.
16. `,aw;wYk;~ vdj; bjhl=;Fk; jpUf;Fwis vGJf.
94 VII  Nh;ah  ,sikj;jkpnH khjphp tpdhj;jhs;

III. vitnaDk; Ie;J tpdhf;fSf;F tpilasp: 6 x 2 = 12


17. jkpH;bkhHpiaf; fw;wthpd; ,ay;g[fis vGJf.
18. jkpH;ehl;od; ,aw;if ts=;fshff; ftp+h; TWtd ahit>
19. fhl;od; gad;fshff; ftp+h; Rujh TWtd ahit>
20. rpWth;fSf;F ehty;gHk; fpilf;f cjtpnahh; ahth;>
21. jk; tapw;Wf;Fj; jha; vjid ctikahff; TWfpwhh;>
22. gh+;rhy=;Fwpr;rpapd; ,aw;if tsk; vj;jifaJ>
23. tl;lhubkhHp vdg;gLtJ ahJ>
24. khdpd; tiffs; rpytw;wpd; bgah;fis vGJf

IV. tpdhf;fSf;F tpilasp : 2 x 5 = 10


25. ehty; kuk; gw;wpa epidt[fshff; ftp+h; TWtd ahit>
(my;yJ)
`v=;fs; jkpH;~ ghlypy; ehkf;fy; ftp+h; TWk; fUj;Jfisj; bjhFj;J vGJf.
26. fpisbkhHpfs; vt;thW cUthfpd;wd>
(my;yJ)
nejh$pa[ld; Kj;Juhkyp=;fj;njth; bfhz;l bjhlh;g[g; gw;wp vGJf.

V. vitnaDk; @d;W tpdhf;fSf;F tpilasp : 3x2=6


27. Fw;wpaypfuk; vd;why; vd;d>
28. xsfhuk; vg;bghGJ KGikahf xypf;Fk;>
29. Ifhuf;FWf;fk; vd;why; vd;d>
30. tHf;F vd;why; vd;d>
31. jFjp tHf;fpd; tiffs; ahit>

VI. beLtpdh : 1x6=6


32. $hjt;gna=; fhl;il vt;thW cUthf;fpdhh;>
(my;yJ)
t.c.rpjk;gudhh; ciuia thH;f;if tuyhwhfr; RUf;fp vGJf.
VII. fl;Liu tpdh : 1x6=6
32. eP=;fs; brd;W te;j Rw;Wyh Fwpj;J c=;fs; ez;gDf;Ff; fojk; vGJf.
(my;yJ)
`ehd; tpUk;g[k; jiyth;~ vd;Dk; jiyg;gpy; fl;Liu vGJf.


VII  Nh;ah  ,sikj;jkpnH 95

Fwpg;g[
96 VII  Nh;ah  ,sikj;jkpnH

Fwpg;g[
VII  Nh;ah  ,sikj;jkpnH 97

Fwpg;g[
98 VII  Nh;ah  ,sikj;jkpnH

Fwpg;g[

