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Elena Alexandrescu

CHIMIE
ANORGANICĂ
şi FIZICĂ
pentru liceu şi gimnaziu
ap
lic
aţi
id
igi
tal
Sinteze
e in
clu
se Probleme
Teste
Elena Alexandrescu

CHIMIE
ANORGANICĂ
și FIZICĂ
pentru liceu și gimnaziu
ap
lic
aţi
id
Sinteze
igi
tal
e in
clu
se
Probleme
Teste
Autori: Elena Alexandrescu
prof. gr. I - Şcoala Internaţională „Spectrum”, Ploieşti

Referent: Mariana Rosenschein


prof. gr. I - Colegiul Naţional „Gh. Vrânceanu”, Bacău

Tehnoredactare şi grafică: Sultana Vizireanu


Aplicaţii digitale: Andreea Cojocaru
Mihai Asofie

Descrierea CIP a Bibliotecii Naţionale a României


ALEXANDRESCU, ELENA
Chimie anorganică şi fizică pentru gimnaziu şi
liceu/Elena Alexandrescu. - Ploieşti: Explorator, 2015
ISBN 978-606-93525-7-1

546
544

ISBN: 978-606-93525-7-1

© 2015, Editat şi tipărit la EDITURA EXPLORATOR


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TABELUL PERIODIC AL ELEMENTELOR
Blocul s Blocul d Blocul p

GRUPE

Perioade
1 (IA) 18 (VIIIA)
1 1,00797 2 4,00260

1 H He
Hidrogen Numãr atomic ¾ 1 0,00797 ½ Masa atomicã Heliu
2,1 313 567
1s1 2 (IIA) ½ Simbol chimic 13 (IIIA) 14 (IVA) 15 (VA) 16 (VIA) 17 (VIIA) 1s2
3 6,941 4 9,01218 Denumire ¾ Hidrogen
H 5 10,81 6 12,01 7 14,00 8 15,99 9 18,99 10 20,179
Electronegativitate ¾ 2,1 313 ½ Energia primei
2 Li Be 1s1 ionizãri [kcal/g mol] B C N O F Ne
Litiu Beriliu ¿ Bor Carbon Azot Oxigen Fluor Neon
1,0 124 1,5 215 Configurația electronicã 2,0 191 2,5 260 3,0 336 3,5 314 4,0 402 - 497
1s22s1 1s22s2 1s22s22p1 1s22s22p2 1s22s22p3 1s22s22p4 1s22s22p5 1s22s22p6
11 22,98977 12 24,305 13 26,98 14 28,08 15 30,97 16 32,06 17 35,45 18 39,94

3 Na Mg Al Si P S Cl Ar
Sodiu Magneziu Aluminiu Siliciu Fosfor Sulf Clor Argon
0,9 119 1,2 176 1,5 138 1,8 188 2,1 254 2,5 239 3,0 300 - 363
[Ne]3s1 [Ne]3s2 3 (IIIB) 4 (IVB) 5 (VB) 6 (VIB) 7 (VIIB) 8 (VIIIB) 9 (VIIIB) 10 (VIIIB) 11 (IB) 12 (IIB) [Ne]3s23p1 [Ne]3s23p2 [Ne]3s23p3 [Ne]3s23p4 [Ne]3s23p5 [Ne]3s23p6
19 39,0983 20 40,08 21 44,9559 22 47,88 23 50,94 24 51,99 25 54,93 26 55,84 27 58,93 28 58,69 29 63,54 30 65,39 31 69,72 32 72,61 33 74,9216 34 78,96 35 79,904 36 83,80

4 K Ca Sc Ti V Cr Mn Fe Co Ni Cu Zn Ga Ge As Se Br Kr
Potasiu Calciu Scandiu Titan Vanadiu Crom Mangan Fier Cobalt Nichel Cupru Zinc Galiu Germaniu Arsen Seleniu Brom Kripton
0,8 100 1,0 141 1,3 151 1,5 158 1,6 156 1,6 156 1,5 171 1,8 182 1,8 181 1,8 176 1,9 178 1,6 216 1,6 138 1,8 187 2,0 231 2,4 225 2,8 273 - 323
[Ar]4s1 [Ar]4s2 [Ar]3d14s2 [Ar]3d24s2 [Ar]3d34s2 [Ar]3d54s1 [Ar]3d54s2 [Ar]3d64s2 [Ar]3d74s2 [Ar]3d84s2 [Ar]3d104s1 [Ar]3d104s2 [Ar]3d104s24p1 [Ar]3d104s24p2 [Ar]3d104s24p3 [Ar]3d104s24p4 [Ar]3d104s24p5 [Ar]3d104s24p6
37 85,4678 38 87,62 39 88,9059 40 91,22 41 92,90 42 95,94 43 (98) 44 101,07 45 102,90 46 106,42 47 107,86 48 112,41 49 114,82 50 118,71 51 121,75 52 127,60 53 126,90 54 131,29

5 Rb Sr Y Zr Nb Mo Tc Ru Rh Pd Ag Cd In Sn Sb Te I Xe
Rubidiu Stronțiu Ytriu Zirconiu Niobiu Molibden Tecnețiu Ruteniu Rodiu Paladiu Argint Cadmiu Indiu Staniu Stibiu Telur Iod Xenon
0,8 96 1,0 131 1,3 152 1,4 160 1,6 156 1,8 166 1,9 167 2,2 173 2,2 178 2,2 192 1,9 175 1,7 207 1,7 133 1,8 169 1,9 199 2,1 208 2,5 241 - 280
[Kr]5s1 [Kr]5s2 [Kr]4d15s2 [Kr]4d25s2 [Kr]4d45s1 [Kr]4d55s1 [Kr]4d55s2 [Kr]4d75s1 [Kr]4d85s1 [Kr]4d105s0 [Kr]4d105s1 [Kr]4d105s2 [Kr]4d105s25p1 [Kr]4d105s25p2 [Kr]4d105s25p3 [Kr]4d105s25p4 [Kr]4d105s25p5 [Kr]4d105s25p6
55 132,9054 56 137,33 57-71 72 178,49 73 180,94 74 183,85 75 186,20 76 190,2 77 192,22 78 195,08 79 196,96 80 200,59 81 204,38 82 207,2 83 208,98 84 [209] 85 [210] 86 [222]

6 Cs Ba Hf Ta W Re Os Ir Pt Au Hg Tl Pb Bi Po At Rn
Cesiu Bariu Hafniu Tantal Wolfram Reniu Osmiu Iridiu Platinã Aur Mercur Taliu Plumb Bismut Poloniu Astatin Radon
0,7 90 0,9 120 1,3 127 1,5 138 1,7 184 1,9 182 2,2 201 2,2 212 2,2 207 2,4 213 1,9 241 1,8 141 1,8 171 1,9 185 2,0 - 2,2 - - 248
[Xe]6s1 [Xe]6s2
La-Lu [Xe]4f145d26s2 [Xe]4f145d36s2 [Xe]4f145d46s2 [Xe]4f145d56s2 [Xe]4f145d66s2 [Xe]4f145d76s2 [Xe]4f145d96s1 [Xe]4f145d106s1 [Xe]4f145d106s2 [Xe]4f145d106s26p1 [Xe]4f145d106s26p2 [Xe]4f145d106s26p3 [Xe]4f145d106s26p4 [Xe]4f145d106s26p5 [Xe]4f145d106s26p6
87 [223] 88 226,0254 89-103 104 [261] 105 [262] 106 [263] 107 [262] 108 [265] 109 [266]

7 Fr Ra Ac-Lr Rf Db Sg Bh Hs Mt
Franciu Radiu Rutherfordium Dubnium Seaborgium Bohrium Hassium Meitnérium
0,7 - 0,9 - - - - - - - - - - - - -
[Rn]7s1 [Rn]7s2 [Rn]5f146d27s2 [Rn]5f146d37s2 [Rn]5f146d47s2 [Rn]5f146d57s2 [Rn]5f146d67s2 [Rn]5f146d77s2
Blocul f
57 138,9055 58 140,12 59 140,90 60 144,24 61 [145] 62 150,36 63 151,96 64 157,25 65 158,92 66 6,941 67 164,93 68 167,26 69 168,93 70 173,04 71 174,96

Lantanide La
Lantan
Ce
Ceriu
Pr
Praseodim
Nd Pm Sm Eu
Neodim Promețiu Samariu Europiu
Gd
Gadoliniu
Tb
Terbiu
Dy
Disprosiu
Ho
Holmiu
Er
Erbiu
Tm Yb
Tuliu Yterbiu
Lu
Lutețiu
1,1 129 1,1 159 1,1 133 1,2 145 - 133 1,2 129 - 131 1,1 142 1,2 155 - 157 1,2 - 1,2 - 1,2 - 1,1 143 1,2
[Xe]5d16s2 [Xe]4f25d06s2 [Xe]4f35d06s2 [Xe]4f45d06s2 [Xe]4f55d06s2 [Xe]4f65d06s2 [Xe]4f75d06s2 [Xe]4f75d16s2 [Xe]4f95d06s2 [Xe]4f105d06s2 [Xe]4f115d06s2 [Xe]4f125d06s2 [Xe]4f135d06s2 [Xe]4f145d06s2 [Xe]4f145d16s2

89 [227] 90 232,03 91 231,03 92 238,02 93 237,04 94 [244] 95 [243] 96 [247] 97 [247] 98 [251] 99 [252] 100 [257] 101 [258] 102 [259] 103 [260]

Actinide Ac
Actiniu
Th
Toriu
Pa
Protactiniu
U
Uraniu
Np
Neptuniu
Pu Am Cm Bk
Plutoniu Americiu Curiu Berkeliu
Cf
Californiu
Es
Einsteiniu
Fm Md No
Fermiu Mendeleeviu Nobeliu
Lr
Lawrenciu
1,1 - 1,3 - 1,5 - 1,7 - 1,3 - 1,3 - 1,3 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
[Rn]6d17s2 [Rn]5f06d27s2 [Rn]5f26d17s2 [Rn]5f36d17s2 [Rn]5f46d17s2 [Rn]5f66d07s2 [Rn]5f76d07s2 [Rn]5f76d17s2 [Rn]5f96d07s2 [Rn]5f106d07s2 [Rn]5f116d07s2 [Rn]5f126d07s2 [Rn]5f136d07s2 [Rn]5f146d07s2 [Rn]5f146d17s2
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sau
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x  
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PRODUPDLVLPSOX
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QXPăUXO GH RUELWDOL PRQRHOHFWURQLFL GLQWUXQ HOHFWURQLFăúLQXPăUXODWRPLF
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F  QXPăUXO GH HOHFWURQL V QXPăUXO GH
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DUJLQW HVWH Â & 1XPăUXO GH QHXWURQL unde  ȕ HVWHDQWLSDUWLFXODHOHFWURQXOXLQXPLWă
GLQ QXFOHXO L]RWRSXOXL $ HVWH FX  XQLWăĠL SR]LWURQ DUHPDVDHJDOăFXFHDDHOHFWURQXOXL

PDL PDUH GHFkW QXPăUXO GH SURWRQL 1XPăUXO úL VDUFLQD HOHFWULFă UHODWLYă   LDU  este o
GH PDVă DO L]RWRSXOXL % HVWH FX  XQLWăĠL PDL UDGLDĠLHHOHFWURPDJQHWLFă
PDUH GHFkW QXPăUXO GH PDVă DO L]RWRSXOXL $FHVW PRG GH VWDELOL]DUH D L]RWRSLORU
$ ÌQ DUJLQWXO QDWXUDO UDSRUWXO DWRPLF $%  HPLVLH SR]LWURQLFă  HVWH SXĠLQ IUHFYHQWă úL VH
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A
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GHQXPLW QXFOLG GHQXPLUH FDUH VH IRORVHúWH úL VDXN FRQIRUPHFXDĠLHL
SHQWUXDWRPXOFDUHFRQĠLQHDFHVWQXFOHX'DFă 
p +  e  n + 

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QXPăU GH PDVă GDU DUH QXPăUXO DWRPLF FX R
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VHQXPHVFL]REDUL'HH[HPSOX. úL&D sunt
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DUH DFHODúL QXPăU GH PDVă GDU DUH QXPăUXO
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GH SDUWLFXOH SURWRQL QHXWURQL HOHFWURQL  GLQ $
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L  QXPăUXO GH NPROL GH PROHFXOH GLQ
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E  PDVD PRODUă D XQHL VXEVWDQĠH< úWLLQG GHPDVă)H2LDUQXPăUXODWRPLORU
FăvQJGHVXEVWDQĠă<VHDÀă GHR[LJHQGLQIRUPXODFKLPLFăHVWHFXRXQLWDWH
PROHFXOH PDLPDUHGHFkWQXPăUXODWRPLORUGH¿HU
F PDVDPROHFXODUăUHODWLYăDXQHLVXEVWDQĠH I  FRPSXVXO ) DUH FRPSR]LĠLD SURFHQWXDOă
=úWLLQGFăPPROGHVXEVWDQĠă=DXPDVDGH GH PDVă  &D  +  &
PJ 2LDUIRUPXODFKLPLFăHVWHIRUPDWăGLQ
G  QXPăUXO GH DWRPL GH R[LJHQ GLQWUR DWRPL
PROHFXOă GH R[LG FX IRUPXOD FKLPLFă 12x
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D FRPSXVXO$FRQĠLQH+ SURFHQWH
H  IRUPXOD FKLPLFă D FRPSXVXOXL )Hx6\
GH PDVă  úL UHVWXO R[LJHQ LDU vQWUXQ PRO GH
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D &D&O FORUXUăGHFDOFLX  de oxigen;
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H  0J +32) IRVIDW PRQRDFLG GH G FRPSXVXO'DUHUDSRUWXOGHPDVă&X+2
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&RQFHQWUDĠLDDSHLQXVHLDvQFDOFXO¿LQGSUDFWLFFRQVWDQWăSHQWUXVROXĠLLOHGLOXDWH
ሾ‫ܣ‬Ȃ ሿ ή ሾ‫ܪ‬ଷ ܱା ሿ ߙܿ ή ߙܿ ߙଶܿ
݇௔ ൌ ൌ ൌ 
ሾ‫ܣܪ‬ሿ ܿ െ ߙܿ ͳ െ ߙ

$PIROLĠLDFLGRED]LFL
6XEVWDQĠHOHFDUHVHFRPSRUWăFDDFL]LvQUHDFĠLLOHFXED]HOHúLFDED]HvQUHDFĠLLOHFXDFL]LLVH
QXPHVFVXEVWDQĠHDPIRWHUHVDXVXEVWDQĠHDP¿SURWLFHVDXDPIROLĠL
$PIROLĠLLDFLGRED]LFLSUH]LQWăDVSHFWHVWUXFWXUDOHFDUHOHSHUPLWVăVHFRPSRUWHDWkWFD
DFL]L H[LVWHQĠDXQXLDWRPGHKLGURJHQOHJDWFRYDOHQWSRODU FkWúLFDED]H H[LVWHQĠDXQHLSHUHFKLGH
HOHFWURQLQHSDUWLFLSDQĠLODOHJăWXUăODXQXOGLQWUHDWRPL 
([HPSOX
+6– + H2 6± + H2+
DFLG
+6– + H2+ H6+2
ED]ă
0DLPXOĠLFRPSXúLDQRUJDQLFLDXFDUDFWHUDPIRWHUDSDXQLLUDGLFDOLDFL]LR[L]LLúLKLGUR[L]LL
XQRUPHWDOHVDXXQHOHPHWDOH YH]LSDJ 

138 FROHFĦLD
('8&$ĥ,21$/
$FL]LúLED]H5HDFĠLLFXVFKLPEGHSURWRQL

S+XOVROXĠLLORUDSRDVH
‡3HQWUXRVROXĠLHDSRDVăFXWHPSHUDWXUDGHƒ&HVWHYDODELOăUHODĠLD>+2+@Â>+2–@ 
PRO/.
ÌQWURVROXĠLHQHXWUă>+2+@ >+2–@ PRO/
ÌQWURVROXĠLHDFLGă>+2+@!PRO/úL>+2–@PRO/
ÌQWURVROXĠLHED]LFă>+2+@PRO/úL>+2–@!PRO/
‡3+XOVHGH¿QHúWHFRQIRUPUHODĠLHLS+ OJ>+2+@LDUS2+ OJ>+2–@úLS+S2+ 
7DEHOXO6FDUDGHS+
[H2+]
              
PRO/
pH               

&DUDFWHUXO VROXĠLLDFLGH VROXĠLH VROXĠLLED]LFH


VROXĠLLORU FUHúWHFDUDFWHUXODFLG QHXWUă FUHúWHFDUDFWHUXOED]LF

>+2–]               
S2+               

6FăULOHS+úLS2+VXQWYDODELOHQXPDLSHQWUXVROXĠLLDSRDVHGLOXDWH FM0 GHDFL]LúLED]H


ÌQSUDFWLFDGHODERUDWRUVHPăVRDUăS+XOVROXĠLLORUFXDMXWRUXOKkUWLHLLQGLFDWRDUHGHS+VDX
FXDMXWRUXOS+PHWUXOXL
‡&DOFXOXOS+XOXLSHQWUXVROXĠLLOHDSRDVHDOHDFL]LORUPRQRSURWLFLWDUL
ÌQVROXĠLDDSRDVăDXQXLDFLGPRQRSURWLFWDUH +$ DXORFLRQL]ăULOH
HA + H2ĺ$– + H2+

+2  H2++2–
Ionii H2+UH]XOWDĠLGLQLRQL]DUHDDFLGXOXLWDUHYRUGHSODVDHFKLOLEUXOGHLRQL]DUHDODSHLvQ
VHQVXOFXDWkWPDLPXOWFXFkWFRQFHQWUDĠLDDFHVWRULRQLHVWHPDLPDUH
&DOFXOHOHDXDUăWDWFăSHQWUXFRQFHQWUDĠLLDOHDFLGXOXLWDUHPDLPDULGHPRO/FRQFHQWUDĠLD
ionilor H2+ GLQ VROXĠLH HVWH SUDFWLF HJDOă FX FRQFHQWUDĠLD DFLGXOXL QHJOLMkQGXVH LRQLL +2+
SURYHQLĠLGLQLRQL]DUHDDSHL
3ULQXUPDUH>+2+] = cHAúLS+ OJ>+2+] = -lgcHA.
'HH[HPSOXS+XOXQHLVROXĠLLDSRDVHGH+&Oā0 Na PRO/ HVWH>+2+] =
ā PRO/úLS+ OJ>+2+@ OJā OJ 

'DFă < cHAVHLDXvQFRQVLGHUDUHLRQLL+2+SURYHQLĠLGLQDPEHOHSURFHVHGH
LRQL]DUHDDFLGXOXLúLDDSHLúLFRQFHQWUDĠLDLRQLORU+2+GLQVROXĠLHVHFDOFXOHD]ăGXSăUHODĠLD
[H2+@  + cHA.
'HH[HPSOXS+XOXQHLVROXĠLLGH+&OGHFRQFHQWUDĠLHPRO/HVWH
[H2+@  + cHA  ÂPRO/úLS+ OJÂ OJ 
'DFăFHAPRO/VHQHJOLMHD]ăLRQLL+2+SURYHQLĠLGLQLRQL]DUHDDFLGXOXLúLVHLDXvQ
FRQVLGHUDUHQXPDLLRQLL+2+SURYHQLĠLGLQLRQL]DUHDDSHLLDUS+XOVROXĠLHLHVWHSUDFWLF
‡&DOFXOXOS+XOXLSHQWUXVROXĠLLOHDSRDVHDOHED]HORUPRQRSURWLFHWDUL
ÌQVROXĠLDDSRDVăDXQXLED]HPRQRSURWLFHWDUL % DXORFLRQL]ăULOH
%+2ĺ%+++2–

+2  H2++2–
139
FROHFĦLD
('8&$ĥ,21$/
RETINETI
, ,
,RQLL+2–UH]XOWDĠLGLQLRQL]DUHDED]HLWDULYRUGHSODVDHFKLOLEUXOGHLRQL]DUHDODSHLvQ
VHQVXOFXDWkWPDLPXOWFXFkWFRQFHQWUDĠLDDFHVWRULRQLHVWHPDLPDUH
&DOFXOHOHDXDUăWDWFăSHQWUXFRQFHQWUDĠLLDOHED]HLWDULPDLPDULGHPRO/FRQFHQWUDĠLD
LRQLORU+2–GLQVROXĠLHHVWHSUDFWLFHJDOăFXFRQFHQWUDĠLDED]HLúLVHSRWQHJOLMDLRQLL+2–SURYHQLĠL
GLQLRQL]DUHDDSHL
݇‫ݓ‬ ͳͲିଵସ
3ULQXUPDUH>+2–] = c%úL ሾ‫ܪ‬ଷ ܱ ା ሿ ൌ ൌ  úL
ሾ‫ܱܪ‬Ȃ ሿ ܿ஻
ͳͲିଵସ
‫ ܪ݌‬ൌ െ݈݃ሾ‫ܪ‬ଷ ܱା ሿ ൌ െ݈݃ VDXS+ OJF%
ܿ஻
'HH[HPSOXS+XOXQHLVROXĠLLDSRDVHGH1D2+0HVWH
݇‫ݓ‬ ͳͲିଵସ
>+2–@ PRO/ሾ‫ܪ‬ଷ ܱା ሿ ൌ ൌ ൌ Ͷ ή ͳͲିଵସ ݉‫݈݋‬Ȁ‫ܮ‬
ሾ‫ܱܪ‬Ȃ ሿ Ͳǡʹͷ
úLS+ OJ>+2+@ OJÂ OJ VDXS+ OJF% OJ 
'DFă < c%VHLDXvQFRQVLGHUDUHLRQLL+2–SURYHQLĠLGLQDPEHOHSURFHVHGHLRQL]DUH
DED]HLúLDDSHLúLFRQFHQWUDĠLDLRQLORU+2–GLQVROXĠLHVHFDOFXOHD]ăGXSăUHODĠLD>+2–@  +c%.
'HH[HPSOXS+XOVROXĠLHLDSRDVHGH1D2+GHFRQFHQWUDĠLDāPRO/HVWH
>+2–@  +c% ā āPRO/
݇‫ݓ‬ ͳͲିଵସ
ሾ‫ܪ‬ଷ ܱା ሿ ൌ ൌ ൌ Ͳǡʹͷ ή ͳͲି଻ ݉‫݈݋‬Ȁ‫ܮ‬úL
ሾ‫ܱܪ‬Ȃ ሿ Ͷ ή ͳͲି଻
pH = -lg[H2+@ OJÂ OJ 
'DFă F%   PRO/ VH QHJOLMHD]ă LRQLL +2– SURYHQLĠL GLQ LRQL]DUHD ED]HL úL VH LDX vQ
FRQVLGHUDUHQXPDLLRQLL+2–SURYHQLĠLGLQLRQL]DUHDDSHLLDUS+XOVROXĠLHLHVWHSUDFWLF
‡&DOFXOXOS+XOXLSHQWUXVROXĠLLOHDSRDVHDOHDFL]LORUPRQRSURWLFLVODEL
ÌQVROXĠLDDSRDVăDXQXLDFLGPRQRSURWLFVODE +$ DXORFLRQL]ăULOH

HA + H2  A– + H2+

+2  H2++2–

&DQWLWDWHD GH LRQL +2+ HOLEHUDĠL vQ VROXĠLH GH XQ DFLG VODE GHSLQGH GH WăULD DFLGXOXL
FDUDFWHUL]DWăSULQFRQVWDQWDGHDFLGLWDWH Na úLGHFRQFHQWUDĠLDDFLGXOXL FHA &XFUHúWHUHDWăULHL
DFLGXOXLLQGLFDWăGHFUHúWHUHDFRQVWDQWHLGHDFLGLWDWHHFKLOLEUXOGHLRQL]DUHDDFLGXOXLVHGHSODVHD]ă
VSUHGUHDSWD VHPQXO &XVFăGHUHDFRQFHQWUDĠLHLDFLGXOXLFUHúWHUHDGLOXĠLHLHFKLOLEUXOGHLRQL]DUH
DDFLGXOXLVHGHSODVHD]ăVSUHGUHDSWD VHQVXO 
6HGLVWLQJPDLPXOWHVLWXDĠLL

D 'DFă!Na!úLFHA!PRO/DFLGXO+$HVWHGHWăULHPLMORFLHúLHVWHVXILFLHQW
GHLRQL]DWvQFkWVăVHQHJOLMH]HLRQLL+2+SURYHQLĠLGLQLRQL]DUHDDSHL
ሾ‫ܣ‬Ȃ ሿ ή ሾ‫ܪ‬ଷ ܱା ሿ
3HQWUXHFKLOLEUXO+$+2 A– + H2+ constanta de aciditate este: ݇௔ ൌ 
ሾ‫ܣܪ‬ሿ
'DFă DFLGXO DUH FRQFHQWUDĠLD PRODUă LQLĠLDOă FHA SHQWUX VWDUHD GH HFKLOLEUX VXQW YDODELOH
ሾ‫ܪ‬ଷ ܱା ሿଶ
UHODĠLLOH>+2+] = [A–@úL>+$@ FHA – [H2+@LDUNaGHYLQH݇௔ ൌ  sau
ܿு஺ െ ሾ‫ܪ‬ଷ ܱା ሿ

140 FROHFĦLD
('8&$ĥ,21$/
$FL]LúLED]H5HDFĠLLFXVFKLPEGHSURWRQL

݇௔ ݇௔ଶ
[H2+]Na[H2+@±NacHA GHXQGH ሾ‫ܪ‬ଷ ܱା ሿ ൌ െ േ ඨ ൅ ݇௔ ή ܿு஺  .
ʹ Ͷ
6HDOHJHVROXĠLD[H2+@!
3ULQXUPDUHFRQFHQWUDĠLDPRODUăDLRQLORU+2+ODHFKLOLEUXVHFDOFXOHD]ăGXSăUHODĠLD

݇௔ ݇௔ଶ
ሾ‫ܪ‬ଷ ܱା ሿ ൌ െ ൅ ඨ ൅ ݇௔ ή ܿு஺ 
ʹ Ͷ
'H H[HPSOX S+XO XQHL VROXĠLL GH DFLG FORURV +&O2  GH FRQFHQWUDĠLH  PRO/
Na PRO/ HVWH

݇௔ ݇௔ଶ ͳͲିଶ ሺͳͲିଶ ሻଶ


ሾ‫ܪ‬ଷ ܱା ሿ ൌ െ ൅ ඨ ൅ ݇௔ ή ܿு஺ ൌ െ ൅ඨ ൅ ͳͲିଶ ή ͳͲିଷ ൌ
ʹ Ͷ ʹ Ͷ
ൌ െͲǡͷ ή ͳͲିଶ ൅ ඥͲǡʹͷ ή ͳͲିସ ൅ Ͳǡͳ ή ͳͲିସ ൌ െͲǡͲͲͷ ൅ ͲǡͲͲͷͻ ൌ ͻ ή ͳͲିସ ݉‫݈݋‬Ȁ‫ܮ‬
pH = -lg[H2+@ OJÂ OJ 
ÌQ IXQFĠLH GH YDORDUHD FRQVWDQWHL GH DFLGLWDWH Na  úL GH YDORDUHD FRQFHQWUDĠLHL LQLĠLDOH D
acidului (cHA WHUPHQXONaVHSRDWHXQHRULQHJOLMD
'HH[HPSOXS+XOXQHLVROXĠLLGH+)0 Na ÂPRO/ HVWH

݇௔ ݇௔ଶ ͹ǡʹ ή ͳͲିସ ሺ͹ǡʹ ή ͳͲିଶ ሻଶ


ሾ‫ܪ‬ଷ ܱା ሿ ൌ െ ൅ ඨ ൅ ݇௔ ή ܿு஺ ൌ െ ൅ඨ ൅ ͹ǡʹ ή ͳͲିସ ή Ͳǡͷ ൌ
ʹ Ͷ ʹ Ͷ
ൌ െ͵ǡ͸ ή ͳͲିସ ൅ ඥͳʹǡͻ͸ ή ͳͲି଼ ൅ ͵ǡ͸ ή ͳͲିସ ൎ െ͵ǡ͸ ή ͳͲିସ ൅ ඥ͵ǡ͸ ή ͳͲିସ ൌ
ൌ െ͵ǡ͸ ή ͳͲିସ ൅ ͳͺͻǡ͹ ή ͳͲିସ ൌ ͳͺ͸ǡͳ ή ͳͲିସ ݉‫݈݋‬Ȁ‫ܮ‬
pH = -lg[H2+@ OJÂ OJ 

E 'DFăNaDFL]LLVXQWVODELúLIRDUWHVODEL
‡'DFăYDORDUHDFRQFHQWUDĠLHLPRODUHLQLĠLDOHDDFLGXOXL FHA QXHVWHIRDUWHPLFă FHA 

 NaFRQIRUPXQXLUDĠLRQDPHQWPDWHPDWLFPDLFRPSOLFDW VHQHJOLMHD]ăLRQLL+2+SURYHQLĠL
GLQLRQL]DUHDDSHL

݇௔ ݇௔ଶ
'LQUHODĠLD ሾ‫ܪ‬ଷ ܱା ሿ ൌ െ ൅ ඨ ൅ ݇௔ ή ܿு஺  VHQHJOLMHD]ăWHUPHQLLNaúLNaúL
ʹ Ͷ
ା ͳ ͳ
UH]XOWă ሾ‫ܪ‬ଷ ܱ ሿ ൌ ඥ݇௔ ή ܿு஺  LDU ‫ ܪ݌‬ൌ െ݈݃ඥ݇௔ ή ܿு஺  sau ‫ ܪ݌‬ൌ ‫݇݌‬௔ െ ݈݃ܿு஺  .
ʹ ʹ
'H H[HPSOX pHXO XQHL VROXĠLL GH DFLG DFHWLF &+&22+  GH FRQFHQWUDĠLH 0 Na =
ÂPRO/VDXSNa  HVWH
ሾ‫ܪ‬ଷ ܱା ሿ ൌ ඥ݇௔ ή ܿு஺ ൌ ඥͳǡͺ ή ͳͲିହ ή ʹ ή ͳͲିଵ ൌ ͳǡͺͻ ή ͳͲିଷ ݉‫݈݋‬Ȁ‫ܮ‬
pH = -lg[H2+@ OJÂ OJ 

141
FROHFĦLD
('8&$ĥ,21$/
RETINETI
, ,
ͳ ͳ ͳ ͳ
sau pH = SNa - lgcHA = Â OJ 
ʹ ʹ ʹ ʹ
$FHVWPRGGHFDOFXODOS+XOXLSRDWHILXWLOL]DWúLSHQWUXDFL]LLIRDUWHVODEL NE GDU
SHQWUXFRQFHQWUDĠLLQXIRDUWHPLFL FHA!NwNa).
'HH[HPSOXS+XOVROXĠLHLGH+&1 Na ÂPRO/ GHFRQFHQWUDĠLH0HVWH
ሾ‫ܪ‬ଷ ܱା ሿ ൌ ඥ݇௔ ή ܿு஺ ൌ ඥͶǡͻ ή ͳͲିଵ଴ ή ͳͲିଵ ൌ ඥͲǡͶͻ ή ͳͲିଵଵ ή ͳͲିଵ ൌ
ൌ Ͳǡ͹ ή ͳͲି଺ ݉‫݈݋‬Ȁ‫ܮ‬
pH = -lg[H2+@ OJÂ OJ 

‡'DFăDFL]LLVXQWIRDUWHVODEL Na úLFXFRQFHQWUDĠLLPLFL FHA§NZNa VHLDXvQ


FRQVLGHUDUHDWkWLRQLL+2+SURYHQLĠLGLQLRQL]DUHDDFLGXOXLFkWúLLRQLL+2+SURYHQLĠLGLQLRQL]DUHD
DSHLúLFRQFHQWUDĠLDPRODUăDLRQLORU+2+GLQVROXĠLHVHFDOFXOHD]ăGXSăUHODĠLD
ሾ‫ܪ‬ଷ ܱା ሿ ൌ ඥ݇௪ ൅ ݇௔ ή ܿு஺ 
'H H[HPSOX S+XO XQHL VROXĠLL GH +&1 Na  Â PRO/  GH FRQFHQWUDĠLH Â
PRO/HVWH
ሾ‫ܪ‬ଷ ܱା ሿ ൌ ඥ݇௪ ൅ ݇௔ ή ܿு஺ ൌ ඥͳͲିଵସ ൅ Ͷǡͻ ή ͳͲିଵ଴ ή Ͳǡͷ ή ͳͲିସ ൌ ඥ͵ǡͶͷ ή ͳͲିଵସ ൌ
ൌ ͳǡͺͷ ή ͳͲି଻ ݉‫݈݋‬Ȁ‫ܮ‬
pH = -lg[H2+@ OJÂ OJ 
ÌQDFHVWFD]GDFăVDUQHJOLMDLRQLL+2+SURYHQLĠLGLQLRQL]DUHDDSHLS+XOVROXĠLHLDUIL
ሾ‫ܪ‬ଷ ܱା ሿ ൌ ඥ݇௔ ή ܿு஺ ൌ ඥͶǡͻ ή ͳͲିଵ଴ ή Ͳǡͷ ή ͳͲିସ ൌ ඥʹǡͶͷ ή ͳͲିଵସ ൌ ͳǡͷ͸ ή ͳͲି଻ ݉‫݈݋‬Ȁ‫ܮ‬
úLS+ OJ>+2+@ OJÂ OJ 
'LIHUHQĠDGLQWUHUH]XOWDWHDUDWăFăvQDFHVWFD]QXWUHEXLHVăVHQHJOLMH]HLRQLL+2+SURYHQLĠL
GLQLRQL]DUHDDSHL

‡'DFăFHANwNaVHQHJOLMHD]ăLRQLL+2+SURYHQLĠLGLQLRQL]DUHDDFLGXOXLúLVHLDXvQ
FRQVLGHUDUHQXPDLLRQLL+2+SURYHQLĠLGLQLRQL]DUHDDSHLLDUS+XOVROXĠLHLHVWHSUDFWLF
'HH[HPSOXSHQWUXRVROXĠLHGH+&1 Na ÂPRO/ GHFRQFHQWUDĠLHÂPRO/
GDFăVDUQHJOLMDLRQLL+2+SURYHQLĠLGLQLRQL]DUHDDSHLS+XODUIL
ሾ‫ܪ‬ଷ ܱା ሿ ൌ ඥ݇௔ ή ܿு஺ ൌ ඥͶǡͻ ή ͳͲିଵ଴ ή ͳͲି଺ ൌ ඥͶǡͻ ή ͳͲିଵ଺ ൌ ʹǡʹͳ ή ͳͲି଼ ݉‫݈݋‬Ȁ‫ ܮ‬úL
pH = -lg[H2+@ OJÂ OJ 
5H]XOWDWXOHVWHJUHúLWúLDUDWăFăWUHEXLHVăVHLDvQFDOFXOúLLRQLL+2+SURYHQLĠLGLQLRQL]DUHD
apei.
ሾ‫ܪ‬ଷ ܱା ሿ ൌ ඥ݇௪ ൅ ݇௔ ή ܿு஺ ൌ ඥͳͲିଵସ ൅ Ͷǡͻ ή ͳͲିଵ଴ ή ͳͲି଺ ൌ ͳǡͲʹͶ ή ͳͲି଻ ݉‫݈݋‬Ȁ‫ܮ‬
pH = -lg[H2+@ OJÂ OJ §
5H]XOWDWXODUDWăFăVHSRWQHJOLMDLRQLL+2+SURYHQLĠLGLQLRQL]DUHDDFLGXOXLFLDQKLGULF
‡&DOFXOXOS+XOXLSHQWUXVROXĠLLOHDSRDVHDOHED]HORUPRQRSURWLFHVODEH
ÌQVROXĠLDDSRDVăDXQHLED]HPRQRSURWLFHVODEHDXORFLRQL]ăULOH

%+2  %+++2–

+2  H2++2–
142 FROHFĦLD
('8&$ĥ,21$/
$FL]LúLED]H5HDFĠLLFXVFKLPEGHSURWRQL

&DQWLWDWHDGHLRQL+2 HOLEHUDĠLvQVROXĠLHGHRED]ăVODEăGHSLQGHGHWăULDED]HLFDUDFWHUL]DWă
SULQFRQVWDQWDGHED]LFLWDWH NE úLGHFRQFHQWUDĠLDED]HL F% &DúLvQFD]XODFL]LORUVODELHFKLOLEUXO
GHLRQL]DUHDXQHLED]HVODEHVHGHSODVHD]ăVSUHGUHDSWD VHQVXO RGDWăFXFUHúWHUHDWăULHLED]HLVDX
RGDWăFXVFăGHUHDFRQFHQWUDĠLHLVROXĠLHL
&DúLvQFD]XODFL]LORUVODELVHGLVWLQJPDLPXOWHFD]XUL
D 'DFă!Na!úLF%!PRO/ED]D%HVWHUHODWLYVODEăúLHVWHVXILFLHQWGHLRQL]DWă
vQFkWVăVHQHJOLMH]HLRQLL+2–SURYHQLĠLGLQLRQL]DUHDDSHL
$SOLFkQGDFHODúLUDĠLRQDPHQWIRORVLWvQFD]XODFL]LORUVODELVHGHGXFHUHODĠLDGXSăFDUHVH
SRDWHFDOFXODFRQFHQWUDĠLDPRODUăDLRQLORU+2–ODHFKLOLEUX
݇௕ ݇ଶ
ሾ‫ ିܱܪ‬ሿ ൌ െ ൅ ඨ ௕ ൅ ݇௕ ή ܿ஻஺ 
ʹ Ͷ
'HH[HPSOXS+XOVROXĠLHLDSRDVHGHGLHWLODPLQă &H)1+ GHFRQFHQWUDĠLH0 NE
ÂPRO/ HVWH

݇௕ ݇ଶ ͺǡ͹ ή ͳͲିସ ሺͺǡ͹ ή ͳͲିସ ሻଶ


ሾ‫ ିܱܪ‬ሿ ൌ െ ൅ ඨ ௕ ൅ ݇௕ ή ܿ஻஺ ൌ െ ൅ඨ ൅ ͺǡ͹ ή ͳͲିସ ή ͳͲିଶ ൌ
ʹ Ͷ ʹ Ͷ
ൌ െͶǡ͵ͷ ή ͳͲିସ ൅ ඥͳͺǡͻʹ ή ͳͲି଼ ൅ ͺǡ͹ ή ͳͲି଺ ൌ െͶǡ͵ͷ ή ͳͲିସ ൅ ʹͻǡͺ ή ͳͲିସ ൌ
ൌ ʹͷǡͶͷ ή ͳͲିସ ݉‫݈݋‬Ȁ‫ܮ‬
݇௪ ͳͲିସ ݉‫݈݋‬
ሾ‫ܪ‬ଷ ܱା ሿ ൌ ି
ൌ ିସ
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6HVWDELOHVFFRH¿FLHQĠLLSHQWUXVXEVWDQĠHOHFHFRQĠLQHOHPHQWHOHSDUWLFLSDQWHODSURFHVXO
redox.
.,.0Q2 + H62ĺ.62,0Q62 + H2
6HVWDELOHVFFRH¿FLHQĠLLSHQWUXFHOHODOWHVXEVWDQĠH6HUHFRPDQGăVăVHOXFUH]HvQRUGLQHD
PHWDOHQHPHWDOH DOWHOHGHFkW+úL2 KLGURJHQR[LJHQ
.,.0Q2+62ĺ.62,0Q62+2
ÌQ H[HPSOXO DQDOL]DW VH REVHUYă Fă LRQLL .+ úL 62± QX SDUWLFLSă OD UHDFĠLH 'H DFHHD
SURFHVXOVHSRDWHVLPSOL¿FD
,–0Q2–++ĺ,0Q+2

$QVDPEOXO IRUPDW GLQWUXQ R[LGDQW 2[  úL UHGXFăWRUXO FRQMXJDW OXL 5HG  VH
QXPHúWHFXSOXR[LGDQWUHGXFăWRUVDXFXSOXUHGR[
2[QH– 5HG
ÌQWUXQ FXSOX UHGR[ UHGXFăWRUXO HVWH GRQRUXO GH HOHFWURQL LDU R[LGDQWXO HVWH
DFFHSWRUXOGHHOHFWURQL
/DRUHDFĠLHGHR[LGRUHGXFHUHSDUWLFLSăGRXăFXSOXULUHGR[
5HG1 2[1QH– VDX 5HG 2[ 2[ 5HG 1  1 
2[QH– 5HG
   
ÌQUHDFĠLDUHGR[+62&ĺ&262+2 FHOHGRXăFXSOXULUHGR[VXQW

206 FROHFĦLD
('8&$ĥ,21$/
Electrochimia
   
6H– 6 úL &H– &
2[ Red 2[ Red

6SHFLLOHFKLPLFHFDUHFRQĠLQHOHPHQWHFXQXPăUGHR[LGDUHPLQLPSUH]LQWăQXPDLFDUDFWHU
UHGXFăWRUSHQWUXFăQXSRWSDUWLFLSDGHFkWODXQSURFHVFHDUHORFFXPăULUHDQXPăUXOXLGHR[LGDUH
DGLFăODXQSURFHVGHR[LGDUH
6SHFLLOHFKLPLFHFDUHFRQĠLQHOHPHQWHFXQXPăUGHR[LGDUHPD[LPSUH]LQWăQXPDLFDUDFWHU
R[LGDQWSHQWUXFăQXSRWSDUWLFLSDGHFkWODXQSURFHVFHDUHORFFXPLFúRUDUHDQXPăUXOXLGHR[LGDUH
DGLFăODXQSURFHVGHUHGXFHUH
6SHFLLOHFKLPLFHFDUHFRQĠLQHOHPHQWHFXQXPăUGHR[LGDUHLQWHUPHGLDUvQWUHFHOPLQLPúL
FHOPD[LPSRW¿úLDJHQĠLR[LGDQĠLúLDJHQĠLUHGXFăWRUL
([HPSOX
   

-H6 6 62 H62 FUHúWH12


$FLGXO VXOIKLGULF +6  FX 126   SRDWH ¿ QXPDL DJHQW UHGXFăWRU LDU DFLGXO VXOIXULF
(H62 FX126 SRDWH¿QXPDLDJHQWR[LGDQWLDUVXOIXO 6 FX126 úLGLR[LGXOGHVXOI
62 FX126 SRW¿úLDJHQĠLR[LGDQĠLúLDJHQĠLUHGXFăWRUL

(OHFWUR]L3RWHQĠLDOHVWDQGDUGGHHOHFWURG
(OHFWURFKLPLDHVWHXQFDSLWRODOFKLPLHLFDUHVWXGLD]ăWUDQVIRUPăULOHUHFLSURFHGLQWUHHQHUJLD
FKLPLFăúLHQHUJLDHOHFWULFă
ÌQHOHFWURFKLPLHSULQHOHFWURGVHvQĠHOHJHXQDQVDPEOXIRUPDWGLQWUXQFRQGXFWRUHOHFWURQLF
úLVROXĠLDHOHFWUROLWXOXLGLQMXUXOVăX
8QFRQGXFăWRUHOHFWURQLFFRQGXFHFXUHQWXOHOHFWULFSULQLQWHUPHGLXOHOHFWURQLORU0HWDOHOHúL
JUD¿WXOVXQWFRQGXFăWRULHOHFWURQLFL
(OHFWUROLĠLL FRQGXF FXUHQWXO HOHFWULF vQ VWDUH WRSLWă VDX vQ VROXĠLH SULQ LQWHUPHGLXO LRQLORU
(OHFWUROLĠLLSRW¿VăUXULDFL]LVDXED]H
ÌQHOHFWURFKLPLHVXQWXWLOL]DĠLHOHFWUR]LGHPDLPXOWHWLSXUL
‡(OHFWURGXOXQXLPHWDOUHSUH]LQWăDQVDPEOXOIRUPDWGLQWURODPăPHWDOLFăFXIXQGDWăvQWUR
VROXĠLHFHFRQĠLQHLRQLLPHWDOXOXLUHVSHFWLY
ÌQWUHDWRPLLGHPHWDOGLQODPDPHWDOLFăúLLRQLLVăLGLQVROXĠLHVHVWDELOHúWHXQHFKLOLEUX
(oxidare)
Me(s) (reducere) Men+(aq) + ne–
'HSHSODFDPHWDOLFăVHGHVSULQGFRQWLQXXDWRPLFDUHGXSăFHDXFHGDWHOHFWURQLvQSURFHVXO
GHR[LGDUHWUHFvQVROXĠLHFDLRQL0Hn+(OHFWURQLLFHGDĠLUăPkQSHSODFDPHWDOLFăúLVXQWSUHOXDĠLvQ
procesul de reducere de ionii Men+GLQVROXĠLHFDUHWUHFvQDWRPLFDUHVH¿[HD]ăSHSODFDPHWDOLFă
)LLQGXQVLVWHPvQHFKLOLEUXYLWH]HOHFXFDUHVHGHVIăúRDUăFHOHGRXăSURFHVHVXQWHJDOHúLDVWIHOQX
VHPRGL¿FăQLFLPDVDSOăFLLGHPHWDOúLQLFLFRQFHQWUDĠLDLRQLORU0Hn+GLQVROXĠLH
'HVFULHUHDXQXLHOHFWURGVHIDFHvQRUGLQHDUHGXFăWRUR[LGDQW$VWIHOHOHFWURGXOXQXLPHWDO
VHQRWHD]ă0H(s)_0Hn+(aq)XQGH0HUHSUH]LQWăPHWDOXO UHGXFăWRU 0Hn+(aq)LRQLLPHWDOXOXLGLQ
VROXĠLH R[LGDQW LDUEDUDYHUWLFDOăLQWHUIDĠDGLQWUHFHOHGRXăID]H
'HH[HPSOXSHQWUXHOHFWURGXOGH]LQFIRUPDWGLQWURSODFăGH]LQFLQWURGXVăvQWURVROXĠLH
GHVXOIDWGH]LQF =Q62 VHVWDELOHúWHHFKLOLEUXO
(oxidare)
=Q(s) (reducere)
=Q(aq)H–
(OHFWURGXOGH]LQFVHUHSUH]LQWă=Q(s)_=Q(aq).
207
FROHFĦLD
('8&$ĥ,21$/
RETINETI
, ,
'DFă HOHFWUR]LL VXQW FRQVWUXLĠL vQ FRQGLĠLL VWDQGDUG HL VH QXPHVF HOHFWUR]L VWDQGDUG
&RQGLĠLLOHVWDQGDUGVXQW
WHPSHUDWXUDƒ&VDX.
SUHVLXQHDDWP
FRQFHQWUDĠLDLRQLORUGLQVROXĠLHPRO/
$VWIHOHOHFWURGXOVWDQGDUGGH]LQFHVWHIRUPDWGLQWURSODFăGH]LQFFXIXQGDWăvQWURVROXĠLH
GH VXOIDW GH ]LQF FX FRQFHQWUDĠLD LRQLORU =Q 0 WRW DQVDPEOXO DYkQG WHPSHUDWXUD GH ƒ&
(OHFWURGXOVWDQGDUGVHUHSUH]LQWă=Q(s)_=Q(aq) 0 
‡ (OHFWURGXO VWDQGDUG GH KLGURJHQ QXPLW úL HOHFWURG QRUPDO GH
KLGURJHQHVWHIRUPDWGLQWURSODFăGHSODWLQăFXIXQGDWăvQWURVROXĠLH
DFLGăFXFRQFHQWUDĠLDLRQLORU+2+GHPRO/SULQFDUHVHEDUERWHD]ă
KLGURJHQJD]RVFXSUHVLXQHDGHDWPWRWVLVWHPXODYkQGWHPSHUDWXUD
GHƒ& ¿J
6H XWLOL]HD]ă GH RELFHL R SODFă GH SODWLQă DFRSHULWă FX XQ
VWUDWVXEĠLUHGHSODWLQăVSRQJLRDVăúLRVROXĠLHDSRDVăGHDFLGVXOIXULF
ÌQWUHPROHFXOHOHGHKLGURJHQúLLRQLLGHKLGURQLXGLQVROXĠLDDFLGăVH
VWDELOHúWHXUPăWRUXOHFKLOLEUX
 (oxidare) + –
 H J + H2(l) (reducere) H2 (aq) + e
$FHVWHFKLOLEUXSRDWH¿UHGDWPDLVLPSOX
 (oxidare) + –
 H J (reducere) H (aq) + e
&XP VSHFLLOH FKLPLFH vQWUH FDUH VH UHDOL]HD]ă VFKLPEXO GH
)LJXUD(OHFWURGXO HOHFWURQLQXVXQWFRQGXFWRULHOHFWURQLFLHOHWUHEXLHVă¿HvQFRQWDFWFX
QRUPDOGHKLGURJHQ XQPHWDOLQHUW SODWLQD SHFDUHVăVHDFXPXOH]HHOHFWURQLL(OHFWURGXO
VWDQGDUGGHKLGURJHQVHUHSUH]LQWă
  3W(s)_+ J  DWP _+2+(aq) 0
‡ (OHFWURGXO UHGR[ HVWH DOFăWXLW GLQWUR ODPă D XQXL PHWDO LQHUW SODWLQă  LQWURGXVă vQWUR
VROXĠLHFHFRQĠLQHLRQLvQGRXăVWăULGHR[LGDUHGLIHULWHLRQLvQWUHFDUHDUHORFVFKLPEXOGHHOHFWURQL
'HH[HPSOXvQWURVROXĠLHvQFDUHVDXGL]ROYDWVXOIDWGH¿HU ,,  )H62 úLVXOIDWGH¿HU ,,, 
(Fe 62) VHVWDELOHúWHHFKLOLEUXO
(oxidare)
Fe(aq) (reducere) Fe(aq) + e–
$FHVWHOHFWURGVHUHSUH]LQWăDVWIHO3W(s)_)H(aq))H(aq).
‡ (OHFWURGXO GH JD] DVHPăQăWRU FX HOHFWURGXO GH KLGURJHQ HVWH IRUPDW GLQWUR SODFă GH
PHWDOQRELO SODWLQă FDUHHVWHLQWURGXVăvQWURVROXĠLHFHFRQĠLQHLRQLLXQXLQHPHWDO +2– pentru
HOHFWURGXOGHR[LJHQ&O–SHQWUXHOHFWURGXOGHFORUHWF SULQFDUHVHEDUERWHD]ăQHPHWDOXOJD]RV
(FKLOLEUXOVHVWDELOHúWHvQWUHQHPHWDOXOJD]RVúLLRQLLGLQVROXĠLH
(oxidare) 
  &O– (reducere)  &O + e–
$FHVWHOHFWURGVHUHSUH]LQWă3W(s)_&O–(aq)_&O J .
‡(OHFWURGXOFRPSXVGLQWUXQPHWDORVDUHJUHXVROXELOăDDFHVWXLPHWDOúLXQHOHFWUROLW
VDUHVDXDFLG FDUHDXDQLRQXOFRPXQ8QDVWIHOGHHOHFWURGHVWHHOHFWURGXOGHFDORPHOIRUPDWGLQ
PHUFXUFORUXUăGHPHUFXU ,  +J&O VROLGăúLRVROXĠLHGHFORUXUăGHSRWDVLX .&O FDUHvQDFHVWH
FRQGLĠLLHVWHVDWXUDWăvQ+J&O&HOHGRXăVăUXULDXDQLRQXO&O–vQFRPXQ(FKLOLEUXOFRUHVSXQ]ăWRU
acestui electrod este:
(oxidare)
  +J(s)&O–(aq) (reducere)
Hg&O V H–

208 FROHFĦLD
('8&$ĥ,21$/
Electrochimia
$FHVWHOHFWURGVHUHSUH]LQWăDVWIHO+J(l)_+J&O V _.&O(aq).
‡/DVXSUDIDĠDGHFRQWDFWGLQWUHFRQGXFWRUXOHOHFWURQLFúLVROXĠLDHOHFWUROLWXOXLGLQFDGUXOXQXL
HOHFWURGVHVWDELOHúWHRGLIHUHQĠăGHSRWHQĠLDOQXPLWăSRWHQĠLDOGHHOHFWURG.
$FHDVWă GLIHUHQĠă GH SRWHQĠLDO GLQWUH UHGXFăWRU úL R[LGDQW HVWH GDWRUDWă VFKLPEXOXL GH
HOHFWURQLGLQWUHDFHVWHVSHFLLFKLPLFH
9DORDUHDDEVROXWăDDFHVWXLSRWHQĠLDOQXVHSRDWHGHWHUPLQD3HQWUXGHWHUPLQDUHDYDORULORU
UHODWLYHDOHSRWHQĠLDOHORUGHHOHFWURGVDDOHVFDSRWHQĠLDOGHUHIHULQĠăSRWHQĠLDOXOHOHFWURGXOXLQRUPDO
GHKLGURJHQDFăUXLYDORDUHHVWHFRQVLGHUDWă]HUR
'LIHUHQĠD GH SRWHQĠLDO GLQWUH SRWHQĠLDOXO XQXL HOHFWURG VWDQGDUG úL SRWHQĠLDOXO
HOHFWURGXOXL QRUPDO GH KLGURJHQ HVWH QXPLWă SRWHQĠLDO VWDQGDUG GH HOHFWURG úL SRDWH ¿
GHWHUPLQDWăH[SHULPHQWDO6HQRWHD]ăFX(ƒ
'DFăVHFRQVLGHUăUHDFĠLDGHR[LGDUHSRWHQĠLDOXOVWDQGDUGGHHOHFWURGHVWHXQSRWHQĠLDOGH
R[LGDUH$YkQGvQYHGHUHFăUHDFĠLDGHR[LGDUHGHFXUJHFRQIRUPVFKHPHL
(oxidare)
5HGXFăWRU 2[LGDQWQH–
SRWHQĠLDOXOVWDQGDUGGHR[LGDUH (ƒox VHQRWHD]ă(ƒ5HG_2[.
3RWHQĠLDOXOVWDQGDUGGHR[LGDUHDOHOHFWURGXOXLXQXLPHWDOvQFD]XOFăUXLDUHDFĠLDGHR[LGDUH
este:
Me(s) 5HGXFăWRU ĺ0Hn+(aq) 2[LGDQW QH–
VHQRWHD]ă(ƒ0H_0Hn+.
&RQVLGHUkQG UHDFĠLD GH UHGXFHUH SRWHQĠLDOXO VWDQGDUG GH HOHFWURG HVWH XQ SRWHQĠLDO GH
UHGXFHUH$YkQGvQYHGHUHFăUHDFĠLDGHUHGXFHUHGHFXUJHFRQIRUPVFKHPHL
(reducere)
2[LGDQWQH– 5HGXFăWRU
SRWHQĠLDOXOVWDQGDUGGHUHGXFHUH (ƒUHG VHQRWHD]ă(ƒ2[_5HG.
3RWHQĠLDOXO VWDQGDUG GH UHGXFHUH DO HOHFWURGXOXL XQXL PHWDO vQ FD]XO FăUXLD UHDFĠLD GH
reducere este:
Men+(aq) 2[LGDQW QH–ĺ0H(s) 5HGXFăWRU
VHQRWHD]ă(ƒMen+_0H.
3HQWUX VSHFLLOH FKLPLFH DWRPL LRQL  FDUH DX WHQGLQĠD GH D VH R[LGD GH D FHGD
HOHFWURQL PDLPDUHGHFkWDKLGURJHQXOXLSRWHQĠLDOXOGHR[LGDUHHVWHFRQVL