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CHAPTER NO.

INTRODUCTION

1.1 GENERAL:

 With two thirds of the earth's surface covered by water and the human body consisting of 75
percent of it, it is evidently clear that water is one of the prime elements responsible for life on
earth. Water circulates through the land just as it does through the human body, transporting,
dissolving, and replenishing nutrients and organic matter, while carrying away waste material.
Further in the body, it regulates the activities of fluids, tissues, cells, lymph, blood and glandular
secretions. Water is involved in all bodily functions: digestion, assimilation, elimination,
respiration, maintaining temperature (homeostasis) integrity and the strength of all bodily
structures. Today, the water is polluted with hundreds of toxins and impurities. Authorities only
test for a small number of them. Your body, being primarily water, requires sufficient daily water
replacement in order to function efficiently. Viewing the effects of individual chemicals,
inorganic minerals and their by-products, we can see a link to today's major diseases [ CITATION
Imp16 \l 1033 ].

Having safe drinking water and basic sanitation is a human need and right for every man, woman
and child. People need clean water and sanitation to maintain their health and dignity. Having
better water and sanitation is essential in breaking the cycle of poverty since it improves people’s
health, strength to work, and ability go to school. Yet 884 million people around the world live
without improved drinking water and 2.5 billion people still lack access to improved sanitation
[ CITATION Dri16 \l 1033 ].

1.2 OBJECTIVES:

Common reasons to conduct water quality testing at this level are to:
 Compare drinking water quality of different water samples.
 Ensure safe drinking water.
 Identify problems.
 Adopt precautionary measures.
 Raise awareness.
 Determine the effectiveness of water technologies.
 Select an appropriate water source.
 Influence government to supply safe water.
1.3 SCOPE:

The scope of carrying out testing is to compare the drinking water quality of different water
samples by testing different parameters like pH, turbidity, chlorides concentration, sulphates
concentration, sodium concentration, iron concentration, total dissolved solids etc. By comparing
the readings of different parameters with National Environmental Quality Standards (NEQs) it
can be ensured that whether water is safe for drinking or not.

These tests can also be used to identify problems in drinking water samples and devise solutions
for them. Moreover the efficiency and effectiveness of different tests can also be determined.
Based on all these the most suitable water sample having values of different parameters in
compliance with NEQs is selected.