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Freshman l Sophomore

Watch Accompanying Video Vocabulary


Part 1 | Part 2 A. junior year: In high school and
college, the terms Freshman,
Sophomore, Junior, and Senior are used
1:12 – 2:32 for first, second, third and fourth-year
students. Students from those years are
MONICA: Really? Okay, so why don’t called Freshmen, Sophomore, Juniors
you tell me what happened to Ross and Seniors.
Junior yearA at Disneyland?
B. hibachi: An open metal grill used for
CHANDLER: Oh no-no, I can’t do that. cooking, especially Japanese food.

MONICA: If you tell me, I’ll tell you C. trunk: The covered space in the back
of a car that’s used for carrying things. Junior l Senior
what Phoebe said. Okay - Okay.

CHANDLER: So, Ross and I are going D. iffy: this means to be full of
to Disneyland and we stop at this uncertainty or doubt, but Chandler uses
restaurant for tacosPIC. And when I it to insinuate that Ross didn’t feel good.
say restaurant, I mean a guy, a >> He made a quick choice and still felt
hibachib, and the trunkC of his car. So, iffy for a while afterwards.
Ross has about 10 tacos. And anyway,
we’re on Space MountainI and Ross E. throw up: To vomit. >> He said he felt
starts to feel a little iffy D. sick and then threw up.

MONICA: Oh my God. He threw upE? F. either way: This expression means in


any case. We use this to say that any
Chandler: No, he visited a little town one of two alternatives can be chosen.
south of throw upII. Taco
I. I’ll pass: To not take, accept, or use
MONICA: No!!! something that is offered to you. >>
Thank you for the offer, but I'll pass.
Scene at Monica’s apartment

ROSS: Uh, those are tacos?


Pronunciation
MONICA: Excuse me Mr. Mexico.
1. I still can’t eat those:
Ross: Eh, either wayFI’ll passG.I still aɪ stɪɫ kæn-i-ðʊz
can’t eat those1. What's so funny? Hibachi
References
MONICA: I’m not laughing!
I. Space Mountain: A really fun indoor,
ROSS: You told her! space themed roller coaster ride at
Disneyland.
CHANDLER: Nancy Thompson Is
getting fired! II. South of throw up: To be “south” of
something is to be “down below.” In this
case, Chandler is insinuating that Ross
got sick in the lower part of his body; in
other words, Ross had Diarrhea.
1
Food poisoning
2:32 – 3:44 Vocabulary
ROSS: Look, okay-okay I had food A. food poisoning: Illness that occurs as
poisoningA! It’s not like I chose to do a result of eating contaminated, spoiled
it! It’s not like—It’s not like I said, or toxic food.
"Umm, what would make this ride
more fun?!" B. keep secrets: to not reveal
information to someone who needs or
MONICA: You’re right. You’re right, maybe feels he or she has the right to
I’m sorry. Yeah, I shouldn’t be know about it. >> He's always been
laughing. I should be laying down transparent with us. I don't think he is Make out (with someone)
papers for youI! keeping any secrets.

ROSS: How could you tell her?! C. make eyes (at someone): to look at
someone with sexual interest. >> She's
Chandler: I had to okay?! We’re been making eyes at him all day.
getting married! Married couples
can’t keep secretsB from one another! D. go over: to approach or get closer to
a person, usually to tell them something.
ROSS: Oh really? Well I-I guess Mon >> He went over to the police officer to
should know about Atlantic CityII. ask him for directions.

CHANDLER: Du-ude! E. make out (with someone): to kiss


someone. >> We made out after the
MONICA: What happened in Atlantic date.
City?!
Lay down papers
ROSS: Well, Chandler and I are in a
Pronunciation
bar… 1. Did you hear me say…:
dɪ-dʒə nɑt hir mɪ seɪ…
CHANDLER: Did you not hear me
say1, "Du-ude?!" 2. Now, I know what you’re thinking:
naʊ aɪ noʊ wə tʃər θɪnkɪŋ
ROSS: And this girl is making eyes atC
Chandler, okay? So, after awhile he-
he goes overD to her and uh, after a
References
minute or two, I see them kissing.
Now, I know what you’re thinking2, I. I should be laying down papers for
Chandler’s not the type of guy who you: She's saying that she should put or
just goes to bars and makes out withE "lay down" old newspapers (like we do
for animals that poop on the floor) so Atlantic City
girls, and you’re right, Chandler’s not
the type of guy who just goes to bars Ross doesn't make a mess with his
and makes out with…girls. diarrhea.

MONICA: You kissed a guy?!! Oh my II. Atlantic City: City in New Jersey, a
God. state in the U.S., that’s known for its
beaches and casinos.
CHANDLER: In my defense, it was
dark and he was a very pretty guy.

ROSS: Oh Mon, I laughed so hard… 2


Underwear
3:44 – 5:00 Vocabulary
CHANDLER: Ho-ho, so hard we had to A. came in first/second, etc: to rank or
throw out your1 underwearPIC again? take a certain place in a contest or
competition. >> Kevin came in third in
ROSS: Whatever dude, you kissed a the race.
guy.
B. well up: to experience an emotion or
CHANDLER: You wanna tell secrets?! feeling, start to cry. >> She welled up
Okay! Okay! In college, Ross used to when her pet died.
wear leg warmerspic! Leg warmers
C. find something funny/interesting,
ROSS: All right! All right! Chandler etc: to think that something is
entered a Vanilla Ice look-a-like funny/interesting. >> If you’re still
contestI and won! finding this class hard, maybe you
should take a beginner’s one first.
CHANDLER: Ross came in fourthA and
cried! D. shush: used to tell someone to be
quiet. >> Shush! The baby’s sleeping.
MONICA: Oh my God!
E. tell time: To know the time of day
ROSS: Hey! I welled upB. Oh, is that from a clock. >> Are you able to tell time
funny?! Oh, you-you find that from this distance?
funnyC?! Well maybe Chandler should
know some of your secrets too! Pronunciation Well up

MONICA: I-I already told him 1. We had to throw out your:


everything! You shushD!! wɪ əd-ə θroʊ aʊt jər

ROSS: Once Monica was sent to her References


room without dinner, so she ate the
macaroni off a jewelry box she’d I. Vanilla Ice look-a-like contest: Vanilla
madeII. Ice is an American rapper most known
for its 90s song Ice, Ice Baby. A look-a-
MONICA: Ross used to stay home like contest is a competition whose Vanilla Ice
every Saturday night to watch Golden winner is someone who best resembles
GirlsIII! or looks like a celebrity by wearing a
special costume or makeup.
Ross: Monica couldn’t tell timeE until
she was 13! II. She ate the macaroni off a jewelry
box she’d made: Macaroni is a kind of
MONICA: It’s hard for some people! pasta, and a jewelry box is a collection of
jewels like rings or necklaces, or objects
CHANDLER: Of course it is. Wow. made of valuable material or precious
stones.
MONICA: Chandler one time wore my
underwear to work! III. Golden Girls: American sitcom that
aired from 1985-1992 about the lives of
CHANDLER: Hey!!! four older women.

3
Cleaning lady
5:00 – 5:16 Vocabulary
MONICA: Ohh, I’m sorry I couldn’t A. think of something: if you think of
think ofA any more for Ross! something it comes to your mind. If you
want to decide how to name your pet,
ROSS: Ohh! Ohh! In college, Chandler you’ll try to think of different names.
got drunk and slept with the ladyB This is a distinction of the often
who cleaned our dormC! confused think about, which means give
thought to something or consider
CHANDLER: That was you! something. In this case, you might be
thinking about adopting a pet.
ROSS: Whatever dude, you kissed a
guy. B. lady: this is the common word by
which the woman that cleans a room is
addressed by. In other words, the
Dorm
cleaning lady.

C. dorm: Short for “dormitory,” which is


a building on college campuses where
students live. This can also mean a large
room with many beds (for example in a
hostel).

This is a Free Sample of RealLife English’s


Fluent with Friends Course. Learn more
Watch Accompanying Video judgemental
Part 2 Vocabulary look
2:07-3:00 A. judgemental: someone who is (or
JOEY: gets) judgmental, makes remarks or
can you be married? approaches a situation with opinions
based on generalizations.
PHOEBE: Well, I mean, I’m not married to judge (verb) “to judge a person”
married, you know, he’s just a friend and a judge (noun): the authority in a court
he’s gay and he’s just from Canada1 and room.
he just needed a green cardI. judgemental (adjective) “a judgmental
person”
MONICA: I can’t believe you married
a judgement (noun): opinions and remarks.
Duncan. I mean how could you2 not tell
me? We lived together, we told each oth- prejudice (noun): the negative attitude leave town
er everything. that motivates a person to be judgmental.

PHOEBE: I’m sorry Monica but I know B. hello: used in mid-speech to show
if I told you, you’d get really, like, judge- suprise about something
mental3A and you would not approve.
C. leave town: to travel outside of a
MONICA: Of course I wouldn’t approve, city. “Town” here refers to a city.
I mean, you were totally in love with
this guy who, helloB, was gay. I mean,
what the hell were you thinking? Pronunciation
1. Canada: ‘kæ.nə.də
Green Card
ROSS: You see, and you thought she’d be
judgemental. 2. how could you: haʊ kə-dʒu
/d/, /j/ sometimes
becomes /dʒ/
PHOEBE: OK, I wasn’t in love with him Monica said it or /haʊ kəd ju/.
and I was just helping out a friend.
3. judgemental: ‘dʒʌdʒ.men.təɫ
MONICA: Please, when he C

you stayed in your pajamas4 for a month 4. pajamas: pə.’dʒɑ.məz


and I saw you eat a cheeseburgerII.
References
ALL: Huuh.
I. Green Card: a document that proves
MONICA: Well, didn’t you? that an immigrant can reside and work
in the United States. cheeseburguer

PHOEBE: I might have.


II. Phoebe eating an cheeseburguer:
MONICA: I can’t believe you didn’t tell me.
is a vegetarian.
1
3:00-4:02
Vocabulary
PHOEBE: Oh, c’mon, like you tell me A. pole: a cylindrical object used to hold
everything. something. >> Flagpole / power pole.

MONICA: What have I not told you1? B. terrace: an outdoor space on top of a
house or building.
PHOEBE: Oh, I don’t know. Umm, how
about the fact that the underwear out C. sheepish: showing or feeling embar-
rassment especially because you have
there on the telephone poleA is yours
done something foolish or wrong. power pole
from when you were having sex with
Fun Bobby out on the terraceB. D. dead meat: used to refer to a cadaver
or to someone who is doomed to a mis-
RACHEL: What! fortune. It’s also widely used to threaten
someone. >> Who ever scratched my bike
MONICA: Wait a minute, who told you? is dead meat! >> You’re dead meat if I
[turns to Chandler who’s looking sheep-
ishC] You are dead meatD. terrace
E. same lines as = similar to. Usual-
CHANDLER: I didn’t know it was a big ly used as “along the same line as” or
2

secret. “speaking on those lines”. >> I was think-


ing along the same/those lines. Investing
MONICA: Oh it’s not big, not at all3, now wouldn’t be a bad idea.
you know, kinda the same lines asE, say,
F. whip it out: to pull an object, or a body
oh I don’t know, having a third nipple.
-
ly (this relates to the “whipping” motion sheepish
PHOEBE: You have a third nipple? of a whipPIC). In the scene: Ross is asking
Chandler to quickly reveal to them his third
CHANDLER: You bitch. nipple. >> He whipped out his wallet to pay
for the ladies drinks.
ROSS: Whip it outF, whip it out.

CHANDLER: C’mon, there’s nothing to Pronunciation


see, it’s just a tiny bump, it’s totally useless. 1. what have I not told you:
wə-rəv aɪ nɑt toʊl-dʒu
RACHEL: Oh as, as opposed to your 2. I didn’t know: I ɾɪn noʊ whip
other multi-functional nipples? We know that /t/ tends to become /ɾ/ when
it’s in between vowels. However, since /d/ is
JOEY: I can’t believe you. You told me it articulated in the exact same way with the
was a nubbin. ʌɑæɜəɔɪʊθðʃʒŋɫɾtˡʔ
5. :s
sometimes also becomes /ɾ/.
ROSS: Joey, what do you think a nubbin
was? 3. not at all: nɑ-ɾə-ɾɔɫ
2
4:02-4:43 Vocabulary
JOEY: I don’t know1, you see something, A. nubbin: an object that is not fully
you hear a word, I thought that’s what it formed; used jokingly for Chandler’s
was2. Let me see it again. third nipple.

ALL B. go down: to die in battle (literal


the nubbin, the nubbinA. sense; used in a military scenario). In
the scene: Chandler uses this to say that
CHANDLER: Joey was in a porno movie. if he is going to go down (have secrets
told), others will go down with him.
ALL: Huuh.
C. go/come through =
CHANDLER: If I’m going down , I’m
B
bureaucratic process) work as planned
takin’ everybody with me. or expected. go
through. >> Her visa application didn’t
ROSS: You were in a porno movie? go through.

JOEY: Ahh, alright, alright, alright, I D. wild: used here to say that Joey’s
was young and I just wanted a job , OK. actions were crazy, and not something
3

But at the last minute4 I couldn’t go that most people would do.
through with it so they let me be the
C

Pronunciation
can’t ‘cuz there’s people having sex on it. 1. I don’t know: aɪ ɾə noʊ

MONICA: wildD. 2. I thought that’s what it was:


aɪ tɔtˡ ðæts wə-ɾɪtˡ wɔz
ROSS: So what’s it shaped like5? “Was” is /wɔz/ and not /wəz/ here because it
is said with it’s strong form (which is how it’s
PHOEBE: Yeah, is there a hair on it?

JOEY: What happens if you PIC


it? 3. wanted a job: wɑ-nɪd ə dʒɑb
This is a Free Sample of RealLife English’s
4. but at the last minute:
Fluent with Friends Course. Learn More
bə-ɾətˡ ðə lɑstˡ ‘mɪ.nɪtˡ

5. what’s it shaped like:


wʌt-sɪtˡ ʃeɪptˡ laɪk

3
Pronunciation Key Guide
The purpose of this guide is to give you some knowledge on the basics of
connected speech and orientate you on how to use the pronunciation part
of the Power Lessons.

1. Structure and content words: strong and weak forms of content words.
2. Stress marks (ˈ ˌ) and syllable boundaries (.)
3. Black underlining
4. Red underlining
5. Difference between consonant pairs
1. Structure and content words: strong and weak forms of structure words.
Structure or function words are words that serve a grammatical purpose within a sen-
tence. Content or lexical words are those that carry the meaning of a sentence. In the
example below content words stand out:

She has read a lot of books about cooking


Without the structure words, one could still infer the meaning of a sentence. However,
we do need structure words to convey details of tense, number, possession, etc. In the
sentences below, structure words are highlighted:

He is going to be able to stay at home


Rock and Roll is her favorite type of music

Structure and Content words make the rhythm of English. That is, we stress the main
syllable in content words, and we unstress structure words.

How do we unstress structure words? We pronounce them with their weak form instead
of with their strong form. Structure words have strong and weak forms. We use strong
forms when we say the word in isolation or when we want to emphasize it. We use weak
forms when we say the words within a sentence. Below are some examples of strong
and weak forms of some structure words:

Structure words Strong form Weak form


AT æt ət
AND ænd ənd / ən / n
TO tu tə / ɾə
DO du də

This is important to know because this is the backbone of the particular rhythm that
English has. It is also the base of connected speech and the stressing pattern a learner
should have a good grasp on if he or she wishes to work on accent reduction.
2. Stress marks (ˈ ˌ) and syllable boundaries (.)
The words that bear stress are content words. However, a content word can be made
up of several syllables, and when this is the case only the prominent syllables will be
stressed. The rest will be unstressed, just like structure words.
In the example below the whole (content) word is highlighted:

Rock and Roll is her favorite type of music


But below only the stressed syllables are highlighted:

Rock and Roll is her favorite type of music


In the Power Lessons, syllables are separated with periods (.) and stressed syllables are
indicated with a stress mark (ˈ). For example:

Words that are content words but that only have one syllable, do not bear a stress mark
(since it is not necessary).

In the example above, “birds” is a content word, but since it’s a monosyllable there’s
no need to put a stress mark. However, “disturbing” has three syllables and we need to
show which one stands out from the rest in terms of stress.

While a stress mark on top of the letter (ˈ) represents a primary stress, a stress mark on
the bottom (ˌ) represents a secondary stress, which is pronounced with a bit less promi-
nence than a primary stress. Example:

3. Black underlining
The black underlining shows you which words and syllables are supposed to be stressed
in an utterance. Pronouncing this correctly will make your English sound clear and with
good intonation.

Also note that the words that are not underlined are structure words, and as such are
pronounced in its unstressed or weak form (for is /fər/ instead of /fɔr/ and his is so weak
that it even drops the /h/)
4. Red underlining
The red underlining shows the linking aspect of English speech. We don’t speak pro-
nouncing each word in isolation, we link and cut words. The linking is shown with the red
underlining.

We also use it to point out a sound that we are going to explain further.

5. Differences between consonant pairs


The difference between some consonant sounds can be confusing at first. Here some
orientation as to what differentiate some of the most confusing sounds.

This is a regular T. When it’s at the end of a word, you can hear a release of air.
t
This is a Stop T. As opposed to a regular T, there’s not air release at the end of
tˡ the T.

This is a Flap T. It occurs when the letter “t” is between vowel consonants.
ɾ When this is the case you have the option to use a regular t or opt to pro-
nounce it with a flap t. Some examples are: “water” “city” “created.”
This is a Glottal T. It occurs before a sequence of a vowel plus /n/. The air
ʔ release is stopped in your throat. When you make this sound you can feel your
vocal folds closing on the throat. For example: “certain”, “captain”, “mountain.”

This is the light L. It’s also the L you’re most accustomed to since it’s more
l universal than its counterpart. It occurs when “l” precedes a vowel sound. For
example: “blog” “fly” “clock.”
This is the dark L. Learners traditionally need some time to notice and learn
ɫ how to articulate this sound. It’s the “l” that is follows a vowel sound. For ex-
ample: “little”, “cool”, “hill”.
This is the voiced TH. It’s articulated with your tongue in between your teeth
ð and with vibration in your throat. Some examples of this sound are: “there”,
“that”, “father”, “the”.
This is the voiceless TH. It’s articulated with your tongue in between your
θ teeth but with no vibration in your throat. Some examples of this sound are:
“thumb”, “think”, “thing”, “within”

This sound can be represented as SH. It’s the sound you hear in “she”, “En-
ʃ glish” or “machine”.

This sound can be represented as ZH. It’s like /ʃ/ but with vibration in your vo-
ʒ cal folds. You hear this sound in: “mesure”, “usually”, or “confusion.”

This sound can be represented as CH. It’s the sound you hear in “church”,
tʃ “check” or “catch”.

This is sound is like /tʃ/ but with vibration in your vocal folds. You hear this
dʒ sound in: “judge”, “job”, or “giant.”

This sound is practically the same as that of /i/, but it is very short. It’s the
j sound you hear in “yes” or “you”. In transcriptions it’s often before a vowel
sound, and when it’s in this position it makes a gliding sound. For example,
“cute” is transcribed /kjut/ which sounds like “kii-u-t”. “View” is transcribed
“vju” which sounds like “viii-u”.