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Forum Criminalistic ♦♦♦ Forensic Science Forum 1/2013

ACADEMIA DE POLIȚIE „ALEXANDRU IOAN CUZA”

”ALEXANDRU IOAN CUZA” POLICE ACADEMY

ISSN 1844-2641

FORUM CRIMINALISTIC
♦♦♦
FORENSIC SCIENCE FORUM

Nr. 1, Volumul VI
Ianuarie-Iunie 2013

Issue 1, Volume VI
January-June 2013

Revista este indexată în bazele de date internaționale EBSCO, CEEOL și PROQUEST

Editura EstFalia
București, 2013
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REVISTA FORUM CRIMINALISTIC ESTE PUBLICATĂ DE EDITURA ESTFALIA, EDITURĂ ACREDITATĂ


DE CONSILIUL NAȚIONAL AL CERCETĂRII ȘTIINȚIFICE ÎN ÎNVĂȚĂMÂNTUL SUPERIOR (perioada 2010-
2012) – COD C.N.C.S.I.S. 294, NR.CRT. 130/35. WWW.EDITURA-ESTFALIA.RO

WWW.CNCSIS.RO

REVISTA A FOST SUPUSĂ PROCESULUI DE EVALUARE ÎN PERIOADA NOIEMBRIE/DECEMBRIE 2010


ȘI FIGUREAZĂ ÎN EVIDENȚA C.N.C.S.I.S., COD 959/2010.
REVISTA ESTE INCLUSĂ ÎN BAZELE DE DATE INTERNAȚIONALE EBSCO, CEEOL ȘI PROQUEST.

Revista „Forum Criminalistic” este realizată de colectivul Departamentului de Criminalistică din cadrul
Academiei de Poliție „Alexandru Ioan Cuza” și apare semestrial (ianuarie/iunie – iulie/decembrie).
Colectivul redacțional și/sau editura nu își asumă răspunderea pentru conținutul articolelor – acesta
aparține exclusiv autorilor. Redacția își rezervă dreptul de a refuza publicarea articolelor care nu
respectă condițiile de fond/formă.

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COLEGIUL EDITORIAL

Director
Prof.univ.dr. George-Marius ȚICAL

Director-adjunct
Conf.univ.dr. Adrian IACOB

CONSILIUL ŞTIINŢIFIC

Preşedintele consiliului ştiinţific


dr.CONSTANTIN BĂLĂCEANU-STOLNICI
Membru de onoare al Academiei Române

MEMBRII CONSILIULUI ȘTIINȚIFIC

Prof.univ.dr. Georgeta UNGUREANU


Prof.univ.dr. Vladimir BELIŞ
Prof.univ.dr. Damian MICLEA
Prof.univ.dr.Ștefan PRUNĂ
Sup.lect. ph.D Alina Monica HANDOREAN
Conf.univ.dr. Constantin DUVAC
Conf.univ.dr.Laurențiu GIUREA
Lect.univ.dr. Victor DRĂGHICI
Lect.univ.dr. Florin BOBIN
Lect.univ.dr.Viorica MOLDOVAN
Lect.univ.dr.Oana ISPAS
Lect.univ.dr. Viorel COROIU
Lect.univ.dr. Marin RUIU
Lect.univ.dr.Andrei BARBU
Asist.univ.dr. Cătălin ȚIGĂNOAIA
dr.Viorel VASILE

Redactor-şef:
Asist.univ.dr. Georgică PANFIL

Responsabil pentru calitate (redactor-șef adjunct)


Alexandra CIUNTU

Senior Editor:
Lect.univ.dr.Nicolae GROFU

Secretar general de redacție:


lect.univ.dr. Horia RAȚĂ

Redactori:
cms.șef TALPAU Florin
asist.univ. Cezar CIOACĂ
asist.univ.drd.CătălinTOADER
drd.Antonela ȘOFINEȚ
Dănuț NECHITA
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CUPRINS

UNELE CONSIDERAȚII PRIVITOARE LA TRĂSĂTURILE ACTUALE ALE


1. CRIMEI ORGANIZATE
Sofineț Antonela ………….. 9
DESPRE INFRACŢIUNEA DE VĂTĂMARE A FĂTULUI PRECUM ŞI DESPRE
LIPSA UNOR CLARIFICĂRI LEGALE, ESENŢIALE PENTRU INTERPRETAREA
2. ŞI APLICAREA UNITARĂ A LEGII PENALE ÎN MATERIA INFRACŢIUNILOR
CONTRA PERSOANEI
Cătălin Țigănoaia ………….. 13
UNELE REFLECŢII ASUPRA REGULII DE BAZĂ A AFLĂRII ADEVĂRULUI ÎN
3. PROCESUL PENAL
Grofu Nicolae ………….. 17
EVOLUȚIA NOȚIUNII DE „SPĂLARE A BANILOR”
4. Anastasescu Alexandru
Cioacă Cezar ………….. 21
AMENINŢAREA EXTREMĂ: TERORISMUL GLOBAL ŞI PROGRAMUL DE
5. PROTECŢIE A MARTORILOR
Țical George-Marius ………….. 25
IMPORTANȚA STABILIRII CANALULUI – TRAIECT AL PROIECTILULUI ÎN
CUTIA CRANIANĂ
6.
Efrim Andreea
Popescu Laurențiu ………….. 28
UNELE ASPECTE PRIVIND ACTIVITATEA CRIMNALISTICĂ DE
INTERPRETARE A URMELOR
7.
Panfil Georgică
Dănuț Nechita ………….. 34
EXTRĂDAREA DIN ROMÂNIA
8.
Dan Toma ………….. 37
REGIMUL JURIDIC DE FOLOSIRE A ARMAMENTULUI ÎN LEGISLAŢIA DIN
9. ROMÂNIA
Tudor Adrian ………….. 42
REGLEMENTAREA PRODUCŢIEI, UTILIZĂRII ŞI TRAFICULUI DE DROGURI-
10. ÎNTRE LICIT ŞI ILICIT
Ruiu Marin ………….. 52
ROLUL ELEMENTELOR DE SIGURANŢĂ A DOCUMENTELOR DE CĂLĂTORIE
ÎN PREVENIREA ŞI COMBATEREA INFRACŢIONALITĂŢII
11. TRANSFRONTALIERE
Enache Petruț
Elena Mihăilă ………….. 56
INFORMAREA PUBLICĂ ÎN CAZUL PRODUCERII UNUI ACCIDENT NUCLEAR.
12. NECESITATE SAU OPORTUNITATE?
Iulian Bulnău ………….. 62
UNELE CONSIDERAŢII PRIVIND COOPERAREA JUDICIARĂ ŞI
13. POLIŢIENEASCĂ ÎN PLAN EUROPEAN
Marian Secareanu ………….. 67
UNELE CONSIDERAȚII CU PRIVIRE LA CLASIFICAREA CRIMINALISTICĂ A
URMELOR
14.
Iacob Adrian
Amarandei Vlad ………….. 70
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REFLECŢII PRIVIND UNELE INFRACŢIUNI CONTRA ÎNFĂPTUIRII JUSTIŢIEI


15. ÎN NOUL COD PENAL (II)
Constantin Duvac ………….. 75
INTEPRETAREA CRIMINALISTICĂ A URMELOR DE SÂNGE DESCOPERITE
16. LA FAȚA LOCULUI COMITERII INFRACȚIUNILOR CU VIOLENȚĂ
Carla Pop ………….. 85
UNELE ASPECTE GENERALE PRIVITOARE LA REGULILE ȘI METODELE DE
REALIZARE A CERCETĂRII LA FAȚA LOCULUI
17.
Coroiu Viorel
Alina Dumitru ………….. 91
UNELE CONSIDERAȚII CU PRIVIRE LA INTERSECȚIA DINTRE
CRIMINALISTICĂ ȘI PSIHOLOGIA JUDICIARĂ
18.
Andreea Ciușleanu
Cătălin Toader ………….. 95
UNELE CONSIDERAȚII LEGATE DE EXPERTIZA BALISTICĂ
19.
Petre-Valentin Bădița ………….. 99
UNELE CONSIDERAȚII PRIVIND TAXONOMIILE TIPOLOGIILOR DE
INFRACTORI DIN PUNCT DE VEDERE CRIMINOLOGIC
20.
Ion Busuioc
Alexandru Antofie ………….. 102

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

SOME CONSIDERATIONS REGARDING CURRENT CHARACTERISTICS OF


1. ORGAISED CRIME
Sofineț Antonela ………….. 9
ABOUT THE CRIME OF HARMING THE FETUS AND THE LACK OF LEGAL
CLARIFICATIONS WHICH ARE ESSENTIAL TO INTERPRETING AND
2.
APPLYING THE LAW CONCERNING CRIMES AGAINST THE PERSON
Cătălin Țigănoaia ………….. 13
REFLECTIONS ON THE BASIC RULE OF FINDING THE TRUTH DURING
3. TRIAL
Grofu Nicolae ………….. 17
THE EVOLUTION OF THE NOTION OF ”MONEY LAUNDRY”
4. Anastasescu Alexandru
Cioacă Cezar ………….. 21
EXTREME THREAT: GLOBAL TERRORISM AND THE WITNESS
5. PROTECTION PROGRAM
Țical George-Marius ………….. 25
THE IMPORTANCE OF ESTABLISHING THE TRAJECTORY CHANNEL OF A
PROJECTILE IN THE CRANIAN CAVITY
6.
Efrim Andreea
Popescu Laurențiu ………….. 28
CERTAIN ASPECTS REGARDING THE FORENSIC ACTIVITY OF
INTERPRETING TRACES
7.
Panfil Georgică
Dănuț Nechita ………….. 34
EXTRADITION FROM ROMANIA
8.
Dan Toma ………….. 37
THE USE OF WEAPONS IN THE JUDICIAL SYSTEM OF ROMANIAN LAW
9.
Tudor Adrian ………….. 42
THE REGLEMENTATION OF DRUG PRODUCTION, USE AND TRAFFIC-
10. BETWEEN LICIT AND ILLICIT
Ruiu Marin ………….. 52
THE ROLE OF SAFETY ELEMENTS EXISTENT ON TRAVEL DOCUMENTS IN
PREVENTING AND FIGHTING CROSS-BORDER CRIME
11.
Enache Petruț
Elena Mihăilă ………….. 56
PUBLIC INFORMATION IN CASE OF A NUCLEAR ACCIDENT: NECESSITY
12. OR OPPORTUNITY?
Iulian Bulnău ………….. 62
CERTAIN CONSIDERATIONS REGARDING JUDICIARY AND POLICE
13. COOPERATION ON EUROPEAN LEVEL
Marian Secareanu ………….. 67
ASPECTS ON FORENSIC CLASSIFICATION OF TRACES
14. Iacob Adrian
Amarandei Vlad ………….. 70
CONCERNS RAISED ON CRIME AGAINST JUSTICE IN THE NEW PENAL
15. CODE
Constantin Duvac ………….. 75
FORENSIC INTERPRETATION OF BLOOD TRACES FOUND AT THE SCENE
16.
OF A VIOLENT CRIME Carla Pop ………….. 85
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GENERAL ASPECTS OF THE RULES AND METHODS USED IN CRIME


SCENE INVESTIGATION
17.
Coroiu Viorel
Alina Dumitru ………….. 91
THOUGHTS ON THE INTERSECTION OF FORENSICS AND JUDICIARY
PSYCHOLOGY
18.
Andreea Ciușleanu
Cătălin Toader ………….. 95
CONSIDERATIONS ON BALLISTICS EXPERTISE
19.
Petre-Valentin Bădița ………….. 99
CERTAIN CONSIDERATIONS ON THE TIPOLOGY OF THE CRIMINAL FROM
A CRIMINOLOGIC POINT OF VIEW
20.
Ion Busuioc
Alexandru Antofie ………….. 102

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GENERAL ASPECTS OF THE RULES AND METHODS USED IN CRIME SCENE INVESTIGATION

dr.Viorel Coroiu1
Alina Dumitru2
Abstract
A crime scene represents the place where a crime has been commited or, in some other cases, the
place that hosts diffrent types of traces/clues linked to a crime. The following article presents the main issues
linked to what the term of ”crime scene investigation” means, main rules to be followed on site, the main tasks
of each category of investigator etc.
Keywords: crime scene investigation, first responders, forensic science, traces, identification.

a. General aspects
In the current context, in which probation elements are based increasingly on material evidence –often
to the detriment of witness testimony – crime scene investigation, has lately gained considerable importance as
a primary source for providing material evidence.
The Ministry of Internal Affairs has elaborated and applied the Order regarding Crime Scene
Investigation no.182/ 14.08.2009, which has as main objective the reglementation of crime scene investigation
in a unitary way, containing effective procedures, cooperation procedures between various people involved in
the activity, storage procedures and means of transporting the evidence etc. The scene of the crime is defined
as the area in which a total or partially illicit activity took, or is said to have taken place, or the area in which the
result of said activity took place, including areas in which natural disasters occurred 3. For that matter, when
speaking about a “crime scene” we may imply the actual place in which the act was committed, areas where
certain objects involved in the crime are located, areas in which stolen goods were hidden, itercriminis,
informational systems used in committing the crime, as well as any other place which may hold traces of the
crime.4
Through a direct and objective approach on the scene of a crime, the investigative authorities –
regardless of which structure they belong to (police, border police, gendarmerie or other) – they have the
possibility of mentally foretelling the way the perpetrator acted (the concept of “modus operandi”), the
instruments he directly or indirectly used, objects he may have came across, ways of access and retracing his
steps (the concept of “iter criminis”) etc. Often the right direction in which the investigation should go is pointed
out after following primary conclusions reached after CSI, techno-scientific methods being the basis and the
starting point for the later investigation. Furthermore, CSI may be the only source of material evidence,
depending on the specificity of the committed crime (not every event investigated represents a scene of a crime),
helping in a decisive manner to clear up different problems, such as traces (of the actual crime), evaded goods
and values, witnesses, the possibility of exploiting the traces through techno-scientific findings and forensic
expertise etc.5

b. General Rules in Crime Scene Investigation


While performing activities pertaining to CSI, the managers and personnel with specific responsibilities
must respect the following general rules:
-the investigation takes place in the presence of assisting witnesses;
-the investigation takes place, if possible, in the presence of all parties;
-access on location is granted only to personnel with specific responsibilities and only by the leader of
the CSI team;

1 Univ. lect., “Alexandru Ioan Cuza” Police Academy.


2 “Alexandru Ioan Cuza” Police Academy
3 Manual of Correct Procedures on Crime Scene Investigation by the Romanian Police Office, Forensics Institute.
4.Coroiu, G.Panfil, General Notions of Forensic Tactics, Ed.Estfalia, Bucharest, 2009, pg. 19.
5V.Bercheșan, Crime Scene Investigation-Means of Evidence in a Trial, Ed.Little Star, Bucharest, 2006, pg.21-22.

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-the CSI activity is finalized by filing a crime scene report (done by the leader of the team), which will
hold an explicit and detailed depiction of the situation presented on scene, traces found, search, discovery,
linking evidence, picking, packing and preserving methods, as well as specific positions of every category of
traces found;
-the CSI report encloses photo boards, sketches, drawings etc.;
-when possible, saving the victims represents a priority, even with the risk of destroying or tainting certain
evidence. The only exception of the rule is in those cases in which saving the victims implies endangering
members of the CSI team.
-the crime scene investigation will take place respecting all safety measures for the health of team
members or others.
-the crime scene investigation will be conducted with maximum objectivity in order to eliminate any
preconceived opinion regarding the act, the perpetrator, the usefulness of evidence etc.
-CSI will also aim at identifying eye-witnesses;
-the officers who were first on location, regardless of their pertaining structure, may prove important to
the investigating activity based on the fact that their main duty is to keep and preserve the initial aspect of the
crime scene;
-investigation and examination techniques and methods will adapt depending on the particularities of
the crime scene;
-when possible, a tracking dog must be used in order to track down scent traces;
-the first people to step on a crime scene are the leader of the investigation team, the forensics expert
and, if needed, the coroner.
-the position and characteristics of all traces and material evidence will be described with maximum
accuracy;
-the investigation will take place under the principle of forensic quality and will not be restricted by time-
there must be no form of pressure coming from any superior structure for finishing the investigation in a certain
time span, because that would compromise the end result of it;
-each member of the CSI team will respect all causion measures in order not to contaminate or inter-
contaminate evidence;
-each member of the CSI team will strictly respect the categories of tasks he/she has to perform, without
trying to replace another member if he/she is not in the place to do so;
-when needed, various specialists will provide their help, depending on the particularities of the crime;

c. Means of performing CSI:


If one goes by the analysis of different aspects resulted from law practice and main treatises, CSI
methods differ according to the case’s particularities. In theory, there are three types of research. They each
represent a certain particularity of the event investigated. Therefore, the crime scene investigation will be
objective, subjective or combined.
The objective method implies the investigation of a crime scene without reference to the path followed
by the perpetrator or the course of action on the scene. In this case, the leader of the investigating team will
indicate the order of search, discovery, disclosure, linking evidence, collecting, examining and interpreting
activities.
On the other hand, the subjective method follows all activities mentioned above by strictly referring to
iter criminis and the assumed succession of the perpetrator’s activities. By comparison, both methods have
strong points 1 (thus, in the case of the objective method, the first advantage is the possibility of a quality
systematic investigation, while the subjective method offers quick facts and information on the perpetrator while
offering the possibility of taking the first measures), but also weak points (the objective method needs copious
resources and will require an extended time span, while the subjective method doesn’t allow a systematic
investigation of the entire crime scene). Based on this fact, the combined method is the advisable one, implying
both other methods being used during investigation whenever they fit the case’s particularities. 2

1V.Bercheșan, op.cit., pg. 62.


2C.Aioanițoaie, Forensics Course, Police Academy, 1983, pg. 17.
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The team manager may choose various ways of performing the actual investigation. Therefore, he/she
may opt for breaking the scene by sectors (also dividing the team in smaller parts) – a), or analyzing the crime
scene as a unity or by systematically combing the scene from left to right (b), by using intersected (c) or spiralled
tracks (d) – whenever identification of ways of access is necessary, finding the body or various instruments used,
by covering the crime scene from the inside out, in different directions (e), in certain situations 1 – for example,
in the case of homicide, car crash, fires or explosions with serious consequences, in an open field etc.

Regardless of the method chosen for CSI, following the general rules and work procedures required are
a necessity bound to assure an efficient finality for the investigating activity. The specific methods will be picked
depending on the nature and consequences of the act, modus operandi, as well as on providing evidence.
Elements pertaining to the subjectivism of the leader of the CSI team (his preferred methods, mental strategies
prior to arriving on scene etc.).

d. CSI Objectives
The activity of crime scene investigation is characterized by the following objectives that appear in
treatises under the name of “CSI tasks”:
-saving the victims and removing all effects of the act of crime;
-knowing and directly investigating a crime scene or places put under the category of scene of crime by
judicial authorities, regardless of the institution they belong to 3;
-the search, discovery, disclosure, linking, retrieval, transportation, preservation, interpretation, analysis
etc. of the evidence;
-ID-ing all categories of people linked to the crime scene, be it victims, the main suspect or other
suspects (among the curious eyes present), eye witnesses4;
-establishing the method of operation used at the crime scene in order to make the first assumptions
regarding the perpetrators;
-forensic interpretation of the evidence found on scene;
-establishing the circumstances in which the crime was committed;

1G.Panfil,The Basics of Forensic Technique, Ed.Estfalia, Bucharest, 2013, vol.I-II, pg. 260-261.
2A.Jackson, J.Jackson, Forensic Science, 3rd ed., Pearson Education, 2011, pg. 70.
3E.Stancu, Forensics Treaty, ed.II, Ed.Universul Juridic, Bucharest, 2002, pg. 310.
4Fl.Ionescu, Forensics, vol.II, Ed.Universitară, Bucharest, 2009, pg. 27.

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e. Conclusions
In order to meet the demands and accomplish all necessary tasks posed by a scene of crime, certain
aspects must be taken into consideration:
-the initial state of the crime scene must be kept intact, to which the first responding police, gendarme, or
border police are important;
-managing the crime scene investigation must be regarded under two aspects. On one hand, the CSI activity
is the exclusive responsibility of the manager in charge of the investigation team, on the other, managing
evidence and various traces left on scene is divided between SECFI and whoever is in charge of forensic activity;
-forensic interpretation of the evidence left on scene is imperative for elaborating the first versions;
-all activities performed on the scene of a crime, regardless of the methods and techno-tactic measures
chosen, will be conducted by following work, standard and methodology procedures;
Instructing workersunder all structures within the Ministry of Internal Affairs, regardless of their speciality,
is deemed necessary not only regarding the first responder’s tasks, but also on the next endeavours which may
derive from actual regulations and instructions, but also from the team manager, if the situation so requires.
Also, a further analysis of the possibilities of extending various categories of personnel and including them, even
as a support line, in the CSI team would prove convenient.

Resources:
-C.Aioanițoaie, Forensics Course, Police Academy, 1983
-Manual of Correct Procedures on Crime Scene Investigation by the Romanian Police Office, Forensics
Institute
-Coroiu, G.Panfil, General Notions of Forensic Tactics, Ed.Estfalia, Bucharest, 2009
-V.Bercheșan, Crime Scene Investigation-Means of Evidence in a Trial, Ed.Little Star, Bucharest, 2006
-E.Stancu, Forensics Treaty, ed.II, Ed.Universul Juridic, Bucharest, 2002
-G.Panfil, The Basics of Forensic Technique, Ed.Estfalia, Bucharest, 2013, vol.I-II
-A.Jackson, J.Jackson, Forensic Science, 3rd ed., Pearson Education, 2011

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