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## DETERMINATION OF DESIGN AIRSPEEDS AND LOAD FACTOR.

PLOTTING DESIG ENVELOPES.
For a strength calculation it is necessary to know design airspeeds and load factors. Initial conditions for
determination of these values for transport airplanes are: a take-off weight Gt, Lw - wing span, Sw – wing area,
cruising airspeed of an airplane VC at a cruise altitude of flight Hc, the wing sweep till 0.25 of chord – χ0.25 .
These values are selected for the plane designed by the student. These values are shown below for AERI 001
which is an modification of HAWKER 4000 with extended range and passenger capacity.

INITIAL DATA :
Take – off mass of airplane Gt= 17666.67 kg
Cruise speed VC= 842kmh
Cruise altitude HC = 12000 m
Wing span LW =18.8 m
Wing area SW=43.82 m2
Quarter line swept of wing χ0.25=26 ͦ

For planes flying with speeds 700-950 km/h airfoils are recommended with relative thickness = 8-12 %.
c
Considering the speed of aircraft airfoil chosen for the wing is NACA 2309 is chosen

## For NACA 2309 , Cymaxaf=1.51

We spend calculation only for altitude H=0. In design office (DO) calculations are carried out for all altitude
range. In this HT we have the cruising airspeed from technical data of plane. In strength analysis only equivalent
airspeeds VEAS are used, which are calculated under the formula:
VEAS =V ,
ρH
=V Δ
ρ0
where V- is air airspeed of plane on flight altitude, ρH – is air density on flight altitude, ρ0 - is air density on
altitude H=0, - is relative density which we take from table of standard atmosphere. From the standard

Δ = ρH
ρ0
table, Δ= 0.254 at height 12000 m.

Thus,
VEAS=8420.254=424.36kmh
= 117.88 m/s

For the chosen wing airfoil you should plot the diagram Су=f(), where the angle α of attack should be in
degrees and radians (fig.1). Upon this diagram you find the maximal value of lift coefficient for airfoil Сy max af and
. On these sizes you expect Су мах р and .
C αy af C αy p
The maximum value of a lift coefficient for an airplane Cy max p is equal to:
Cy max p= 0.95 Cymax af,
Cy max p= 0.95 x 1.51 =1.4345
where Cy max af – is the maximum value of a lift coefficient for an airfoil.
You should estimate the angular rate of attack the lift coefficient of the airfoil - upon the linear site of
C αy af
the diagram (fig.1) as ratio:
(1)
∆C y
C αy af =

## From the above graph , we obtain

Cy afα=4.3567
According to AR maneuvering maximum limit load factor does not depend on an altitude and en-route weight
and are determined under the formula:
;
10886
n ly max man = 2.1 +
G + 4536

where G is the design maximum takeoff weight in kilograms of force; except that
nly max man may not be less than 2,5 and need not be greater than 3.8.

10886
n ly max man = 2.1 + = 2.59
17666.67 + 4536
Since 3.8>2.59> 2.5 , So we chose

## n ly max man = 2.59

The negative limit maneuvering load factor nlyminman may not be less than -1.0 at airspeeds up to VD;

The calculation of a maximum limit load factor is carried out to within 0.05. The negative limit maneuvering
(2)
n ly min man = −1.05
Design airspeeds we discover only for one altitude H=0. The maximum dive airspeed VD, if it is not restricted
to a Mach number (i.e. for VC<740 km/h), is equal to:
VD=1.25VC (3)

## Thus VD = 1.25x 424.36

= 530.45 km/h
= 147.35 m/s
The minimum airspeed of flight - stalling airspeed VS1 is flight on Cy max p with load factor ny =1. From this
condition VS1 is equal to:
VS1 = (5)
2G
C y max p S w ρ0
where G = Gtg - is plane weight in N, g=9.81m/c2 – is acceleration of free fall, Sw – wing area in m2, ρ 0 – air
density on altitude H=0 from table of standard atmosphere in kg/m3.
VS1=2×17666.671.435×43.82×1.225= 67.09 m/s

From formula (5) the airspeed is in m/s. It is necessary to translate this value in km/h. It is necessary to round
off this value to within 10 km/h.
3.6V[m/s]=V[km/h]
=241.53 km/h
Airspeed VA is a minimum airspeed, on which the maneuver with a maximum maneuvering limit load factor
nly max man is possible. It is under the formula from AR:
VA = VS1
n ly max man
=241.532.59=388.73 km/h
=107.98ms
For calculation of airspeed for maximum intensity of vertical gusts VB it is necessary to find value of the load
factor from gusts on a cruising airspeed ng. For H=0 and cruising airspeed VC value of the vertical airspeed of the
gust Ude is equal Ude=15.2m/s. So let us first find the value of load factor from gust on cruising velocity VC.

## The gust load factor should be determined by the following formula:

, (7)
K g * C αy * U de * V
ng = 1 +
16 * G / S
where Kg - is the gust damping factor, determined by the following formulas: -
,
088
. * ug
Kg =
. + ug
53
,
2 * G / SW
ug =
b * ρ * C αy * g
where V - is equivalent airspeeds of the airplane, meters/second; - is derivative of the lift factor of the airplane
Сαy
on an angle of attack (1 / radian); G - is the design maximum takeoff weight in kilograms of force; ρ =0.125- the

density of the air, kgf × sec 2 / m4; SW - is wing area in m2; b - is mean aerodynamic cord in m - b=Sw/Lw; g =9.81
m/s2- an acceleration of the free fall, meters / sec2.
The angular rate of attack the lift coefficient of the plane- is approximately equal:
C αy p = C αy

(8)
0.95C αy af
C =C ≈
α α

1- M 2 cos 2 χ 0.25
yp y

where MC – is the Mach number for, VC and χ 0.25 - is the wing sweep till 0.25 of chord .
MC=VCa=424.361225=0.346

Cy pα=Cyα~0.95×4.361-0.3462×(cos 26)2
=4.67

b=43.8218.8=2.331

ug=2×17666.672.331×0.125×4.67×9.81×43.82 =60.47

Kg=0.88×60.475.3+60.47 = 0.81

ng=1±0.81×4.67×15.2×117.99×43.8216×17666.67

= 1±1.051

ng maxl= 1+1.051=2.051

ng min l=1-1.051=-0.05

The value of this load factor in AR is meant ng. On this value we can calculate VB1:
VB1 =VS1* (9)
ng
VB1=241.53×2.051

VB1=345.9 km/h

## According to the AR airspeed VB must be:

VB≤VC-81 (Kmh)
(10)
By aerodynamic characteristic airspeed VB2 is equal:

, (11)
B + B 2 + 4 Ap
VB2 =
2A

where VB2 – in m/s, - is specific wing load, G – is plane weight in kgf, S – wing area in m2
p =G S
А= 0.0625Су max p,
=0.0625 × 1.435 =0.09
В=1.256Кg
C αу р
= 1.256 x 0.81 x 4.67 = 4.75
p = 17666.67 / 43.82 =403.17

VB2 = 4.75+4.752+(4×0.09×403.17)2×0.095

## =98.33m/ sec =353.98 km/ h

Су max p – maximum lift coefficient of the airplane, Kg – gust damping factor from formula (7), - derivative of the
C αy
lift factor on the angle of attack from formula (8)- this value we can take for speed VB1.
From these values VB – VB1, VB2, it is necessary to choose maximal value for VB:
VB= max(VB1, VB2)
VB=353.98 Km/h
This value VB must meet the requirement (10). If this value VB does not meet the requirement (10) than you must
take VB upon formula (10).
So,
VB=VC-81 (Km/h)
= 424.36 -81=342.36 km/h

Further under the formula (7) we must calculate the values of load factors nlg max, nlg min, from positive and
negative gusts on airspeeds VD, VB and VC. On airspeed VA load factor from gusts are not determined, as they
cannot be more than nly max man. It is explained to that the maneuvers go on Cy max p and greater aerodynamic force
cannot be.
As we carry out analysis only on height H=0 than for VB we have Ude= 20.1 m/s, for VC Ude=± 15.2 m/s
and for VD Ude=± 7.6 m/s.
Data of calculations is brought in the table #1 and design envelops are plotted for flight modes (fig. 2, 3).

## VB =343.36 km/h =95.1 m/sec

MB = 343.361225 = 0.28

## Cy pα=Cyα~0.95×4.35671-0.282×(cos 26)2 =4.79

ug=2×17666.672.331×0.125×4.79×9.81×43.82

=58.89

Kg=0.88×58.895.3+58.89 = 0.81

ng=1±0.81×4.79×20.1×95.1×43.8216×17666.67

## ng maxl = 1+1.15 = 2.15

ng minl =1-1.15=-0.15

## VD = 530.45 km/h =147.35 m/sec

MD = 530.451225 = 0.433

Cy pα=Cyα~0.95×4.35671-0.4332×(cos 26)2=5.11

ug=2×17666.672.331×0.125×5.11×9.81×43.82

=55.21

Kg=0.88×55.215.3+55.21 = 0.803

ng=1±0.803×5.11×7.6×147.35×43.8216×17666.67

## ng maxl = 1+0.712 = 1.712

ng minl=1-0.712=0.29

Table #1
VS VA VB VC VD

## Fig. 2. The design envelop for maneuvering load factors.

Fig. 3. The design envelop for gust load factors.
MINISTRY OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE OF UKRAINE
National Aerospace University
“Kharkov Aviation Institute”

CHAIR-

## DETERMINATION OF DESIGN AIRSPEED AND LOAD FACTOR

PLOTING DESIG ENVELOPES

## By:- Prakul Mittal

Checked by :- Prof. Kripkin Gr :- 10E 3-1

KHARKOV 2010