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Network Layer (OSI Layer 3)-continuare

Addressing the network

IPv4
-fiecare packet are o adresa sursa/destinatie de 32 bit in layer 3
-petru a interpreta usor adresele se foloseste conversia in decimal (Dotted
Decimal)
Dotted Decimal- se foloseste octetul + „.”
Network - group of hosts hat have identical bit patterns in the network address
portion of their addresses

Network address - Adresa de retea - toti bitii de host = 0 The address by which
we refer to the network
Broadcast address - Adresa de broadcast - toti bitii de host =1 . A special
address used to send data to all hosts in the network
Host addresses - The addresses assigned to the end devices in the network

Clase IP
Clasa A
Are mereu primul bit 0
Exclud 0.0.0.0 care e IP DEFAULT, orice IP se potriveste cu el, e ruta default, nu se
poate da statiilor de lucru
Exclud 127.0.0.0 e IP de LOOPBACK, nu se foloseste la statiile de lucru, instalat
odata cu driverul, pentru TCP/IP,
Tot ce incepe cu 127 e rezervat....pana la 127.255.255.255

SM (subnet mask)
Se mai scrie și /8 , care e network prefix pentru un SM 255.0.0.0
SM pentru clasa A e 255.0.0.0 sau /8, este FIX
Pentru clasa A pot forma 2^7 retele pentru ca primul bit e 0 mereu
 Nr total de retele 2^7 dar -2 pentru ca pe ultle 2 nu le pot folosi.
 Nr de hosturi 2^24-2 pentru ca nu pot folosi adr de retea și de
broadcast:
 Range 0.0.0.0-> 127.255.255.255
Dar se folosesc practic 1.0.0.0-> 126.255.255.255

Clasa B
Are pe primii 2 biti 1 și 0
 Nr retele 2^14
 Nr hosturi/retea (2^16)-2 -> 65533 hosturi/ retea
 Range 128.0.0.0-> 191.255.255.255

Clasa C
Are primii 3 biti 110
 Nr retele 2^21
 Nr hosturi 253

Clasa D- de multicast
Incepe cu 1110
Nu are SM
Nu are hosturi
Nu are retele
Range 224.0.0.0-> 239.255.255.255

Clasa E
Experimentala sau reserved
Range: 240.0.0.0 ->254.255.255.255
Ultima 255.255.255.255 e broadcast generic

Clase private
Folosite pentru a face economie de spatiu de adresare
Nu sunt routate de ISP
Folosite pentru a nu da IP routabile tuturor hosturilor dintr-o retea

Ele sunt
 Clasa priv A 10.0.0.0-> 10.255.255.255
 Clasa priv B 172.16.0.0-> 172.31.255.255
 Clasa priv C 192.168.0.0-> 192.168.255.255

VLSM variable lengh subnet mask


foloseste SM variabil pentru a imparti o retea in mai multe subretele

Tipuri de adresare
The prefix length is the number of bits in the address that gives us the network
portion
CURS NET:

Unicast - the process of sending a packet from one host to an individual host
Broadcast - the process of sending a packet from one host to all hosts in the
network
Multicast - the process of sending a packet from one host to a selected group of
hosts

Some examples for using broadcast transmission are:


 Mapping upper layer addresses to lower layer addresses
 Requesting an address
 Exchanging routing information by routing protocols

Directed Broadcast-> A directed broadcast is sent to all hosts on a specific


network.
Limited Broadcast-> The limited broadcast is used for communication that is
limited to the hosts on the local network. These packets use a
destination IPv4 address 255.255.255.255.

Multicast Transmission- designed to conserve the bandwidth of the IPv4


network, allowing a host to send a single packet to a selected set of hosts
Examples of multicast transmission are:
 Video and audio distribution
 Routing information exchange by routing protocols
 Distribution of software
 News feeds

Multicast Clients-> hosts that wish to receive particular multicast data

Ipv4 Ranges
Experimental Addresses
240.0.0.0 -> 255.255.255.254 : reserved for future use (RFC 3330)
Multicast Addresses
224.0.0.0 -> 239.255.255.255
224.0.0.0 to 224.0.0.255 are reserved link local addresses for multicast groups
on a local network with time-to-live=1
224.0.1.0 -> 238.255.255.255 globally scoped addresses

Network Address Translation (NAT)


Pe device-uri aflate la marginea retelei private si permit hosturilor sa imprumute
o adresa publica pentru a accesa internetul

Network and Broadcast Addresses – nu se pot da hosturilor


Default Route
 pt Ipv4 -> 0.0.0.0 ,
 folosite drept “catch all” cand o ruta specifica este ocupata,
 ea ocupa adresele 0.0.0.0 - 0.255.255.255 (0.0.0.0 /8)

Loopback
 exemplu IPv4 loopback address 127.0.0.1
 The loopback is a special address that hosts use to direct traffic to
themselves
 Although only the single 127.0.0.1 address is used, addresses 127.0.0.0 to
127.255.255.255 are reserved

Link-Local Addresses
 IPv4 addresses in the address block 169.254.0.0 to 169.254.255.255
(169.254.0.0 /16)
 these addresses can be automatically assigned to the local host by the
operating system in environments where no IP configuration is available.
 Folosite in retele mici atunci cand un host nu poate obtine o adresa IP
prin DHCP
 nu poate avea acces la internet
TEST-NET Addresses
 The address block 192.0.2.0 to 192.0.2.255 (192.0.2.0 /24)
 for teaching and learning purposes
 Unlike the experimental addresses, network devices will accept these
addresses in their configurations.

Planning a network
The allocation of these addresses inside the networks should be planned and
documented for the purpose of:
 Preventing duplication of addresses
 Providing and controlling access
 Monitoring security and performance

Routers and firewall devices have an IPv4 address assigned to each interface.
Each interface is in a different network and serves as the gateway for the hosts in
that network. Router and firewall interfaces are the concentration point for
traffic entering and leaving the network

ISP
Ofera intre 6-14 adrese IPv4
El imprumuta aceste adrese.
El ofera servicii clientilor precum: DNS services, e-mil services & website.
In functie de nivelul de cerinte, clientii utilizeaza diferite layere ISP ce snt
ierarhice.
Tier 1: ISP nationali sau internationali
 Sunt conectati direct la internet backbone.
 Clientii ce apeleaza la acestia sunt ISP mai mici sau companii mari.
 Acestia ofera servicii/conectivitate reliable si viteza mare

Tier 2: ISP ce cumpara servicii de la ISP de Tier 1


 acestia ofera servicii mai multe decat celelalte 2 categorii
 ofera servicii catre clienti business
 ei au capacitatea de a oferi DNS, e-mail servers, and web servers
 dezavantaje : viteza scazuta fata de Tier 1 si less reliable

Tier 3:ISP ce cumpara servicii de la ISP Tier 2;


 se axeaza pe clienti locali,
 clientii lor nu au nevoie de multe servicii precum cei de la Tier 2
 clientii lor au putine cunostinte de networking
 dezavantaje viteza scazuta si less reliable

IPv6
Other issues were also considered during the development of IPv6, such as:
 Improved packet handling
 Increased scalability and longevity
 QoS mechanisms
 Integrated security

To provide these features, IPv6 offers:


 128-bit hierarchical addressing - to expand addressing capabilities
 Header format simplification - to improve packet handling
 Improved support for extensions and options - for increased
scalability/longevity and improved packet handling
 Flow labeling capability - as QoS mechanisms
 Authentication and privacy capabilities - to integrate security