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Network Layer (OSI Layer 3)-continuare

Addressing the network

-fiecare packet are o adresa sursa/destinatie de 32 bit in layer 3
-petru a interpreta usor adresele se foloseste conversia in decimal (Dotted
Dotted Decimal- se foloseste octetul + „.”
Network - group of hosts hat have identical bit patterns in the network address
portion of their addresses

Network address - Adresa de retea - toti bitii de host = 0 The address by which
we refer to the network
Broadcast address - Adresa de broadcast - toti bitii de host =1 . A special
address used to send data to all hosts in the network
Host addresses - The addresses assigned to the end devices in the network

Clase IP
Clasa A
Are mereu primul bit 0
Exclud care e IP DEFAULT, orice IP se potriveste cu el, e ruta default, nu se
poate da statiilor de lucru
Exclud e IP de LOOPBACK, nu se foloseste la statiile de lucru, instalat
odata cu driverul, pentru TCP/IP,
Tot ce incepe cu 127 e rezervat....pana la

SM (subnet mask)
Se mai scrie și /8 , care e network prefix pentru un SM
SM pentru clasa A e sau /8, este FIX
Pentru clasa A pot forma 2^7 retele pentru ca primul bit e 0 mereu
 Nr total de retele 2^7 dar -2 pentru ca pe ultle 2 nu le pot folosi.
 Nr de hosturi 2^24-2 pentru ca nu pot folosi adr de retea și de
 Range>
Dar se folosesc practic>

Clasa B
Are pe primii 2 biti 1 și 0
 Nr retele 2^14
 Nr hosturi/retea (2^16)-2 -> 65533 hosturi/ retea
 Range>

Clasa C
Are primii 3 biti 110
 Nr retele 2^21
 Nr hosturi 253

Clasa D- de multicast
Incepe cu 1110
Nu are SM
Nu are hosturi
Nu are retele

Clasa E
Experimentala sau reserved
Range: ->
Ultima e broadcast generic

Clase private
Folosite pentru a face economie de spatiu de adresare
Nu sunt routate de ISP
Folosite pentru a nu da IP routabile tuturor hosturilor dintr-o retea

Ele sunt
 Clasa priv A>
 Clasa priv B>
 Clasa priv C>

VLSM variable lengh subnet mask

foloseste SM variabil pentru a imparti o retea in mai multe subretele

Tipuri de adresare
The prefix length is the number of bits in the address that gives us the network

Unicast - the process of sending a packet from one host to an individual host
Broadcast - the process of sending a packet from one host to all hosts in the
Multicast - the process of sending a packet from one host to a selected group of

Some examples for using broadcast transmission are:

 Mapping upper layer addresses to lower layer addresses
 Requesting an address
 Exchanging routing information by routing protocols

Directed Broadcast-> A directed broadcast is sent to all hosts on a specific

Limited Broadcast-> The limited broadcast is used for communication that is
limited to the hosts on the local network. These packets use a
destination IPv4 address

Multicast Transmission- designed to conserve the bandwidth of the IPv4

network, allowing a host to send a single packet to a selected set of hosts
Examples of multicast transmission are:
 Video and audio distribution
 Routing information exchange by routing protocols
 Distribution of software
 News feeds

Multicast Clients-> hosts that wish to receive particular multicast data

Ipv4 Ranges
Experimental Addresses -> : reserved for future use (RFC 3330)
Multicast Addresses -> to are reserved link local addresses for multicast groups
on a local network with time-to-live=1 -> globally scoped addresses

Network Address Translation (NAT)

Pe device-uri aflate la marginea retelei private si permit hosturilor sa imprumute
o adresa publica pentru a accesa internetul

Network and Broadcast Addresses – nu se pot da hosturilor

Default Route
 pt Ipv4 -> ,
 folosite drept “catch all” cand o ruta specifica este ocupata,
 ea ocupa adresele - ( /8)

 exemplu IPv4 loopback address
 The loopback is a special address that hosts use to direct traffic to
 Although only the single address is used, addresses to are reserved

Link-Local Addresses
 IPv4 addresses in the address block to
( /16)
 these addresses can be automatically assigned to the local host by the
operating system in environments where no IP configuration is available.
 Folosite in retele mici atunci cand un host nu poate obtine o adresa IP
prin DHCP
 nu poate avea acces la internet
TEST-NET Addresses
 The address block to ( /24)
 for teaching and learning purposes
 Unlike the experimental addresses, network devices will accept these
addresses in their configurations.

Planning a network
The allocation of these addresses inside the networks should be planned and
documented for the purpose of:
 Preventing duplication of addresses
 Providing and controlling access
 Monitoring security and performance

Routers and firewall devices have an IPv4 address assigned to each interface.
Each interface is in a different network and serves as the gateway for the hosts in
that network. Router and firewall interfaces are the concentration point for
traffic entering and leaving the network

Ofera intre 6-14 adrese IPv4
El imprumuta aceste adrese.
El ofera servicii clientilor precum: DNS services, e-mil services & website.
In functie de nivelul de cerinte, clientii utilizeaza diferite layere ISP ce snt
Tier 1: ISP nationali sau internationali
 Sunt conectati direct la internet backbone.
 Clientii ce apeleaza la acestia sunt ISP mai mici sau companii mari.
 Acestia ofera servicii/conectivitate reliable si viteza mare

Tier 2: ISP ce cumpara servicii de la ISP de Tier 1

 acestia ofera servicii mai multe decat celelalte 2 categorii
 ofera servicii catre clienti business
 ei au capacitatea de a oferi DNS, e-mail servers, and web servers
 dezavantaje : viteza scazuta fata de Tier 1 si less reliable

Tier 3:ISP ce cumpara servicii de la ISP Tier 2;

 se axeaza pe clienti locali,
 clientii lor nu au nevoie de multe servicii precum cei de la Tier 2
 clientii lor au putine cunostinte de networking
 dezavantaje viteza scazuta si less reliable

Other issues were also considered during the development of IPv6, such as:
 Improved packet handling
 Increased scalability and longevity
 QoS mechanisms
 Integrated security

To provide these features, IPv6 offers:

 128-bit hierarchical addressing - to expand addressing capabilities
 Header format simplification - to improve packet handling
 Improved support for extensions and options - for increased
scalability/longevity and improved packet handling
 Flow labeling capability - as QoS mechanisms
 Authentication and privacy capabilities - to integrate security