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INTRODUCTION

Wireless communication
Wireless technology is a truly revolutionary paradigm shift, enabling
multimedia communications between people and devices from any location.
As wireless communication systems evolve, service quality and capacity are
of primary importance. To ensure reliable communication over a mobile
radio channel, a system must overcome multipath fading, polarization
mismatch, and interference. The trend towards low power hand held
transceivers increases all of these challenges.

Wireless communication is the transfer of information over a


distance without the use of electrical conductors or "wires". The distances
involved may be short (a few meters as in television remote control) or very
long (thousands or even millions of kilometers for radio communications).
When the context is clear the term is often simply shortened to "wireless".
Wireless communications is generally considered to be a branch of
telecommunications.

Wireless communication may be via:

• radio frequency communication,


• microwave communication, for example long-range line-of-
sight via highly directional antennas, or short-range communication, or
• infrared (IR) short-range communication, for example from
remote controls or via IRDA,

Applications may involve point-to-point communication, point-to-


multipoint communication, broadcasting , cellular networks and other
wireless networks.

In the last 50 years, wireless communications industry experienced


drastic changes driven by many technology innovations.
INTRODUCTION
RF communication
RF communication works by creating electromagnetic waves at a
source and being able to pick up those electromagnetic waves at a particular
destination. These electromagnetic waves travel through the air at near the
speed of light. The wavelength of an electromagnetic signal is inversely
proportional to the frequency; the higher the frequency, the shorter the
wavelength.

Imagine an RF transmitter wiggling an electron in one location. This


wiggling electron causes a ripple effect, somewhat akin to dropping a pebble
in a pond. The effect is an electromagnetic (EM) wave that travels out from
the initial location resulting in electrons wiggling in remote locations. An RF
receiver can detect this remote electron wiggling.

The RF communication system then utilizes this phenomenon by


wiggling electrons in a specific pattern to represent information. The
receiver can make this same information available at a remote location;
communicating with no wires.

Short for radio frequency, any frequency within the electromagnetic


spectrum associated with radio wave propagation. When an RF current is
supplied to an antenna, an electromagnetic field is created that then is able to
propagate through space. Many wireless technologies are based on RF field
propagation.

These frequencies make up part of the electromagnetic radiation spectrum:

• Ultra-low frequency (ULF) -- 0-3 Hz


• Extremely low frequency (ELF) -- 3 Hz - 3 kHz
• Very low frequency (VLF) -- 3kHz - 30 kHz
• Low frequency (LF) -- 30 kHz - 300 kHz
• Medium frequency (MF) -- 300 kHz - 3 MHz
• High frequency (HF) -- 3MHz - 30 MHz
• Very high frequency (VHF) -- 30 MHz - 300 MHz
• Ultra-high frequency (UHF)-- 300MHz - 3 GHz
• Super high frequency (SHF) -- 3GHz - 30 GHz
• Extremely high frequency (EHF) -- 30GHz - 300 GHz
• Radio frequency is also abbreviated as rf or r.f..
INTRODUCTION
MODULATION
Modulation is the process of varying a periodic waveform, i.e. a tone,
in order to use that signal to convey a message, in a similar fashion as a
musician may modulate the tone from a musical instrument by varying its
volume, timing and pitch. Normally a high-frequency sinusoid waveform is
used as carrier signal. The three key parameters of a sine wave are its
amplitude ("volume"), its phase ("timing") and its frequency ("pitch"), all of
which can be modified in accordance with a low frequency information
signal to obtain the modulated signal.

A device that performs modulation is known as a modulator and a


device that performs the inverse operation of modulation is known as a
demodulator (sometimes detector or demod).

The aim of analog modulation is to transfer an analog lowpass


signal, for example an audio signal or TV signal, over an analog bandpass
channel, for example a limited radio frequency band or a cable TV network
channel.

In digital modulation, an analog carrier signal is modulated by a


digital bit stream. Digital modulation methods can be considered as digital-
to-analog conversion, and the corresponding demodulation or detection as
analog-to-digital conversion. The changes in the carrier signal are chosen
from a finite number of M alternative symbols (the modulation alphabet).

Amplitude-shift keying (ASK) is a form of modulation that


represents digital data as variations in the amplitude of a carrier wave.

The amplitude of an analog carrier signal varies in accordance with


the bit stream (modulating signal), keeping frequency and phase constant.
The level of amplitude can be used to represent binary logic 0s and 1s. We
can think of a carrier signal as an ON or OFF switch. In the modulated
signal, logic 0 is represented by the absence of a carrier, thus giving
OFF/ON keying operation and hence the name given.
ENCODER (HT12E)

Features:

_ Operating voltage
_ 2.4V~5V for the HT12A
_ 2.4V~12V for the HT12E
_ Low power and high noise immunity CMOS
technology
_ Low standby current: 0.1_A (typ.) at VDD=5V
_ HT12A with a 38kHz carrier for infrared transmission
medium
_ Minimum transmission word
_ Four words for the HT12E
_ One word for the HT12A
_ Built-in oscillator needs only 5% resistor
_ Data code has positive polarity
_ Minimal external components
_ Pair with Holtek_s 212 series of decoders
_ 18-pin DIP, 20-pin SOP package
ENCODER (HT12E)

General Description:

The 212 encoders are a series of CMOS LSIs for remote control
system applications. They are capable of encoding information which
consists of N address bits and 12_N data bits. Each address/data input can be
set to one of the two logic states.

The programmed addresses/ data are transmitted together with the


header bits via an RF or an infrared transmission medium upon receipt of a
trigger signal. The capability to select a TE trigger on the HT12E or a
DATA trigger on the HT12A further enhances the application flexibility of
the 212 series of encoders.
DECODER (HT12D)

Features:

_ Operating voltage: 2.4V~12V


_ Low power and high noise immunity CMOS technology
_ Low standby current
_ Capable of decoding 12 bits of information
_ Pair with Holtek_s 212 series of encoders
_ Binary address setting
_ Received codes are checked 3 times
_ Address/Data number combination
_ HT12D: 8 address bits and 4 data
_ HT12F: 12 address bits only
_ Built-in oscillator needs only 5%
_ Valid transmission indicator
_ Easy interface with an RF or transmission medium
_ Minimal external components
DECODER (HT12D)

General Description:

The 212 decoders are a series of CMOS LSIs for remote control
system applications. They are paired with Holtek_s 212series of encoders
(refer to the encoder/decoder cross reference table).
For proper operation, a pair of encoder/decoder with the same number
of addresses and data format should be chosen.
The decoders receive serial addresses and data from a programmed
212series of encoders that are transmitted by a carrier using an RF or an IR
transmission medium. They compare the serial input data three times
continuously with their local addresses. If no error or unmatched codes are
found, the input data codes are decoded and then transferred to the output
pins.
The VT pin also goes high to indicate a valid transmission. The
212series of decoders are capable of decoding information that consist of N
bits of address and 12_N bits of data. Of this series, theHT12D is arranged
to provide 8 address bits and 4 data bits, and HT12F is used to decode 12bits
of address information.