Sunteți pe pagina 1din 3

Modal verbs

Conceptul de capacitate, posibilitate, necesitate sau obligatie este redat de asa


numitele "modal auxiliary verbs" : can, could, shall, should, must, need, ought to,
used to, dare.
Caracteristici:
• Nu au infinitiv lung
• Nu primesc "s" la persoana a III a singular prezent simplu
• Nu primesc "-ing"
• Verbele care urmeaza sunt la infinitiv scurt; excceptie: used to, ought to
• Nu au toate timpurile si modurile unui verb normal, de aceea unele au
echivalenti
• Formeaza interogativul prin inversiune; negativul + not
Can-could Û to be able to
May-might (numai in Indirect Speech) Û to be allowed to; to be permited to
Must Û to have to
Can
• Abilitate fizica si intelectuala la prezent si viitor
• Exprima o continuitate alaturi de verbele de perceptie
• Exprima o permisiune (informal English)
• Exprima o posibilitate atunci cand imprejurarile o permit If you come in
my town we can swim (I have a swimming pool)
• Exprima o imposibilitate, neincredere: cu acest inteles can poate fi urmat
de un infinitiv prezent(pentru actiune simultana) sau infinitiv perfect
(pentru actiune anterioara )

Nu se poate/este imposibil sa faca o He can’t make such a mistake


asemenea greseala

Nu se poate sa fi facut o asemenea He can’t have made such a mistake


greseala

• Exprima o cerere politicoasa Can I help you?


May
• Exprima o permisiune(formal english).Cu acest inteles el poate fi inlocuit
cu echivalentul ® to be allowed to; to be permited to
• Exprima o posibilitate.Cu acest inteles el poate fi inlocuit cu it is
possible/maybe/perhaps

  It is possible for you to know her


Poate ca o cunosti

Maybe/perhaps you know her

You may hnow her

 
May+infinitiv continuu=posibilitatea unei actiuni in momentul vorbirii ® Ex: She
may be sleeping now.
May+infinitiv perfect=posibilitatea unei actiuni in trecut ® Ex: She may have lost
the key.
• Exprima o urare, speranta May all your dreams come true! sau May good
luck attend you!
• In propozitia concesiva dupa: whatever, whenever, whereever, whoever,
thought, althought, no matter how No matter how much money you have
don’t spend it in one day1
• In completiva directa dupa to hope, to trust: I hope that you may find
tickets.
• In propozitia de scop dupa so that: I sit on the first row so that I may see
and hear well.
Must
• Exprima obligatie, comanda, necesitate.Cu acest inteles el poate fi inlocuit
cu echivalentul to have to
Must=obligatie impusa de vorbitor(regula)
Have to=obligatie externa impusa de autoritati sau imprejurari externe pe care
vorbitorul nu le poate controla

Don’t have to  

Lipsa de obligatie
Haven’t got to

Needn’t

Must not Interdictie, prohibitie (regula)

• Eprima deductie, concluzie logica, probabilitate


NOTA: cand must exprima probabilitate el poate fi inlocuit cu:
I’m sure/certain/positive

Certain/obviously

It’s likely/probable

Is likely

Should
• Exprima obligatie, sfat, recomandare(obligatia este mai slaba decat cea cu
must)
• Exprima surpriza in intrebare retorica Ex:Why should I go there?
• Exprima presupunere, deductie logica
• In completiva directa dupa: to suggest, to propose, to insist, to recommend, to
advise, to urge...that
• In propozitia subiectiva dupa constructii impersonale: it is/was
advisable/essential/better/fair/important/natural/necessary/right..that
• In propozitia de scop dupa: so that, in order that, lest(ca sa nu..., ca sa nu
cumva...), for fear that
• In propozitia conditionala tip I si II (intamplare)
• Dupa verbe de emotie: to feel sory, to be delighted, to be annoyed, to be
shocked
• Dupa: don’t think why, see no reason why, can’t think why