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FUNCTION OF

LARGE INTESTINE

DR. MOHD.HEIKAL MY

PHYSIOLOGY DEPARTMENT

Faculty of Medicine UKM

mohdheikalyunus@yahoo.com

OBJECTIVES

  • 1. To explain the function of large intestine in term of secretion, motility and absorption

  • 2. To describe the role of colonic normal flora GI tract

  • 3. To explain the mechanism of defecation

LARGE INTESTINE

Primary function: to store and concentrate fecal material before defecation

Secretion consists of mucus and fluid containing HCO - 3 and K +

i) protection to the mucosa ii) lubrication to facilitate passage of feces

iii) neutralized acid produced by bacterial fermentation

MOTILITY

i) Haustral contractions

Similar to segmentation but slow and non propulsive; BER (1/30min)

Initiated by distension Controlled by local reflexes through intrinsic plexuses Fx : facilitate mixing & absorption, storage Common in proximal colon

ii) Mass action contraction (Mass movement)

Simultaneous, intense and prolonged contraction of colonic smooth muscle over large confluent areas

Triggered by gastrocolic reflex

Move colonic contents from one portion of large intestine to another in few seconds

Common in central and distal colon

Intestinal & colon reflex

Reflex mediated from the stomach to the small intestine & colon by:

i) Hormones : Gastrin

ii) Local Distension in stomach → PNS

↑ Ileum & ↑Colonic Motility and Mass movement ↑ movement of material through ileocecal sphinc.

  • pushes colonic contents to rectum + defecation reflex

Intestinal & colon reflex • Reflex mediated from the stomach to the small intestine & colon

Gastroileal & gastrocolic reflexes

initiated to move the existing contents father down the tract to prepare for the incoming food

ABSORPTION

Function : absorption of water and Na + 90% of fluid → semisolid feces

Na + is actively absorbed and H 2 O follows the osmotic gradient

Absorption of vitamin K (synthesized by colonic bacteria)

Absorption of fatty acids ( undigested fiber metabolized by bacteria) through passive diffusion

COLONIC NORMAL FLORA

500 different species bacteria reside in colon

Slow colonic movement : bacterial growth & accumulation

Harmless & provide beneficial functions:

Nutritional contributions

Vit K, B complex, Folic acid

Short chain fatty acids

Enhance intestinal immunity :

Competitive supress the growth of pathogenic microbes

Promote colonic motility Maintain colonic mucosal integrity

DEFECATION  Accomplished by series of voluntary & involuntary acts  Initiated by movement of feces

DEFECATION

  • Accomplished by series of voluntary & involuntary acts

  • Initiated by movement of feces into rectum (*1).

  • The resultant ↑ in intra-rectal pressure produces an urge to defecate.

  • Stimulation of stretch receptor ↑ENS & PNS activity (*3a, *3b)

  • Signals sent to ↑mass movement & local peristalsis in large intestine (*4a, *4b)

  • At the same time reflex relaxation

of internal anal sphincter occurs.

  • External anal sphincter can be controlled voluntarily

  • Defecation occurs if external

sphinter relax

thank

you

TUTORIAL

1. Describe the neural reflexes leading to increase salivary secretion.

2. List and explain the cephalic, gastric and intestinal phase stimuli that stimulate or inhibit gastric acid secretion.

3. Describe the factors that control gastric emptying

4. Identify the enzymes involved in carbohydrate digestion and the mechanism of carbohydrate absorption in the small intestine.

5. List three ways in which protein or their digestion products can be absorbed from intestinal lumen into interstitial space/blood circulation.

6. Explain the role of bile salt in fat digestion and absorption.

7. Describe the hormonal regulation of pancreatic juice secretion.

8. Describe the sequence of events that occur during defecation.