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ABSTRACT

• Nowadays there are numerous occurrences about pirating of trees like


Sandal, Sagwan and so forth. These trees are expensive and pitiful. They
are utilized in the medicinal sciences, beautifying agents.

• To limit their sneaking and to spare woodlands around the world some
preventive estimates should be conveyed. We have built up a framework
which can be utilized to limit sneaking.

• Smuggling/theft of most important trees such as sandal wood in forests,


poses a serious threat to forest resources, causes significant economic
damage and ultimately has quite a devastating effect on the environment
all over the world. These trees are very costly as well as less available in
the world. These are used in medical sciences as well as cosmetics.
Because of huge amount of money involved in selling of such trees
smuggling occurs.

• This paper propose a microcontroller based anti-poaching system


employing WSN technology, which is capable of detecting theft by
monitoring the vibrations produced by the cutting of trees/branches using
a 3 axis MEMS accelerometer. WSN is widely used technology in
remote monitoring applications. Due to nature disaster some trees may
fallen and create some sounds for that purpose we are using GPS module
for continuous monitoring of trees location.The embedded system
architecture and the hardware/software designs are described in detail.
Vibration data collected by various tests on wood and simulated. It is
also used along with the IOT modules to communicate to a central server
from a remote place.
CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION

Now a days poaching or smuggling of environmentally and economically


important species of trees in forested areas - such as Teakwood, Sandalwood,
Pine and Rosewood has been dramatically increased. There have been several
initiatives undertaken by different stakeholders – and in particular - by the
Govt. of India, to mitigate these problems. These include the recruitment,
training and deployment of anti-poaching watchers and/or private/govt. security
guards across forests. Strict punishments for convicted offenders, as well as
giving special incentives for anti-poaching activities (Twelfth Five Year Plan
2012-2017) were aimed for eradicating the menace. However, the punitive
measures have remained largely ineffective, but still poachers was continue to
thrive.The most effective solution is– “the implementation of a real time,
wireless sensor network(WSN) and data logging system” which will be a
advanced and a cheap modern technology to make monitoring more robust,
effective and feasible. WSN is a most emerging technology, widely used in
many industrial applications such as monitoring, maintenance, security and
control application, specific in remote monitoring applications etc. In forest
areas, WSN are widely used for fire detection in forest, to detect
rearing/poaching of animals[6],for environmental monitoring, etc. [3]
[7].Wireless Sensor Network facilitates easy installation and maintenance; they
eliminate the use of expensivecables and save costs. With the help of WSN and
some other sensors we can implement the system which used to reduce the
poaching level in the forest areas.
CHAPTER 2

LITERATURE SURVEY – 1
IOT BASED ANTI-POACHING SENSOR SYSTEM FOR TREES IN
FOREST
Presently a-days there are numerous episodes about carrying of trees like
Sandal, Sagwan and so forth. Poaching of monetarily valuable trees has turned
into a noteworthy dangerous to the estate of these trees, making an ecological
irregularity and hazard the common assets. Distinctive activities have been
taken world broadly including foundation of International Anti-Poaching
establishment (IAPF). To confine their pirating and to spare woodlands around
the world some preventive estimates should be made. We have built up a
framework which can be utilized to confine smuggling. This task shows a
framework for observing woodland and its region depends on IoT based remote
sensor organize innovation. This paper proposes a microcontroller essentially
based enemy of poaching framework utilizing WSN innovation. The
fundamental thought displayed in this paper include utilizing a cutting edge and
a modern innovation in which poachers will be deserted and being gotten
effectively there by disposing of Poaching exercises. The framework propose
three unique activities of reactions, right off the bat: passages constantly get
information about trees area utilizing sensor. The second activity can be called
perception where by various picture preparing methods of the got pictures
encompassing a trees and in this manner give a sufficient help with
understanding what makes sudden development of the trees. The last activity is
to send messages to the officer's PDAs about the trees and the area through
sensor. Backwoods authorities are told when any occasion happens so fitting
move can be made. Remote sensor organize innovation can help build up a
vitality effective framework for checking the poaching of trees.
We have planned a framework which can be utilized to keep away from the
sneaking of the trees which would thus stop the deforestation and maintain the
Environmental solidness, which would solve one of the issues with the Global
Warming. Poaching isn't identified with India just, China, Australia and
African nations are likewise battling with same issue. Indian sandalwood costs
12000 to 13000 INR for every kg. Where as in universal market Red Sanders
costs INR 10 crore for each ton. These are generally helpful in the therapeutic
sciences just as beautifying agents. As a result of immense measure of cash
associated with moving of such tree woods and bunches of occurrences are
going on of cutting of tree and their smuggling. The Indian sandalwood tree has
turned out to be uncommon as of late, trying to control its conceivable
misfortune the Indian government is attempting to restrain the exportation of
sandalwood. The primary target of this undertaking is to build up a framework
which can be utilized to limit sneaking of sandalwood trees. For an individual,
greatest admissible buy limit isn't to surpass 3.8kg according to Govt. On the
off chance that the tree is now government controlled, at that point its
evacuation is disallowed whether on private or sanctuary grounds until the tree
is thirty years of age. Pirating of sandalwood has made financial and lawfulness
issues in territories circumscribing in India. It's difficult to envision a world
without trees, yet as of now there are just 2 genuine woodlands left on planet
earth. The unstoppable force of life is progressively enduring an onslaught
nowadays, on the off chance that not by industrialists and worldwide
partnerships, at that point by generally conventional individuals who appear to
have lost all association with nature. Carrying/burglary of most imperative
trees, for example, sandal wood in woodlands, represents a genuine risk to
timberland assets, causes critical financial harm and at last has a significant
crushing impact on the condition everywhere throughout the world. This paper
propose a microcontroller based anti poaching framework utilizing WSN
innovation, which is fit for identifying robbery by checking the vibrations
created by the cutting of trees or branches. Vibration information gathered by
different tests on wood and simulated. The plan framework utilizes three
sensors tilt sensor (to identify the tendency of tree when its being cut),
temperature sensor (to distinguish woodland fires), sound sensor (for powerful
identification of illicit logging for example indeed, even the sounds produced
while axing out the tree are likewise detected). Information created from these
sensors is constantly checked with the guide of Blynk App. As for the sensors,
their yield gadgets are initiated through relay switch. For tilt sensor and sound
sensor a buzzer is actuated and for temperature sensor a water siphon is
initiated. Created information is put away in Blynk Server over the Wi-Fi
module.
Old redwoods in California are being disfigured, as poachers cutting tool off
their burls to move the uncommon wood on the bootleg market. As the
National Parks Service (NPS) expressed in a 2014 discharge, the end of the
burls can fundamentally debilitate the tree, abandoning them powerless against
winds and floods, just as creepy crawly pervasion in their uncovered
heartwood. Also, the misfortune can successfully separate a tree's hundreds of
years long life expectancy, as the burl keeps becoming even after a redwood
falls. As NPS expresses: "A burl from a another tree that can live for an
additional 2,000 years, in this manner the Latin name for coast redwoods,
Sequoia simpervirens, which signifies 'everlastingly living.'" Tree poaching in
the Redwood National Forest and other State Parks in the foggy area of
Western United States between Northern California and Oregon is spreading,
and park officers are finding that burlwood culprits are accomplishing
progressively imperative components of mischief to these old trees, that are
from time to time are over 2000 years old. Old advancement waterfront
Redwood trees are one of earth's remaining basic fortunes, and after the
outrageous logging of the latest couple of hundreds of years, relatively few
remain.
LITERATURE SURVEY - 2
UNDETECTED DETECTIVE TO PROTECT THE FOREST TREES
AGAINST POACHING USING WSN TECHNOLOGY
– In recent years poaching or smuggling of environmentally and economically
important species of trees in forested areas such as Sandalwood, Teak wood,
The Pine and Rosewood has been increased extremely.There having several
abilitiestake on by various stakeholders – particularly - by the Govt. Of India,
to mitigate these problems. These include the recruitment, training and
deployment of anti-poaching watchers and/or private/govt. security guards
across forests. Strict punishments for convicted offenders, as well as giving
special incentives for antipoachingactivities (Twelfth Five Year Plan 2012-
2017) were aimed for eradicating the menace
ZigBee is a mesh network protocol. It is designed to carry small data
packets over short distances while maintaining low power consumption. Zigbee
runs on a mesh topology network, it means that information travels from a
single sensor node on a web of nodes (each of which act as a data source and a
repeater) until the transmission gets to the gateway. It uses a version of the
IEEE (Institute of Electronics Engineering) 802.15.4 standard; it is widely used
in local area sensor data networks. ZigBee uses the 2.4 GHz ISM frequency
band and since this is a global standard, the applications of ZigBee can be used
virtually anywhere. The application of ZigBee includes home automation,
security systems, HVAC systems, smart lighting, and more. Generally we can
say that, the energy can be stored in a capacitor, super capacitor, or battery.
When the application needs to provide the huge energy spikes at that time
capacitors are used. When the device needs toe steady flow of energy at that
time batteries re used because it leaks less energy. For independent sensor
networks current interest of peoples in low power energy harvesting. An energy
harvesting scheme puts power stored into a capacitor then boosted/regulated to
a second storage capacitor or battery for the use in the microprocessor. The
power is transmitted possibly through a wireless method and it is generally
used in a sensor application and the data stored .In this system we are going to
setup a combination of such software and hardware that by using the same or
by implementing the system in the forest area will help to protect the trees in
the forest without any human need for surveillance in the forest. However, the
punitive measures have remained largely ineffective, but still poachers was
continue to thrive. The most promising solution is– “the implementation of a
real time, wireless sensor network and data logging system” which will be a
sophisticated and a cheap modern technology to make monitoring more robust,
effective and feasible. WSN is a most emerging technology, widely used in
many industrial applications such as monitoring, maintenance, security and
control application, specific in remote monitoring applications etc. In forest
areas, WSN are widely used for fire detection in forest, to detect
rearing/poaching of wild animals, for environmental monitoring, etc. Hence
WSN has many advantageous applications in real world and so used in this
system. The installation and maintenance of Wireless Sensor Network is easy;
because they eliminate the use of expensive cables and because of that it saves
cost. To design a portable wireless sensor node is the main idea presented in
this system which is a part of wireless sensor Network. It will be mounted on
trunk of each tree, which is capable of detecting theft as well as automatically
initiate & send alarm signals if any to remote terminal through wireless media.
A network interface used here i.e. Xbee RF module has IEEE 802.15.4 standard
or ZigBee which is developed as an open global standard for wireless
technology and supports basic communication interface of low-cost, low power
wireless sensor network.
CHAPTER 3

3.1 EXISTING SYSTEM

Plundering of sandalwood trees is one of the key challenges faced by the department. Forest
department has found an innovative way now to protect these – steel armours. “Before we put up
this mesh, we lost some trees to the thieves. They are very quick, they cut down the trees and take
them away in a few minutes. After we put up the steel cover, “Some thieves once tried to cut the
trees even after the steel mesh had been installed. But they did not succeed and were arrested.But
some cases many thieves are cutting the trees and escaped during night time. For monitoring large
areas, there is a need for an automated system for longer lasting solution Tracking applications,
GPS.

3.2 PROPOSED SYSTEM

The proposed WSN has:

 15- 20 Sensor Nodes: Each Sensor Node will have sensor inputs as data of
Accelerometer and sound sensor.
 1 Master Node: Receives the messages from all the sensor nodes and forward it to
Base station. It has additional Intelligence i.e. it processes the messages from the
Sensor Nodes and raises the alarms levels.
 1 Base Station: Receives the messages from more than one master node and logs the
messages to the server.
 1 PC based Server Software with GUI: To give audio visual alarms

We are developing such a system which can be used to restrict this smuggling. Every tree will be
equipped with one small electronics unit which consists of Micro Controller, MEMS sensor, GPS and
IOT module. In big forest, each tree will be having sensor unit which is fitted on stem of tree will
Communicate with their server unit .The communication between tree unit and server unit take
place by using IOT module. Tree cutting will be detected by sound sensor and MEMS. By using
sound sensor we can predict the cutting tree .once the tree will fallen the nearest tree will sense the
sound of fallen trees and send the signal to server.Sensor values having some fixed threshold value,
once the threshold value will match to the current value, it will send the alert signal to server due to
that signal the forest ranger may get more alert on that particular area. Due to nature disaster some
trees may fallen, for that purpose we are using GPS module for continuous monitoring of trees
location
3.2.1 PROPOSED BLOCK DIAGRAM

3.2.2 ADVANTAGE:

1. Easy to operate
2. Low power consumption
3. User friendly
4. No electrical noise

3.2.3 HARDWARE REQUIREMENT:

 Microcontroller
 Crystal
 Resistors
 Capacitors
 Diodes
 Regulator
 Transistors
 Keypad
 DC Motor
 RS232
 IR Sensor

3.2.4SOFTWARE REQUIREMENT:

 EMBEDDED ‘C’
 Code Vision AVR
 AVR KIT 2
 VB 6.0
CHAPTER 4

4.1 POWER SUPPLY UNIT

The present chapter introduces the operation of power supply circuits


built using filters, rectifiers, and then voltage regulators Starting with an AC
voltage a steady DC voltage is obtained by rectifying the AC voltage then
filtering to a DC level, and finally, regulating to obtain a desired fixed DC
voltage. The regulation is usually obtained from an IC voltage regulator unit,
which takes a DC voltage and provides a somewhat lower DC voltage, which
remains the same even if the input DC voltage varies, or the output load
connected to the DC voltage changes.

Fig: 4.10 Diagrams for Power Supply


4.1.1 IC VOLTAGE REGULATORS

Voltage regulators comprise a class of widely used ICs. Regulator IC


units contain the circuitry for reference source, comparator amplifier, control
device, and overload protection all in a single IC. Although the internal
construction of the IC is somewhat different from that described for discrete
voltage regulator circuits, the external operation is much the same. IC units
provide regulation of either a fixed positive voltage, a fixed negative voltage, or
an adjustable set voltage. A power supply can be built using a transformer
connected to the AC supply line to step the AC voltage to desired amplitude,
then rectifying that AC voltage, filtering with a capacitor and RC filter, if
desired, and finally regulating the DC voltage using an IC regulator. The
regulators can be selected for operation with load currents from hundreds of
Millis amperes to tens of amperes, corresponding to power ratings from mill
watts to tens of watts.

4.1.2 THREE-TERMINAL VOLTAGE REGULATORS

Fig shows the basic connection of a three-terminal voltage regulator IC


to a load. The fixed voltage regulator has an unregulated DC input voltage, VI,
applied to one input terminal, a regulated output DC voltage, Vo, from a second
terminal, with the third terminal connected to ground The specifications also
list the amount of output voltage change resulting from a change in load current
(load regulation) or in input voltage (line regulation).

4.1.3 FIXED POSITIVE VOLTAGE REGULATORS

The series 78 regulators provide fixed regulated voltages from 5 to 24 V


shows how one such IC, a 7812, is connected to provide voltage regulation with
the output from this unit of +12V Dec. An unregulated input voltage VI is
filtered by capacitor C1 and connected to the IC’s IN terminal. The IC’s OUT
terminal provides a regulated + 12V which is filtered by the capacitor C2
(mostly for any high-frequency noise). The third IC terminal is connected to
ground (GND).

While the input voltage may vary over some permissible voltage range,
and the output load may vary over some acceptable range, the output voltage
remains constant within specified voltage variation limits. These limitations are
spelled out in the manufacturer’s specification sheets.

4.1.4 BLOCK DIAGRAM OF POWER SUPPLY

The AC voltage, typically 220V RMS, is connected to a transformer,


which steps that AC voltage down to the level of the desired DC output. A
diode rectifier then provides a full-wave rectified voltage that is initially filtered
by a simple capacitor filter to produce a DC voltage. This resulting DC voltage
usually has some ripple or AC voltage variation.

A regulator circuit removes the ripples and also remains the same DC value
even if the input DC voltage varies, or the load connected to the output DC
voltage changes. This voltage regulation is usually obtained using one of the
popular voltage regulator IC units.

Fig:4.12BlockDiagram of Power Supply


4.1.5 TRANSFORMER

The potential transformer will step down the power supply voltage (0-
230V) to (0-6V) level. Then the secondary of the potential transformer will be
connected to the precision rectifier, which is constructed with the help of op–
amp. The advantages of using a precision rectifier are it will give a peak
voltage output as DC, the rest of the circuits will give only RMS output.

4.1.6 BRIDGE RECTIFIER

When four diodes are connected as shown in the figure, the circuit is
called as a bridge rectifier. The input to the circuit is applied to the diagonally
opposite corners of the network, and the output is taken from the remaining two
corners.

Let us assume that the transformer is working properly and there is a


positive potential, at point A and a negative potential at point B. The positive
potential at point A will forward bias D3 and reverse bias D4. The negative
potential at point B will forward bias D1 and reverse D2. At this time the D3
and D1 are forward biased and will allow current flow to pass through them;
D4 and D2 are reverse biased and will block current flow. The path for current
flow is from point B through D1, up through RL, through D3, through the
secondary of the transformer back to point B.

This path is indicated by the solid arrows. Waveforms (1) and (2) can be
observed across D1 and D3.One-half cycle later the polarity across the
secondary of the transformer reverse, forward biasing D2 and D4 and reverse
biasing D1 and D3.

The current flow will now be from point A through D4, up through RL,
through D2, through the secondary of T1, and back to point A. This path is
indicated by the broken arrows. Waveforms (3) and (4) can be observed across
D2 and D4. The current flow through RL is always in the same direction. In
flowing through RL this current develops a voltage corresponding to that
shown waveform (5). Since current flows through the load (RL) during both
half cycles of the applied voltage, this bridge rectifier is a full-wave rectifier.

One advantage of a bridge rectifier over a conventional full-wave


rectifier is that with a given transformer the bridge rectifier produces a voltage
output that is nearly twice that of the conventional full-wave circuit.This may
be shown by assigning values to some of the components shown in views A
and B. Assume that the same transformer is used in both circuits. The peak
voltage developed between points X and y is 1000 volts in both circuits.

Since only one diode can conduct at any instant, the maximum voltage
that can be rectified at any instant is 500 volts.. In the bridge rectifier shown in
view B, the maximum voltage that can be rectified is the full secondary voltage,
which is 1000 volts. Therefore, the peak output voltage across the load resistor
is nearly 1000 volts. With both circuits using the same transformer, the bridge
rectifier circuit produces a higher output voltage than the conventional full-
wave rectifier circuit.

4.1.7 IC VOLTAGE REGULATORS

Voltage regulators comprise a class of widely used ICs. Regulator IC


units contain the circuitry for reference source, comparator amplifier, control
device, and overload protection all in a single IC. IC units provide regulation of
either a fixed positive voltage, a fixed negative voltage, or an adjustable set
voltage.

The regulators can be selected for operation with load currents from
hundreds of Milli amperes to tens of amperes, corresponding to power ratings
from milliwatts to tens of watts. A fixed three-terminal voltage regulator has an
unregulated DC input voltage, VI, applied to one input terminal, a regulated DC
output voltage, Vo, from a second terminal, with the third terminal connected to
ground. The series 78 regulators provide fixed positive regulated voltages from
5 to 24 volts. Similarly, the series 79 regulators provide fixed negative
regulated voltages from 5 to 24 volts.

 For IC’s, Micro Controller, LCD --------- 5 volts


 For alarm circuit, op-amp, relay circuits ---------- 12 volts

4.2 Max232:

Pin diagram:

Pin diagram of max232

Features:

 Meets or exceeds tia/eia-232-f and itu recommendation v.28

 Operates from a single 5-v power supply with 1.0-_f charge-pump capacitors
 Operates up to 120 kbit/s

 Two drivers and two receivers.

 ±30-v input levels

 Low supply current ( 8 ma typical)

 Esd protection exceeds jesd 22

− 2000-v human-body model (a114-a)

 Upgrade with improved esd (15-kv hbm) and 0.1-_f charge-pump capacitors is
available with the max202.

Description:

The max232 is a dual driver/receiver that includes a capacitive voltage generator to


supply tia/eia-232-f voltage levels from a single 5-v supply. Each receiver converts tia/eia-
232-f inputs to 5-v ttl/cmos levels. These receivers have a typical threshold of 1.3 v, a typical
hysteresis of 0.5 v, and can accept ±30-v inputs. Each driver converts ttl/cmos input levels
into tia/eia-232-f levels. The driver, receiver, and

Voltage-generator functions are available as cells.

Logic circuit diagram:

Schematic diagram of max232 chip:


Figure 6 : Schematic diagram of max232

Test circuit:
4.3 BUZZER

General Description:

A buzzer or beeper is an audio signaling device, which may be mechanical,


electromechanical, or piezoelectric. Typical uses of buzzers and beepers include alarm
devices, timers and confirmation of user input such as a mouse click or keystroke.

Buzzer is an integrated structure of electronic transducers, DC power


supply,widely used in computers, printers, copiers, alarms, electronic toys,
automotiveelectronic equipment, telephones, timers and other electronic products for
sounddevices. Active buzzer 5V Rated power can be directly connected to a
continuoussound, this section dedicated sensor expansion module and the board in
combination,can complete a simple circuit design, to "plug and play."

Specifications:

• On-board passive buzzer

• On-board 8550 triode drive

• Can control with single-chip microcontroller IO directly

• Working voltage: 5V

• Board size: 22 (mm) x12 (mm)

Pin Configuration:

1. VCC
2. Input

3. Ground

Schematic Diagram:

4.4 Temperature Sensors

The convenient reference point for thermistors provided by resistance is at 25 °C


(substantially at room temperature).The formula by which the resistance of the thermistor is
specified:

                     R=R0 expB (1/T-1/T0)

Where, R = Resistance in ambient temperature T (K)

             R0 = Resistance in ambient temperature T0 (K)

             B = Material constant

 
Brief Description

Thermistor is an electronic component used to calculate the temperature.This is


a type of resistor whose resistance varies with change in temperature. These NTC
thermistors are made up from the combination of metal oxides which passed through
sintering process which gives negative electrical resistance versus temperature (R/T)
relationship to it. Due to having a large negative slope a small change in temperature cause a
huge change in electrical resistance.

Basically, there are two types of thermistor one is NTC (Negative Temperature


Coefficient) and second one is PTC (Positive Temperature Coefficient). If the thermistor is
NTC type then it decreases the resistance as increase in temperature and PTC behavior is just
opposite to the NTC. A thermistor is connected with any electrical circuit to measure the
temperature of the body or the substance. This thermistor’s operating temperature range is
-55 °C to 125 °C

BLOCK DIAGRAM

FIG:3.13Full-Range Centigrade Temperature Sensor

Applications

 Domestic application – Fridges, freezers, cookers and deep-fat fryers etc.


 Industrial, Telecommunication application - Process control, heating and
ventilation, air conditioning, fire alarms, temperature protection in battery
management/charging systems, Video and audio equipment, mobile phones and
camcorders etc.
 Automotive application - Inlet air-temperature control, engine temperature control,
airbag electronic systems etc.
 Thermistor can be used for temperature compensation, temperature measurement,
temperature controlling.

4.5 IR Introduction

Infrared technology addresses a wide variety of wireless applications. The main areas
are sensing and remote controls. In the electromagnetic spectrum, the infrared portion is
divided into three regions: near infrared region, mid infrared region and far infrared region.

The wavelengths of these regions and their applications are shown below.

 Near infrared region — 700 nm to 1400 nm — IR sensors, fiber optic


 Mid infrared region — 1400 nm to 3000 nm — Heat sensing
 Far infrared region — 3000 nm to 1 mm — Thermal imaging

The frequency range of infrared is higher than microwave and lesser than visible
light.For optical sensing and optical communication, photo optics technologies are used in
the near infrared region as the light is less complex than RF when implemented as a source
of signal. Optical wireless communication is done with IR data transmission for short range
applications.An infrared sensor emits and/or detects infrared radiation to sense its
surroundings.The working of any Infrared sensor is governed by three laws: Planck’s
Radiation law, Stephen – Boltzmann law and Wien’s Displacement law.

Planck’s law states that “every object emits radiation at a temperature not equal to 00K”.
Stephen – Boltzmann law states that “at all wavelengths, the total energy emitted by a black
body is proportional to the fourth power of the absolute temperature”. According to Wien’s
Displacement law, “the radiation curve of a black body for different emperatures will reach
its peak at a wavelength inversely proportional to the temperature”.The basic concept of an
Infrared Sensor which is used as Obstacle detector is to transmit an infrared signal, this
infrared signal bounces from the surface of an object and the signal is received at the infrared
receiver.

There are five basic elements used in a typical infrared detection system: an infrared
source, a transmission medium, optical component, infrared detectors or receivers and signal
processing. Infrared lasers and Infrared LED’s of specific wavelength can be used as infrared
sources. The three main types of media used for infrared transmission are vacuum,
atmosphere and optical fibers. Optical components are used to focus the infrared radiation or
to limit the spectral response. Optical lenses made of Quartz, Germanium and Silicon are
used to focus the infrared radiation. Infrared receivers can be photodiodes, phototransistors
etc. some important specifications of infrared receivers are photosensitivity, detectivity and
noise equivalent power. Signal processing is done by amplifiers as the output of infrared
detector is very small.

Types of IR Sensors

Infrared sensors can be passive or active. Passive infrared sensors are basically Infrared
detectors. Passive infrared sensors do not use any infrared source and detects energy emitted
by obstacles in the field of view. They are of two types: quantum and thermal. Thermal
infrared sensors use infrared energy as the source of heat and are independent of wavelength.
Thermocouples, pyroelectric detectors and bolometers are the common types of thermal
infrared detectors.

Quantum type infrared detectors offer higher detection performance and are faster than
thermal type infrared detectors. The photosensitivity of quantum type detectors is
wavelength dependent. Quantum type detectors are further classified into two types: intrinsic
and extrinsic types. Intrinsic type quantum detectors are photoconductive cells and
photovoltaic cells.Active infrared sensors consist of two elements: infrared source and
infrared detector. Infrared sources include an LED or infrared laser diode. Infrared detectors
include photodiodes or phototransistors. The energy emitted by the infrared source is
reflected by an object and falls on the infrared detector.

IR Transmitter

Infrared Transmitter is a light emitting diode (LED) which emits infrared radiations.
Hence, they are called IR LED’s. Even though an IR LED looks like a normal LED, the
radiation emitted by it is invisible to the human eye.

The picture of a typical Infrared LED is shown below.


There are different types of infrared transmitters depending on their wavelengths, output
power and response time.A simple infrared transmitter can be constructed using an infrared
LED, a current limiting resistor and a power supply. The schematic of a typical IR
transmitter is shown below.

When operated at a supply of 5V, the IR transmitter consumes about 3 to 5 mA of


current. Infrared transmitters can be modulated to produce a particular frequency of infrared
light. The most commonly used modulation is OOK (ON – OFF – KEYING) modulation.

IR transmitters can be found in several applications. Some applications require infrared


heat and the best infrared source is infrared transmitter. When infrared emitters are used with
Quartz, solar cells can be made.

IR Receiver

Infrared receivers are also called as infrared sensors as they detect the radiation from an
IR transmitter. IR receivers come in the form of photodiodes and phototransistors. Infrared
Photodiodes are different from normal photo diodes as they detect only infrared radiation.
The picture of a typical IR receiver or a photodiode is shown below.
Different types of IR receivers exist based on the wavelength, voltage, package, etc.
When used in an infrared transmitter – receiver combination, the wavelength of the receiver
should match with that of the transmitter.A typical infrared receiver circuit using a
phototransistor is shown below.

It consists of an IR phototransistor, a diode, a MOSFET, a potentiometer and an LED.


When the phototransistor receives any infrared radiation, current flows through it and
MOSFET turns on. This in turn lights up the LED which acts as a load. The potentiometer is
used to control the sensitivity of the phototransistor.

Principle of Working
The principle of an IR sensor working as an Object Detection Sensor can be explained
using the following figure. An IR sensor consists of an IR LED and an IR Photodiode;
together they are called as Photo – Coupler or Opto – Coupler.

When the IR transmitter emits radiation, it reaches the object and some of the radiation
reflects back to the IR receiver. Based on the intensity of the reception by the IR receiver, the
output of the sensor is defined.

Obstacle Sensing Circuit or IR Sensor Circuit

It consists of an IR LED, a photodiode, a potentiometer, an IC Operational amplifier and


an LED.
IR LED emits infrared light. The Photodiode detects the infrared light. An IC Op – Amp
is used as a voltage comparator. The potentiometer is used to calibrate the output of the
sensor according to the requirement.

When the light emitted by the IR LED is incident on the photodiode after hitting an
object, the resistance of the photodiode falls down from a huge value. One of the input of the
op – amp is at threshold value set by the potentiometer. The other input to the op-amp is
from the photodiode’s series resistor. When the incident radiation is more on the photodiode,
the voltage drop across the series resistor will be high. In the IC, both the threshold voltage
and the voltage across the series resistor are compared. If the voltage across the resistor
series to photodiode is greater than that of the threshold voltage, the output of the IC Op –
Amp is high. As the output of the IC is connected to an LED, it lightens up. The threshold
voltage can be adjusted by adjusting the potentiometer depending on the environmental
conditions.

The positioning of the IR LED and the IR Receiver is an important factor. When the IR
LED is held directly in front of the IR receiver, this setup is called Direct Incidence. In this
case, almost the entire radiation from the IR LED will fall on the IR receiver. Hence there is
a line of sight communication between the infrared transmitter and the receiver. If an object
falls in this line, it obstructs the radiation from reaching the receiver either by reflecting the
radiation or absorbing the radiation.

Distinguishing Between Black and White Colors

It is universal that black color absorbs the entire radiation incident on it and white color
reflects the entire radiation incident on it. Based on this principle, the second positioning of
the sensor couple can be made. The IR LED and the photodiode are placed side by side.
When the IR transmitter emits infrared radiation, since there is no direct line of contact
between the transmitter and receiver, the emitted radiation must reflect back to the
photodiode after hitting any object. The surface of the object can be divided into two types:
reflective surface and non-reflective surface. If the surface of the object is reflective in nature
i.e. it is white or other light color, most of the radiation incident on it will get reflected back
and reaches the photodiode. Depending on the intensity of the radiation reflected back,
current flows in the photodiode.
If the surface of the object is non-reflective in nature i.e. it is black or other dark color, it
absorbs almost all the radiation incident on it. As there is no reflected radiation, there is no
radiation incident on the photodiode and the resistance of the photodiode remains higher
allowing no current to flow. This situation is similar to there being no object at all.

The pictorial representation of the above scenarios is shown below.

The positioning and enclosing of the IR transmitter and Receiver is very important. Both
the transmitter and the receiver must be placed at a certain angle, so that the detection of an
object happens properly. This angle is the directivity of the sensor which is +/- 45 degrees.

The directivity is shown below.


In order to avoid reflections from surrounding objects other than the object, both the IR
transmitter and the IR receiver must be enclosed properly. Generally the enclosure is made
of plastic and is painted with black color.

SENSOR

We have already discussed how a light sensor works. IR Sensors work by using a
specific light sensor to detect a select light wavelength in the Infra-Red (IR) spectrum. By
using an LED which produces light at the same wavelength as what the sensor is looking for,
you can look at the intensity of the received light. When an object is close to the sensor, the
light from the LED bounces off the object and into the light sensor. This results in a large
jump in the intensity, which we already know can be detected using a threshold.
 

Depiction of the operation of an IR Sensor


 
Detecting Brightness
Since the sensor works by looking for reflected light, it is possible to have a sensor
that can return the value of the reflected light. This type of sensor can then be used to
measure how "bright" the object is. This is useful for tasks like line tracking.
CHAPTER 5

SOFTWARE ANALYSIS

5.1 INTRODUCTION

The main purpose of using the microcontroller in our project is because


high-performance CMOS 8-bit microcontroller with 8K bytes of in-system
programmable Flash memory. By combining a versatile 8-bit CPU with in-
system programmable Flash on a monolithic chip, the PIC 16F877A is a
powerful microcontroller which provides a highly-flexible and cost-effective
solution to many embedded control applications.

The programs of the microcontroller have been written in Embedded C


language and were compiled using MP LAB, a compiler used for
microcontroller programming. The communication between PC and the
microcontroller was established MAX 232 standard and those programs were
also done in C language. The following programs are used at various stages for
the mentioned functions. Serial communication in this program, the various
special function registers of the microcontroller are set such that they can send
and receive data from the PC. This program uses the serial library to
communicate with the ports.
5.2 AVR COMPILER

The C programming language is a general-purpose, programming


language that provides code efficiency, elements of structured programming,
and a rich set of operators. C is not a big language and is not designed for any
one particular area of application. Its generality combined with its absence of
restrictions, makes C a convenient and effective programming solution for a
wide variety of software tasks. Many applications can be solved more easily
and efficiently with C than with other more specialized languages.

The PIC Optimizing C Compiler is a complete implementation of the


American National Standards Institute (ANSI) standard for the C language.
arduinois not a universal C compiler adapted for the PIC 16F877A target. It is a
ground-up implementation dedicated to generating extremely fast and compact
code for the PIC 16F877A microprocessor. arduinoprovides you the flexibility
of programming in C and the code efficiency and speed of assembly language.
Since arduinois a cross compiler, some aspects of the C programming language
and standard libraries are altered or enhanced to address the peculiarities of an
embedded target processor.

5.3 SUPPORTS FOR ALL PIC VARIANTS

The PIC Family is one of the fastest growing Microcontroller


Architectures. More than 400 device variants from various silicon vendors are
today available. New extended 8051 Devices, like the PIC 16F877A
architecture are dedicated for large application with several Mbytes code and
data space. For optimum support of these different PIC variants, Arduino
provides the several development tools that are listed in the table below. A new
output file format (OMF2) allows direct support of up to 16MB code and data
space. Arduinocompiler is a variant of the arduino compiler that is design for
the new PIC 16F877Aarchitecture.

5.4 COMPILING WITH ATMEGE 328

This explains how to use PIC or compile C source files and discusses the
control directives you may specify. These directives allow you to perform
several functions.

For example:

 Direct arduinoto generate a listing file


 Control the information included in the object file
 Specify code optimization and memory models

5.5 RUNNING ARDUINO FROM THE COMMAND PROMPT

To invoke the Arduino compiler, enter at the command prompt. On this


command line, you must include the name of the C source file to be compiled,
as well as any other necessary control directives required to compile your
source file.

Source fileis the name of the source program you want to compile.

Directivesare the directives you want to use to control the function of the
compiler.
Command fileis the name of a command input file that may contain source
fileand directives. A command file is used, when the invocation line gets
complex and exceeds the limits of the Windows command prompt.

5.6EMBEDDED C

Micro controller program is written in Embedded C Language and It Is


Compile and Converter D into Hex File Using Code vision Software. The hex
file is loaded into the micro controller for performing the operation
CHAPTER 6

CONCLUSION

This paper comprises of an ease and low power IOT based framework to
identify the smuggling of trees. There are numerous approaches to secure trees,
however here a brilliant technique for interfacing a few sensors around trees
with a microcontroller was done. On the off chance that there are any
unfortunate things happened in any area of the woodland. The sensor identifies
and refreshes that data. The framework can be actualized utilizing Wireless
Fidelity bolster which will be stretched out versatility up to 5 km range in the
Forest Area. That is to imply the Forest experts about the tree's condition on
24x7 premise. This was conceivable in light of the fact that the installed unit
has GPRS. Anyway the Tree's condition is under consistent observing in light
of sensors. Thus it's an amalgamation of IoT, WSN and AWS to secure the
Nature. We have designed a system which can be used to avoid the smuggling
of the trees. Future Scope Though the claim has been made that a Smart module
has been developed to protect trees, future enhancements are required to make
the system more rugged. - The Units / Hardware / Sensors have to be rugged.
The Module should be placed in untraceable place on trees, not easily
accessible to tree-destructors. Forest Authorities has to be suitably educated.
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