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Contents:

Abstract

1. Introduction

1. What is Digital Watermarking?


2. Principle of Digital Watermarks
3. Structure of a digital watermark

2. Method for transferring medical images


a. The general method
b. Image encryption by stream cipher

3. Description Of The Combination Methods


4. Results
5. Conclusion
6. References
ABSTRACT

Online content delivery faces massive hurdles in the absence of a secure


framework for protecting valuable data. Digital watermarking a technology that can be
used for control, media identification, tracing and protecting content owner's rights
provides the solution
This paper presents overview on digital watermarking and a new method that
combines image encryption and watermarking technique for safe transmission purpose.
This method is based on the combination of public private keys and secret key ciphering,
and watermarking. The encryption algorithm with secret key is applied to the image. We
encrypt the secret key with an encryption method based on public-private keys. Then, this
secret key is embedded in the encrypted image. We apply and show the results of our
method to medical images.
INTRODUCTION encryption method. In the same way,
watermarking algorithms are well-
The amount of digital medical known.
images has increased rapidly in the The encryption can be done by
Internet. The necessity of fast and secure block or by stream. But the encryption
diagnosis is vital in the medical world. block methods have presented two
Nowadays, the transmission of images inconvenient applied to image. The first
became a daily routine and it is one was when you have homogeneous
necessary to find an efficient form to zones; all blocks of this kind are
transmit them over the net. In this paper encrypted on the same manner. The
we propose a new technique to encrypt second problem was that block
an image for safe transmission. encryption methods are not robust to
Our research deals with image noise. The stream cipher method is
encryption and watermarking. There are robust to moderate noise like JPEG
several methods to encrypt binary or compression with high quality factor. To
grey level images. Watermarking can be embed the encrypted secret key in the
an answer to make secure image image we have used a new DCT-based
transmission. For applications dealing watermarking method. We have chosen
with images, the watermarking objective to work in the frequency domain because
is to embed invisibly message inside the of the robustness to JPEG compression
image data. The length of the transmitted of the stream cypher method. An
message can be relatively important, in important application is the secure
fact, longer that just for identification. transfer of medical image.
Insertion can be made in a different way Firstly we present encryption
according to the length of message or algorithm per flux, then we explain how
desired robustness. The combination in to apply to images this method, we
the spatial and frequency domains for describe the combination method. We
the image watermarking is also possible. apply the methods and the combination
An encryption method which to medical images.
depends on the secrecy of the encryption
algorithm is not considered to be a true
What is Digital Watermarking? silently and psychologically deterring
criminals from making illegal copies.
Digital watermarking is a
technology for embedding various types Principle of Digital Watermarks
of information in digital content. In
A watermark on a bank note has
general, information for protecting
a different transparency than the rest of
copyrights and proving the validity of
the note when a light is shined on it.
data is embedded as a watermark.
However, this method is useless in the
All the information handled on digital world.
the Internet is provided as digital
Currently there are various
content. Such digital content can be
techniques for embedding digital
easily copied in a way that makes the
watermarks. Basically, they all digitally
new file indistinguishable from the
write desired information directly onto
original. Then the content can be
images or audio data in such a manner
reproduced in large quantities.
that the images or audio data are not
For example, if paper bank notes damaged. Embedding a watermark
or stock certificates could be easily should not result in a significant increase
copied and used, trust in their or reduction in the original data.
authenticity would greatly be reduced,
Digital watermarks are added to
resulting in a big loss. To prevent this,
images or audio data in such a way that
currencies and stock certificates contain
they are invisible or inaudible Ñ
watermarks. These watermarks are one
unidentifiable by human eye or ear.
of the methods for preventing counterfeit
Furthermore, they can be embedded in
and illegal use.
content with a variety of file formats.
Digital watermarks apply a Digital watermarking is the content
similar method to digital content. protection method for the multimedia
Watermarked content can prove its era.
origin, thereby protecting copyright. A
watermark also discourages piracy by
Structure of a digital watermark following illustration.

The structure of a digital


watermark is shown in the following
figures.

2. STREAM CIPHER—Method for


transferring medical images

The material that contains a


The general method
digital watermark is called a carrier. A
Algorithms of flux ciphering (stream
digital watermark is not provided as a
ciphers) can be designed as being
separate file or a link. It is information
algorithms of ciphering by blocks, where
that is directly embedded in the carrier
the block has a unitary dimension (1 bit,
file. Therefore, the digital watermark
1 byte, etc.) or relatively small. Their
cannot be identified by simply viewing
main advantages are their extreme
the carrier image containing it. Special
speeds and their capacity to change
software is needed to embed and detect
every symbol of the plaintext. Besides,
such digital watermarks. Kowa’s
they are less numerous than those of
SteganoSign is one of these software
ciphering by blocks, they are useful in an
packages.
environment where mistakes are
Both images and audio data can frequents, because they have the
carry watermarks. A digital watermark advantage of not propagate them
can be detected as shown in the (diffusion). The most widespread and
used coding stream ciphers are the
synchronous, and the most widely used
is the RC4. The algorithm RC4 has been
thought in 1987 by Ron Rivest and has
been developed for the RSA Security. It whole of bits whose result is placed to
is based on the random permutations into the left extreme of the register.
the byte. The algorithm has a variable
key length (of 1 to 256 bytes). The key is
used to initialize a table of 256-byte
states. This table is used for the pseudo-
random byte generation to produce a
random pseudo flux with which the Figure 1: Linear Feedback Shift Register (LFSR)

plaintext will be transformed. Current


interest in stream ciphers is most
Image encryption by stream cipher
commonly attributed to properties of the
Generally, the private key length of the
one-time pad, called the Vernam cipher.
stream ciphering can be eventually as
It uses a string of bits that is completely
long as the length of the message. The
random generated. The key stream has
method detail resides in the fact that for
the same length as the plaintext message.
every pixel the encryption depends
The random string is combined using
previously of the original pixel value, of
exclusive OR operations with the
the key, and of the k pixels previously
plaintext to produce the cipher text. The
ciphered. For every pixel p(n) of the
Linear Feedback Shift Register (LFSR),
original image, if k is the length of the
illustrated Figure 1, is a mechanism very
key, we calculate the pixel value p’(n) of
often applied in applications that require
the ciphered image using the equation:
very fast generation of a pseudo-random
sequence. The symmetrical ciphering
uses LFSR to generate some pseudo-
random bit sequences called register's With n Є [K, N], K Є [1, N] and  (L) a

vector. This vector is generally the key sequence of coefficients generated by the

of the ciphering process and it is defined secret key, N is the number of image

in relation to a meter. For every iteration, pixels.

the content of the register is baffled The above equation can be written where

toward the right of a position, and the k, recurrence order, corresponds to the

XOR operation is applied on one under


length of the key: key: k values of virtual grey levels on
which lean the k first pixels as if they
were their predecessors.
The chosen value of k must be
Where the αЄ(L)are the integer
larger enough to turn the system safe.
coefficients the order-2 to+2. The
Suppose k=64, we have still 2 bits per
principle of ciphering is illustrated in
coefficient, an effective 128-bit key. In
Figure 2.
relation to the initialization vector, we
showed that it was necessary for
ciphering the k first pixels, but it is
secondary for security point of view. We
did not give him the supplementary
place in the key, but their values are
deducted from the effective key of 128
Figure 2: Pixel encryption by stream bits, by an operation that we have
cipher. defined. This operation is based merely
Another information also appears on a sliding window that reads bits of the
in the key. Indeed, considering that the key. The window reads the first 8 bits for
ciphering of a pixel takes account of the the first virtual pixel, then it baffles itself
k previous pixels, we can not cipher the on the key, to read the next 8 new bits.
k first pixels of the picture in the same 3. DESCRIPTION OF THE
way. It is necessary to associate the COMBINATION
sequence of α (L) coefficient with a METHODS
sequence of k pixels therefore virtually In this section we describe how it is
Encrypted p’ (-L), for L Є [1, K], possible to combine the techniques of
Corresponding to the vector of encryption and watermarking in images.
initialization. We has showed that it is Indeed, we constructed a new method
possible, with this algorithm, to express with encryption algorithm with secret
p’ (n) only from initial data preceding key for the image, with encryption based
the pixel to be ciphered. Therefore, a on public private key for the secret key
vector of initialization is coded in the and with watermarking method.
For example, if a medical doctor M
wants to send, by network, a medical
image to a specialist S, it should be made
in a safe way. To do that, the doctor can
use a fast encryption algorithm with
secret key K to cipher the image. In
order to transfer K, M can encrypt the
key K by using encryption algorithm
with public key, like RSA for example.
If pub is a public key and priv a private Figure 3: Combination of public key
key for RSA, then M possesses the encryption, secret key encryption, and
public and private keys pubm and privm, watermarking.
and S the public and private keys pubs
and privs. Firstly, M generates a secret The specialist S receives the image and
key K for this session and ciphers the extracts from it the encrypted key K”.
image with this encryption algorithm. He can then authenticate M and decrypt
Secondly, M should encrypt the key K the key K” by using his self private key
with RSA algorithm by using his privs and the public key pubm of M.
private key, privm, in order to get an With the obtained key K, S can then
encrypted key K ‘. This encrypted key Decipher the image and visualize it.
K’ is encrypted twice with RSA by using If the specialist S wants to send
the public key pubs of his corresponding another image to the doctor M, he will
S in order to get K” .This encrypted key use a new secret key K1 for this new
K” is then embedded in the ciphered session. The process will be the same,
image by using a DCT-based but the private and public key for RSA
watermarking method. Finally, the will not be applied in the same order.
doctor sends this image to the specialist Even, if five keys are necessaries
S as presented in Figure 3. for each session, most of them are
transparent for the users. Indeed, the
private key can be associated to the
software used by the receptor, and for
the two correspondents it is not image, Figure 5.c. The difference
necessary to know the secret key which between the encrypted and the
is encrypted and embedded in the image. watermarked encrypted images is
However, for each session the value of presented Figure 5.d. We see the pixel
the key K must change. Otherwise, if the blocks where we have embedded our
key has no changing, all the people who message (encrypted key), the PSNR
have the software can decrypt the =42.12 dB. Finally, after decryption of
images. the watermarked encrypted image we
4. RESULTS obtain the image illustrated in Figure 5.e.
From the image, Figure 4.a, we have The difference between the original
applied the stream cypher algorithm with image and the decrypted watermarked
a key of 128 bits. We notice that the one is presented Figure 5.f. We see,
initial information is not any more Figure 5.f, that the differences between
visible. By comparing the histogram of this two images are spread out in the
the initial image, Figure 4.c with the image region where we have embedded
histogram of the encrypted image, the message, the PSNR=43 .71dB.
Figures 4.d, we remark that the Indeed, owing to the fact that the mean
probabilities of appearance of each grey value of the coefficients a (L) is equal to
level are equitably distributed. zero, the noise due to the watermarking
Consequently, the entropies of the is attenuated during the decryption
encrypted images are very hight (near 8 process.
bits/pixel). We present now the results of
the combination of encryption and
watermarking methods. From the
original image, Figure 5.a, we apply the
stream cypher method to obtain the
encrypted image, Figure 5.b. If we
decrypt this image, we can notice that
there is no difference. The length of the
key is 128 bits. Then, we embed the
RSA encrypted key in the encrypted
Figure 4
Figure 4: a) Original image, b) 5. CONCLUSION
Encrypted image with the stream cypher In this paper we have presented a
algorithm, with a key of 128 bits, c) method combining encryption and
Original image histogram, d) Histogram watermarking for image safe
of the encrypted image by stream cypher transmission purpose. To do that, we
algorithm. have used the advantage of both
encryption algorithms with secret key
and with public-private keys. In our
combination method, we have chosen to
encrypt the image with secret key
method, and to encrypt the secret key
with public and private key method.
The stream cypher method is robust to
moderate noise like JPEG compression
with hight quality factor. To embed the
encrypted secret key in the image we
have used a new DCT-based
watermarking method. We have chosen
to work in the frequency domain because
of the robustness to JPEG compression
Figure 5: a) Original medical image, b)
of the stream cypher method. We have
Encrypted image, c) Watermarked
applied part of our method (encryption)
encrypted image with the 128-bit key,
to medical images and finally we have
d) Difference between the encrypted
presented a result of the full combination
image and the watermarked encrypted
method on medical image.
image, e) Decryption of the watermarked
6. REFERENCES
encrypted image, f) Difference between
http://www.ewatermark.com
original image and the decrypted
B. Schneier. Applied cryptography.
watermarked one.
Wiley,
RSA,Security.
ttp://www.rsasecurity.com/.