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Computational Geomechanics 5

Constitutive models

!

Linear elasticity–perfect plasticity model

yield criteria: von Mises, Tresca, Mohr-Coulomb, Druker-Prager

associated/non-associated flow rule

Linear elasticity–hardening plasticity model

Cam clay model

associated/non-associated flow rule

2

Elasticity

!

(strain) only. Elastic materials retain no permanent strain.

Linear Hooke’s law in 1D: σ = Eε

Linear elastic model: σij = KVij + 2GDij

εij = Pij/3K + Sij/2G

Hydrostatic compression p Simple shear deformation Sij

ε 0 0 0 ε12 0

1 v K 2G

εij = 0 εv 0 εij = ε12 0 0

3 0 0 0

0 0 εv

εv Dij

p = K εv Pij = K Vij K: bulk modulus σ12 = Gγ12= 2Gε12 Sij = 2GDij G: shear modulus

Normal stresses are uniform

cause normal stresses 3

−ν/E 1/E 00 0

−ν/E σ22

!

−ν/E −ν/E 1/E 00 0

σ33

=

0 0 0 1/2G

0 0

τ12

0 0 0 00 τ13

1/2G

0 0 0 0

1/2G 0

τ23

σ11 K + 4G 3 K − 2G (2.3)

3 K − 2G

3 0 0 0 ε11

σ22 K − 2G K + 4G K − 2G

0 0 0 ε22

G,can be

quation, the shear modulus, 3 terms of E and

expressed2G

in 3

2G ν as

3

σ33 4G

0 ε33

(1 + ν). = K − 3 K − 3 K + 3 0 0

σ12 0 0 0 2G 0 0 ε12

σ23

Uniaxial Stress Condition 0 0 0 0 2G 0 ε23

σ13 0(tension) applied0 to a steel 0 0 0 2G ε13

s condition resulting from an axial stress σ11

be thought of as a uniaxial stress condition1(Figure 2.2).

1 In a1uniaxial1stress 1 1

ε 11

we have σ22 = σ33 = τ12 = τ13 = τ23 =3G 0,

+

and σ9K

− − 0 0 0 σ11

111"= 0. Substituting

9K 6Ginto 9K 6G

get ε22 1

− 1

+ 1 1

− 1

0 0 0 σ22

9K 6G 3G 9K 9K 6G

ε33 1

− 1 1

− 1 1

+ 1

0 0 0

= 9K 6G 9K 6G 3G 9K σ33

ε12 0 0 0 1

0 0 σ12

2G

z ε23 0 0 0 0 1

0 σ23

2G

1

ε13 0 0 0 0 0 2G

σ13

y σ11 0 0 3K + G 2G − 3K

σ σij = 0 0 0 ε11 = σ11 ε22 = ε33 = σ11

22 =σ 9KG 18KG

x 33 =τ 0 0 0

12 =τ

13 =τ 9KG

23 =0 σ11 = Eε11 E: Young’s Modulus E=

3K + G

3K − 2G

ε22 = -νε11 ν: Poisson’s ratio ν=

Uniaxial stress

6K + 2G

σ11

4

!

σ11 1−ν ν ν 0 0 0 ε11

σ22 ν 1−ν ν 0 0 0 ε22

σ33 E ν ν 1−ν 0 0 0

= ε33

σ12 (1 + v)(1 − 2v) 0 0 0 1 − 2ν 0 0

ε12

σ23 0 0 0 0 1 − 2ν 0 ε23

σ13 0 0 0 0 0 1 − 2ν ε13

ε11 1 −ν −ν 0 0 0 σ11

ε22 −ν 1 −ν 0 0 0 σ22

ε33 1 −ν −ν 1 0 0 0 σ33

=

ε12 E 0 0 0 1+ν 0 0 σ12

ε23 0 0 0 0 1+ν 0 σ23

ε13 0 0 0 0 0 1+ν σ13

E E

K= G=

2(1 − 2ν) 2(1 + ν)

modulus and Poisson’s ratio 5

Other special conditions

!

4G E(1 − ν)

ε11 0 0 σ11 = (K + )ε11 = ε11

εij = 0 0 0

3 (1 + ν)(1 − 2ν) σ22 equals σ33 to

0 0 0 3K − 2G ν prevent lateral strains

σ22 = σ33 =( )σ11 = σ11

3K + 4G (1 − ν)

Plain strain: strains occur only in a plane, e.g. dam, retaining wall

ELASTICITY AND PLASTICITY

z

y

ε3

ε11 2G

3 =ε

13 =ε ε22 σ33 = (K − )(ε11 + ε22 )

23 =0

x 0

3

ε12

y

0 cause out-of-plane normal stress

0

ε33 = ε13 = ε23 = 0

x

Plain stress: in-plane loading with thin plate

FIGURE 2.3 Plane strain condition.

ELASTICITY 27

1−ν ν ν 0 0 0

y

ν 0

1−ν ν 0 0

1 1

=

E ν

ν 1−ν 0 0 0

σ11 ε33 =( − )(σ11 + σ22 )

(1 + ν)(1 − 2ν) 0 σ22

0

0 0

0

0

0

1 − 2ν

0

0

1 − 2ν 0

K 6G

0

0 0 0 0 0 1 − 2ν

x σ12

ε11

0

cause out-of-plane normal strain

ε 22 σ =τ =τ =0

33 13 23

0 z

0

×

ε12

6

0

!

1

volumetric change ε12 = 2G σ12

Volumetric change caused by only hydrostatic loading

Simple shear strain causes only shear stress

These do not reflect the real behaviour of

geomaterials; higher order elastic models may be need.

Use with caution! approximately for very small strain

7

compression tension

!

"! ! ""

Yield criterion

!

Impossible Permissible region for stress Impossible

region region

! 9 "! 5+ ! 9 "" )($0.&- )5&#.0

! # "! 5+ ! $ "" &8)500&3(* +*4&5# ,5+ 0.+*00

For a hardening material the yield points will move away from the origin

f (σij ) = f (σ1 , σ2 , σ3 , n1 , n2 , n3 )

Isotropic materials in terms of invariants:f (σ , σ , σ ) = f (J , J , J ) 1 2 3 1 2 3

“Yielding” in a mult

Principal stress space: three-dimensional stress space

“Yielding” in a multiaxial case

Extending the concept to 3D principal stress spa

For an isotropic material yield has to depend on principal stresses or (represented by three yield planes)

stress invariants – why?

This simple yield condition is called the Rankine

1.2. Motivation. :5#0&1*+

One-Dimensional

$ ;< Frictional

0.+*00Models

ՠ&-6 7* 0.$.* .6$. /&*(1 5--%+0 76*# .6*

0.$.*

)+&#-&)$( 0.+*00 +*$-6*0 $ -*+.$&# =$(%* " &# .*#0&5# $#1 .6*+* &0 #5 /&*(1 &#

! !"

Elastic domain

-58)+*00&5# !"

•C

in stress space Yield line or Impossible stress region

>6&0 /&*(1 -+&.*+&5# *+*#.(/ ma

&8)(&*0 yield surface

!! ! " •T

suc

!" ! "

• In

>6* /&*(1 0%+,$-* &0 +*)+*0*#.*1 !! rem

3/ .6* *?%$.&5#

" !! •T

!

K !" %K

9 !! " " 9 ! • It

Elastic region

!! # !" # !# "

O –" Y "Y !#

f = |σ| - σY in 1D

Figure 1.6. Elastic range and elastic domain in stress space. Note that α ≥ 0.

f = |σ| - σY in 2D f = |σ| - σY in 3D

σ: major principal stress

Observe once more that relationship ḟ > 0 cannot hold. From (1.2.26) and (1.2.27)

it follows that γ can be nonzero only if

8

sign(σ )E ε̇

yield surface (refer to expression (6.48), page 150) of any isotropic yield criterion to be

represented in a particularly simple and useful format as a three-dimensional surface! in the

space of principal stresses.

− √3 p

σ3

von Mises

σ2

√

stress at uniaxial compression/

tension k = σY / 3 σ1

Yield surface shape does not depend on pressure Figure 6.8. The Tresca and von Mises yield surfaces in principal stress space.

von criteria

Mises

!

(a) for metals – von Mises

(b)

!

! " ! !"#$%&'(')* (+)& ! V3 " !"#$%&'(')* (+)& !

!t!ic , !" , !# V3

!! , !" , !#

sta

dro

hy axis

pla

ne von Mises

SŦ

0

!! !

V2 !

3D principal stress space

!# !"

representation

!# DeviatoricTresca

plane

representation Deviatoric plane

representation

representation

V1 V2

!#

!# V1

! -'$.&& &'('.& /)'0)1 '0. 2%1 3)&.& *"4)1#.$ ($. .4(&')*

�√ √

! -'$.&& &'('.& /)'0)1 '0. 2%1 3)&.& *"4)1#.$ ($. .4(&')*

Figure

! 6.9. &'('.

-'$.&& (a) The%1

π-plane in principal

'0. &5$6(*. Rand,=(b) the2J

stress space

)& 74(&')* = 2σYof/the Tresca

2D representation

π-plane 3

! -'$.&& &'('. %1 '0. &5$6(*. )& 74(&')* and von Mises yield surfaces.

! -'$.&& &'('. %5'&)#. '0. *"4)1#.$ )& )87%&&)94.

!

!

-'$.&& &'('. %5'&)#. '0. *"4)1#.$ )& )87%&&)94. ! :0. &0(7. *4.($4" &0%/& '0(' '0.$. )& 1% .;.*' %6 8.(1 &'$.&& )<.< '0.

:0. &0(7. *4.($4" &0%/& '0(' '0.$. )& 1% .;.*' %6 8.(1 &'$.&& )<.< '0.)1#.7.1#.1'

9

*$)'.$)%1 )& 7$.&&5$.

!

!!

!# Deviatoric plane

representation

representation

!#

! -'$.&& &'('.& /)'0)1 '0. 2%1 3)&.& *"4)1#.$ ($. .4(&')*

! -'$.&& &'('. %1 '0. &5$6(*. )& 74(&')*

! -'$.&& &'('. %5'&)#. '0. *"4)1#.$ )& )87%&&)94.

! :0. &0(7. *4.($4" &0%/& '0(' '0.$. )& 1% .;.*' %6 8.(1 &'$.&& )<.< '0.

*$)'.$)%1 )& 7$.&&5$. )1#.7.1#.1'

! =' 0(& ( *)$*54($ #.2)('%$)* &.*')%1

! :0. '$(*. %6 '0. *"4)1#.$ )1 ( >? &'$.&& 74(1. )& (1 .44)7&.

√ stress is 1/√3 times that

! :0. *$)'.$)%1 )& (4&% $.6.$$.# '% (& "" '0.%$" %6 74(&')*)'"

Yield criteria for metals – von Mises

Plain stress: yield surface is ellipse in σ1–σ2 space !" !"#$%&'(')* (+)&

!! , !" , !#

!"

σ12 − σ2 σ2 + σ22 = σY

2

!!

!!

3D principal stress space

representation

!#

! !!"

# @!A , B"" " $ , C

!

%$ D

E@!! " !" A" F @!" " !# A" F @!# " !! A" G " $ , C

>

pore pressure, the effective pressure remains unchanged. The

deviatoric stress change thus occurs without effective

pressure change. The clay behaviour does not depend on total

pressure change as a von Mises material

10

as a surface in the space of principal values of the argument. This allows, in particular, the

yield surface (refer to expression (6.48), page 150) of any isotropic yield criterion to be !

represented in a particularly simple and useful format as a three-dimensional surface in the

space of principal stresses.

− √3 p

σ3

� � √ �

Invariant form: f = 2 J 2D cos θ − σ Y Lode angle θ =

1

3

sin −

3 3J

2 J

3D

3/2

2D

σ1 π π

− ≤θ≤

6 6

Figure 6.8. The Tresca and von Mises yield surfaces in principal stress space.

(a) (b)

V3 V3

V3

i c

tat

r

ea

d ros

sh

hy axis

re

ne von Mises

pu

pla

SŦ

Tresca

0 T 30o

V2

V1 V2 V2

V1 V1

Figure

Figure 6.9. (a) The π-plane in principal stress space and, (b) the π-plane representation 6.11.

of the Yield surfaces for the Tresca and von Mises criteria coincidin

Tresca

and von Mises yield surfaces. Same uniaxial yield stress Same pure shear yield stress

pure shear stress ratio 2/√3 uniaxial stress ratio 2/√311

a strong dependence of the yield limit on the hydrostatic pressure, app

resting on a uniform deposit of undrained clay. The dimen- 0

same small rotation. In all but very simple cases, it is 0 50 100 150

sions ofdifficult,

the tower are similar

probably to those

impossible, of the without

to analyse Pisa Tower.using To nu- failure for the analysisWeight withof tower:

the MN softer soil, ! G/su ¼ 10, is

trigger merical

a rotational

analysis. failure some initial defect (imperfection) about half of that for the analysis with the stiffest soil,

must be Thesepresent. twoIn this example

alternative the tower was

failure mechanisms given

are best an

demon- G/s ¼ 1000.

Fig.u 21. Tower rotation with increase in weight

initial tilt of 0·58 (that is, the initial geometry

strated by a simple example. Fig. 20 shows a simple tower of the tower It is of interest to examine the analyses with the two

had a tilt).

resting Theon self-weight

a uniform deposit of theoftower was then

undrained increased

clay. The dimen- extreme values of G/su in more detail. In particular it is

graduallysionsin of the tower are similar

a plane-strain, to those of thefinite

large displacement Pisa Tower.

elementTo failure for the

instructive analysis with

to consider whattheissofter soil, G/sin

happening u ¼the

10, soil

is at

analysis,trigger

until afailure

rotational failure some initial defect (imperfection)

occurred. about half of that for the analysis with the stiffest soil,

must be present. In thisa example the tower wasmaterial.

given an failure. Fig. 22 shows vectors of incremental displacement

The clay was modelled as linear-elastic Tresca G/suthe

for ¼ 1000.

soft soil (G/s ¼ 10) from the last increment of the

initial tilt of 0·58 (that is, the initial geometry of the tower It is of interest to uexamine the analyses with the two

Three analyses were performed, each with a different value analysis. They show that movements are located in a zone

had a tilt). The self-weight of the tower was then increased extreme values of G/su in more detail. In particular it is

of sheargradually

stiffness, of the soil.large

in aG,plane-strain, Alldisplacement

other parameters were below the tofoundation, and isindicate a rotational

finite element instructive consider what happening in the soil type at of

the same. In particular,

analysis, until failure occurred.the undrained strength, su was

, failure. At first sight this looks like a plastic-type collapse

80 kPa inThe all clay

analyses. Therefore, failure. Fig. 22 shows vectors of incremental displacement

was modelled as a according

linear-elasticto Tresca

conventional

material. mechanism.

for the soft soil However,

(G/su ¼examination

10) from the of lasttheincrement

zone in ofwhich the the

methods, Threethe analyses

bearing were capacity of the each

performed, towerwithwasa different

the samevalue in soil has gone

analysis. They plastic

show that (alsomovements

shown inare Fig.located

22) indicates

in a zonethat it

all threeof analyses.

shear stiffness,Consequently,

G, of the soil. if instability

All other was governed

parameters were isbelow

verythesmall and not

foundation, andconsistent

indicate a with a plastic

rotational type of failure

the same.

by bearing capacity In failure,

particular, all the

threeundrained

analysesstrength,

should failsu , was

at failure. At first sight this looks like a plastic-type collapse

mechanism. Consequently, this figure indicates a mechanism

80 kPa in all analyses. Therefore,

the same weight of the tower. However, as can be seen from according to conventional mechanism. However,with examination of instability.

the zone in which the

of failure consistent a leaning

Fig. 21,methods,

this wasthe notbearing

the case.capacity

This offigure

the tower

showswas thetheincrease

same in soil has gone plastic (also shown

Considering the results from the analysis in Fig. 22) indicates that it with

performed

all three analyses. Consequently, if instability was governed

in rotation of the tower, above the initial 0·58 imperfection, is very small and not consistent with a plastic failure

the stiffer soil (G/su ¼ 1000), vectors of incremental displa-

by bearing capacity failure, all three analyses should fail at mechanism. Consequently, this figure indicates a mechanism

plotted theagainst the weightof the of the However,

tower, for analyses

be seenwith cement

same weight tower. as can from of failurejust beforewith collapse

a leaningare shown in Fig. 23. The

G/su values ofthis10,was 100 consistent instability.

Fig. 21, notand 1000.This

the case. Real soils

figure are the

shows likely to

increase mechanism of failure indicated

Considering the results from the analysis by these vectors with

performed is very

have properties that are between the two extreme

in rotation of the tower, above the initial 0·58 imperfection, values. different

the stifferfrom the uone

soil (G/s shown

¼ 1000), in Fig.

vectors 22 for the displa-

of incremental softer soil.

The results

plotted show that the

against failure

weightoccursof the very abruptly,

tower, with little

for analyses with Instead of the soil rotating as a block

cement just before collapse are shown in Fig. 23. The with the foundation,

warning, and

G/s that the weight of the tower at failure isto

values of 10, 100 and 1000. Real soils are likely

u the vectors indicate

mechanism of failurea indicated

more traditional

by thesebearingvectorscapacity

is very type

dependenthaveonproperties

the shear thatstiffness

are between of thethesoil.

two The

extreme

weight values.

at different fromwith the one

The results show that failure occurs very abruptly, with little

mechanism, the shown in Fig.pushed

soil being 22 for the softer soil.

outwards on both

Instead of the soil rotating as a block

sides. The plastic zone, also indicated in Fig. 23, is verywith the foundation,

warning, and that the weight of the tower at failure is the vectors

dependent on the shear stiffness of the soil. The weight at large, and indicate

therefore a more

the traditional

results clearlybearingindicate

capacity atype plastic

mechanism, with the soil being pushed outwards on both

bearing capacity type mechanism of failure. The mechanism

sides. The plastic zone, also indicated in Fig. 23, is very

islarge,

not symmetrical

and thereforebecause the tower

the results clearlyis indicate

leaning ato plastic

one side.

bearing capacity type mechanism of failure. The mechanismwhich

In view of the temporary stabilisation scheme,

involved adding lead

is not symmetrical becauseweights to the

the tower north to

is leaning sideoneofside.

the Pisa

TowerIn viewand of whichthe will be discussed

temporary stabilisationin morescheme,detailwhichsubse-

quently,

involved itadding is oflead interest

weightstotoexamine

the north the sideresponse

of the Pisa of the

Tower and which will be discussed in more detail subse-

Initial tilt

60 m

quently, it is of interest to examine the response of the

of tower ! 0.5°

Initial tilt

60 m

of tower ! 0.5°

20 m

20 m

Undrained clay

Undrained clay Plastic

(Elasto-plastic) Plastic

(Elasto-plastic) zone

TrescaTresca " su !

modelmodel 80 kPa

" s ! 80 kPa

zone

u

G/sG/s ! 10

u !u 10

tower tower

20. Geometry

Geometry for investigation

for investigation of leaning

of leaning instabilityofofa a

instability Fig. 22.

Fig.

at

22. Vectors

Vectors ofof incremental

failure (low soil

incrementaldisplacements

stiffness)

at failure (low soil stiffness)

and and

displacements plastic zone zone

plastic

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