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CHAPTER 2

ANALOG

MODULATION

Modulation

Modulation is the process of having an information signal modify a carrier signal in some way

Modulation is operation performed at the transmitter to achieve efficient and reliable information transmission

MODULATION

PROCESS

Baseband

signal

Modulated

signal

Carrier

AMPLITUDE MODULATION

Amplitude Modulation is the process of changing the amplitude of a relatively high frequency carrier signal in accordance with the amplitude of the modulating signal (Information).

It is a low quality form of modulation and often used for commercial broadcasting of both audio and video signals.

AM Modulators are nonlinear devices with 2 inputs and 1 output; a single, high frequency of carrier signal of constant-amplitude carrier signal and the low frequency information signal.

The Output of AM Modulator is called Modulated Wave and the shape of the Modulated Wave is called AM Envelope.

Types of AM

1) Double sideband full carrier (DSBFC)

- Contains USB, LSB and Carrier

2) Double sideband suppressed carrier (DSBSC)

- Contains only USB & LSB

- A circuit that produces DSBSC is Balanced modulator

3) Single sideband (SSB)

- Contains either LSB or USB

- Produce efficient system in term or power consumption and bandwidth

AM Waveform

Generally. Carrier Signal

=> V C sin(2πf c t)

Modulating Signal => V m sin(2πf m t)

Modulated Wave

=> V am (t)

For Double sideband full carrier (DSBFC) AM waveform consists of:

DC voltage The carrier frequency f c Lower side frequency (f c - f m ) Upper side frequency (f c + f m ) Known as AM envelope

Modulation Index

It is an indicator to describe the amount of amplitude change (modulation) present in an AM waveform

m =

V

m

V

c

m = modulation coefficient (unitless) V m = peak change in the amplitude of the output waveform voltage V c = peak change in the amplitude of the unmodulated carrier voltage

V
V
− V
m =
V
V
+ V
c
max
min

m

=

max

min

Percent modulation:

M

=

m ´ 100 %

=

V

m

V

c

´

100 %

Voltage Distribution

An unmodulated carrier (carrier signal) is described by the following equation :-

V c (t) = E c sin (2πfct)

The Amplitude of the AM Wave varies proportional to the amplitude of the modulation signal, and the maximum of the modulated wave equal to Ec + Em.

Thus the amplitude of the modulated wave can be expressed as :-

V am (t) =[E c + E m sin(2πf m t)] sin (2πf c t)

E c + E m sin(2πf m t) Amplitude of modulated wave.

E m = Peak Change in the Amplitude of Envelope

f m = Frequency of Modulating signal

Voltage Modulation

Since E m = mE c and by developing the equation for modulated wave, the final equation of the modulated wave can be expressed in term of its Carrier Component and Side Frequencies Component (usf & lsf):-

V

am

=

E

c

sin( 2

f t

π

c

)

mE

c

mE

c

cos[ 2 (

π

f

c

f

m

) ]

t

2

2

+

+

cos[ 2 (

π

Where E c sin(2πf c t) carrier signal (V)

mE

c

2

+

cos[ 2 (

π

f

c

f

m

) ]

t

upper side frequency signal (V)

mE

c

2

cos[ 2 (

π

f

c

+

f

m

)

t

]

lower side frequency signal (V)

f

c

f

m

) ]

t

Given the first input to AM Modulator is 500 kHz Carrier signal with Amplitude of 20V. The second input to AM Modulator is the 10kHz modulating signal which cause a change in output signal of ± 7.5 Vp. Determine the following :-

a. USF & LSF

b. Modulation Index or Coefficient, M

c. Peak Amplitude of modulated carrier

d. Upper & Lower side frequency voltage

e. Maximum & Minimum Amplitude of the envelope, Vmax and Vmin

f. Expression of Modulated Wave

g. Output Spectrum & Envelope

AM Power Distribution

Carrier power :

Sideband power:

 V 2 P = c c 2 R P USB = P = 2 m V c 2 = 2 m P c LSB 8 R 4 P SB = P + P LSB = 2 m P c USB 2

The total transmitted power is the sum of the carrier power and the power in the sidebands.

P
= P + P
+
p
total
c
USB
LSB
= P + P
c
SB
m
2 ⎞
= P 1 +
÷
c
÷
2

AM Power Distribution

The efficiency of the AM in term of power consumption is

2
m a
η =
P SB
=
P
m
2 + 2
T
a

Thus, at optimum operation (m = 100%), only 33% of power is used to carry information

From previous equation, total current flow in AM is

T =I c (1+m 2)

I

2

1. An AM Transmitter has a carrier power output of 50W. Determine the total power that produced 80% modulation.

2. For a modulation index or coefficient of 0.4 and carrier power of 400W, determine the following:

a. Total sideband power

b. Total transmitted power

3. For AM DSBFC wave with an unmodulated carrier voltage, V c = 10 V p , a load resistance of 10 and modulation index of 1, determine the following :

a. Power of the carrier, and sideband

frequencies

(P lsf & P usf )

b. Total Power of sideband, P T

m for Complex Signal

As most of the signals are complex and can be represented by combination of various sine waves, m can be determined by

m = m

eff

2

1

2

2

2

3

= m + m + m +

2

m eff

2

P

T

= P [1 +

c

]

Thus, total power for this

complex signal is

For AM DSBFC transmitter with an unmodulated carrier Power, P c = 100 W is modulated simultaneously with 3 other modulating signals with coefficient of modulation m 1 = 0.2, m 2 = 0.4, m 3 = 0.5, determine the following :-

a. Total Modulation Index or Coefficient b. Upper and Lower sideband power

DSBSC

DSBFC has two drawbacks; it waste power and bandwidth

Power sent as the carrier contains no information and each sideband carries the same information independently

The DSBSC is introduced to eliminate carrier hence improve power efficiency

It is a technique where it is transmitting both the sidebands without the carrier (the carrier is being suppressed)

Although, the power is improved, the bandwidth remain unchanged, that is BW = 2B = 2 fmax

SSBFC

Carrier signal is transmitted at full power Only one of the sidebands is transmitted Require only half as much bandwidth as conventional AM However, this type of single sideband, the information-carrying portion still utilize small percentage from the total power transmitted.

SSBSC

In this system, the carrier signal is totally suppressed and one of the sideband removed

The sideband power makes up 100% of the total transmitted power

As the results of SSBSC, the transmitted waveform is not an envelope, it is simply a sine-wave which frequency is either f c +f m or f c -f m depending on which sideband to be transmitted

SSBSC

The suppressed carrier is further improved by sending only one sideband

This not only uses less power but also only half of the bandwidth and it is called single sideband suppressed carrier (SSBSC)

There are two possible of SSBSC the lower sideband V LSB = V m cos (w c -w m )t the upper sideband V USB = V m cos (w c +w m )t

SSBSC

As both DSB and standard AM waste a lot of power and occupy large bandwidth, SSB is adopted

SSB is a process of transmitting one of the sidebands of the standard AM by suppressing the carrier and one of the sidebands (only transmits upper or lower sideband of AM)

Reduces bandwidth by factor of 2

SSB Transmitter

Filter method

Phase-Shift Method

SSB Amplitude Modulation is widely used by military or radio amateurs in high-frequency communication. Occupy one half of the spectrum space. Efficient in terms of Power Usage Less Noise on the signal

When no information or modulating signal is present, no RF signal is transmitted. Most information signals transmitted by SSB are not pure sine waves. A voice signal will create a complex SSB signal. Expensive

 Efficient in terms of Power Usage Low cost

Signal is rarely used because the signal is difficult to recover at the receiver. Waste power and BW

AM Application

The AM SSB is used in telephone systems and 2 way radio and also in Military communication.

The AM DSB is used in FM and TV Broadcasting