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I. TEORIA PROCESELOR
DE COMUNICARE

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FRPXQLFăULL.
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modalitatea sau tehnica de transmitere a mesajului ,GHQWLILFăP DVWIHO GXSă ,RDQ
'UăJDQ 3DUDGLJPH DOH FRPXQLFăULL GH PDVă) FRPXQLFDUHD GLUHFWă vQ VLWXDĠLD vQ FDUH
mesajul este transmis uzit‰ndu-se mijloace primare - FXYkQW JHVW PLPLFă úL
FRPXQLFDUHD LQGLUHFWă vQ VLWXDĠLD vQ FDUH VH Iolosesctehnici secundare - scriere,
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‡FRPXQLFDUHLPSULPDWă SUHVăUHYLVWăFDUWHDILúHWF 
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‡comunicare prin fir (telefon, telegraf, comunicare prin cablu, fibre optice etc.);
‡FRPXQLFDUHUDGLRIRQLFă UDGLR79DYkQGFDVXSRUWXQGHOHKHUW]LHQH 
ÌQIXQFĠLHGHPRGXOvQFDUHLQGLYLGXOVDXLQGLYL]LLSDUWLFLSăOa procesul de
comunicare LGHQWLILFăPXUPăWRDUHOHIRUPHDOHFRPXQLFăULL
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GHVIăúXUDWăvQFDGUXORUJDQL]DĠLHL 
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identifica:
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cele superioare);
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”ntre acestea).

8
5. ELEMENTELE PROCESULUI DE COMUNICARE

,QGLIHUHQW GH IRUPD SH FDUH R vPEUDFă RULFH SURFHV GH FRPXQLFDUH DUH FkWHYD
elemente structurale caracteristice :
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DQXPLWăUHODĠLH
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DPELLSDUWHQHUL GHPHQĠLRQDWIDSWXOFăvQJHQHUal, ”n orice proces de comunicare
SDUWHQHULLÄMRDFă´SHUkQGUROXOGHHPLĠăWRUúLUHFHSWRU 
‡H[LVWHQĠDXQXLcanal de transmitere a mesajului.
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H[LVWăvQWUHHOHPHQWHOHVWUXFWXUDOH HQXPHUDWH PDLVXV$FHDVWăUHODĠLHGHLQWHUGHSHQGHQĠă
IDFH FD RULFH SURFHV GH FRPXQLFDUH Vă VH GHVIăúRDUH DVWIHO H[LVWă FLQHYD FDUH LQLĠLD]ă
FRPXQLFDUHD HPLĠăWRUXO úL DOWFLQHYD FăUXLD vL HVWH GHVWLQDW PHVDMXO GHVWLQDWDUXO $FHVW
mesaj este o cRPSRQHQWă FRPSOH[ă D SURFHVXOXL GH FRPXQLFDUH GDWRULWă IDSWXOXL Fă
SUHVXSXQHHWDSHSUHFXPFRGLILFDUHDúLGHFRGLILFDUHDSUHVXSXQHH[LVWHQĠDXQRUFDQDOHGH
WUDQVPLWHUH HVWH LQIOXHQĠDW GH GHSHQGHQĠD PRGXOXL GH UHFHSĠLRQDUH D PHVDMXOXL GH
deprinderile de cRPXQLFDUH DOH HPLĠăWRUXOXL úL GHVWLQDWDUXOXL GH FRQWH[WXO IL]LF úL
psihosocial ”n care are loc comunicarea.
Mesajul poate fi transmis prin intermediul limbajului verbal, neverbal sau
paraverbal.
/LPEDMXOYHUEDOUHSUH]LQWăOLPEDMXOUHDOL]DWFXDMXWRUXOFuvintelor.
/LPEDMXO QRQYHUEDO HVWH OLPEDMXO FDUH IRORVHúWH DOWă PRGDOLWDWH GH H[SULPDUH
GHFkWFXYkQWXO JHVWXULPLPLFăHWF 
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YRFDOă UHSUH]HQWDWă GH WRQDOLWDWHD úL LQIOH[LXQLOH YRFLL ULWPul de vorbire, modul de
accentuare a cuvintelor, pauzele dintre cuvinte, ticurile verbale.
Alte elemente componente ale procesului de comunicare sunt: feed-back-ul,
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Feed-back-ul este XQPHVDMVSHFLILFSULQFDUHHPLWHQWXOSULPHúWHGHODGHVWLQDWDU
XQDQXPLWUăVSXQVFXSULYLUHODPHVDMXOFRPXQLFDW
Canalele de comunicare UHSUH]LQWăÄGUXPXULOH´ÄFăLOH´XUPDWHGHPHVDMH
([LVWăGRXăWLSXULGHFDQDOHGHFRPXQLFDUH
1. canale formale, prestabilite, cum ar fi sistemul canalelor ierarhice dintr-RRUJDQL]DĠLH
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Canalele de comunicare au un suport tehnic reprezentat de toate mijloacele
tehnice care pot veni ”n sprijinul procesului de comunicare (mijloace de comunicare):
telefon, fax, calculator, telex, mijloace audio-video.
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oral sau mediu scris, mediu vizual.
Filtrele, zgomotele, barierele UHSUH]LQWăSHUWXUEDĠLLOH FHSRWLQWHUYHQLvQSURFHVXO
de comunicare. Perturbarea mesajului transmis poate avea o asemenea intensitate, ”nc‰t

9
vQWUH DFHVWD úL PHVDMXO SULPLW Vă H[LVWH GLIHUHQĠH YL]LELOH 3HUWXUEDĠLLOH SRW IL GH QDWXUă
LQWHUQă- factori fiziologici, perceptivi, semantici, factori interpersonali sau intrapersonali
úLGHQDWXUăH[WHUQă-FDUHDSDUvQPHGLXOIL]LFvQFDUHDUHORFFRPXQLFDUHD SROXDUHIRQLFă
SXWHUQLFă vQWUHUXSHUL VXFFHVLYH DOH SURFHVXOXL GH FRPXQLFDUH  ÌQ SURFHVXO GH
comunLFDUH ÄEDULHUă´ UHSUH]LQWă RULFH OXFUX FDUH UHGXFH ILGHOLWDWHD VDX HILFLHQĠD
WUDQVIHUXOXLGHPHVDMÌQIXQFĠLHGHFDUDFWHULVWLFLOHSHFDUHOHDXEDULHUHOHSRWILFODVLILFDWH
vQ EDULHUH GH OLPEDM EDULHUH GH PHGLX EDULHUH GDWRUDWH SR]LĠLHL HPLĠăWRUXOXL úi
UHFHSWRUXOXLEDULHUHGHFRQFHSĠLH

Bariere de comunicare

Doctor Leonard Saules, de la Grand School of Business, Universitatea Columbia,


FRQVLGHUDFăvQSURFHVXOGHFRPXQLFDUHSRWLQWHUYHQLXUPăWRDUHOHEDULHUH

Bariere de limbaj:
‡DFHOHDúLFXYLQWH au sensuri diferite pentru diferite persoane;
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‡VWDUHDHPRĠLRQDOăDUHFHSWRUXOXLSRDWHGHIRUPDFHHDFHDFHVWD aude;
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‡GLILFXOWăĠLGHH[SULPDUH
‡utilizarea unor cuvinte sau expresii confuze.

Barierele de mediu sunt reprezentate de:


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‡IRORVLUHDGHVXSRUĠLLQIRUPDĠLRQDOLQHFRUHVSXQ]ăWRUL
‡climatul locului GHPXQFăSRDWHGHWHUPLQDDQJDMDĠLLVă-úL DVFXQGăJkQGXULOHDGHYăUDWH
SHQWUXFăOHHVWHIULFăVăVSXQăFHHD ce g‰ndesc.

3R]LĠLDHPLĠăWRUXOXLúLUHFHSWRUXOXLvQcomunicare poate, de asemenea, constitui


REDULHUăGDWRULWă
‡LPDJLQLLSHFDUHRDUHHPLĠăWRUXOVDXUHFHSWRUXOGHVSUHVLQHúL despre interlocutor;
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comunicarea;
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comunicare.

2XOWLPăFDWHJRULHRFRQVtituie EDULHUHOHGHFRQFHSĠLH, acestea fiind reprezentate


de:
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‡H[SULPDUHDFXVWkQJăFLHDPHVDMXOXLGHFăWUHHPLĠăWRU
‡OLSVDGHDWHQĠLHvQUHFHSWDUHDPHVDMXOXL
‡FRQFOX]LLJUăELWHDVXSUDPHVDMXOXL
‡lipsa de interes a receptRUXOXLIDĠDGHPHVDM
‡rutina ”n procesul de comunicare.

10
'HúL vPEUDFă IRUPH GLIHULWH FRQVWLWXLQG UHDOH SUREOHPH vQ UHDOL]DUHD procesului
de comunicare, barierele nu sunt de neevitat, exist‰nd c‰teva aspecte ce trebuie luate ”n
FRQVLGHUDUHSHQWUXvQOăWXUarea lor:
-SODQLILFDUHDFRPXQLFăULL
-GHWHUPLQDUHDSUHFLVăDVFRSXOXLILHFăUHLFRPXQLFăUL
-DOHJHUHDPRPHQWXOXLSRWULYLWSHQWUXHIHFWXDUHDFRPXQLFăULL
-FODULILFDUHDLGHLORUvQDLQWHDFRPXQLFăULL
- folosirea unui limbaj adecvat.

11
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specific al disciplinei. Este simplXVăXWLOL]H]LFXYLQWHFDVHPQVLPEROFRG
PHVDM IăUă D GD LPSUHVLD Fă VH SXQ SUREOHPH VHULRDVH GH vQĠHOHJHUH ÌQVă
HIRUWXO GHILQLULL ORU QX vQVHDPQă SXU úL VLPSOX FUHDUHD XQHL ĠHVăWXUL GH
FXYLQWH GH GUDJXO FXYLQWHORU FL H[LVWă R FRPSOH[LWDWH UHDOă SH care nu o
SRDWHDFRSHULRVLQJXUăIRUPXOăRFRPSOH[LWDWHFDUHDUHPDLPXOWHVXUVHvQ
DIDUDFDQWLWăĠLLGHHOHPHQWHúLHWDSHORULPSOLFDWH

1
AtunciFkQGQXHVWHVSHFLILFDWDOWDXWRUFRQĠLQXWXODFHVWHLWHPHDIRVWSUHOXDWGXSă&KULVWLDQ
Baylon, Xavier Mignot, Ä&RPXQLFDUHD´

12
A comunica / comunicare

$FWXO GH FRPXQLFDUH VH FRQVWLWXLH FD XQ SURFHV GH WUDQVPLWHUH D LQIRUPDĠLLORU,
LGHLORUúL VHQWLPHQWHORU DWLWXGLQLORURSLQLLORU GHODXQLQGLYLGODDOWXOGHODXQ LQGLYLG
FăWUHXQJUXSVRFLDOúLGHODDFHVWDODDOWXO&RPXQLFDUHDHVWHSURFHVXOSULQFDUHVHIDFHXQ
VFKLPEGHVHPQLILFDĠLLvQWUHSHUVRDQH The World Book Dictionary, editat de Clarence L.
%DUQKDUW úL 5REHUW . IDFH GLVWLQFĠLH vQWUH FRPXQLFDUH úL FRPXQLFDĠLL GHILQLQGX-le pe
DFHVWHDGLQXUPăGUHSW

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‡XQVLVWHPGHUXWHVDXIDFLOLWăĠLSHQWUu transportarea proviziilor militare, a vehiculelor
úLDWUXSHORU
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úL]LDUHSULQUDGLRWHOHYL]LXQHGLVFXULIRQRJUDIVDXDOWHPLMORDFH

Pentru Robert EscarpitÄDFRPXQLFDQXvQVHDPQăQXPDLDHPLWHúLDSULPLFLD


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LQWHUIHUHD]ăXQHOHFXDOWHOH´ 'HODVRFLRORJLDOLWHUDWXULLODWHRULDFRPXQLFăULL).
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semnificative ”ntre oameni, ca un concept care include toate acele procese prin care
RDPHQLLVHLQIOXHQĠHD]ăXQLLSHDOĠLL$FWXOFRPXQLFăULLVHUHDOL]HD]ăDWXQFLFkQGRVXUVă
de mesaje tranVPLWH VHPQDOH SULQ LQWHUPHGLXO XQXL FDQDO OD UHFHSWRU FkQG HPLĠăWRUXO
WUDQVPLWH R LQIRUPDĠLH R LGHH VDX R DWLWXGLQH 6WXGLDWă FD SURFHV VRFLDO FRPXQLFDUHD D
GHYHQLWRELHFWGHFHUFHWDUHDOúWLLQĠHORUVRFLDOH6-DFRQVWLWXLWDVWIHORúWLLQĠăDXWRQRPăD
FRPXQLFăULL FDUDFWHUL]DWă SULQ SOXUDOLWDWHD PRGXULORU GH DERUGDUH D FRPXQLFăULL
OLQJYLVWLFăVHPLRWLFăSVLKR-VRFLDOăVRFLRORJLFăFLEHUQHWLFăHWF 

Indice/Semnal

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asupUDXQHLVWăULSVLKRORJLFHFDUHSULQQDWXUDVDQHILLQGQLFLYL]LELOăQLFLDFFHVLELOăQLFL
XQXLDGLQFHOHODOWHVLPĠXULDOHQRDVWUHUăPkQHDVFXQVăvQPăVXUDvQFDUHQXVHPDQLIHVWă
SULQ FRQVHFLQĠH SHUFHSWLELOH ÌQ SULQFLSLX LQGLFHOH QX VHUYHúWH FRPXQLFării voluntare
GHFkWFDDFFHVRULXDWXQFLFkQGvQWăUHúWHVDXPRGLILFăLQIRUPDĠLLOHSHFDUHGHVWLQDWDUXOOH
DUHDVXSUDFRQĠLQXWXOXLFRPXQLFDWVDXLQWHQĠLHLFRPXQLFDQWH

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prRGXVvQPRG GHOLEHUDWGHFLQHYDFDUHVHDúWHDSWă FDDFHVWDVăILHvQĠHOHVFDDWDUH 9RP
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'HH[HPSOXFXYLQWHOHFRQVWLWXLHVHPQDOHFXDMXWRUXOFăURUDLQIRUPDĠLLOHVXQWWUDQVPLVH
De multe ori, sensul cuvintelor comunicate nu poate fi stabilit ”n ”ntregiPHGHFkWGDFăQH
VHUYLPGHLQGLFL$VWIHOGLIHUHQĠDGLQWUHLQGLFHúLVHPQDOGHYLQHUHODWLYăGHRDUHFHúLXQLL
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13
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VLQHXQLQGLFHGDUFDUHGHYLQHXQLQGLFHDWXQFLFkQGHVWHIRORVLWGHFUHLHUXOXPDQFDVXUVă
GH LQIRUPDĠLL ÌQ FH SULYHúWH VHPQDOXO DFHVWD HVWH SURGXV SHQWUX D IL VHPQDO HO QX SUH-
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pot servi uneori drept indici, alteori drept semnale. C‰nd cineva apare la televizor,
VSHFWDWRULLvúLIDFDVXSUDVDRRSLQLHQXQXPDLvQIXQFĠLHGHFHDVSXVFLúLvQIXQFĠLHGH
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penWUX D REĠLQH PD[LPXP GH HILFDFLWDWH HVWH ELQH FD VSHFWDWRULL Vă QX-úL GHD VHDPD GH
LQWHQĠLLOHFHOXL SHFDUHvO SULYHVFúLFDVHPQDOXOVăILHLQWHUSUHWDWGUHSWLQGLFH Va trebui,
GHFLVăGLVWLQJHPvQFDGUXOVHPQDOHORUSHFHOHFDUHVXQWHPLVHSHQWUXDIL percepute ca
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GLPSRWULYăDVFXQVă%LQHvQĠHOHVĠLQHGHVWUDWHJLDFRPXQLFDWRUXOXLGHDSUHYHGHDQXIăUă
ULVFXOGHDJUHúLFXPYDILLQWHUSUHWDWVHPQDOXOGHFăWUHGHVWLQDWDUGDFăHVWHUHFHSWDWFD
DWDUHFDVHPQDOVDXGLPSRWULYăFDLQGLFH

Mesaj
6H VSXQH vQ PRG RELúQXLW Fă VH FRPXQLFă SULQ PHVDM $FHVW WHUPHQ GHVHPQHD]ă
un semnal, sau un ansamblu de semnale, transmise ”n cursul unui act de comunicare.
([LVWăúLDOWHFXYLQWHFXH[WHQVLHPDLUHGXVăGDUWRWDWkWGHLPSRUWDQWHSHQWUXDGHVHPQD
PHVDMHOH 8QXO GLQWUH DFHVWHD HVWH HQXQĠXO XQ HQXQĠ HVWH XQ PHVDM OLQJYLVWLF vQ JHQHUDl
VXE IRUPă RUDOă GHRDUHFH XQ PHVDM VXE IRUPă VFULVă HVWH GHQXPLW PDL GHJUDEă WH[W 8Q
PHVDM QX SRDWH IL HILFDFH GHFkW GDFă HVWH vQĠHOHV VHPQDOHORU GLQ FDUH HVWH FRQVWLWXLW GLQ
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Semn
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sens precis, destul de diferit de cel din limbajul curent unde este echivalent uneori c‰nd
FXLQGLFHOHFkQGFXVHPQDOXOHOGHVHPQHD]ăRXQLWDWHFRPSOH[ăFRPSXVăGLQDOWHGRXă
XQLWăĠL VHPQDOXO úL VHQVXO VăX 3HQWUX DFHVWH GRXă HQWLWăĠL 6DXVVXUH D XWLOL]DW DOWH
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propune semnificant úLSHQWUXVHQV- semnificat, ceea ce are avantajul de a pune ”n valoare
complementaritatea termenilor: unui semnificant ”i corespunde ”n mod necesar un
VHPQLILFDW úL LQYHUV 6H XWLOL]HD]ă IUHFYHQW +MHOPVOHY (FR  WHUPHQXO ÄH[SUHVLH´ SHQWUX
VHPQLILFDQWúLÄFRQĠLQXW´SHQWUXVHPQLIicat.
6DXVVXUHXWLOL]HD]ăFXYkQWXOVHPQDYkQGvQYHGHUHXQIHQRPHQFRPSOH[FRPSXV
dintr-R ÄLPDJLQH DFXVWLFă´ úL XQ ÄFRQFHSW´ RELHFWXO VHPQLILFDW  8Q FXYkQW VDX R
FRPELQDĠLH GH FXYLQWH GLQWU-R OLPEă LQGLFă VDX VH UHIHUă OD XQ RELHFW H[WHULRU VDX R LGHH
H[LVWHQWă $FHVWD HVWH VHQVXO FRPXQ DO VHPQXOXL FkQG GLVFXWăP FRPXQLFDUHD SULQ
LQWHUPHGLXOOLPEDMXOXL6HPQXOHVWHDVRFLDWvQPRGDUELWUDUúLFRQYHQĠLRQDOXQXLFRQFHSW
LDUXWLOL]DUHDVDFRQYRDFăLPDJLQHDPHQWDOăDFRQFHSWXOXL&RQIRUPPRGHOXOXLGRPLQDQW
vQOLQJYLVWLFăVHPQDOHOHLQFOXVHvQVHPQQXDXSULQHOHvQVHOHQLPLFvQFRPXQFXVHQVXO
SH FDUH VXQW GHVWLQDWH Vă-O WUDQVPLWă 6H VSXQH vQ DFHVW FD] 6DXVVXUH  Fă VHPQHOH

14
OLQJYLVWLFH VXQW DUELWUDUH FX DOWH FXYLQWH Fă QX H[LVWă R MXVWLILFDUH SHQWUX DOHgerea unui
anumit semnal ”n detrimentul celorlalte, pentru un anumit sens. De aceea, ”n limbi
diferite, unui anumit sens ”i corespund semnale complet diferite.

([LVWăúLVHPQHPRWLYDWHFHOHvQFDUHVHPQDOHOHSUH]LQWăDQDORJLLFX VHPQLILFDĠLD
ORU ÌQ OLPbaj se dau ca exemple de semne motivate ÄRQRPDWRSHHOH´ FXYLQWH D FăURU
IRQLH UHSUH]LQWă XQ ]JRPRW VDX XQ VXQHW 'DU FRUHVSRQGHQĠD QX HVWH GHFkW UHODWLYă 'H
altfel, sunetul HPLV GH XQXO úL DFHODúL DQLPDO GH H[HPSOX XQ FRFRú  HVWH WUDQVFULVă
fonetic difHULW vQ IXQFĠLH GH OLPEă cock-a-doodle-doo, quiquiriqui HWF  ÌQ FRQFOX]LH
PRWLYDĠLDVHPQHORUOLQJYLVWLFHQXHVWHGHFkW UHODWLYăúLHVWHLPSUHJQDWăGHXQDUELWUDUFDUH
UăPkQHSUHGRPLQDQW $FHVWDUELWUDUVHUHJăVHúWHúLvQDOWHGRPHQLLGHFkWFHODOOLPEDMului.
([HPSOXO FODVLF HVWH FHO DO VHPDIRDUHORU UXWLHUH XQGH VHPQLILFDĠLD culorilor este pur
DUELWUDUă 7RWXúL DWXQFL FkQG SH XQ SDQRX UXWLHU GHVHQXO XQHL FXUEH VHPQDOHD]ă
XWLOL]DWRULORU Fă YRU DERUGD R FXUEă avem de-a face cu un semn motivat. Curba a fost
DOHDVăSHQWUX DVHPăQDUHDVDFXYLUDMXOÌQJHQHUDODWXQFLFkQGFRPXQLFDUHDVHIDFH altfel
GHFkW SULQ OLPEDM SDUWHD GH PRWLYDĠLH FUHúWH 2 LPDJLQH HVWH PDL SXĠLQ úL PXOW PDL UDU
DUELWUDUăGHFkWXQFXYkQWVDXRIUD]ăúLGHDFHHD comunicarea prin intermediul imaginii
este mult mai eficace. Se pare FăVHPQLILFDĠLDVHWUDQVPLWHFXDWkWPDLXúRUFXFkWHDHVWH
mai solid DQFRUDWă vQ VXSRUWXO VăX FX FkW GLIHUHQĠD GLQWUH VHQV úL VHPQDO HVWH PDL PLFă
1HSXWHPSXQHvQWUHEDUHDGHFHVXQWvQFăGHVSUHIHUDWHcuvintele imaginilor. Aceasta se
vQWkPSOă GHRDUHFH LPDJLQHD QX SRDWH YHKLFXOD toate tipurile de sensuri, ci doar acele
VHQVXULFăURUDOHÄVHDPăQă´vQ HVHQĠDHLFKLDUYRUELPGHLPDJLQHDXQXLHOHPHQWFăUXLDvL
VHDPăQă úL H[LVWă R PXOWLWXGLQH GH QRĠLXQL FDUH QX VH SUHWHD]ă VDX VH SUHWHD]ă cu
GLILFXOWDWH XQHL UHSUH]HQWăUL YL]XDOH /LPEDMXO FDUH XWLOL]HD]ă semne arbitrare, nu este
VXSXV DFHVWHL OLPLWăUL HO SHUPLĠkQG FRPXQLFDUHD RULFăUXL WLS GH VHPQ $FHVW FDUDFWHU
universal, numit RPQLSRWHQĠă, caracterizează OLPEDMXO vQ FDGUXO PLMORDFHORU GH
FRPXQLFDUH VXQW FD]XUL vQ FDUH QX SXWHP DOHJH vQWUH OLPEDM úL XQ DOW mijloc, deoarece
DFHVWDHVWHVLQJXUXOFDUHQXHVWHDWDúDWXQXL GRPHQLXOLPLWDWÌQDFHODúLIHOvQĠHOHJHPGH
FHWHOHYL]LXQHDWLQGHVă vQORFXLDVFăUDGioul, unde comunicarea se face prin limbaj.
7HOHYL]LXQHD FXPXOHD]ă RPQLSRWHQĠD OLPEDMXOXL úL HILFDFLWDWHD imaginii. Pentru
DFHOHDúLPRWLYHXQDILúFDUHĠLQHGHGRPHQLXO LPDJLQLLFRPSRUWăDSURDSHvQWRWGHDXQDR
SDUWH VFULVă LQIRUPDĠLLOH pe care imaginea QX UHXúHúWH Vă OH UHGHD VXQW vQFUHGLQĠDWH
cuvintelor.

Cuv‰nt
Prototipul semnului lingvistic este cuv‰ntul, dar rareori vorbim de cuvinte
izolate. &XYLQWHOH vQVăúL VXQW IăFXWH SHQWUX D VH FRPELQD vQ IUD]H FRPSOH[H FDUH
UHSUH]LQWăPDFURVHPQH (semne formDWHODUkQGXOORUGLQDOWHVHPQH $FHDVWăSURSULHWDWH
HVWH YL]DWă vQ JHQHUDO DWXQFL FkQG VSXQHP Fă OLPEDMXO HVWH DUWLFXODW 8QLWDWHD GH
comunicare ”n acest caz este fie fraza, fie ansamblul GHIUD]HSHFDUHvOSXWHPQXPLHQXQĠ
sau text. Dar putem generaliza la toate tipurile de comunicare ceea ce este evident pentru
OLPEDMXO YRUELW VDX VFULV" &RPXQLFDUHD QX RSHUHD]ă vQWRWGHDXQD FX ajutorul mesajelor
DUWLFXODWH vQ VHQVXO GHILQLW PDL VXV 8Q DILú XQ FOLS SXEOLFLWDU VH GHVFRPSXQ mult mai
greu ”n elemente sePQLILFDQWHvQVHPQDOHGLVWLQFWHDYkQGXQVHQVGHFkWRIUD]ăSHFDUHR
putem descompune ”n cuvinte.

15
Cod
&kQG VH YRUEHúWH GH FRPXQLFDUH VH IRORVHúWH DGHVHRUL FXYkQWXO cod. Este un
termen GLILFLOGLQ FDX]D SROLVHPLHLVDOH6ăSOHFăPGHODFRGLILFDUHDFHDVWDGHVHPQHD]ă
uneori RSHUDĠLXQHDFDUHIDFHVăFRUHVSXQGăXQHLVHPQLILFDĠLLDQXPLWHVHPQDOHHODERUDUHD
unui mesaj SOHFkQG GH OD R VHPQLILFDĠLH FDUH FKLDU GDFă QX D IRVW GDWă vQ SUHDODELO FHO
SXĠLQ QX D IRVW vQFă UDSRUWDWă OD R VHULH GH VHPQDOH $OWHRUL FRGLILFDUHD GHVHPQHD]ă
RSHUDĠLXQHDFDUHFRQVWăvQD vQORFXLVHPQDOHFDUHDSDUĠLQXQXLDQXPLWVLVWHPFXVHPQDOH
FDUH DSDUĠLQ XQXL DOW VLVWHP ÌQ DFHVW al doilea sens, vom merge de la un mesaj deja
constituit, ”n general un text, la un alt mesaj. ÌQFD]XOFRGLILFăULLOLQJYLVWLFHvQFDX]ăHVWH
VHPQLILFDĠLD&RPXQLFDWRUXOSURGXFHXQ PHVDMGHFLRVXLWăGHVHPQDOHGDUvOHODERUHD]ă
vQ IXQFĠLH GH VHQVXO FăUXLD DFHVW PHVDM YD WUHEXL Vă-L FRUHVSXQGă ùL GHFRGLILFDUHD YD
UHSUH]HQWDDFXPvQĠHOHJHUHvQPRPHQWXO”n care percepe un mesaj constituit din semnale,
GHVWLQDWDUXO vL DIHFWHD]ă XQ VHQV FkW PDL DSURSLDW GH VHQVXO OD FDUH se g‰ndea
comunicatorul.
ÌQVHQVOăUJLWFRGXOHVWHXQVLVWHPGHvQĠHOHVXULFRPXQPHPEULORUXQHLFXOWXULVDX
VXEFXOWXUL(OFRQVWăDWkWvQVHPQHFkWúLvQUHJXOLVDXFRQYHQĠLLFDUHGHWHUPLQăvQFHPRG
úL vQ FH FRQWH[W VHPQHOH VXQW IRORVLWH úL FXP SRW IL HOH IRORVLWH SHQWUX D IRUPD PHVDMH
complexe. Orice DVSHFW DO YLHĠLL QRDVWUH VRFLDOH -)LVNH Introduction to communication
studies) care este FRQYHQĠLRQDOVDXJXYHUQDWGHUHJXOLODDFăURUDSOLFDUHFRQVLPWPHPEULL
XQHL VRFLHWăĠL SRDWH IL QXPLW ÄFRGDW´ 7UHEXLH Vă GLVWLQJHP vQWUH FRGXUL DOH
FRPSRUWDPHQWXOXL QXPLWH FRQYHQĠLL VRFLDOH úL FRGXUL GH VHPQLILFDĠLL &RGXULOH GH
VHPQLILFDĠLL VXQW sisteme de semne (lingvistice, imagistice, JHVWXDOHHWF  )ăFkQGDFHDVWă
GLVWLQFĠLHWUHEXLHWRWXúLVăDGPLWHPFăFHOHGRXăWLSXULGHFRGXULVXQW interconectate. Nici
XQFRGGHVHPQLILFDĠLLQXSRDWHILVHSDUDWGHSUDFWLFLOHVRFLDOHúLGHXWLOL]DWRULL VăL

)LVNHFRQVLGHUăFăRULFHWLSGHFRGDUHXUPăWRDUHOHWUăVăWXUL
‡FRQĠLQHXQQXPăUGHHOHPHQWHGLQFDUHSRDWHILIăFXWăRVHOHFĠLHDFHDVWDHVWH
GLPHQVLXQHDSDUDGLJPDWLFă VHPDQWLFă $FHVWHXQLWăĠLSRWILFRPELQDWHSULQ
LQWHUPHGLXOUHJXOLORUúLFRQYHQĠLLORUDFHDVWDHVWHGLPHQVLXQHDVLQWDJPDWLFă
VLQWDFWLFă 
‡GHSLQGHGHXQDFRUGSUHDODELOvQWUHFHLFHvOIRORVHVFúLFDUHvPSăUWăúHVFDFHODúL
IXQGDPHQWFXOWXUDO&RGXULOHúLFXOWXUDLQWHUDFĠLRQHD]ăGLQDPLF
‡vQGHSOLQHúWHRIXQFĠLHFRPXQLFDWLYăVDXGHLGHQWLILFDUHVRFLDOă
‡este transmisibil prin mijloacele de comunicare sau canalele care ”i sunt aplicabile.

Umberto Eco (7UDWDWGHVHPLRWLFăJHQHUDOă) este autorul unei semiotici speciale,


ED]DWHSHWHRULDFRGXULORUFDUHSOHDFăGHOD SUHVXSR]LĠLDFăXQFod nu poate fi separat de
cultura ”n care s-a IRUPDW úL SH FDUH R GHVHUYHúWH 3UHPLVD GH OD FDUH DXWRUXO SOHDFă vQ
HDOL]DUHD DFHVWHL VHPLRWLFLHVWHFă SHQWUXD H[SOLFDIXQFĠLRQDUHD VLVWHPHORUVHPLRWLFH QX
avem nevoie de FRQFHSWXO GH UHIHUHQW ÄGDFă UHIHUHQWXO HVWH FRQGLĠLD QHFHVDUă SHQWUX
SURLHFWDUHDPRGHOXOXLVHPLRWLFQXHúLFRQGLĠLDIXQFĠLRQăULLVHPLRWLFH´ /DVXUVăVHSRDWH
DIOD R PLQFLXQă XQ IDSW FDUH QX HVWH UHDO  GDU DVWD QX vQVHDPQă Fă QX PDL H[LVWă
osibilitatea de semnificare. Astfel, semioticD OXL (FR HVWH FRQIRUP SURSULHL GHILQLĠLL R
VHPDQWLFăED]DWă QXPDLSHFRQGLĠLLOHGHVHPQLILFDUH WHRULDFRGXULORU úLQXSHFRQGLĠLLGH
DGHYăU WHRULDUHIHULQĠHL  &RQFHSWHFDVHPQFRGPHVDMúLWH[WFDSăWăRDFFHSĠLHGLIHULWă
Codul DVRFLD]ă HOHPHQWHle unui sistem vehiculant (expresia) elementelor unui sistem

16
YHKLFXODW FRQĠLQXWXO ÌQDFHDVWăWHRULHIXQFĠLDVHPQVHUHDOL]HD]ă atunci c‰nd o expresie
HVWH FRUHODWă FX XQ FRQĠLQXW LDU DPEHOH HOHPHQWH FRUHODWH GHYLQ IXQFWLYH DOH FRUHODĠLHL
Astfel, putem denumi semnul ca fiind constituit din unul sau mai multe elemente ale unui
plan al expresiei FRUHODWHFRQYHQĠLRQDOFXXQXOVDXPDLPXOWHHOHPHQWHDOHXQXLSODQDO
FRQĠLQXWXOXL &D úL OD 6DXVVXUH GDU H[SULPDW vQ DOĠL WHUPHQL VHPQXO HVWH FRUHVSRQGHQĠD
diQWUH XQ VHPQLILFDQW úL XQ VHPQLILFDW 6HPQXO QX HVWH R XQLWDWH IL]LFă VDX R XQLWDWH
VHPLRWLFăIL[ăFLORFXOGHvQWvOQLUHDO unor elemente reciproc interdependente, provenind
GLQ GRXă VLVWHPH GLIHULWH úL DVRFLDWH SULQWU-R UHODĠLH FRGLILFDQWă Un semnificant
HKLFXOHD]ăFRQĠLQXWXULGLIHULWHúLvQOăQĠXLWHLDUFHHD FHVHQXPHúWHÄPHVDM´HVWHGHFHOH ai
PXOWH RUL XQ WH[W DO FăUXL FRQĠLQXW HVWH XQ GLVFXUV FX PDL PXOWH QLYHOH 7H[WXO HVWH
ezultatul FRH[LVWHQĠHL XQRU FRGXUL GLIHULWH VDX FHO SXĠLQ DO XQRU VXEcoduri diferite. ÌQ
L]LXQHDOXL(FRGLQSXQFWXOGHYHGHUHDOIXQFĠLRQăULLFRGXOXL referentul trebuie exclus ca
SUH]HQĠă VWkQMHQLWRDUH FKLDU GDFă referentul poate fi obiectul numit, trebuie admis din
ULQFLSLXFăR H[SUHVLHQXGHVHPQHD]ăXQRELHFWFLYHKLFXOHD]ăXQFRQĠLQXW cultural.

&RGUHVWUvQVúLFRGHODERUDW
Bernstein, ”n lucrarea Class, Codes and Control (apud Christian Baylon, Xavier
Mignot, omunicarea  H[DPLQHD]ă UDSRUWXULOH GLQWUH OLPEă úL VRFLHWDWH IRORVLQG
FHUFHWăULOH SURSULL VXSUD HúHFXOXL úFRODU ([LVWă REVHUYă %HUQVWHLQ GRXă PRGDOLWăĠL
fundamentale de a vorbi, LOXVWUDWH vQ H[SHULHQĠD XUPăWRDUH QLúWH FRSLL GH YkUVWă úFRODUă
trebuie VăSRYHVWHDVFă FX voce tare episoadele dintr-REDQGă GHVHQDWă vQIDĠD unui adult
FDUH XUPăUHúWH WH[WXO ”ntr-o carte. Unii copii nu pot WUDQVPLWH GHFkW XQ QXPăU PLF GH
LQIRUPDĠLLLQWHUORFXWRUXOXLFH FXQRDúWHGHMDSRYHVWLUHD IRORVHVFXQcod restr”ns), ”n timp
FH DOĠL FRSLL GHVFULX FRQĠLQXWXO FRPSOHW DO LPDJLQLORU IăUă Vă XLWH QLFL XQ DPăQXQW
(folosesc un cod elaborat). %HUQVWHLQ YUHD Vă DUDWH Fă DFHL FRSLL SURYHQLĠL GLQ PHGLLOH
GHIDYRUL]DWHQXvQWUHEXLQĠHD]ăGHFkWFRGXOUHVWUkQVvQWLPSFHHOHYLL SURYHQLĠLGLQFODVHOH
superioare se folosesc la fel de bine de ambele FRGXUL$XWRUXOQXDILUPăFăILHFDUHFODVă
VRFLDOăDUSRVHGDXQ OLPEDMGLVWLQFWGDUUDSRUWXOYDULD]ăvQIXQFĠLHGHLPSRUWDQĠDFDUHVH
Gă vQ IDPLOLH vQVXúLULL úL IRORVLULL FRUHFWH D OLPEDMXOXL 2UL VSXQH %HUQVWHLQ Älimbajul
vorbit este principalul mijloc prin care un LQGLYLG SDUWLFXODUL]HD]ă UHgulile sociale´ ÌQ
clasele superioare, GLVFXUVXOXL vL HVWH DFRUGDWă R DWHQĠLH VSHFLDOă FRSLOXO HVWH RELúQXLW Vă
UHIOHFWH]H DVXSUD VHQVXOXL FXYLQWHORU Vă UHIRUPXOH]H IUD]HOH LQFRUHFWH Vă-úL H[SULPH
VHQWLPHQWHOHSHUVRQDOHÌQPHGLLOHSRSXODUH folosirea OLPEDMXOXLYL]HD]ăvQDLQWHGHWRDWH
respectarea unei norme. /LPEDMXO FRPXQ SXQH DFFHQWXO SH HYLGHQĠHOH SURSULL
interlocutorilor úLQXSHFUHDUHDXQRUVHPQLILFDĠLLQRL
7H]DOXL%HUQVWHLQQXPLWăúLWH]DGHILFLHQĠHLOLQJYLVWLFHa fost SURVWvQWUHEXLQĠDWă
ILLQGDFX]DWăGHIDSWXOFăÄQXXUPăUHúWHGHFkWVă inculce valorile clasei mijlocii copiilor
clasei muncitoare prin vQVXúLUHDYRUELULLHODERUDWH´'LQFRORGHFDX]HOHFDUHGXFvQVăOD
IRORVLUHD FRGXULORU UHVWUvQVH VDX D FHORU HODERUDWH GLVWLQFĠLD vQ VLQH poDWH IL IRORVLWă FX
mult succes ”n a analiza raporturile pe care codurile le au cu societatea.

17
Feed-back
1RĠLXQHD GH IHHG-EDFN GHVHPQHD]ă DFHOH UăVSXQVXUL DOH UHFHSWRUXOXL FDUH
IRUPHD]ăúL GHIRUPHD]ăPHVDMXOXOWHULRUDOHPLĠăWRUXOXL(OUHSUH]LQWăUHversul fluxului de
comunicare. (PLĠăWRUXO GHYLQH UHFHSWRU LDU UHFHSWRUXO GHYLQH QRXO HPLĠăWRU 6SHFLDOLúWLL
”n comunicare au LGHQWLILFDWGRXăIHOXULGHIHHG-back ±SR]LWLYúLQHJDWLY
Feed-back-ul pozitiv vQFXUDMHD]ă FRPSRUWDPHQWXO FRPXQLFDĠLRQDO FDUH VH
GHVIăúRDUă GH H[HPSOXGDFăvQWU-XQDPILWHDWUXGHVWXGHQĠLSURIHVRUXODUHXúLWVăFDSWH]H
DWHQĠLDHOHYLORU DFHúWLDWUDQVPLWXQIHHG-EDFNSR]LWLYQXYRUEHVFDXRFKLLDĠLQWLĠLDVXSUD
profesorului, figura lor GHQRWăDWHQĠLHúLFRQFHQWUDUHGDFăVXQWvQWUHEDĠLUăVSXQGODRELHFW
etc; toate aceste semne constituie un feed-EDFN SR]LWLY FH vQFXUDMHD]ă SURIHVRUXO Vă
FRQWLQXHvQDFHODúLPRG 
Feed-back-ul negativ vQFHDUFă Vă VFKLPEH FRPXQLFDUHD VDX FKLDU Vă R vQWUHUXSă
(pornind GHODDFHODúLH[HPSOXGDFăSURIHVRUXOQXDUHXúLWVăFDSWH]HDWHQĠLDVWXGHQĠLORU
DFHúWLDVXQW QHDWHQĠLYRUEHVFVHIRLHVFXQLLFKLDUFLWHVFDOWFHYDVDXvúLFRSLD]ăFXUVXULOD
DOWă GLVFLSOLQă HWF aceste semne constituie un feed-EDFN QHJDWLY FDUH DU WUHEXL Vă
GHWHUPLQHSURIHVRUXOVăVchimbe modul de comunicare).

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2ULFHOXFUXFDUHLQWHUYLQHvQWUDQVPLWHUHDPHVDMXOXL([LVWăWUHLIHOXULGH]JRPRW
a) zgomotul semantic FDUHDSDUHDWXQFLFkQGRDPHQLGLIHULĠLDXGLIHULWHvQĠHOHVXULSHQWUX
DFHOHDúLFXYLQWHVDX fraze;
b) zgomotul mecanic DSDUHDWXQFLFkQGH[LVWăRSUREOHPăFXPHFDQLVPXOIRORVLWSHQWUXD
ajuta comunicarea;
c) zgomotul de mediu VHUHIHUăOD]JRPRWHOHH[WHUQHFDUHLQWHUYLQvQSURFHV XQ
UHVWDXUDQW]JRPRWRVSHQWUXFLQHYDFDUHGRUHúWHVăvQWUHĠLQăRFRQYHUVDĠLHHWF )HHG-back-
ul este important ”n reducerea efectelor zgomotului.

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GHRVHELUH vQ FLEHUQHWLFă VHPQLILFkQG UHDFĠLH LQYHUVă.9LFWRU 6ăKOHQX FRQVLGHUă Fă
principiul reaFĠLHL LQYHUVH HVWH LPSRUWDQW SHQWUX FRQWUROXO HILFLHQĠHL XQHL DFĠLXQL SHQWUX
DVLJXUDUHD FRUHFWăULL HL ”n scopul atingerii unui obiectiv fixat. 'H RELFHL HPLĠăWRUXO HVWH
FHO FDUH WUHEXLH Vă FHDUă XQ IHHG-back, dar vQ VLWXDĠLD vQ FDUH HO QX IDFH SUHFL]DUHD
QHFHVDUă DWXQFL FHOăODOW YD WUHEXL Vă HIHFWXH]H UHDFĠLD LQYHUVă ÌQ GHFXUVXO WLPSXOXL V-au
SXWXWVWUXFWXUDLQIRUPDĠLLOHGHVSUHWHKQLFD úLUROXOIHHG-back-ului ”n comunicare. Cele mai
GHVIRORVLWHúL eficiente tehnici de feed-back sunt:

1. Parafraza ± a reda mesajul cuiva cu propriile cuvinte, spre deosebire de citat,


c‰nd textul respectiv este reprodus; ea este XWLOă DWXQFL FkQG GRULP Vă FODULILFăP SR]LĠLD
SHFDUHRVXVĠLQHP ”ntr-RGLVFXĠLHVDXFkQGGRULPVăFODULILFăPRQHvQĠHOHJHUH

2. ÌQWUHEDUHD GLUHFWă ± HVWH LQWHURJDĠLD SULQ FDUH VH SRDWH UăVSXQGH prin da sau
nu 1HFHVLWDWHD XQRU DVWIHO GH vQWUHEăUL HVWH GRYHGLWă DWXQFL FkQG VH GRUHúWH REĠLQHUHD
XQRU LQIRUPDĠLL VFXUWH úL FRQFLVH FkQG QH DIOăP vQ IDĠD XQXL LQWHUORFXWRU ODFRQLF IRDUWH
zg‰rcit la YRUEă$FHVWJHQGHvQWUHEăULQXWUHEXLHSXVHvQFD]XOvQFDUHFHO vQWUHEDWQXúWLH
QLPLFLDUFHOăODOWúWLHWRWXO

18
3. ÌQWUHEDUHD LQGLUHFWă ± acesta este ”ntrebarea la care nu se poate oferi un
UăVSXQVFDWHJRULFGDVDX QXQHFHVLWkQGRDQXPH dezvoltare.(VWH IRORVLWăRULGHFkWH RUL
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$IJDQLVWDQ GH SLOGă ÄDPHULFDQ´ YL]HD]ă DFHD SHUVRDQă FXOWXUă FDUH OH DPHQLQĠă modul
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cuvintelor. Cuvintele DX R VHPQLILFDĠLH JHQHUDOă YDODELOă SHQWUX WRĠL YRUELWRULL  úL XQD
YDULDELOă SUH]HQWă GRDU OD unii GLQWUH YRUELWRUL  $úD FXP DP Yă]XW ÄDPHULFDQ´ SRDWH
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Simbol
Un alt tip de semnal este simbolul 'LQ QHIHULFLUH QX H[LVWă XQ DFRUG JHQHUDO
asupra FRQĠLQXWXOXLH[DFWDOWHUPHQXOXL3HQWUu Saussure, simbolul este un semnal care nu
este, sau nu ”n WRWDOLWDWH DOHV vQ PRG DUELWUDU GH H[HPSOX EDODQĠD FDUH VHUYHúWH GUHSW
VHPQLILFDQW MXVWLĠLHL GHRDUHFH PHWDIRULF MXVWLĠLD FkQWăUHúWH DFĠLXQLOH RDPHQLORU 3HQWUX
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19
comod pentru a desemna un semnal HPEOHPDWLF FăUXLD L VH LGHQWLILFă XQ JUXS VRFLDO R
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ILJXUDWLY L VH DWULEXLH R YDORDUH SDUWLFXODUă UHFXQRVFXWă SH SODQ VRFLDO FXYkQWXO nu mai
DUH GRDU VHQVXO VăX SULPDU RELHFWXO QX VH PDL UHGXFH OD XWLOL]DUHD VD LPHGLDWă GHVHQXO
H[SULPă DOWFHYD GHFkW FHHD FH UHSUH]LQWă ÌQ WHUPHQL WHKQLFL SXWHP IRORVL FXSOXO
GHQRWDĠLHFRQRWDĠLHSHQWUXDH[SOLFDDFHDVWăGLVWLQFĠLH'HQRWDĠLDXQXLVHPQHVWHUHDOLWDWHD
pe care DFHVWDRGHVHPQHD]ăvQPRGGLUHFWSULQFRQRWDĠLHWUHEXLHVăvQĠHOHJHPUHDOLWăĠLOH
desemnate ”n PRGVHFXQGDUGHFăWUHVHPQFDúLHYHQWXDOHOHHYDOXăUL MXGHFăĠLIDYRUDELOH
sau defavorabile) care VXQWDVRFLDWHUHDOLWăĠLORUSULPDUHVDXVHFXQGDUH
Putem considera simbolizarea (Denis McQuail, Comunicarea) un proces prin
care, ”n primul r‰nd, sensul este asociat cu obiecte, FRQFHSWHSUDFWLFLQDUDĠLXQLVSHFLILFH
VDXFXUHSUH]HQWăULDOHDFHVWRUD ÌQDOGRLOHDUkQGSULQDFHVWHPLMORDFHLGHLOHúLLPDJLQLOH
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dincoOR GH H[SHULHQĠD LPHGLDWă  VXQW WUDQVPLVH vQWU-un mod HFRQRPLF úL VLJXU DFHORUD
FDUH DX IRVW VRFLDOL]DĠL vQWU-R FXOWXUă VDX vQWU-o societate. Simbolismul este un proces
HVHQĠLDO FROHFWLY 8WLOL]kQG simbolurile pentru a comunica, individul face apel la fondul
colectiv de VHPQLILFDĠLL SH FDUH OH vPSăUWăúHúWH FX LQWHUORFXWRULL VăL Simbolurile sunt
exprimate ”ntr-un limbaj de semne, iconi, semnale, dar limbajul simbolic ”l constituie de
fapt obiectele sau evenimentele fizice ODFDUHVHUHIHUăOLPEDMXO

PenWUX D GD QXPDL FkWHYD H[HPSOH VWHDJXO VHPQLILFă


identitatea unei QDĠLXQL VDX FRPXQLWăĠL úL vQWUXFKLSHD]ă LGHHD GH
QDĠLXQHVDELDHVWHXQVLPERODOGUHSWăĠLLOHJLL sau armatei; crucea
HVWH VLPEROXO FUHúWLQLVPXOXL vQ JHQHUDO OHXO HVWH XQ VLPERO DO
puterii úL curajului.  $VWIHO SXWHP VSXQH Fă VLPEROXULOH ILH
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de colectivitate. Faptul care trebuie subliniat aici este limitarea
VIHUHL H[SUHVLHL VLPEROLFH OD DQXPLWH JUDQLĠH GH VSDĠLX úL WLPS úL
SURSULHWăĠLOH sale mediatice pentru colectivitate.

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sistemul cultural de valori.

5D\PRQG)LUWKvQOXFUDUHDVDWHRUHWLFăSymbols, Public and Private (apud Denis


McQuail, Comunicarea  SUH]LQWă WHRULD OXL 'XUNKHLP DVXSUD VLPEROXULORU úL HIHFWXHD]ă
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moduri.

21
Sens
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asociat XQVHQVVDXRVHPQLILFDĠLHXQPHVDMFRPSRUWăXQsens, VLPSOXVDXFRPSOH[GDFă
nu mai multe. 6HQVXO QX HVWH WUDQVPLVLELO SH FDOH PDWHULDOă QX H[LVWă VHQV GHFkW SHQWru
PLQWHD XPDQă úL VHQVXO nu poate exista ”n afara acesteia. Din acest punct de vedere,
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HVWH FDSDELOă Vă-O YHKLFXOH]H (D RSHUHD]ă SULQ VXEVWLWXĠLH 7UDQVPLVLXQHD HVWH OHJDWă GH
elemente materiale sau mai exact perceptibile, VHPQDOHOH GDU FRPXQLFDUHD QX UHXúHúWH
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SHUFHSXWH úL VHPQLILFDĠLLOH DWULEXLWH 'DU QX VH vQWkPSOă GHFkW UDU FD eFKLYDOHQĠD Vă ILH
H[DFW DFHHDúL úL DSURDSH vQWRWGHDXQD QH PXOĠXPLP FX R HFKLYDOHQĠă DSURSLDWă 5HXúLWD
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H[SOLFăIDSWXOFăXQDFHODúLPHVDMSRDWHSULPLVHQVXULIRDUWHGLIHULWH(VWHWRWXúLSRVLELOvQ
DQXPLWH WLSXUL GH FRPXQLFDUH FXP DU IL OLWHUDWXUD Vă YHGHP vQ DFHDVWă GLYHUVLWDWH R
ERJăĠLHúLQX RLPSHUIHFĠLXQH

Sistem de semne
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de semne7HUPHQXOGHVLVWHPLQGLFăIDSWXOFăvQWUHHOHPHQWHvQFD]XOGHIDĠăVHPQHOHúL
FRPSRQHQĠLLORUVHPQDOHúLVHQVH[LVWăUHODĠLLFDUHOHUHXQHVFSHQWUXDFRQVWLWXLRXQLWDWH
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”n care WRWXOVHOHDJă´$FHVWVLVWHPSRDWHILIRDUWHELQHHOvQVXúLFRPSOH[úLFRQVWLWXLWGLQ
mai multe VXEDQVDPEOH vQ FDGUXO FăURUD H[LVWă vQWUH HOHPHQWH UDSRUWXUL VSHFLILFH (VWH
cazul sistemelor lingvistice, ceea ce l-a condus pe GXVWDYH *XLOODXPH OD D GHFODUD Fă
limba este nu at‰t un sistem, c‰t un sistem de sisteme.

6HPLRORJLD VHPLRWLFD úLGRPHQLLOHVDOH


'HILQLQG OLPELOH FD VLVWHPH GH VHPQH 6DXVVXUH DGPLWHD IDSWXO Fă putem ”nt‰lni
VHPQHúLvQDOWHGRPHQLLGHFkWOLPEDMXO'HDceea, din SXQFWXOVăXGHYHGHUHOLQJYLVWLFD
este un capitol dintr-RúWLLQĠăPDL JHQHUDOăFDUHVHRFXSăGHVHPQHOHGHWRDWHWLSXULOH(O
sugera numele de semiologie GDU DVWă]L HVWH SUHIHUDW WHUPHQXO GH VHPLRWLFă, care
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3LHUFH 3DUWHD GH VHPLRORJLH FDUH VH RFXSă GH OLPEDM úL FDUH VH QXPHúWH OLQJYLVWLFă
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OLQJYLVWLFă FHGHD]ă DGHVHRUL vQ ]LXD GH DVWă]L vQ IDĠD XQHL H[SUHVLL SOXUDOH úWLLQĠHOH
limbajului. Vom cita doar pe cele mai importante, cu denumirile utilizate ”n momentul de
IDĠă

‡Fonologia FDUHVWXGLD]ăFRQVWLWXHQĠLLVHPQDOHORUIRQHWLFHúLPDL ales, dar nu numai,


pe cei pe care le numim foneme (fonetica, care VWXGLD]ă VHPQHOH VXE WULSOXO DVSHFW DO
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Charles Morris, raportul lor cu realitatea;

‡PragmaticaFDUHVWXGLD]ăXWLOL]DUHDVHPQHORUVDX 0RUULV
UHODĠLa lor cu utilizatorii;

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FXYLQWHFXIRUPDúLVHQVXOORUvQWU-RDQXPLWăOLPEă

‡Semiotica textelorOLWHUDUHVDXQXQXPLWăúLDQDOL]DGLVFXUVXOXL
VFULVVDXRUDOLQFOXVLYFRQYHUVDĠLD 

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sector al semiologiei. Ca orice clasificare, clasificarea DQVDPEOHORU GH VHPQH SXQH úL
probleme legate de frontierele dintre diferite tipuri de semne. Astfel, putem ezita ”n a
califica drept sisteme de semne diverse forme de activitate ”n care comunicarea SDUH Vă
MRDFHWRWXúLXQURO6SUHH[HPSOXFLQHPDWRJUDILDXWLOL]HD]ă at‰t cuv‰ntul, deci limbajul,
FkWúLLPDJLQHDPRELOă'DFă cinematografia este ”ntr-DGHYăUXQVLVWHPGHVHPQHDFHDVWD
LQWHJUHD]ăODUvQGXOVăXDOWHOHGRXăGLQWUHFDUHXQXOHVWHPXOWPDL DUELWUDUGHFkWFHOăODOW
Dar semiologia cinematografiei nu se reduce OD R VLPSOă vQVXPDUH D VHPLRORJLHL
OLPEDMXOXL úL VHPLRORJLHL LPDJLQLORU PRELOH XQLWDWHD UHSUH]LQWă PDL PXOW GHFkW VXPD
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modul ”n FDUH HPLĠăWRULL úL UHFHSWRULL FRGHD]ă úL GHFRGHD]ă XQ PHVDM PRGXO vQ FDUH
WUDQVPLĠăWRUXO IRORVHúWH FDQDOHOH úL PHGLLOH FRPXQLFăULL ùFRDOD SURFHV HVWH LQWHUHVDWă vQ
special de probleme ca HILFLHQĠDúLDFXUDWHĠHDWUDQVPLWHULLPHVDMXOXL$FHDVWăúFRDOăYHGH
comunicarea ca un proces prin FDUH R SHUVRDQă DIHFWHD]ă FRPSRUWDPHQWXO VDX VWDUHD GH
VSLULW D XQHL DOWH SHUVRDQH 'DFă efectul HVWH GLIHULW GH FHHD FH VH LQWHQĠLRQD Vă VH
FRPXQLFH WHQGLQĠD HVWH Vă VH LQWHUSUHWH]H DFHVW OXFUX GUHSW XQ HúHF DO FRPXQLFăULL úL Vă
FDXWHPRWLYXOHúHFXOXLGH-DOXQJXOGHVIăúXUăULLSURFHVXOXLGH comunicare.
Pentru úFRDOD VHPLRWLFă GHIăúXUDUHD FRPXQLFăULL UHSUH]LQWă R SURGXFHUH úL XQ
schimb de VHQVXUL VHPQLILFDĠLL  2ELHFWXO GH LQWHUHV vO UHSUH]LQWă VWXGLHUHD PRGXOXL vQ
care mesajele WH[WHOH  LQWHUDFĠLRQHD]ă FX RDPHQLL SHQWUX D SURGXFH vQĠHOHVXUL VDX
VHPQLILFDĠLL  úL UROXO WH[WHORU ”n cultura nRDVWUă ùFRDOD VHPLRWLFă IRORVHúWH WHUPHQL FD
VHPQLILFDĠLH úL QX FRQVLGHUă QHvQĠHOHJHULOH FD ILLQG QHDSăUDW HIHFWH DOH HúHFXOXL GH
FRPXQLFDUH FL FRQVLGHUă Fă HOH SRW UH]XOWD GLQ GLIHUHQĠHOH FXOWXUDOH GLPWUH HPLĠăWRU úL
UHFHSWRU 3HQWUX DFHDVWă úFRDOă VWXGLXO FRPXQLFăULL HVWH VWXGLXO WH[WXOXL úL D FXOWXULL
3ULQFLSDOHOHPHWRGHGHDQDOL]ăSURYLQGLQLQWHULRUXOVHPLRWLFLL
ùFRDOD SURFHV WLQGH Vă Vă UăVIUkQJă DVXSUD úWLLQĠHORU VRFLDOH PDL DOHV DVXSUD
psihologiei úL VRFLRORJLHL úL VH DXWRGHILQHúWH FD VWXGLXl actelor de comunicare. ùFRDOD
VHPLRWLFă LQIOXHQĠHD]ă OLQJYLVWLFD VWXGLXO IHQRPHQHORU DUWLVWLFH úL VH DXWRGHILQHúWH vQ
termeni de producere ai FRPXQLFăULL )LHFDUH úFRDOă LQWHUSUHWHD]ă GHILQLĠLD GDWă
FRPXQLFăULL LQWHUDFĠLXQH VRFLDOă D PHVDMHORU ”n termHQLL VSHFLILFL 3ULPD GHILQHúWH
LQWHUDFĠLXQHD VRFLDOă FD ILLQG SURFHVXO SULQ FDUH R SHUVRDQă UHODĠLRQHD]ă FX DOWHOH VDX
DIHFWHD]ăFRPSRUWDPHQWXOVWDUHDGHVSLULWVDXUHDFĠLLOHHPRĠLRQDOHDOH unei alte persoane
úLLQYHUV$FHVWDHVWHvQĠHOHVXORELúQXLW6HPLRWLFDGHILQHúWHLQWHUDFĠLXQHD VRFLDOăFDILLQG
ceea ce constituie individul ca membru al unei culturi specifice sau al unei VRFLHWăĠL Cele
GRXă úFROL VH GLIHUHQĠLD]ă GH DVHPHQHD SULQ FRQFHSĠLD ORU GHVSUH FHHD FH vQVHDPQă

27
mesaj. ùFRDOD SURFHV vede ”n mesaj ceea ce este transmis prin procesul de comunicare.
0XOĠL GLQWUH FRQWLQXDWRUL FRQVLGHUă Fă LQWHQĠLD HVWH XQ IDFWRU HVHQĠLDO vQ GHILQLĠLD
PHVDMXOXL ,QWHQĠLD HPLĠăWRUXOXL SRDWH IL GHFODUDWă VDX QHGHFODUDWă GDU HD HVWH HVHQĠLDOă
pentru a putea analiza mesajul.
ùFRDOD VHPLRWLFă YHGH PHVDMXO FD R FRQVWUXFĠLH D VHPQHORU FDUH SULQ
LQWHUDFĠLXQHD FX UHFHSWRULL SURGXF vQĠHOHVXUL (PLĠăWRUXO GHILQLW FD WUDQVPLĠăWRU DO
PHVDMXOXLvúLGHFOLQă LPSRUWDQĠDDFFHQWXOHVWHSXVSHWH[WúLSHFXPHVWHHOFLWLW &LWLWul
este procesul descoperirii vQĠHOHVXULORU DWXQFL FkQG UHFHSWRUXO LQWHUSUHWHD]ă WH[WXO
$FHDVWă QHJRFLHUH DUH ORF SH PăVXUă FH FLWLWRUXO LQWURGXFH DVSHFWH DOH H[SHULHQĠHL VDOH
FXOWXUDOHvQGHVFLIUDUHDFRGXULORUúLVHPQHORUGLQ care este constituit textul. De asemenea,
HVWHGH ODVLQHvQĠHOHDVă PXOWLSOLFLWDWHDGHLQWHUSUHWăULSH FDUHR SRDWHOXD XQXOúLDFHODúL
WH[WvQLQWHUDFĠLXQHFXGLIHULĠLFLWLWRUL 7UHEXLHGRDUVăYHGHPFXPGLIHULWHWH[WHWUDQVPLW
DFHODúL HYHQLPHQW IDSW  vQ PRG GLIHULW pentru a ne da VHDPD GH FkW GH LPSRUWDQWă HVWH
DFHVWăvQĠHOHJHUH DFHVWăFRQFHSĠLHDVXSUDOXPLLSH care fiecare text o ”mparte cu cititorii
VăL )DSWXO Fă UHFHSWRUL SURYHQLĠL GLQ GLIHULWH FXOWXUL LQWHUSUHWHD]ă GLIHULW DFHODúL WH[W QX
HVWHXQHIHFWDOHúHFXOXLGHFRPXQLFDUHFLDOGLIHUHQĠHLGH orizonturi culturale. Mesajul nu
este ceva trimis simplu de la A la B, ci este un element dintr-RUHODĠLH VWUXFWXUDOăDOHFăUHL
HOHPHQWHLQFOXGDWkWUHDOLWDWHDH[WHUQăFkWúLSURGXFăWRUXOGHWH[WFLWLWRUXO 3URGXFHUHDúL
citirea WH[WXOXL VXQW Yă]XWH FD SURFHVH SDUDOHOH GDU QX LGHQWLFH vQ FDUH $ úL % RFXSă
DFHODúLORFvQUHODĠLDVWUXFWXUDOă$PSXWHDPRGHODDFHDVWăVWUXFWXUăFDXQWULXQJKLvQFDUH
VăJHĠLOH UHSUH]LQWă LQWHUDFĠLXQHD FRQVWDQWă VWUXFWXUD QX HVWH VWDWLFă FL HVWH R Uealitate
GLQDPLFă
(figura 1).

28
ù&2$/$352&(6

Modelul Shannon &Weaver


0RGHOXOGHED]ăDOFRPXQLFăULLFUHDWGHFHUFHWăWRULLDPHULFDQLDUHRUHSUH]HQWDUH
OLQHDUă

ÌQ DFHVW PRGHO a comunica vQVHDPQă D WUDQVPLWH XQ VHPQDO R LQIRUPDĠLH  FDUe
HVWH SULPLW 8QLWDWHD GH PăVXUDUH D FRPXQLFăULL HVWH GH QDWXUă ELQDUă FHHD FH vQVHDPQă
Fă WUDQVPLWHUHD LQIRUPDĠLHL HPLWHUHD úL UHFHSWDUHD VHPQDOHORU  VH SRDWH UHDOL]D VDX QX
1RĠLXQLOHSULQFLSDOHDOHPRGHOXOXLVXQWFHOHGHHPLĠăWRUUHFHSWRUFDQDOFod (dispozitive
WHKQLFHGHFRGLILFDUHWUDQVPLWHUHúLGHFRGLILFDUHDLQIRUPDĠLHL 

SursaHVWHYă]XWăFDXQIDFWRUGHGHFL]LHDFHDVWDvQVHDPQăFăVXUVDGHFLGHFHPHVDMVă
WULPLWă VDX PDL GHJUDEă Vă DOHDJă XQXO GLQWU-o serie de mesaje posibile. Acest mesaj
VHOHFWDW HVWH VFKLPEDW DSRL GH HPLĠăWRU vQWU-un semnal care este trimis prin canal
receptorului.

ZgomotHVWHFHYDFDUHVHDGDXJăVHPQDOXOXLvQSURFHVXOWUDQVPLWHULLFDUHQXHVWH
LQWHQĠLRQDWGHVXUVă3RDWHDYHDORFODWRDWHFHOHWUHLQLYHOXULVSHFLILFDWHGHFHUFHWăWRUL

,QIRUPDĠLDvQDFHVWPRGHOLQIRUPDĠLDHVWHvQĠHOHDVăFDÄPăVXUăDFHHDFHHVWHWUDQVPLV
WUDQVSRUWDW GH OD HPLĠăWRU FăWUH UHFHSWRU PăVXUă D LQFHUWLWXGLQLL GLQ VLVWHP´ 'HFL
LQIRUPDĠLDQXVHLGHQWLILFăFXVHPQLILFDĠLDDFHHDFHHVWH transmis.

5HGXQGDQĠDHQWURSLD UHGXQGDQĠD ± FRQFHSWXO HVWH VWUkQV OHJDW GH FHO GH LQIRUPDĠLH
3RDWH IL GHILQLWă GUHSW FHHD FH SRDWH IL SUHGLFWLELO VDX FRQYHQĠLRQDO vQWU-un mesaj. Opus
UHGXQGDQĠHL HVWH FRQFHSWXO GH entropie. 5HGXQGDQĠD HVWH UH]XOWDWXO SUHGLFWLELOLWăĠLL
ULGLFDWHLDUHQWURSLDDXQHLSUHGLFWLELOLWăĠLVFă]XWH8QPHVDMFXRSUHGLFWLELOLWDWHUHGXVă
SRDWH IL QXPLW HQWURSLF úL DYkQG XQ QLYHO ULGLFDW GH LQIRUPDĠLH ,QYHUV XQ PHVDM FX R
SUHGLFWLELOLWDWHULGLFDWăHVWHUHGXQGDQWúLFXXQQLYHOVFă]XWGHLQIRUPDĠLH

CanalulHVWHSXUúLVLPSOXPLMORFXOIL]LFSULQFDUHHVWHWUDQVPLVVHPQDOXO3ULQFLSDOHOH
FDQDOHVXQWXQGHOHGHOXPLQăGHVXQHWúLGHUDGLRFDEXULOHWHOHIRQLFHVLVWHPXOQHUYRV

29
Mijloc de comunicare UHSUH]LQWă PLMORFXO IL]LF VDX WHKQic prin care mesajul este
convertit ”ntr-XQVHPQDOFDSDELOVă ILHWUDQVPLVSULQLQWHUPHGLXOXQXLFDQDO3URSULHWăĠLOH
fizice sau tehnologice ale mijlocului de comunicare sunt determinate de natura canalului
sau canalelor care ”l folosesc.

Mijloacele pot fi clasificate ”n trei mari categorii:


‡PLMORDFHSUH]HQWDĠLRQDOHYRFHDIDĠDFRUSXO
‡PLMORDFHUHSUH]HQWDĠLRQDOHFăUĠLSLFWXULIRWRJUDILLDUKLWHFWXUDGHFRUDĠLXQLOHLQWHULRDUH
etc.;
‡mijloace mecanice: telefon, radio, televiziune, teletext.

Codul ±HVWHXQVLVWHPGHvQĠHOHVXULFRPXQPHPEULORUXQHLFXOWXULVDXVXEFXOWXUL&RQVWă
DWkWvQVHPQH VHPQDOHIL]LFHFDUHWULPLWODDOWFHYDGHFkWODHOHvQVHOH FkWúLvQUHJXOLVDX
FRQYHQĠLLFDUHGHWHUPLQăFXPúLvQFHFRQWH[WHSRWILIRORVLWHúLFRPELQDte aceste semne
SHQWUX D IRUPD PHVDMH PDL FRPSOH[H PRUIRORJLH VLQWD[ă vQ UDSRUW FX VLVWHPXO
lingvistic).

&RQIRUP FRPHQWDULXOXL UHDOL]DW GH ,RDQ 'UăJDQ 3DUDGLJPH DOH FRPXQLFăULL GH
PDVă), DFHDVWăWHRULHUăVSXQGHvQSULQFLSDOODGRXăvQWUHEăUL
1. cuP SRDWH IL WUDQVPLVă R LQIRUPDĠLH vQ PRGXO FHO PDL UDSLG úL FX FRVWXULOH FHOH PDL
reduse;
FXPVHSRDWHDVLJXUDLGHQWLWDWHDGLQWUHLQIRUPDĠLDSULPLWăúLFHDHPLVă

'DFăSULPDvQWUHEDUHHVWHJHQHUDWăGHFRQWH[WXOFUHăULLWHRULHL vQWLPSXOFHOXLGH-
al dRLOHDUă]ERLPRQGLDOFkQGDXWRULLVHRFXSDXGHHILFLHQĠDOLQLLORUWHOHJUDILFH UăVSXQVXO
OD D GRXD vQWUHEDUH QX SRDWH IL RIHULW GHFkW GDFă VH LDX vQ FDOFXO FHOH WUHL QLYHOH GH
FHUFHWDUHLGHQWLILFDWHGH6KDQQRQ :HDYHUvQVWXGLXOFRPXQLFăULL
Nivelul A ± pUREOHPH WHKQLFH FX FkWă DFXUDWHĠH SRW IL WUDQVPLVH VLPEROXULOH GH
comunicare;
Nivelul B ±SUREOHPHVHPDQWLFHFkWGHSUHFLVWUDQVPLWVLPEROXULOHvQĠHOHVXULOHGRULWH
Nivelul C ± probleme de eficacitate; c‰t de mult poate fi modificat comportamentul
receptRUXOXLvQVHQVXOGRULWGHHPLĠăWRU

Modelul lui Gerbner


*HRUJH *HUEQHU SURIHVRU OD XQLYHUVLWDWHD GLQ 3HQV\OYDQLD D vQFHUFDW Vă UHDOL]H]H
un PRGHO GH FRPXQLFDUH FX XWLOL]DUH JHQHUDOă 0RGHOXO UHDOL]DW D IRVW VHPQLILFDWLY PDL
complex dec‰t cel al lui Shannon & Weaver. Modelul lui Gerbner (figura 3) introduce ca
HOHPHQWH RULJLQDOH SHUFHSĠLD SURGXFĠLD VHPQLILFDĠLD PHVDMXOXL PHVDMXO FD XQLWDWH D
IRUPHL úL FRQĠLQXWXOXL QRĠLXQHD GH LQWHUVXELHFWLYLWDWH FD H[SUHVLH D UDSRUWXOXL GLQWUH
SURGXFĠLD PHVDMHORU úL SHUFHSĠLD HYHQLPHQWHORU úL PHVDMHORU &RQIRUP DFHVWXL PRGHO
SURFHVXOGHFRPXQLFDUHHVWHXQSURFHVVXELHFWLYVHOHFWLYYDULDELOúLLPSUHYL]LELO

30
$[DRUL]RQWDOăUHGăSURFHVXOGHSHUFHSĠLH
‡ODRULJLQHDSURFHVXOXLGHFRPXQLFDUHVHDIOăSHUFHSĠLDXQXLHYHQLPHQWSULPXOHOHPHQW
al modelului este M (cel care percepe);
‡SHUFHSĠLDLPSOLFăROHJăWXUăvQWUHHYHQLPHQW ( úLUHFRQVWLWXLUHDOXLVHQ]RULDOăFUHDWLYă
úLFRJQLWLYăGHFăWUH0(SRDWHILXQHYHQLPHQWQDWXUDOVDXXQHYHQLPHQWPHGLDWL]DW care
va fi un mesaj de tipul S/E;
‡SHUFHSĠLDOXL(HVWHRUHDFĠLHDOXL0UHDFĠLHFDUHVHPDQLIHVWăSULQGLIHULWHPLMORDFH
‡5HDFĠLDúLUHFHSWDUHDVHSURGXFvQWU-RVLWXDĠLHGDWăFDUHOHSRDWHLQIOXHQĠDúLPRGLILFD
6LWXDĠLDDUHGLPHQVLXQLSVLKRORJLFHIL]LFHúLVRFLDOHÌQWUH( HYHQLPHQW úL( 1 SHUFHSĠLH
mesaj) intervin:
$FĠLXQHDGHVHOHFĠLH
Accesibilitatea evenimentului (posibilitatea de a fi perceput);
Contextul ”n care se produce.

31
$[DYHUWLFDOăFXSULQGHHOHPHQWHFDUHFDUDFWHUL]HD]ăSURGXFĠLDPHVDMHORU SURGXVXO
FRPXQLFăULL úLFRQWUROXOUHODĠLHLGLQWUH0 DJHQW úL6( PHVDM (VWHD[DÄPLMORDFHORU
FRPXQLFăULLDPLMORDFHORUXWLOL]DWHSHQWUXFUHDĠLDWUDQVPLWHUHDúLGLVWULEXLUHDPHVDMHORU´
‡aceste mijloace sunt formate din:
DJHQĠLcare permit transmiterea semnalelor (canale, mijloace tehnice, media);
SURFHGHHGHDOHJHUHúLFRPELQDUHDPLMORDFHORUXWLOL]DWH
UHVXUVHDGPLQLVWUDWLYHLQVWLWXĠLRQDOHSHQWUXFRQWUROXOSURGXFĠLHLúLGLVWULEXLULL
mesajelor;
Toate aceste mijloace permiWWUDQVIRUPDUHDXQHLUHDFĠLL SHUFHSĠLL vQWU-un mesaj care
poate fi perceput.
‡PLMORFHOHVHUYHVFVăIDFăGLVSRQLELOHSHQWUXGHVWLQDWDUHOHPHQWHOHFRPSRQHQWHDOH
mesajului;
‡IRUPD6HVWHGDWăGHHQXQĠXOPHVDMXOXLHDHVWHOHJDWăGHPLMORDFHOHXWLOL]DWHúi este
LQGLVROXELOOHJDWăGHFRQĠLQXWXOPHVDMXOXL0HVDMXOWUHEXLHVăSRVHGHRIRUPăúLR
VWUXFWXUăELQHGHILQLWH
‡HQXQĠXOPHVDMXOXLVHSURGXFHvQWU-XQFRQWH[WGDW&RQWH[WXOVHUHIHUăODHOHPHQWHOH
FDUHLQWHUYLQSHQWUXDIDFHFDXQHYHQLPHQWVăILHVHOHctat pentru a fi perceput;
‡RULFHWUDQVPLVLHVWUXFWXUDWăúLQHDOHDWRDUHHVWHXQVHPQDO)RUPDVHPQDOXOXL
PHVDMXOXL FXSULQGHFDOLWăĠLGHUHSUH]HQWDUHGHUHIHULQĠăGHVLPEROL]DUHVDXGH
FRUHVSRQGHQĠă'HFLVHPQDOXOFXSULQGHHOHPHQWHGHIRUPăúLFRQĠLQXW ale mesajului,
DGLFăGHVHPQLILFDĠLHDPHVDMXOXL 6úL(VXQWLQGLVROXELOH FHHDFHIDFHFDPHVDMXOVă
DLEăFDOLWăĠLGHIRUPăúLGHFRQĠLQXWVSHFLILFH
‡RULFHSHUFHSĠLHDXQXLHQXQĠSURGXFHHIHFWH FRQVHFLQĠH XQHOHĠLQGHHILFLHQĠă
(atingerea obiectivHORUYL]DWHDRELHFWLYHORULQLĠLDOHDOHFRPXQLFăULL DOWHOHVXQW
FRQVHFLQĠHQHLQWHQĠLRQDWHVDXQHGRULWHDOHFRPXQLFăULL

0RGHOXOLQGLFăvQSULPXOUkQGLPSRUWDQĠDHOHPHQWHORUFDUHLQWHUYLQvQSHUFHSĠLD
HYHQLPHQWHORUSXQFWHOHGHYHGHUHúLH[SHULHQĠHOHWUHFXWHDOHOXL0LQIOXHQĠHD]ăSHUFHSĠLD
- E 1 . $FHVWD HVWH XQ IDSW ÄFUHDW´ SULQ SHUFHSĠLH ILHFDUH SHUVRDQă DYkQG R SHUFHSĠLH
SURSULH'LYHUúL0SRWSHUFHSHGLIHULWDFHODúLHYHQLPHQWÌQDOGRLOHDUvQGPRGHOXODUDWă
FăVLVWHPXOFRPXQLFăULLHVWHGLQDPLFúLGHVFKLV vQVHQVXOFăHIHFWHOH FRQVHFLQĠHOH VXQW
SDUĠLDOSUHYL]LELOHSDUĠLDOLPSUHYL]LELOH(OSRDWHILDSOLFDWvQDQDOL]DGLIHULWHORUVLWXDĠLLGH
FRPXQLFDUH SHQWUX DQDOL]D GH FRQĠLQXW D PHVDMHORU D FRUHVSRQGHQĠHL GLQWUH UHDOLWăĠL úL
PHVDMHOH FRPXQLFăULL GH PDVă D UHFHSWăULL PHVDMHORU GH FăWUH SXEOLFXUL * *HUEQHU
Toward a General Model of Communication, apud ,RDQ 'UăJDQ Paradigme ale
FRPXQLFăULLGHPDVă).

Modelul lui Lasswell

Modelul lui Harold D. Lasswell este un model specific studiului cRPXQLFăULL GH
PDVă $XWRUXO VXVĠLQH Fă SHQWUX D vQĠHOHJH SURFHVXO FRPXQLFăULL GH PDVă QRL DYHP
QHYRLHVăVWXGLHPQLYHOHOHFHFRUHVSXQGXUPăWRDUHORUvQWUHEăUL

‡Cine?
‡Ce spune?

32
‡Prin ce canal?
‡Cui?
‡Cu ce efect?

$FHDVWăIRUPXOăDIRVWIRORVLWăGe Lasswell ”n 1948 pentru a ”nzestra cu un cadru


FRQFHSWXDO VRFLRORJLD IXQFĠLRQDOLVWă D PDVV-PHGLD 7UDGXVă vQ WHUPHQL GH VHFWRDUH GH
FHUFHWDUHHDGXFHODXUPăWRUXO UH]XOWDWDQDOL]D FRQWUROXOXLDQDOL]D FRQĠLQXWXOXL DQDOL]D
mijloacelor de comunicare sau D VXSRUWXULORU DQDOL]D DXGLHQĠHL úL DQDOL]D HIHFWHORU
(Armand, Michelle Mattelart, ,VWRULDWHRULLORUFRPXQLFăULL).
Pentru Fiske (op. cit  DFHVW PRGHO UHSUH]LQWă YHUVLXQHD YHUEDOă D PRGHOXOXL
Shannon & :HDYHU HVWH XQ PRGHO OLQLDU FDUH SULYHúWH FRPXQLFDrea ca o transmitere de
PHVDMHúLHVWHPDLLQWHUHVDWGHHIHFWHOHFRPXQLFăULLGHFkWGHVHPQLILFDĠLL3ULQÄHIHFW´VH
vQĠHOHJHFăRVFKLPEDUHREVHUYDELOăúLPăVXUDELOăDVWăULLUHFHSWRUXOXLHVWHFDX]DWăGHXQ
element identificabil ”n proces. Modific‰nd unul din elementele procesului, vom modifica
úL HIHFWXO 'XSă /DVVZHOO SURFHVXO GH FRPXQLFDUH vQGHSOLQHúWH WUHL IXQFĠLL SULQFLSDOH vQ
VRFLHWDWHÄsupravegherea mediuluiGH]YăOXLQGWRWFHHHDFHDUSXWHDDPHQLQĠDVDXDIHFWD
VLVWHPXOGHYDORULDOXQHLFRPXQLWăĠLVDXDOSăUĠLORUFDUHRFRPSXQSXQHUHDvQUHODĠLHD
FRPSRQHQWHORU VRFLHWăĠLL SHQWUX D SURGXFH XQ UăVSXQV IDĠă GH PHGLX transmiterea
PRúWHQLULL VRFLDOH´ Lasswell, Ä7KH 6WUXFWXUH DQG )XQFWLRQ RI &RPPXQLFDWLRQ LQ
6RFLHW\´, apud Mattelart, op. cit). LazarVIHOGúL0HUWRQ DGDXJăOD DFHVWH WUHLIXQFĠLLRD
patra, cea de entertainment VDXGLVWUDFĠLH

ÌQ WUDGLĠLD IXQFĠLRQDOLVWă D FHUFHWăULL FRPXQLFăULL GH PDVă VH vQVFULH úL studiul lui
Lazarsfeld GHVSUH DOHJHULOH SUH]LGHQĠLDOH GLQ  $FHVW studiu panel, destinat a stabili
FRQWULEXĠLDXQRUVXUVHGLIHULWHOD PRGLILFDUHDRSĠLXQLLSROLWLFHvQWLPSDDMXQVODFRQFOX]LD
FăGLVFXĠLD avea un rol mai important ”n acest sens dec‰t mass-media. Un studiu ulterior,
FDUHDWHVWDWHILFLHQĠDLQIOXHQĠHLSHUVRQDOHDFRQILUmat DFHVWăLGHHúLDSURSXVLSRWH]DXQHL
ÄFRPXQLFăULvQGRXăWUHSWH´ Conform rezultatelor acestui studiu, s-au putut decela c‰teva
grupuri PDULGHFDX]HFHDFĠLRQHD]ăvPSUHXQăFDUHSRWH[SOLFDIDSWXOFă indivizii sunt mai
SUHGLVSXúL Vă ĠLQă VHDPD GH LQIRUPDĠLLOH úL VIDWXULOH venite din partea celor pe care ”i
cunosc personal, respectiv:
‡au mai mare ”ncredere ”n ei;
‡XQFRQWDFWSHUVRQDOSRDWHH[HUFLWDRSUHVLXQHLQIRUPDOăvQVHQVXO FRQIRUPăULL
‡VHRIHUăSRVLELOLWDWHDGLVFXWăULLúLDUJXPHQWăULLSHUVXDViunea fiind rezultatul schimbului
reciproc de opinii;
‡RVXJHVWLHYHQLWăGLQSDUWHDXQHLFXQRúWLQĠHGLQSURSULXOFHUFGH FRQWDFWHVRFLDOHSRDUWă
vQVLQHJDUDQĠLDFRQIRUPăULLODQRUPHOHGH grup.
3HQWUX D FRPXQLFD FX VXFFHV WUHEXLH GHFL Vă VH DFRUGH R PDi mare DWHQĠLH
JUXSXULORU úL SURFHVXOXL GH FRPXQLFDUH QRQIRUPDO GH GLIX]LXQH D LQIRUPDĠLLORU vQ
LQWHULRUXOILHFăUXLJUXSVDXFDWHJRULHGH SXEOLFYL]DWă

33
Modelul lui Newcomb

6HPQLILFDĠLDSULQFLSDOăDDFHVWXLPRGHOFRQVWăvQIDSWXOFăHVWHSULPXOmodel care
LQWURGXFH SUREOHPDWLFD UROXOXL FRPXQLFăULL vQWU-o societate sau ”ntr-R UHODĠLH VRFLDOă
3HQWUX1HZFRPEDFHVWUROHVWHVLPSOXDFHODGHDPHQĠLQHHFKLOLEUXOvQFDGUXOXQXLVLVWHP
VRFLDO 0RGXO vQ FDUH IXQFĠLRQHD]ă DFHVW PRGHO HVWH XUPăWRUXO ILJXra 4): A/B este
FRPXQLFDWRUUHFHSWRU HL SRW IL LQGLYL]L VDX FRQGXFHUHD XQHL vQWUHSULQGHULUHSUH]HQWDQĠLL
VLQGLFDWHORU VDX JXYHUQJXYHUQDĠL HWF ; HVWH R SDUWH GLQ PHGLXO VRFLDO $%; HVWH XQ
VLVWHPFHHDFHvQVHDPQăFăUHODĠLLOHLQWHUQHVXQWLQWHUGHSHQGHQte.

Componentele minimale ale sistemului ABX sunt:


‡RULHQWDUHDOXL$FăWUH;LQFOX]kQGvQDFHODúLWLPSDWLWXGLQHDIDĠăGH;FDRELHFW
DERUGDELOVDXGHHYLWDWFDUDFWHUL]DWSULQVHPQúLLQWHQVLWDWHSUHFXPúLDWULEXWHOH
FRJQLWLYH FUHGLQĠHúLVWUXFWXULFRJQLWLYH 
‡RULHQWDUHDOXL$VSUH%vQH[DFWDFHODúLVHQV SHQWUXDHYLWDFRQIX]LDQHYRPUHIHULOD
DWUDFĠLHSR]LWLYăVDXQHJDWLYăIDĠăGH$VDX%FDSHUVRDQăúLODDWLWXGLQLIDYRUDELOHVDX
QHIDYRUDELOHFăWUH; 
‡RULHQWDUHDOXL%FăWUH;
‡RULHQWDUHDOXL%FăWUH$
$FHVW PRGHO SUHVXSXQH GHúL QX GHFODUă H[SOLFLW Fă RDPHQLL DX QHYRLH GH
LQIRUPDĠLH ÌQWU-R GHPRFUDĠLH LQIRUPDĠLD HVWH GH RELFHL SULYLWă FD XQ GUHSW GDU QX VH
FRQúWLHQWL]HD]ăFă LQIRUPDĠLDHVWHvQSULPXOUkQGRQHFHVLWDWH)ăUăHDQXQHSXWHPVLPĠL
FD R SDUWH D VRFLHWăĠLL 7UHEXLH Vă DYHP LQIRUPDĠLH SRWULYLWă GHVSUH PHGLXO QRVWUX VRFLDO
SHQWUXDúWLFXPVăUHDFĠLRQăP ODHOúLSHQWUXDLGHQWLILFDvQUHDFĠLDQRDVWUăIDFWRULSHFDUH

34
SXWHP Vă-L vPSăUWăúLP FX PHPEULL grupului, ai subculturii sau culturii din care facem
parte. Denis McQuail (Comunicarea VXVĠLQHFăPRGHOXOOXL1HZFRPEHVWHXQPRGHODO
ÄWHQVLXQLL FăWUH VLPHWULH´ GH DFHODúL WLS FX PRGHOHOH LQVSLUDWH GH SVLKRORJLD JHVWDOWLVWă
Dinamica DFWHORUGHFRPXQLFDUHFRQVWăvQWHQVLXQHDSURGXVăGHGH]DFRUG

0RGHOXO:HVWOH\úL0DF/HDQ

$FHVW PRGHO ILJXUD  HVWHLQVSLUDW GHPRGHOXO OXL1HZFRPEúLGHVFULHSURFHVXO


FRPXQLFăULL LQWHUSHUVRQDOH 3H VFXUW PRGHOXO DUDWă Fă LQIRUPDĠLD ILH HVWH GDWă GH XQ
individ A altui individ B, fie HVWH FăXWDWă GH % OD R VXUVă $ GLVSXQkQG GH FRPSHWHQĠH
specifice ”n raport cu nevoile lui B.

X 1 , X 2 , X 3 , X 4 «; ’  UHSUH]LQWă ÄRELHFWHOH GH RULHQWDUH´ DGLFă PXOWLWXGLQHD GH


HYHQLPHQWHúLRELHFWHFDUHFRPSXQPHGLXOOXL$úL%úLFDUHSRWHYHntual forma obiect de
comunicare ”ntre ei;
‡$úL%UHSUH]LQWăLQGLYL]L
‡;¶UHSUH]LQWăPHVDMXO
‡I%$UHSUH]LQWăIHHG-EDFNXODGLFăXQPHVDMWUDQVPLVGH%VSUH$DVXSUDVLWXDĠLHLOXL
%WUDQVIRUPDWăFDHIHFWHDO;¶
‡IUHSUH]LQWăIHHG-backul.
PotrivitDFHVWHLUHSUH]HQWăULVLPSOHDVXSUDFRPXQLFăULLGLQWUHGRLDFWRULSHUVRDQD
$WUDQVPLWHRLQIRUPDĠLHFăWUHSHUVRDQD%DVXSUDHYHQLPHQWXOXL;$HVWHFRPXQLFDWRUXO
LDU % HVWH vQ VLWXDĠLD UHFHSWRUXOXL GH LQIRUPDĠLH ILH Fă R FHUH ILH SXU úL VLPSOX Fă R
primHúWH &RPXQLFDUHD vQFHSH GH IDSW SULQ VHOHFĠLRQDUHD GH FăWUH $ D ÄRELHFWHORU GH

35
RULHQWDUH;FăURUDOHGăRIRUPăDEVWUDFWă OHWUDQVIRUPăvQPHVDM;¶úLvOWUDQVPLWHFăWUH
% $FHVWDGLQXUPăSRDWHDYHDúLHORSHUFHSĠLHGLUHFWăDOXL; ; 1 , B) sau suporWăHIHFWXO
OXL;¶UăVSXQ]kQGOXL$SULQUHWURDFĠLXQHDI%$0RGHOXO:HVWOH\ 0DF/HDQVXEOLQLD]ă
QHYRLD VRFLDOă GH LQIRUPDĠLH SH FDUH D SXV-R vQ HYLGHQĠă PRGHOXO OXL 1HZFRPE (L YRU
DGDSWDDFHVWPRGHOúLSHQWUXVWXGLXOPDVV-media.

ù&2$/$6(0,27,&Ă

7HUPHQLL FX FDUH RSHUHD]ă VHPLRWLFD VHPQ VHPQLILFDĠLH LFRQ GHQRWDĠLH


FRQRWDĠLH  VXQW WHUPHQL FDUH VH UHIHUă OD GLYHUVH PRGDOLWăĠL GH SURGXFHUHD D VHQVXOXL D
vQĠHOHVXOXL 0RGHOHOH SURSXVH GH úFRDOD VHPLRWLFă GLIHUă GH FHOH SURSXVH GH úFRDOD
proces QX QXPDL SULQ IDSWXO Fă QX VXQW OLQHDUH FL úL SULQ IDSWXO Fă QX FRQĠLQ LQGLFDĠLL
GHVSUH HWDSHOH WUDQVPLWHULL PHVDMXOXL $FHVWH PRGHOH VXQW GH WLS VWUXFWXUDO úL LQGLFă
UHODĠLLOHFDUHVHVWDELOHVFvQWUHHOHPHQWHOHSULQFDUHVHFUHHD]ăVHQVXO

ÌQ FHQWUXO DFHVWHL úWLLQĠH VWă FRQFHSWXO GH VHPQ 6HPLRWLFD DUH WUHL GRPHQLL
principale de studiu:

 VHPQXO vQVXúL DFHVWD FRQVWă vQ VWXGLXO GLIHULWHORU YDULHWăĠL GH VHPQH vQ VWXGLXO
GLIHULWHORUPRGXULvQFDUHDFHVWHDWUDQVPLWvQĠHOHVXOSUHFXPúLvQVWXGLXOPodului ”n care
VHPQXO UHODĠLRQHD]ă FX RDPHQLL FDUH vO IRORVHVF 6HPQHOH VXQW GHILQLWH FD ILLQG QLúWH
FRQVWUXFWHXPDQHúLSRWILvQĠHOHVHQXPDLvQXWLOL]ăULOHSHFDUHRDPHQLLOHDWULEXLH
2. codurile (sistemele ”n care semnele sunt utilizate); acest studiu cuprinde modurile ”n
care o varietate de coduri s-DGH]YROWDWSHQWUXDVDWLVIDFHQHYRLOHXQHLVRFLHWăĠLVDXFXOWXUL
sau pentru a exploata canalele de comunicare disponibile pentru transmiterea lor.
FXOWXUDvQFDUHDFHVWHFRGXULúLVHPQHRSHUHD]ă/DUkQGXOHLDFHDVWDHVWHGHSHQGHQWă
SHQWUXSURSULDHLH[LVWHQĠăúLIRUPăGHIRORVLUHDDFHVWRUFRGXULúLVHPQH

3HQWUX D vQĠHOHJH vQ PRG FkW PDL DGHFYDW RULJLQDOLWDWHD PRGHOHORU VHPLRWLFH vQ
special OLQJYLVWLFH  ,RDQ 'UăJDQ 7HRULL DOH FRPXQLFăULL GH PDVă) este important de
UHĠLQXWFHHDFHXQLL autori numesc dubla situare sau dimensiune a mesajului:
‡SULPDVHUHIHUăODIDSWXOFăPHVDMXOHVWHXQHOHPHQWDOFLUFXLWXOXLFRPXQLFDĠLRQDOWULPLV
GHFăWUHHPLĠăWRUHOFLUFXOăSULQWU-XQFDQDOúLDMXQJHODUHFHSWRU HVWHVăVSXQHPR

36
ÄLQIRUPDĠLH´FDUHFLUFXOăvQWUHFHLGRLSROLDLFLUFXLWXOXLFRPXQLFDĠLRQDO 
‡VXEDOWDVSHFWPHVDMXOSRDWHILWRWRGDWăGHVFULVFDHOHPHQWDOXQXLSURFHVGH
UHSUH]HQWDUHFDLQWHUPHGLDUvQWUHRUHDOLWDWHúLLPDJLQHDDFHVWHLUHDOLWăĠi (realitatea la care
PHVDMXOVHUHIHUăVDXODFDUHWULPLWH 0RGHOHOHVHPLRWLFHLDXvQFRQVLGHUDUHGXEODVLWXDUH
LQIRUPDĠLRQDOăúLVLPEROLFă DPHVDMXOXLDFHVWHDVHVLWXHD]ăúLVHFULVWDOL]HD]ăOD
LQWHUVHFĠLDFHORUGRXăSURFHVH±GHFRPXQLFDUHúLGHUHSrezentare (figura 6)

Modelul lui Peirce

3HQWUX3HLUFHRULFHSURFHVVHPLRWLFHVWHRUHODĠLHvQWUHWUHLFRPSRQHQWHVHPQXO
vQVXúLRELHFWXOUHSUH]HQWDWúLLQWHUSUHWDQWXO ILJXUD 

37
'HILQLĠLD VHPQXOXL LPSOLFă GHFL XQ PRGHO WULDGic: ''Un semn, sau un
UHSUH]HQWDPHQ HVWH FHYD FDUH ĠLQH ORFXO D FHYD vQ DQXPLWH SULYLQĠH VDX vQ YLUWXWHD
DQXPLWRU vQVLúLUL (O VH DGUHVHD]ă FXLYD FUHkQG vQ PLQWHD DFHVWXLD XQ VHPQ HFKLYDOHQW
sau poate un semn mai dezvoltat. Semnul acesta pe care ”l creeză vO QXPHVF
LQWHUSUHWDQWXOSULPXOXLVHPQ6HPQXO ĠLQHORFXO DFHYDDQXPHDORELHFWXOXLVăX(OĠLQH
ORFXO DFHVWXL RELHFW QX vQ WRDWH SULYLQĠHOH FL FX UHIHULUH OD XQ IHO GH LGHH SH FDUH DP
numit-o uneori fundamentul representamenului'' (Peirce, ComunicareúLDFĠLXQH,
apud Umberto Eco, Lector in fabula).
Un semn VHUHIHUăODDOWFHYDGHFkWODHOvQVXúL obiectuO úLHVWHvQĠHOHVGHFLQHYD
acesta este efectul pe care ”l produce ”n mintea receptorului (interpretantul).
Interpretantul nu este interpretul semnXOXL FL HVWH XQ FRQFHSW PHQWDO SURGXV GHRSRWULYă
GH VHPQ úL GH H[SHULHQĠD RELHFWXOXL SHQWUX FHO FH XWLOL]HD]ă VHPQXO ,QWHUSUHWDQWXO XQXL
RELHFW QX HVWH R VHPQLILFDĠLH GHILQLWă GH GLFĠLRQDU FL YDULD]ă vQ IXQFĠLH GH H[SHULHQĠD SH
care utilizatorul semnului a avut-o vis-D YLV GH DFHO RELHFW 2 VHPQLILFDĠLH QX HVWH
QLFLRGDWă R UHODĠLH vQWUH XQ VHPQ úL FHHD FH UHSUH]LQWă VHPQXO RELHFWXO  6HPQLILFDĠLD
UH]XOWă GLQ UHODODĠLD WULDGLFă vQ FDUH LQWHUSUHWDQWXO DUH XQ URO PHGLDWRU GH LQIRUPDUH GH
interpretare sau FKLDU GH WUDGXFHUH D XQXL VHPQ SULQ DOW VHPQ ,QWHUSUHWDQWXO HVWH R DOWă
UHSUH]HQWDUH FDUH VH UHIHUă OD XQ DFHODúL RELHFW SH ED]D XQXL DOW IXQGDPHQW JURXQG-ul
UHSUH]HQWăULL  DFHVWD HVWH SXQFWXO GH SOHFDUH DO VHPLR]HL QHOLPLWDWH UHODĠLD VHPQ-obiect
nu HVWHSRVLELOăGHFkWSULQUDSRUWDUHODXQDOWLQWHUSUHWDQWFDUHVHH[SOLFăSHVLQHSULQWU-un
DOWLQWHUSUHWDQWÌQ FDGUXOWHRULHLFRGXULORU 8PEHUWR(FR7UDWDWGHVHPLRWLFăJHQHUDOă)
LQWHUSUHWDQWXOSRDWHILLGHQWLILFDWFXvQWUHJDVHULHGHGHQRWDĠLLúLFRQRWDĠLLVXFFHVLYHDOH
unei expresii.
'XSă3HLUFHH[LVWăWUHLWLSXULGHVHPQHLFRQXOLQGLFHOH VDXLQGH[XO úLVLPEROXO
Un semn iconic HVWHXQVHPQED]DWSHRDQXPLWăDVHPăQDUHFXRELHFWXOUHDOVDXILFWLYGH
H[HPSOX R IRWRJUDILH R VFKHPă R GLDJUDPă un indice HVWH XQ VHPQ FDUH VH DIOă vQWU-o
UHODĠLH UHDOă QX GH UHIOHFWDUH FX RELHFWXO IXQFĠLRQkQG FD R LQGLFDĠLH VDX R UHIHULQĠă GH
exemplu, un indicator de drum, simptomele unei boli etc.; simbolul este un semn
determinat numai ”n cadrul unei interpretăULGDUQXDUHOHJăWXUăIL]LFăVDXGHDVHPăQDUH
cu obiectul: de exemplu, un steag.

38
0RGHOXOOXL2JGHQúL5LFKDUGV

0RGHOXO2JGHQúL5LFKDUGVFRUHVSXQGHPRGHOXOXLOXL3HLUFHÌQDFHDVWă
SHUVSHFWLYăvQDQDOL]DFRPXQLFăULLVHSRDWHGDSULRULtate:
‡UHDOLWăĠLORU OXFUXULORU 
‡psihicului, g‰ndirii (ideilor);
‡OLPEDMXOXL FXYLQWHORU UHĠLQkQGX-VHDWXQFLGXEODIXQFĠLHDFXYLQWHORU± noi
JkQGLPFXDMXWRUXOFXYLQWHORUúLFRPXQLFăPFXDOĠLLSULQLQWHUPHGLXOORU

39
Modelul lui Saussure

6DXVVXUHHVWHFRQVLGHUDWvQWHPHLHWRUXOOLQJYLVWLFLLPRGHUQHúLDOVHPLRORJLHLILLQG
cel FDUH D FRQVWUXLW SULPXO SURLHFW DO XQHL ÄWHRULL JHQHUDOH D VLVWHPHORU GH VHPQLILFDUH´
LQLĠLLQG VWXGLHUHD ÄYLHĠLL VHPQHORU vQ VkQXO YLHĠLL VRFLDOH (O VH FRQFHQWUHD]ă FD OLQJYLVW
asupra semnului vQVXúL 6HPQXO SHQWUX 6DXVVXUH HVWH XQLWDWHD vQWUH VHPQLILFDW úL
semnificant. Semnificantul este LPDJLQHDDFXVWLFăIRUPDIL]LFăDVHPQXOXLSHFDUHQRLR
percepem, iar semnificantul este conceptul mental la care se referăDFHVWD$FHVWFRQFHSW
PHQWDO HVWH vQ PDUH PăVXUă FRPXQ WXWXURU PHPEULORU XQHL FXOWXUL FDUH vPSăUWăúHVF
DFHODúL OLPEDM 6XQW YL]LELOH VLPLODULWăĠLOH vQWUH GLDGD VHPQLILFDQWVHPQLILFDW DO OXL
6DXVVXUH úL FHD SHLUFHDQă VHPQLQWHUSUHWDQW 6DXVVXUH HVWH vQVă PDL SXĠLQ LQWHUHVDW GH
UHODĠLDVHPQXOXLFDvQWUHJ FXUHDOLWDWHDH[WHUQă RELHFWXOOD3HLUFH  ILJXUD 

0RGHOXO DUDWă Fă UHODĠLD GLQWUH FRQFHSW úL RELHFWXO UHDO SH FDUH vO UHSUH]LQWă HVWH
RSHUDĠLDGHVHPQLILFDUHSULQLQWHUPHGLXODFHVWHLRSHUDĠLLRPXODFRUGăvQĠHOHVXULUHDOLWăĠLL
R vQĠHOHJH (VWH LPSRUWDQW Vă UHDPLQWLP Fă VHPQLILFDWXO HVWH vQ DFHHDúL PăVXUă FD úL
VHPQLILFDQWXOSURGXFĠLDXQHLFXOWXULSDUWLFXODUH(VWHHYLGHQWFăVHPQLILFDQĠLL FXYLQWHOH 
VXQWGLIHULWHvQIXQFĠLHGHOLPEă$FHODúLOXFUXVHvQWkPSOăúLFXVHPQLILFDĠLLOHFXYLQWHORU
HOH GLIHUă PDL PXOW VDX PDL SXĠLQ GH OD FXOWXUă OD FXOWXUă ILHFDUH DYkQG SURSULD
H[SHULHQĠăDRELHFWHORU YH]LLSRWH]D6KDSLU-Worf).

DE REğ,187

Conform lui Fiske (Introduction to Communication Studies SXWHPFRQVLGHUDFă


H[LVWăGRXăSDUDGLJPHFODVLFHvQVWXGLXOFRPXQLFăULLúFRDODSURFHVúLúFRDODVHPLRWLFă

40
3ULQFHVHFDUDFWHUL]H]ăúFRDODSURFHVúLFDUHVXQWSULQFLSDOHOHPRGHOHDOH
FRPXQLFăULLFDUHRUHSUH]LQWă"
Caracteristicile úFROLLSURFHV:
vede comunicarea ca transmitere a mesajelor;
HVWHLQWHUHVDWăvQVSHFLDOGHSUREOHPHFDHILFLHQĠDúLDFXUDWHĠHDWUDQVPLWHULLPHVDMXOXL
GDFăHIHFWXOHVWHGLIHULWGHFHHDFHVHLQWHQĠLRQDVăVHFRPXQLFHWHQGLQĠDHVWHVăVH
interpreteze acest lucru GUHSWXQHúHFDOFRPXQLFăULLúLVăVHFDXWHPRWLYXOHúHFXOXL
de-DOXQJXOGHVIăúXUăULLSURFHVXOXLGHFRPXQLFDUH
VHDXWRGHILQHúWHFDVWXGLXOactelor de comunicare;
GHILQHúWHLQWHUDFĠLXQHDVRFLDOăFDILLQGSURFHVXOSULQFDUHRSHUVRDQăUHODĠLRQHD]ăFX
DOWHOHVDXDIHFWHD]ăFRPSRUWDPHQWXOVWDUHDGHVSLULWVDXUHDFĠLLOHHPRĠLRQDOHDOHXQHL
DOWHSHUVRDQHúLLQYHUV
vede ”n mesaj ceea ce este transmis prin procesul de comunicare.
LQWHQĠLDHPLĠăWRUXOXLSRDWHILGHFODUDWăVDXQHGHFODUDWăGDUHDHVWHHVHQĠLDOăSHQWUXD
putea analiza mesajul.

Modele reprezentative:
Modelul Shannon & Weaver;
Modelul lui Gerbner;
Modelul lui Lasswell;
Modelul lui Newcomb;
Modelul Westley ± MacLean.

3ULQFHVHFDUDFWHUL]H]ăúFRDODVHPLRWLFăúLFDUHVXQWSUincipalele modele ale


FRPXQLFăULLFDUHRUHSUH]LQWă"
Caracteristicile úFROLLVHPLRWLFH
GHIăúXUDUHDFRPXQLFăULLUHSUH]LQWăRSURGXFHUHúLXQVFKLPEGHVHQVXUL VHPQLILFDĠLL 
RELHFWXOGHLQWHUHVvOUHSUH]LQWăVWXGLHUHDPRGXOXLvQFDUHPHVDMHOH WH[WHle)
LQWHUDFĠLRQHD]ăFXRDPHQLLSHQWUXDSURGXFHvQĠHOHVXUL VDXVHPQLILFDĠLL úLUROXO
WH[WHORUvQFXOWXUDQRDVWUă
QXFRQVLGHUăQHvQĠHOHJHULOHFDILLQGQHDSăUDWHIHFWHDOHHúHFXOXLGHFRPXQLFDUHFL
FRQVLGHUăFăHOHSRWUH]XOWDGLQGLIHUHQĠHOHFXOWXUDOHGLPWUHHPLĠăWRUúLUHFHSWRU
VHDXWRGHILQHúWHvQWHUPHQLGHproducere DLFRPXQLFăULL
GHILQHúWHLQWHUDFĠLXQHDVRFLDOăFDILLQGFHHDFHFRQVWLWXLHLQGLYLGXOFDPHPEUXDOXQHL
FXOWXULVSHFLILFHVDXDOXQHLVRFLHWăĠL
YHGHPHVDMXOFDRFRQVWUXFĠLHDVHPQHORUFDUHSULQLQWHUDFĠLXQHDFXUHFHSWRULL
SURGXFHvQĠHOHVXUL
Modele reprezentative:
Modelul lui Peirce;
0RGHOXO2JGHQúL5LFKDUGV
Modelul Saussure.

41
I.3.2. NOI MODELE ALE
&2081,&Ă5,,

&D UHDFĠLH OD PRGHOHOH LQVSLUDWH Ge paradigmele structural-


IXQFĠLRQDOLVWHFDUH DX GRPLQDW PXOWă YUHPH VFHQD WHRUHWLFă D DQDOL]HL
FRPXQLFăULL DX DSăUXW FRQWULEXĠLL UHFHQWH DQLPDWH GH DPELĠLD GH D GHSăúL
modelele clasice ÄLQIRUPDĠLRQDOH´ SURFHVXDOH  úL ÄOLQJYLVWLFH´ VHPLRWLFH 
ale comunicăULL Potrivit acestor modele, comunicarea nu se reduce la
transmiterea ÄLQIRUPDĠLHL´ VDX ÄPHVDMHORU´ SULQ FRGLILFDUH úL GHFRGLILFDUH
VDX SULQ LQGLFDĠLL DOH LQWHQĠLLORU comunicative. Comunicarea trebuie
vQĠHOHDVăFDRFRPSUHKHQVLXQHUHFLSURFăFD intercomprehensiune (acces la
VXELHFWLYLWDWHD DOWXLD OD LQWHQĠLLOH úL PRWLYHOH VDOH  Aceste demersuri
FRQVDFUă DOWH XQLWăĠL GH DQDOL]ă ± persoana, grupurile, raporturile
intersubiective ±vQH[SHULHQĠDYLHĠLLFRWLGLHQH

1. FUNDAMENTE TEORETICE ALE NOILOR


MODELE&2081,&$ğ,21$/(
ù&2$/$'(/$3$/2$/72
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1. FUNDAMENTE TEORETICE ALE NOILOR

02'(/(&2081,&$ğ,21$/(

1RLOH SDUDGLJPH DOH FRPXQLFăULL FDUH YDORUL]HD]ă WHRULLOH LQWHUDFĠLRQLVPXOXL


simbolic, etnometodologiHLIHQRPHQROJLHLVRFLDOH QXPDLWUDWHD]ăRELHFWLYLWDWHDOXPLLúL
subiectivitatea DFWRULORU FD GDWH SUHGHILQLWH $FHVWHD VXQW UDSRUWDWH OD R Äactivitate
RUJDQL]DWă PHGLDWă VLPEROLFHIHFWXDWă vPSUHXQă GH FăWUH PHPEULL XQHL FRPXQLWăĠL GH
OLPEDM úL GH DFĠLXne ”n cadrul FRRUGRQăULL DFĠLXQLORU ORU SUDFWLFH´ 'LQ DFHDVWă
SHUVSHFWLYăFRPXQLFDUHDUHSUH]LQWă Ämodelarea unei lumi comune prin intermediul unei
DFĠLXQL FRQMXJDWH´ $FHDVWă SHUVSHFWLYă FRPXQă QX vQVHDPQă R VLPSOă FRQYHUJHQĠă D
unor puncte de vedere perVRQDOHFLIDSWXOFă SDUWHQHULLFRQVWUXLHVFvPSUHXQăORFXOFRPXQ
(norme, reguli) pornind de la care se vor raporta XQLLODDOĠLLVHYRUUDSRUWDODOXPHúLvúL
YRURUJDQL]DDFĠLXQLOHvPSUHXQă ,RDQ'UăJDQ 3DUDGLJPHDOHFRPXQLFăULLGHPDVă)
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SUDFWLFLOH RULHQWăULOH úL UHODĠLLOH LQWHUXPDQH vQWU-R IRUPă GH YLDĠă $FHDVWă DERUGDUH VH
vQGHSăUWHD]ăGHRSWLFDHSLVWHPRORJLFăFODVLFăÄQXVHPDLDFRUGă prioritate reprezenWăULL
GLQ SXQFWXO GH YHGHUH DO XQXL REVHUYDWRU GH]DQJDMDW D SURSULHWăĠLORU XQHL lumi
H[WHULRDUHúLDOXQHLOXPLLQWHULRDUHSUHGHWHUPLQDWHFLDFWLYLWăĠLLRUJDQL]DQWHFRQMXJDWHD
DFWRULORU VRFLDOL SULQ FDUH R OXPH FRPXQă XQ VSDĠLX SXEOLF XQ FkPS SUDFWLF, un sens
vPSăUWăúLW DO UHDOLWăĠLL FRPXQH VXQW FRQWLQXX PRGHODWH úL PHQĠLQXWH GUHSW FRQGLĠLL úL
UH]XODWH DOH DFĠLXQLL´ 'XSă Luis Quere, '¶XQ PRGHOH HSLVWHPRORJLTXH GH OD
communication a un modele praxeologique, apud 'UăJDQop. cit.)

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ÌQWHPHLHWRU DO HWQRPHWRGRORJLHL HVWH Harold Garfinkel. Elev al lui 3DUVRQV úL
apoi profesor la Universitatea California, Los Angeles, el pune bazHOHDFHVWHLDERUGăULvQ
1967 cu lucrarea Studies in Ethnomethdology. Etnometodologia are ca obiectiv studierea

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lor pe parcurs.
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prin intermediul conceptului de
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dialectul, obiect al geografiei lingvistice.

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un anumit stil, care SRDUWăSHFHWHDSURSULHLSHUVRQDOLWăĠLDFXOWXULLDWHPSHUDPHQWXOXLúL a
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”n care acestea sunt folosite de DQXPLWH JUXSXUL GH YRUELWRUL SXWHP LGHQWLILFD GRXă
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opusul armoniei este cacofonia;
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g‰nduri, sentimente, idei.

O tipologie a stilurilor de comunicare


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VWăULL VXIOHWHúWL SHQWUX Fă vQWUH HPLĠăWRU úL UHFHSWRU QX VH VWDELOHVF DOWH UHODĠLL GHFkW FHOH
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Stilul familiar ± VH FDUDFWHUL]HD]ă SULQWU-o mare libertate ”n alegerea mijloacelor de
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formule, cuvinte sau moduri de adresare, menite a FRQIHUL HQXQĠăULL R QRWă HYLGHQWă GH
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sentimente grave, PăUHĠHSURIXQGH
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”n exhaustivitatea sa;
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dec‰t pe forma de prezentare, XUPăULQGLQIRUPDUHDDXGLWRULXOXL
6WLOXOGHFRPXQLFDUHPDQDJHULDOă± stilul ”n care mesajul PDQDJHUXOXLFDXWăVăDLEăXQ
impact puternic asupra auditoriului, XUPăULQGVăDFWLYH]HHILFLHQĠDúLHILFDFLWDWHDDFHVWXLD
angajarea la rezolvarea de probleme, informarea, dirijarea spre anumite scopuri.

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dec‰t UHIHUHQĠLDOLWDWHD ORU DGLFă OLWHUD ÄD´ VSUH H[HPSOX QX WULPLWH OD Dltceva dec‰t la
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YRUELWRUDOXQHLOLPELvQFHHDFHSULYHúWHFDSDFLWDWHDGHDFRQVWUXLúLGHDUHFXQRDúWHIUD]H
corecte din punct de vedere gramatical, de D OH LQWHUSUHWD SH FHOH FX VHQV úL GH D OH
identifica pe cele ambigue dintr-RDQXPLWăOLPEă
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73
lingvistice pe care le poate demonstra, ci de capacitatea de a pune "”n joc" zestrea
DFXPXODWă GH WHUPHQL VHPQLILFDQĠL  úL FRPSOH[XO GH UHJXOL SHQWUX D REĠLQH VHQVXUL QRL
3HUIRUPDQĠHOH OLQJYLVWLFH PDL UHFODPă úL DQVDPEOXO FXQRúWLQĠHORU GHVSUH OXPH DOH
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SRWIXQFĠLRQDLQGHSHQGHQWGHFRPSHWHQĠDOLQJYLVWLFă

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‡3HUVSHFWLYDVLQWDFWLFă±FRQVWăvQGHWHrminarea regulilor care permit, prin
combinarea simbolurilor elementare, construirea de fraze sau fomule lingvistice
corecte.
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IRUPHORUOLQJYLVWLFHúLVăOHSXQăvQFRUHVSRQGHQĠăcu altceva, altceva care poate fi
realitatea sau formele altei limbi sau ale altui limbaj (non-verbal).
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YRUELWRULLFDUHLQWHQĠLRQHD]ăVăDFĠLRQH]HXQLLDVXSUDDOWRUDSrin intermediul limbii.

Care sunt principale concepte pe care le introduce Austin ”n analiza limbajului?


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PRGLILFDUHvQUHODĠLDHPLĠăWRU-receptor.
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VLQWDFWLFăD QRĠLXQLORUúLVHQVXULORUvQDFWXOGHYRUELUHSURSULX-zis;
,ORFXĠLD± HQXQĠXOH[SULPDWvQIUD]ăUHSUH]LQWăHOvQVXúLXQDFWRDQXPHWUDQVIRUPDUHD
raporturilor dintre interlocutori. Printr-XQDFWLORFXWRULXDOHQXQĠăULLDQJDMH]RDFĠLXQH
VSHFLILFă
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I.5. COMUNICAREA NON-9(5%$/Ă

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1) rolul ei este adesea minimalizat;
2) ”ntr-RFRPXQLFDUHRUDOăGLQLQIRUPDĠLHHVWHSHUFHSXWăúLUHĠLQXWă
SULQ LQWHUPHGLXO OLPEDMXOXL QHYHUEDO H[SUHVLD IHĠHL JHVWXULOH SRVWXUD
corpului, etc.).
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1. KINETICA
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1.2. MIùCAREA CORPULUI
2. PROXEMICA

1. KINETICA

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FRPXQLFăULL (D HVWH SXQFWXO GH SOHFDUH DO kineticii,
WHRULH FDUH VWXGLD]ă DQVDPEOXO VHPQHORU
comportamentale emise ”n mod natural sau cultural;
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VWUXFWXUDOH VLVWHPHORU GH JHVWXUL IăUă D OH GLVRFLD GH
LQWHUDFĠLXQHD YHUEDOă Cartea lui Ray Birdwhisteell,
Introduction to kinetics UHSUH]LQWă primul mare
studiu sistematic al faptelor gestuale. Fonemelor,
XQLWăĠL GLVWLQFWLYH DOH fonologiei le corespund
kinemele, cele mai PLFL XQLWăĠLGHDFĠLXQHDOH JHVWXOXL VDXPLPLFLLGHH[HPSOXÄRFKLXO
VWkQJvQFKLV´ 0RUIHPHORUFHOHPDLPLFLXQLWăĠLVHPQLILFDWLYHDOH lexicului le corespund
kinemorfemele, de exemplu clipit. Kinetica devine o JUDPDWLFă D JHVWXULORU )RQGDWă SH
DFHDVWD VH LQVWLWXLH R SDUDNLQHWLFă SUR]RGLH úL SRHWLFă D JHVWXULORU LQWHQVLWDWH GXUDWă
vQWLQGHUH GDU úL ULWPXUL FRQVWDQWH IOX[ FRQVWDQW $FHDVWă GLPHQVLXQH PDL ODUJă VH
LQWHJUHD]ă vQWU-un context psihologic, sociaO úL FXOWXUDO Ä$FFHQWHOH JHVWXDOH H[SULPă
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”n mare parte pe opera lui Ray Birdwhistell, care a SUHGDW vQ XQLYHUVLWăĠLOH GLQ
3KLODGHOSKLD:DVKLQJWRQúL7RURQWR $SURSLDWGLQSXQFWGHYHGHUHSHUVRQDOúLLQWHOHFWXDO
de Margaret Mead úLGH*UHJRU\%DWHVRQHOvQWUHSLQGHvQ6WDWHOH8QLWHGLYHUVHOXFUăUL
HWQRORJLFH vQ FDUH ĠLQXWD FRUSXOXL úL JHVWLFD GHYLQ LQVWUXPHQWH privilegiate. El se
LQWHJUHD]ă vQ HFKLSD SOXULGLVFLSOLQDUă GH OD 3DOR $OWR úL GHYLQH FHOHEUX SULQWU-un studiu
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H[HPSODUă LOXVWUHD]ă XUPăWRDUHD WH]ă JHVWXULOH OLPEDMXO YRUELWXO SLSăLWXO mirosul,
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DGDSWHD]ă $QDOL]D VD DVXSUD FRPXQLFăULL QRQ-YHUEDOH VH VSULMLQă SH R FRQFHSĠLH D
ÄVWUDWLILFăULLVRFLDOH´FXWUHLFODVH ORZHUPLGGOHKLJKHU ILHFDUH GLYL]DWăvQGRXă XSSHU
ORZHU  $SDUWHQHQĠD OD XQXO GLQ DFHVWH VWUDWXUL HVWH GHWHUPLQDWă SULQWU-R FRPELQDĠLH GH
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indicii de ÄVWLO GH YLDĠă´ FDUH PHUJH GH OD QXPăUXO FDPHUHORU OD FXORDUHD perdelelor din
VDORQ %LUGZKLVWHOO vL vQYDĠă SH VWXGHQĠLL VăL Vă REVHUYH indiciile corporale care permit
FODVLILFDUHD DXWRULORU ORU vQ DFHDVWă tipologie. Acest tip de determinare LQWHOHFWXDOă D
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76
ILOPLFă D UHDOLWăĠLL 'DU %LUGZKLVWHOO FDUH GRUHD vQWU-DGHYăU Vă FUHH]H ÄR OLQJYLVWLFă
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VSXQHFăHVWHXQOLPEDM±úLV-a retras FăWUHRDERUGDUHPHWRGRORJLFă

2 DOWă SUREOHPă vQGHOXQJ


GH]EăWXWă HVWH FHD a
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Majoritatea FHUFHWăWRULORU
iau ca punct de pornire
raporturile gestului cu
cuv‰ntul ÌQFă GLQ 1949,
H.Wespi (apud Mihai Dinu,
Comunicarea  vPSăUĠHD
gesturile ”n substitutive,
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contrazicere, de reglaj, de repetare sau de substituire. 2 DOWă FODVLILFDUH PXOW FLWDWă HVWH
FHD GDWRUDWă FHUFHWăWRULORU DPHULFDQL 3DXO (NPDQ úL :DOODFH )ULHVHQ SRWULYLW FăUHLD
JHVWXULOHSRWILHPEOHPHLOXVWUDWRULPDQLIHVWăULDIHFtive, gesturi GHUHJODMúLDGDSWRUL
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constituie ”ntr-XQOLPEDMGHVLQHVWăWăWRU
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‡Gesturile de reglaj GLULMHD]ăFRQWUROHD]ăúLvQWUHĠLQFRPXQLFDUHD)XQFĠLDORUHVWH
H[SUHVLYăúLIDWLFăGHRDUHFHUHOHYHD]ăDWLWXGLQHDSDUWLFLSDQĠLORUIDĠăGHLQWUHUDFĠLXQH
úLRIHUăDVLJXUăULUHFHSWRUXOXLSULYLQGFRQWLQXLWDWHDFRQWDFWXOXLLDUHPLĠăWRUXOXLvL permit
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SUH]LQWăSUHFXPSăQLWRUVXEIRUPăGHLQGLFLLúLQXPDLvQVXEVLGLDUFDVHPQDOH
‡Adaptorii FRQVWLWXLHFODVDGHJHVWXULFHDPDLSXĠLQOHJDWăGHFRPXQLFDUH(Dinclude
PLúFăULOHFHUăVSXQGXQRUQHFHVLWăĠLXPDQHúLSRWILHIHFWXDWHDWkWvQSUH]HQĠDFkWúLvQ
DEVHQĠDREVHUYDWRULORU6XEQXPHOHGHalteradaptori sunt cunoscute gesturile de
manipulare a obiectelor ”ntr-un scop practic. Autoadaptorii VHUHIHUăODQHYoile propriului
QRVWUX WUXS úL HL SRW VDWLVIDFH QHFHVLWăĠLOH WUXSHúWL *HVWXULOH GLQ DFHDVWă FDWHJRULH
GREkQGHVFYDORDUHFRPXQLFDWLYăDWXQFLFkQGVXQWHIHFWXDWHvQVFRSGLGDFWLF$OPLQWHUL
SRWWUDQVPLWHLQIRUPDĠLLGHVSUHFHOFDUHOHVăYkUúHúWHQXPDLvQFDOLWDWHGHLQGLFLLQXúLGH
semnale. /LPEDMXO FRUSXOXL FRQWULEXLH OD FRPXQLFDUH SULQ H[SUHVLD IHĠHL PLúFDUHD
corpului JHVWXUL IRUPDúLSR]LĠLDFRUSXOXLDVSHFWXOJHQHUDOúLSULQFRPXQLFDUHDWDFWLOă

77
1.1. (;35(6,$)(ğ(,

&RPXQLFDUHD SULQ H[SUHVLD IHĠHL include mimica (”ncruntarea, ridicarea


spr‰ncenelor, vQFUHĠLUHD QDVXOXL ĠXJXLHUHD EX]HORU HWF  z‰mbetul (SULQ FDUDFWHULVWLFL úL
PRPHQWXOIRORVLULL úL privirea FRQWDFWXOVDXHYLWDUHDSULYLULLH[SUHVLDSULYLULLGLUHFĠLD
privirii, etc.). )DĠD HVWHFHD PDLH[SUHVLYăSDUWH DFRUSXOXLúL H[SUHVLDDFHVWHLDFRQVWLWXLH
un mijloc de H[SULPDUH LQHVWLPDELO ÌQ PRG QRUPDO RFKLL úL SDUWHD GH MRV D IHĠHL VXQW
privite cel mai intens ”n WLPSXO FRPXQLFăULL 6H FRQVLGHUă GH H[HPSOX Fă vQWU-o
FRQYHUVDĠLH FX R IHPHLH FHHD FH H[SULPă ochii este mult mai important dec‰t ceea ce
H[SULPăFXYLQWHOH

Mimica HVWHDFHDSDUWHDIHĠHLQRDVWUHFDUHFRPXQLFăIUXQWHDvQFUXQWDWăVHPQLILFă
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vQFUHĠLW ± QHSOăFHUH QăULOH PăULWH ± PkQLH VDX vQ DOW FRQWH[W H[FLWDUH VHQ]XDOă EX]H
str‰nse ± QHVLJXUDQĠăH]LWDUHDVFXQGHUHDXQRULQIRUPDĠLL

Z‰mbetul HVWHXQJHVWIRDUWHFRPSOH[FDSDELOVăH[SULPHRJDPăODUJăGHLQIRUPDĠLLGH
OD SOăFHUH EXFXULH VDWLVIDFĠLH OD SURPLVLXQH FLQLVP MHQă ,QWHUSUHWDUHD VHQVXOXL
z‰mbetului YDULD]ăvQVăGHODFXOWXUăODFXOWXUă VDXFKLDUVXEFXOWXUă ILLQGVWUkQVFRUHODWă
cu presupunerile VSHFLILFH FDUH VH IDF vQ OHJDWXUă FX UHODĠLLOH LQWHUXPDQH vQ FDGUXO DFelei
culturi.

Privirea
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OHJăWXUăFXQHYRLOHQRDVWUHGHDSUREDUHDFFHSWDUHvQFUHGHUHúLSULHWHQLH &KLDUúLDSULYL
VDX D QX SULYL SH FLQHYD DUH XQ vQĠHOHV 3ULYLQG SH FLQHYD FRQILUPăP Fă vL UHFXQRDúWHP
SUH]HQĠDFăH[LVWăSHQWUXQRLLQWHUFHSWDUHDSULYLULLFXLYDvQVHDPQăGRULQĠDGHD
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FRPXQLFă DPHQLQĠDUH ÌQ JHQHUDO R SULYLUH LQVLVWHQWă úL FRQWLQXă GHUDQMHD]ă Realizarea
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DVFXQGHUHDXQRUHPRĠLL3ULYLrea ”ntr-o parte, sau a nu privi pe cineva poate denota lipsa
de LQWHUHV UăFHDOă (YLWDUHD SULYLULL vQVHDPQă DVFXQGHUHD VHQWLPHQWHORU OLSVă GH FRQIRUW
sau YLQRYăĠLH 3XSLOHOHGLODWDWHLQGLFăHPRĠLLSXWHUQLFH3XSLOHOHVHOăUJHVFvQJHQHUDOOD
vederea a ceva SOăFXWIDĠăGHFDUHDYHPRDWLWXGLQHGHVLQFHULWDWH3XSLOHOHVHPLFúRUHD]ă
ca manifestare a QHVLQFHULWăĠLLQHSOăFHULL&OLSLUHDIUHFYHQWăGHQRWăDQ[LHWDWH
'XSă 0DUN .QRSS Nonverbal Communication ”n Human Interaction, apud
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de patru:
1. FHUHUHDGHLQIRUPDĠLHSULYLUHDMRDFăXQUROGHWHUPLQDQWvQUHDOL]DUHDIHHG-back-ului,
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2. semnalul dat altor persoane FăSRWYRUELvQWU-o comunicare de grup, selectarea
YRUELWRUXOXLXUPăWRUSRDWHILIăFXWăSHFăLOLQJYLVWLFHVDXSULQRULHQWDUHDGHLFWLFăD
privirii.
3. LQGLFDUHDQDWXULLUHODĠLHLRULHQWDUHDúLGXUDWDSULYLULLQXVHDVRFLD]ăQXPDLFX

78
interesul sau cXRVWLOLWDWHDHDSRDWHVHPQDODúLH[LVWHQĠDXQXLUDSRUWVRFLDOGHXQWLS
anume.
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SXQFWXOXLFăWUH FDUHQHDĠLQWLPSULYLUHD ÌQWU-o convorbire oficialăVHYL]HD]ăvQ FHDPDL
PDUH SDUWH D WLPSXOXL XQ ORF VLWXDW vQ PLMORFXO IUXQĠLL LQWHUORFXWRUXOXL 2 FRQYHUVDĠLH
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1.2. 0,ù&$5($&2538/8,

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VROLGDULWDWH VWUHV EUDĠH GHVFKLVH - sinceritate, DFFHSWDUH PkQă OD JXUă - VXUSUL]ă úL
acoperirea gurii cu m‰na - ascunderea a ceva, nervozitate. &DSXO VSULMLQLW vQ SDOPă
VHPQLILFă SOLFWLVHDOă GDU SDOPD GHJHWHOH  SH REUD] GLPSRWULYD GHQRWă interes extrem.
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7KDLODQGD úL DEVROXW QHXWUX GH LQGLFDUH vQ 68$ 8WLOL]DUHD JHVWLFXODĠiei excesive este
FRQVLGHUDWăFDQHSROLWLFRDVăvQPXOWHĠăULGDU gesturile m‰inilor au creat faima italienilor
de popor pasional. 0RGXO vQ FDUH DPHULFDQLL vúL vQFUXFLúHD]ă SLFLRDUHOH UHOD[DW PLúFăUL
ODUJL IăUă QLFL R UHĠLQHUH  GLIHUă GH FHO DO HXURSHQLORU FRQWURODW DWHQW OD SR]LĠLD ILQDOă 
FHODOEăUEDĠLORUGLIHUăGH FHODOIHPHLORU8Q DPHULFDQYDSXQHFKLDUSLFLRDUHOHSHPDVă
GDFă DFHDVWD vQVHDPQă R SR]LĠLH FRPRGă VDX GDFă YUHD Vă GHPRQVWUH]H FRQWURO WRWDO
DVXSUDVLWXDĠLHL/DQRLRDPHQLLWLQGVăIie GHVWXOGHFRQúWLHQĠLGHPRGXOvQFDUHIDFDFHVW
JHVW úL vO DVRFLD]ă vQ PRGXUL GLIHULWH FX IRUPDOLWDWHD FRPSHWLĠLD WHQVLXQHD %kĠkLWXO
SLFLRDUHORUGHQRWăSOLFWLVHDOăQHUăEGDUHVDXVWUHV

Postura corpului
3RVWXUDSR]LĠLDFRPXQLFăvQSULPXOUkQGVWDWXWXOVRFLDOSHFDUHLQGLYL]LLvODXFUHGFăvO
DX VDX YRU Vă vO DLEă 6XE DFHVW DVSHFW FRQVWLWXLH XQ PRG vQ FDUH RDPHQLL VH UDSRUWHD]ă
XQLLIDĠă GHDOĠLLDWXQFLFkQGVXQWvPSUHXQă8UPăULOHSRVWXULLFRUSXOXLQHGDXLQIRUPDĠLL
úLGHVSUH DWLWXGLQHHPRĠLLJUDGGHFXUWRD]LHFăOGXUăVXIOHWHDVFă 2SHUVRDQăGRPLQDQWă
WLQGHVăĠLQăFDSXOvQFOLQDWvQVXVLDUFHDVXSXVă vQMRVÌQJHQHUDO aplecarea corpului ”n
IDĠăVHPQLILFăLQWHUHVXOIDĠăGHLQWHUORFXWRUGDU XQHRULúLQHOLQLúWHúL SUHRFXSDUH 3R]LĠLD
relaxatăvQFOLQDWSHVFDXQVSUHVSDWHSRDWHLQGLFDGHWDúDUHSOLFWLVHDOăVDX auto”ncredere
H[FHVLYăúLDSăUDUHODFHLFDUHFRQVLGHUăFăDXVWDWXWVXSHULRULQWHUORFXWRUXOXL Posturile pe

79
FDUHOHDXRDPHQLLFRUHODWHFXUHODĠLDGLQWUHHLDWXQFLFkQGVXQWvPSUHXQă se pot clasifica
”n trei categorii:
1. de includere/neincludereSRVWXUăSULQFDUHVHGHILQHúWHVSDĠLXOGLVSRQLELODFWLYLWăĠLL
GHFRPXQLFDUHúLVHOLPLWHD]ăDFFHVXOvQFDGUXOJUXSXOXL'HH[HPSOXPHPEULLJUXSXOXL
pot IRUPD XQ FHUF SRW Vă VH vQWRDUFăDSOHFH VSUH FHQWUX Vă-úL vQWLQGă XQ EUDĠ VDX SLFLRU
peste LQWHUYDOXOUăPDVOLEHULQGLFkQGSULQWRDWHDFHVWHDFăDFFHVXOODJUXSHVWHOLPLWDW
GHRULHQWDUHFRUSRUDOă-VHUHIHUăODIDSWXOFăGRLRDPHQLSRWDOHJHVăVHDúH]HIDĠă-n
IDĠă YLV-a-YLV  VDX DOăWXUL SDUDOHO  3ULPD VLWXDĠLH FRPXQLFă SUHGLVSR]LĠLD SHQWUX
FRQYHUVDĠLHLDU a doua - neutralitate.
GHFRQJUXHQĠăQHFRQJUXHQĠăSRVWXUăFDUHFRPXQLFăLQWHQVLWDWHDFXFDUHRSHUVRDQă
HVWH LPSOLFDWă vQ FHHD FH VSXQH VDX IDFH LQWHUORFXWRUXO 3DUWLFLSDUHD LQWHQVă FRQGXFH OD
postura FRQJUXHQWă VLPLODUă FX D LQWHUORFXWRUXOXL  VFKLPEDUHD SRVWXULL LQWHUORFXWRUXOXL
GHFODQúHD]ă vQ DFHVW FD] VFKLPEDUHD SRVWXULL FHOXL SXWHUQLF LPSOLFDW vQ FRPXQLFDUH ÌQ
FD]XO vQ FDUH H[LVWă vQWUH FRPXQLFDWRUL GLYHUJHQĠH GH VWDWXW, de puncte de vedere sau de
opinii, apar posturile necongruente: SHUVRDQD QX SULYHúWH VSUH LQWHUORFXWRU QX
LQWHUDFĠLRQHD]ăVXEQLFLRIRUPă

0RGXOGHPLúFDUHDFRUSXOXL
Modul de comportament al unei persoane ”ntr-o comunicare din punct de vedere al
modXOXLGHPLúFDUHDFRUSXOXLSRDWHIL
‡FDUDFWHUL]DWGHPLúFăULODWHUDOHVHFRQVLGHUăEXQLFRPXQLFDWRUL
‡FDUDFWHUL]DWGHPLúFăULIDĠă-VSDWHVHFRQVLGHUăRPGHDFĠLXQH
‡FDUDFWHUL]DWăGHPLúFăULYHUWLFDOHVHFRQVLGHUăRPFXSXWHUHGHFRQYLQJHUH

ComunLFDUHDWDFWLOă
Acest tip de limbaj non-YHUEDO VH PDQLIHVWă SULQ IUHFYHQĠD DWLQJHULL prin modul de a da
PkQD PRGXO GH vPEUăĠLúDUH GH OXDUH GH EUDĠ EăWXWXO SH XPăU HWF &XQRDúWHP FH
VHPQLILFă DFHVWH DWLQJHUL SHQWUX URPkQL GDU vQ GLIHULWH culturi ele pot comunica lucruri
diferite. De exemplu, la japonezi, vQFOLQDUHD FDSXOXL vQORFXLHúWH GDWXO PkLQLL FD VDOXW vQ
timp ce la HVFKLPRúL DFHVW VDOXW VH H[SULPă FX R XúRDUă ORYLWXUă SH XPăU Unii oameni
HYLWă RULFH DWLQJHUH )RUĠD úL WLSXO GH DWLQJHUH GHSLQGH vQ PDUH PăVXUă GH YkUVWă VWDWXW
UHODĠLHúLFXOWXUă 6WDQOH\-RQHVúL(ODLQH<DUEURXJK apud Joseph De Vito, Human
Communication, The Basic Course, apud Mihai Dinu, Comunicarea) DX vQFHUFDW Vă
FODVLILFHIXQFĠLLOHFRPXQLFăULLWDFWLOHGHOLPLWkQGFLQFL clase principale:
DWLQJHULFDUHWUDQVPLWHPRĠLLSR]LWLYH
 DWLQJHUL vQ MRDFă vQ]HVWUDWH FX XQ SRWHQĠLDO PHWDFRPXQLFDWLY GH invidiat, acestea
XúXUHD]ăLQWHUDFĠLXQHDIăUăFDWRWRGDWăVă DQJDMH]HUăVSXQGHUHDFHOXLFHDWLQJH
3. atingeri de control, viz‰nd dirijarea comportamentelor, a atitudinilor sau chiar a
VHQWLPHQWHORU SHUVRDQHL DWLQVH ÌQ PDMRULWDWHD FD]XULORU DWLQJHUHD GH FRQWURO LPSOLFă R
UHODĠLHGH GRPLQDUHúLFDDWDUHHDQXSRDWHILHIHFWXDWăGHFkW XQLGLUHFĠLRQDO
 DWLQJHUH ULWXDOă FHD PDL FXQRVFXWă úL PDL IUHFYHQW XWLOL]DWă HVWH str‰ngerea m‰inii ”n
VHPQ GH VDOXW úL GH GHVSăUĠLUH *HVWXO DUH PDL PXOWH LPSOLFDĠLL GHFkW SDUH úL vPEUDFă
QHQXPăUDWHIRUPH Atitudinile de dominare, egalitate sau supunere sunt comunicate
SULQ LQWHUPHGLXO SR]LĠLHL PkLQLL FHOXL FH LQLĠLD]ă JHVWXO GH VDOXW IRUĠD FX FDUH VH VWUkQJH
PkQDFRQVWLWXLHúLHDXQSDUDPHWUX semnificativ.

80
DWLQJHUHDvQDOWVFRSGHFkWFRPXQLFDUHDSURSULX]LVă(DSRDWH vPEUăFDRPXOWLWXGLQHGH
IRUPH GH OD VXVĠLQHUHD XQHL SHUVRDQH FDUH XUFă úL FRERDUă GLQWU-un vehicul, la atingerea
IUXQĠLL XQXL EROQDY RUL D vQFKHLHWXULL &KLDU GDFă RELHFWLYXO XUPăULW HVWH DOWXO ”n
PDMRULWDWHDDFHVWRUFD]XULVHWUDQVPLWúLLQIRUPDĠLLDIHFWLYH

3UH]HQĠDSHUVRQDOă
3UH]HQĠD SHUVRQDOă FRPXQLFă GH H[HPSOX SULQ intermediul formei corpului, a
vPEUăFăPLQWHL D PLURVXOXL SDUIXP PLURV VSHFLILF  D ELMXWHULLORU úL D DOWRU DFFHVRULL
vestimentare. $YHPvQFXOWXUDQRDVWUăDQXPLWHDWLWXGLQLSULYLQGOHJăWXUDGLQWUHIRUPD
FRUSXOXLDVSHFWXOH[WHULRUúLSHUVRQDOLWDWH'LVWingem trei tipuri de fizicuri:
1-HFWRPRUI IUDJLOVXEĠLUHúLvQDOW 
2- endomorf (gras, rotund, scurt);
3- mezomorf (musculos, atletic, ”nalt).

'DWRULWă FRQGLĠLRQăULORU VRFLDOH DP ÄvQYăĠDW´ FH Vă QH ÄDúWHSWăP´ GH la oamenii
DSDUĠLQkQGGLIHULWHORUFDWHJRULL$VWIHOWLQGHPVă-i percepem pe ectomorfi ca fiind tineri,
DPELĠLRúLVXVSLFLRúL WHQVLRQDĠLQHUYRúLúLPDLSXĠLQPDVFXOLQLSHendomorfi ”i percepem
FD ILLQG EăWUkQLFLRúL GHPRGDĠL PDL SXĠLQ UH]LVWHQĠL IL]LF YRUEăUHĠL buni la suflet,
agreabili, dHvQFUHGHUHSULHWHQRúLGHSHQGHQĠLGHDOĠLL pe mezomorfi ”i percepem ca fiind
vQFăSăĠkQDĠLSXWHUQLFLDYHQWXURúL PDWXULvQFRPSRUWDUHSOLQLGHvQFUHGHUHvQVLQHYHúQLF
vQYLQJăWRUL ÌPEUăFăPLQWHD vQ PăVXUD vQ FDUH HVWH UH]XOWDWXO XQHL DOHJHUL personale,
RJOLQGHúWH SHUVRQDOLWDWHD LQGLYLGXOXL HVWH XQ IHO GH H[WHQVLH D HXOXL úL vQ DFHVW FRQWH[W
FRPXQLFăLQIRUPDĠLLGHVSUH aceasta. Ea poate afecta chiar comportamentul nostru general
sau al FHORUGLQMXUÌPEUăFăPLQWHDVHSRDWHIRORVLSHQWUXDFUHDXQURl. ÌPEUăFăPLQWHDúL
accesoriile pot marca statutul social real sau pretins. De exemplu, femeile care acced la o
IXQFĠLHPDQDJHULDOă vQDOWăYRUWLQGHVăVHvPEUDFHvQWU-un mod particular (costum sobru
GLQGRXăSLHVH SXUWkQGDFFHVRULLVLPLODUHFHORUEăUEăWHúWL VHUYLHWă diplomat).
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social, posibil creator de probleme sau artist. 3HQWUX VLWXDĠLL GH DIDFHUL HVWH DSUHFLDWă
vPEUăFăPLQWHDHOHJDQWăúLGH calitate, dar nu sofisWLFDWă

2. PROXEMICA

/LPEDMXO VSDĠLXOXL WUHEXLH LQWHUFHSWDW VLPXOWDQ vQ IXQFĠLH GH  GLPHQVLXQL


PăULPHJUDG GHLQWLPLWDWHvQăOĠLPHDSURSLHUH-GHSăUWDUHvQăXQWUX-vQDIDUă
)LHFDUHGLQQRLDUHSUHIHULQĠHvQOHJăWXUăFXGLVWDQĠDIDĠăGHFHLFXFDUHFRPXQLFăPÌQ
PDMRULWDWHD FXOWXULORU HXURSHQH QX VH DSUHFLD]ă DSURSLHUHD FX PDL PXOW GH -50 cm
dec‰t ”n FD]XOFHORUGLQIDPLOLHVDXDSHUVRDQHORULXELWHDFHDVWDGHILQHúWHVSDĠLXOLQWLP.

81
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FRPXQLFD DPHQLQĠDUH VDX UHODĠLL GH QDWXUă VWULFW SHUVRQDOă GHSăUWDUHD H[FHVLYă SRDWH
FRPXQLFD DURJDQĠă LPSRUWDQĠă VWDWXW VRFLDO VXSHULRU &X FkW R SHUVRDQă HVWH PDL
LPSRUWDQWăFX DWkWYD WLQGHVăDOHDJă R PDVăGH ELURXPDLPDUH care impune o GLVWDQĠă
PDL PDUH IDĠă GH LQWHUORFXWRU 'DFă XUPăULP PRGXO vQ FDUH RDPHQLL WLQG Vă-úL DOHDJă
locul ”ntr-R vQFăSHUH DWXQFL FkQG H[LVWă SRVLELOLWDWHD GH D DOHJH  úL FXP vúL PDUFKHD]ă
VSDĠLXOSHUVRQDOSULQvPSUăúWLHUHDIRLORU ”ntinderea picioarelor etc., devine evident ce vor
DFHVWHD Vă QH FRPXQLFH 0RGXO vQ FDUH PDQDJHUXO IRORVHúWH VSDĠLXO vQ WLPSXO úHGLQĠHORU
poate comunica ceva GHVSUH SHUVRQDOLWDWHD VD GHVSUH VWLOXO GH FRQGXFHUH úL OXDUH D
GHFL]LLORU 0DQDJHUXO FH VWă vQ spatele biroului inGLFă OLSVD GRULQĠHL GH DFĠLXQH 3UREDELO
FăDFHVWWLSGHPDQDJHUYDOXDGHFL]LLOH VLQJXUúLVWLOXOVăXGHFRQGXFHUHHVWHPDLGHJUDEă
autocratic dec‰t democratic. ÌQ JHQHUDO VSDĠLLOH PLFL VXQW SHUFHSXWH FD ILLQG PDL
SULHWHQRDVHFDOGHúLLQWLPH&HOH mari VXQWDVRFLDWHFXSXWHUHDVWDWXWXOúLLPSRUWDQĠD'H
DFHHDDGHVHRULVXQWHPLQWLPLGDĠLLQWUkQG ”ntr-XQVSDĠLXPDUHvQDOWúLFXPRELOLHUPDVLY
Proxemica HVWH FHD FDUH VWXGLD]ă WRDWH DFHVWH UHODĠLL VSDĠLDOH FD PRG GH
comunicare. Jocul teritoriilor, modul GH D SHUFHSH VSDĠLXO vQ GLIHULWH FXOWXUL HIHFWHOH
VLPEROLFH DOH RUJDQL]ăULL VSDĠLDOH GLVWDQĠHOH IL]LFH DOH FRPXQLFăULL ĠLQ GH DFHDVWă
GLVFLSOLQă 'H DFHDVWă GLVFLSOLQă HVWH OHJDW úL QXPHOH OXL (GZDUG +DOO /LPEDMXO WăFXW
Dimensiunea DVFXQVă 'LQFROR GH FXOWXUă  (O WLQGH Vă GHD R GHILQLĠLH D FXOWXULL FD
DQVDPEOX GH FRGXUL úL YD DSOLFD DFHDVWă FRGLILFDUH vQ FHD PDL FHOHEUă OXFUDUHD D VD The
Hidden Dimension ±'LPHQVLXQHDDVFXQVă, DGHYăUDWăJUDPDWLFăDVSDĠLXOXL(OSOHDFăGH
OD LGHD Fă DQLPDOHOH DX XQ WHULWRULX DGDSWDW QHYRLORU ORU úL Fă RPXO SRVHGă úL HO DFHDVWă
QRĠLXQHGHVSDĠLXLQGLYLGXDOGHEXOăSVLKRORJLFă2ULFHVSDĠLXSHUVRQDOVH RUJDQL]HD]ăFX
RSDUWHLQWHULRDUăúLFXXQDH[WHULRDUăHOSRVHGă]RQHSULYDWH]RQHSXEOLFH$VWIHO lumea
nord occidHQWDOăFRPXQLFăvQIXQFĠLHGHSDWUXGLVWDQĠHLQWLPăSHUVRQDOăVRFLDOăSXEOLFă
(figura 1).

82
Limbajul culorilor

&XORDUHDGLQFRORGHSHUFHSĠLDúLWUăLUHDHLDIHFWLYăHVWHúLRRJOLQGăD
SHUVRQDOLWăĠLLQRDVWUHúL GHFLLQIOXHQĠHD]ă FRPXQLFDUHD*kQdirea creatoare are loc optim
”ntr-R vQFăSHUH FX PXOW URúX LDU FHD GH UHIOHFWDUH D LGHLORU vQWU-R FDPHUă FX PXOW YHUGH
&XORULOHVWUăOXFLWRDUHVXQWDOHVHGHRDPHQLLGHDFĠLXQHFRPXQLFDWLYLH[WUDYHUWLĠLLDUFHOH
SDOH GH WLPL]L LQWUDYHUWLĠL 6HPQLILFDĠLD FXORULORU SRDWH IL GLIHULWă vQ GLYHUVH FXOWXUL 'H
H[HPSOXURúXHVWHDVRFLDWvQ&KLQDFXEXFXULHúLIHVWLYLWDWHvQ-DSRQLDFXOXSWăúLPkQLH
vQ FXOWXUD LQGLHQLORU DPHULFDQL VHPQLILFă PDVFXOLQLWDWH vQ (XURSD GUDJRVWH LDU vQ 68$
FRPXQLVP ÌQ ĠăULOH FX SRSXODĠLH DIULFDQă QHJUX VXJHUHD]ă ELQHOH LDU DOEXO UăXO 3HQWUX
HXURSHQLQHJUXHVWHFXORDUHDWULVWHĠLLvQWLPSFHDFHVWHVWăULVXQWH[SULPDWHODMDSRQH]LúL

83
FKLQH]LSULQDOE9HUGHOHVHPQLILFăODHXURSHQLLQYLGLHODDVLDWLFLEXFXULHLDUvQDQXPLWH
ĠăULVSHUDQĠăvQWLPSFHJDOEHQXOFRPXQLFăODHXURSHQLODúLWDWHJHOR]LHODDPHULFDQLHVWH
FXORDUHD LQWHOHFWXDOLWăĠLL LDU OD DVLDWLFL VHPQLILFă SXULWDWH &XORDUHD DIHFWHD]ă
FRPXQLFDUHD VXE XUPăWRUXO DVSHFW FXORULOH FDOGH VWLPXOHD]ă FRPXQLFDUHD vQ WLPS ce
FXORULOH UHFL LQKLEă FRPXQLFDUHD PRQRWRQLD SUHFXP úL YDULHWDWHD H[FHVLYă GH FXORDUH
LQKLEăúL-i distrag pe comunicatori.

Limbajul timpului

Modul ”n care putem comunica prin limbajul timpului este corelat cu:
- precizia timpului
- lipsa timpului
- timpul ca simbol.

Precizia timpului
7LPSXO HVWH FRQVLGHUDW FD FHYD SUHĠLRV úL SHUVRQDO úL vQ JHQHUDO DWXQFL FkQG FLQHYD vúL
SHUPLWH Vă QL-O VWUXFWXUH]H DFHVWD FRPXQLFă GLIHUHQĠD GH VWDWXW $ YHQL PDL WkU]LX VDX
ceva mai devreme la o ”nt‰lnire de afacerL VDX D IL SXQFWXDO VDX QX OD R úHGLQĠă DUH
DQXPLWH VHPQLILFDĠLL FRPXQLFă DWLWXGLQHD IDĠă GH LQWHUORFXWRU VDX IDĠă GH DFWLYLWDWHD
UHVSHFWLYăSHUFHSĠLDVWDWXWXOXLúLDSXWHULLUHVSHFWXOúLLPSRUWDQĠDDFRUGDWă
ÌQWkU]LHUHDSRDWHLULWDúLLQVXOWD&XFkWRDPHQLLVXQWIăFXĠLVăDúWHSWHPDLPXOWFXDWkWHL
VH VLPW PDL XPLOLĠL VH VLPW GHVFRQVLGHUDĠL úL LQIHULRUL FD VWDWXW VRFLDO $VWIHO OLPEDMXO
WLPSXOXL VH SRDWH IRORVL vQ PRG YRLW VDX QX SHQWUX D PDQLSXOD VXSXQH úL FRQWUROD VDX
pentru a comunica respectúLLQWHUHV

Lipsa timpului
3HUFHSHP WLPSXO FD SH R UHVXUVă SHUVRQDOă OLPLWDWă úL GH DFHHD PRGXO vQ FDUH ILHFDUH
DOHJHP Vă vO IRORVLP FRPXQLFă DWLWXGLQHD QRDVWUă IDĠă GH FHO FDUH VROLFLWă R SDUWH GLQ
DFHDVWă UHVXUVă 'DFă QX DFRUGăP WLPS SHQWUX R DQXPLWă FRPXQLFDUH VH YD SHUFHSH FD
QHDFRUGDUH GH LPSRUWDQĠă 6WXGLLOH VRFLRORJLFH DX DUăWDW Fă vQ JHQHUDO UHODĠLD GH
FRPXQLFDUH SR]LWLYă VH GH]YROWă SURSRUĠLRQDO FX IUHFYHQĠD LQWHUDFĠLXQLL GHFL WLPS
SHWUHFXWvPSUHXQă 

Timpul ca simbol
$FHVWDVSHFWĠLQHGHRDQXPLWăRELúQXLQĠăFXPHVWHULWPXO GHH[HPSOXPkQFăPGHWUHL
RULSH]LúLODDQXPLWHRUH 6LPLODUDQRWLPSXULOHLPSXQDQXPLWHDFWLYLWăĠLúLXQDQXPHIHO
GHYLDĠăFODUVLWXDWHvQWLPS6ăUEăWRULOHúLULWXDOXULOHGHDVHPHQHDVXQWPDUFDWHGHWLPS
AsWIHORDPHQLLGHDIDFHULúWLXFăvQSUHDMPDVăUEăWRULORUGHLDUQăVHFXPSăUăPDLPXOWúL
VH OXFUHD]ă PDL SXĠLQ ÌQ ILQDO GXSă FH D IRVW FDUDFWHUL]DW ILHFDUH WLS GH OLPEDM vQ SDUWH
HVWHELQHVăFXQRDúWHPDQXPLWHDVSHFWHDOHOLPEDMXOXLQRQ-verbal de care tUHEXLHVăĠLQHP
cont ”n interpretarea lui:
‡3HQWUXDHYLWDLQWHUSUHWDUHDJUHúLWăDXQXLHOHPHQWGHOLPEDMQRQ-YHUEDOHVWHELQHVă-l
LQWHUSUHWăPvQFRQWH[WXOWXWXURUFHORUODOWHHOHPHQWHYHUEDOHúLQRQ-verbale.
‡Caracteristicile de personalitate individualHGHHGXFDĠLHH[SHULHQĠăGHYLDĠăHWF
VXQWHOHPHQWHFDUHWUHEXLHOXDWHvQFRQVLGHUDUHvQLQWHUSUHWDUHDFRUHFWăDOLPEDMHORU

84
non-verbale.
‡0RGXOGHIRORVLUHúLLQWHUSUHWDUHDOLPEDMHORUQRQ-YHUEDOHGLIHUăVXEPXOWHDVSHFWHGH
la individ la individ; de la profesie la profesie; de la colectivitate la colectivitate; de la
FXOWXUăODFXOWXUă

85
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PDLPXOWúLVăPDLúLSăVWUH]LRUHODĠLHEXQăFXSDUWHQHUXO&kQGQHJRFLH]L
ELQH SRĠL Vă RULHQWH]L Vă LQIOXHQĠH]L úL Vă PDQLSXOH]L SDUWHQHUXO SHQWUX D-l
IDFHVăFRRSHUH]H6HFUHWXOFRQVWăvQDUHXúLVă-l antrenezi ”ntr-un joc de-a
Ä+DLVăFkúWLJăPvPSUHXQă´

1. CONCEPTUL DE NEGOCIERE
35,1&,3,,'(%$=Ă$/(1(*2&,(5,,
3. TIPURI FUNDAMENTALE DE NEGOCIERE
4. MARJA DE NEGOCIERE

86
1. CONCEPTUL DE NEGOCIERE

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úL OD elementH GH WHRULD DUJXPHQWăULL 8QHRUL IRORVHVF WHKQLFL GH FRPXQLFDUH úL
manipulare SHUIRUPDQWHSUHFXPDQDOL]DWUDQ]DFĠLRQDOăSURJUDPDUHDHXUR-OLQJYLVWLFăHWF
1RĠLXQL SUHFXP RIHUWD FHUHUHD SR]LĠLD SUHWHQĠLD RELHFĠLD FRPSURPLVXO FRQFHVLD
argumentul, traQ]DFĠLD DUJXPHQWDĠLD SURED HWF SRW LQWHUYHQL IUHFYHQW vQ SURFHVXO GH
QHJRFLHUH7RWRGDWăHOHPHQWHOHGH comunicare non-YHUEDOăSUHFXPIL]LRQRPLDPLPLFD
JHVWLFD SRVWXUD vPEUăFăPLQWHD DVSHFWXO JHQHUDO úD SRW DYHD R LPSRUWDQĠă FDUH QX
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c‰t mai rar posibil, atunci c‰nd negociem cu un DGYHUVDU GLILFLO QHSULQFLSLDO úL
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GHúLQXVXQWvQ PRGGLUHFWRIHQVDWRDUHúLXPLOLWRDUHDXUROXOGHDVkFkLúLGHUDQMD

92
adversarul, pun‰ndu-OvQVLWXDĠLDGHDJUăELILQDOXOQHJRFLHULORU Adversarul poate fi purtat
LQVLVWHQW SULQ KDOHOH GH IDEULFDĠLH úL depozitele firmei. Poate fi cazat ”ntr-R vQFăSHUH
H[SXVăXQRU]JRPRWH LQIHUQDOHFDUHVă-OvPSLHGLFHVăGRDUPă/DPDVDWUDWDWLYHlor, poate
fi DúH]DWFXRFKLLvQVRDUHVDXRDOWăVXUVăGHOXPLQăLULWDQWă3RDWHIL DúH]DWFXVSDWHOHODR
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Tactica mituirii

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cheltuiala gazdei. $GHYăUDWDPLWXLUHvQFHSHGHODSUDJXOYDORULFSHVWHFDUHÄDWHQĠLD´
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mai SXĠLQGHFkWDFHVWSUHĠ 5HODĠLLOHGHDIDFHUL VWDELOHSHWHUPHQOXQJ SRt fi compromise
prin PLWă GDU IDYRUL]DWH SULQ FDGRXUL PDUL 'LIHUHQĠD GLQWUH FDGRX úL PLWă UăPkQH XQD
SVLKRORJLFăúLVWUDWHJLFă /HJHDUăPkQHQHSXWLQFLRDVăDWkWDWLPSFkWGDLVDXSULPHúWLvQWU-
un FDGUXFRQILGHQĠLDO

93
Tactica presiunii timpului

$FHDVWă WDFWLFă VH ED]HD]ă SH LGHHD VLPSOă GXSă FDUH PDL vQWRWGHDXQD H[LVWă XQ
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RUJDQL]DWH úL PDQLSXODWH DVWIHO vQFkW SUREOHPD GHOLFDWă Vă UăPkQă OD OLPLWD H[SLUăULL
timpului alocat procesului de negociere. ÌQ DFHVW VFRS VH SRW IRORVL RULFH WHUWLSXUL úL
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intermediare. Alte manevre de tergiversare pot fi bazate pe invocarea lipsei unor
GRFXPHQWHSHVWDUHDVăQăWăĠLLFXLYDSOHFDUHDvQFRQFHGLXSHQHYRLD GHGHSODVăULXUJHQWH
etc.

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”mpotrivi. I se pare mult mai XúRU Vă UăVSXQGă SULQWU-un refuz. Pentru el devine tot mai
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mai rezonabile ale acestuia. (OFKLSXULOHQXHVWHGHDFRUGvQWUXWRWXOFXFRHFKLSLHULLVăL
dar nici nu poate trece prea mult peste ei. 2 D GRXD YHUVLXQH FRQVWă vQ VFKLPEDUHD
HIHFWLYăDQHJRFLDWRUXOXL $VWDvQVHDPQăFăSHSDUFXUVXOQHJRFLHULORUWRFPDLDWXQFLFkQG

94
te DúWHSĠL PDL SXĠLQ SDUWHD DGYHUVă vQORFXLHúWH QHJRFLDWRUXO 3RDWH IL R ORYLWXUă GXUă
FăUHLDLVHIDFHIDĠăFXGLILFXOWDWHSHQWUXFăHVWHPDL SXĠLQSOăFXWVăLHLWRWXOGHODFDSăW
Noul negociator are posibilitatea Vă LQYRFH QRL DUJXPHQWH Vă UHYRFH XQHle din
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UHWUDJă XQHOHGLQFRQFHVLLOHDFRUGDWHGHSUHGHFHVRUXOVăX1RXOQHJRFLDWRU HVWHGHUHJXOă
omul de v‰rf, care te ia de odihnit c‰nd predecesorul VăX WH-a extHQXDW GHMD 7RWXúL QX
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FIùWHIDQ3UXWLDQX&RPXQLFDUHúLQHJRFLHUHvQ afaceri).

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Cum putem caracteriza procesul de negociere?


ÌQVHQVODUJQHJRFLHUHDDSDUHFDIRUPăFRQFHQWUDWăúLLQWHUDFWLYăGHFRPXQLFDUH
LQWHUXPDQă vQ FDUH GRXă VDX PDL PXOWH SăUĠL DIODWH vQ GH]DFRUG XUPăUHVF Vă DMXQJă OD R
vQĠHOHJHUH care UH]ROYă R SUREOHPă FRPXQă VDX DWLQJH XQ VFRS FRPXQ Prin negociere
vQĠHOHJHP RULFH IRUPă GH FRQIUXQWDUH QHDUPDWă SULQ FDUH GRXă VDX PDL PXOWH SăUĠL FX
LQWHUHVHúLSR]LĠLLFRQWUDGLFWRULLGDUFRPSOHPHQWDUHXUPăUHVFVăDMXQJăODXQ angajament
reciproc avanWDMRV DL FăUXL WHUPHQL QX VXQW FXQRVFXĠL GH OD vQFHSXW ÌQ DFHDVWă
FRQIUXQWDUH vQ PRG SULQFLSDO úL ORLDO VXQW DGXVH DUJXPHQWH úL SUREH VXQW formulate
SUHWHQĠLLúLRELHFĠLLVXQWIăFXWHFRQFHVLLúLFRPSURPLVXULSHQWUXDHYLWDDWkWUXSHUHD
UHODĠLLORU FkW úL FRQIOLFWXO GHVFKLV Adesea negocierile sunt purtate pentru efectele lor
FRODWHUDOHFXPDUILPHQĠLQHUHD FRQWUDFWXOXLFkúWLJDUHDGHWLPSvPSLHGLFDUHDGHWHULRUăULL
VLWXDĠLHLvQFRQIOLFWÌQDIDUăGHDFHVWHD ”nt‰lnirile negociatorilor pot fi privite ca un canal
SRWHQĠLDOGHFRPXQLFăULXUJHQWHvQVLWXDĠLLGH FUL]ă

95
96
BIBLIOGRAFIE

,7(25,,ù,02'(/($/(&2081,&Ă5,,

I.1. Comunicarea ± o introducere


‡Christian Baylon, Xavier Mignot, Comunicarea(GLWXUD8QLYHUVLWăĠLL³$OH[DQGUX,RDQ
CuzD´,DúL
‡Philippe Cabin (ed) La communication, Etat des savoirs, Sciences Humaines ƒditions,
1998;
‡J.J Cuilenburg, O. Scholten, G.W. Noomen, ùWLLQĠDFRPXQLFăULL+XPDQLWDV%XFXUHúWL
1998;
‡Emilian M. Dobrescu, 6RFLRORJLDFRPXQLFăULL, Editura 9LFWRU%XFXUHúWL
‡,RDQ'UăJDQ3DUDGLJPHDOHFRPXQLFăULLGHPDVăùDQVD%XFXUHúWL
‡Mihai Dinu, Comunicarea(GLWXUDùWLLQĠLILFă%XFXUHúWL
‡Jean Lohisse, Les syst•me de communication, Armand Colin, Paris, 1998;
‡Andre de Peretti, Jean-Andre Legrand, Jean Boniface, Tehnici de comunicare, Polirom,
,DúL
‡Nicki Stanton, Comunicarea6RFLHWDWHDGHùWLLQĠăúL7HKQLFă%XFXUHúWL

,9RFDEXODUXOúWLLQĠHORUFRPXQLFăULL
‡Christian Baylon, Xavier Mignot, Comunicarea, EdituUD8QLYHUVLWăĠLL³$OH[DQGUX,RDQ
&X]D´,DúL
‡J.J. Cuilenburg, O. Scholten, G.W. Noomen, ùWLLQĠDFRPXQLFăULL+XPDQLWDV%XFXUHúWL
1998;
‡Robert Escarpit, 'HODVRFLRORJLDOLWHUDWXULLODWHRULDFRPXQLFăULL(GùWLLQĠLILFăúL
(QFLFORSHGLFă%XFXUHúWL
‡Umberto Eco, 7UDWDWGHVHPLRWLFăJHQHUDOă(GùWLLQĠLILFăúL(QFLFORSHGLFă%XFXUHúWL
1982;
‡J. Fiske, Introduction to communication studies; Methuen, New York, 1982;
‡Denis McQuail, Comunicarea,QVWLWXWXO(XURSHDQ,DúL

I.3. TeoULLúLPRGHOHDOHFRPXQLFăULL
‡Cristian Baylon, Xavier Mignot, Comunicarea(GLWXUD8QLYHUVLWăĠLL³$OH[DQGUX,RDQ
&X]D´,DúL
‡Mihai Dinu, Comunicarea(GLWXUDùWLLQĠLILFă%XFXUHúWL
‡,RDQ'UăJDQ3DUDGLJPHDOHFRPXQLFăULLGHPDVăùDQVD%XFXUHúWL
‡John Fiske, Introduction to Communication Studies, Methuen, New York, 1982;
‡Umberto Eco, Lector in fabula8QLYHUV%XFXUHúWL
‡Umberto Eco, 7UDWDWGHVHPLRWLFăJHQHUDOă(GùWLLQĠLILFăúL(QFLFORSHGLFă%XFXUHúWL
1982;

97
‡Jurgen Habermas, 6IHUDSXEOLFăúLWUDQVIRUPDUHDHLVWUXFWXUDOă8QLYHUV%XFXUHúWL
1998;
‡$UPDQGúL0LFKHOOH0DWWHODUW,VWRULDWHRULLORUFRPXQLFăULL3ROLURP,DúL
‡Denis McQuail, Comunicarea,QVWLWXWXO(XURSHDQ,DúL
‡B. Miege, La pensŽe communicationnelle, Presses Universitaires de Grenoble, 1995;
‡Alex Mucchielli, Douze cas et exercices sur la communication, Armand Colin, Paris, 1998;
‡Ilie P‰rvu, )LORVRILDFRPXQLFăULL(G)DFXOWăĠLLGH&RPXQLFDUHúL5HODĠLL3XEOLFH'DYLG
Ogilvy, BucureúWL
‡Charles Peirce, &RPXQLFDUHúLDFĠLXQH+XPDQLWDV%XFXUHúWL
‡/LOLDQD,RQHVFX5X[ăQGURLX&RQYHUVDĠLD±VWUXFWXULúLVWUDWHJLL(G'LGDFWLFăúL
3HGDJRJLFă%XFXUHúWL
‡Paul Watzlawick, Janet Helmick Beavin, Don D. Jackson, Une logique de la
communication, Seuil, Paris, 1972;
‡Comunicarea ”n c‰mpul socialHG8QLYHUVLWDWLL$O,&X]D,DúL

,&RPXQLFDUHúLOLPEDM&RPXQLFDUHDRUDOă
‡Cristian Baylon, Xavier Mignot, Comunicarea(GLWXUD8QLYHUVLWăĠLL³$OH[DQGUX,RDQ
CX]D´,DúL
‡Mihai Dinu, Comunicarea(GùWLLQĠLILFă%XFXUHúWL
‡Les Giblin, $UWDGH]ROWăULLUHODĠLLORULQWHUXPDQH&XUWHD9HFKH3XEOLVKLQJ%XFXUHúWL
2000;
‡Roman Jakobson, /LQJYLVWLFăúLSRHWLFă”n 3UREOHPHGHVWLOLVWLFă(GùWLLQĠLILFă%XFXUHúWL
1964;
‡Catherine Kerbrat-Orecchioni, /eQRQFLDWLRQ'HODVXEMHFWLYLWpGDQVOHODQJDJH, Armand
Colin, Paris, 1980;
‡/LOLDQD,RQHVFX5X[ăQGURLX6RFLROLQJYLVWLFă±RULHQWăULDFWXDOH(G'LGDFWLFăúL
3HGDJRJLFă%XFXUHúWL
‡Vasile Tonoiu, Omul dialogal(GLWXUD)XQGDĠLHL&XOWXUDOH5RPDQH%XFXUHúWL
I.5. Comunicarea non-YHUEDOă
‡Ray Birdwhisteell, Introduction to kinetics, 1952;
‡Mihai Dinu, Comunicarea(GùWLLQĠLILFă%XFXUHúWL
‡Edward Hall, La dimension cachŽe, Seuil, Paris, 1978;
‡Michael Kunczik, Astrid Zipfel, ,QWURGXFHUHvQúWLLQĠDSXEOLFLVWLFLLúLDFRPXQLFăULL,
(GLWXUD3UHVD8QLYHUVLWDUă&OXMHDQă&OXM

II. COMUNICAREA IN CAMPUL SOCIAL

II.1. Comunicarea ±SURFHVGHLQIOXHQĠăVRFLDOă


‡Jean-Claude Abric, Psychologie de la communication, Armand Colin, Paris, 1999;
‡Camelia Beciu, 3ROLWLFDGLVFXUVLYă3ROLURP,DúL
‡R. Boudon, Tratat de sociologie+XPDQLWDV%XFXUHúWL
‡ùW%X]ăUQHVFX, Sociologia opiniei publice(G'LGDFWLFăúL3HGDJRJLFă%XFXUHúWL

98
‡,RDQ'UăJDQ3DUDGLJPHDOHFRPXQLFăULLGHPDVăùDQVD%XFXUHúWL
‡Jurgen Habermas, 6IHUDSXEOLFăúLWUDQVIRUPDUHDHLVWUXFWXUDOă8QLYHUV%XFXUHúWL
1998;
‡Denis McQuail, Comunicarea,QVWLWXWXO(XURSHDQ,DúL
‡Bernard Miege, 6RFLHWDWHDFXFHULWăGHFRPXQLFDUH3ROLURP,DúL
‡John B. Thompson, 0HGLDúLPRGHUQLWDWHD$QWHW%XFXUHúWL
‡D. Wolton, Les contradictions de la communication politique, ”n La communication,
Etat des savoirs, Sciences Humaines ƒditions, 1998;
‡&ăWăOLQ=DPILU/D]ăU9OăVFHDQX HG 'LFĠLRQDUGHVRFLRORJLH(GLWXUD%DEHO%XFXUHúWL
1993;

,,&RPXQLFDUHDGHPDVă
‡Francis Balle, MŽdias et societŽ, Ed. Mont-chrestien, Paris, 1990;
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