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INTRODUCTION

Background of the Study

Coconut tree (Cocos nucifera) is called the “tree of life” for it has so many uses.

Its different parts such as leaves, husks, trunks, and fruit have a wide range of uses.

Philippines is one of the largest producers of coconut in the world, yet some Filipinos do

not know the right utilization of coconut products. One of the least utilized parts of the

fruit is its meat which is the source of coconut oil. Throughout the tropical world it has

provided the primary source of fat in the diets of millions of people for generations. It has

various applications in food, medicine and industry. The meat of coconut when extracted

produces coconut milk. Coconut milk when boiled produces coconut oil. In foods, it is

used as a preservative because of a certain chemical called monolaurin.

Coconut oil contains monolaurin that could be used as a microbial agent in foods.

Monolaurin has been recognized as safe by the US Food and Drug Administration and is

known for its antimicrobial properties. The use of monolaurin could be an effective

barrier to microorganisms including Escherichia coli which causes withering of foods.

(http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2009/09/090908103931.htm)

Filipinos are fond of eating and celebrating feasts and parties which lead them to

buy too much food such as fruit, meat and vegetable. However, some of these foods are

not consumed and left rotten due to improper storage. Thus, the lack of efficient and

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proper storage are some of the problems in fruit and vegetable preservation. Because of

rapid deterioration of the fruits, portions of these would not be consumed. Insufficient or

inferior preservation methods often lead to waste of money.

Statement of the Problem

This study generally aimed to find out the effect of different levels of coconut oil

on the deterioration of apple (Malus domestica), orange (Citrus sinensis) and papaya

(Carica papaya).

Specifically, it attempted to answer the following questions:

1. Which treatment was the most effective in lessening the percent

deterioration of fruits?

2. Which treatment preserved the fruits for the longest period of time in

terms of color and texture?

3. Which fruit was preserved for the longest period of time in terms of color

and texture?

Hypotheses

1. Treatment 1 was the most effective in lessening percent deterioration of fruits.

2. Treatment 1 preserved the fruits for the longest period of time in terms of

color and texture.

3. Apple was preserved for the longest period of time in terms of color and

texture.
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Significance of the Study

Our country, Philippines, celebrates many occasions. In line with this, we are

liable of cooking many foods which sometimes not consumed and left rotten. That is why

preservatives are very important for this situation.

But sometimes, preservatives can cause side effects. Synthetic preservatives or

additives may affect the value of food in terms of its nutritional value. In addition, they

may cause migraine, headache and allergies which are mostly seen in beverages,

pudding, yoghurt and chewing gum. Large and minimal consumption of these

preservatives might cause organ failure, cancer and even death.

In conclusion, preservatives can be good but should be consumed in minimal

level. Be careful in choosing food for it may have added ingredients that are not tested

and not good for the body.

With these in mind, the researchers thought of making natural preservative using

coconut oil found in mature coconut which can help in trapping enzymes coming out off

the fruit.

This research study will be a great help in the production of natural preservatives
and in preserving some foods that are mostly not consumed.

Scope and Limitations

This study focused mainly to find out the effect of different levels of coconut oil

on the deterioration of apple, orange and papaya. This study was limited only on the use
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of Cocowax (a mixture of coconut oil, cooking oil and beeswax), butter like solution that

can be wiped at skin of the fruits. The test fruits (apple, orange and papaya) and the

coconut were obtained from the market at same time. Apples were used as a

representative for thin skin fruits; oranges were used as representative for thick skin fruits

and papaya as a representative for unripe fruits. This research study was conducted at

Bagong Sikat, Science City of Muñoz, Nueva Ecija.

Review of Related Literature

Coconut Oil
Coconut oil is an odorless liquid. It is white when solid and has a typical smell of

coconut if not refined and deodorized. It forms a white homogeneous mixture when

beaten well in little water, otherwise, insoluble in water at room temperature.

Coconut oil is edible oil that has been consumed in tropical places for thousands

of years. It is produced by slowly cooking coconut milk over very low heat. This

produces virgin coconut oil which is similar to the cold pressed oil. It is a functional food

which provides health benefits over and beyond the basic nutrients (Dr. Mary Enig,

2004). It contains monolaurin, a microbial agent for foods. Monolaurin when used in

combination with other antimicrobial agents, could be an effective barrier for

microorganisms.

Based on recent studies, the use of monolaurin as a nontraditional preservative in

food products by combining it with commonly used antimicrobials in various

concentrations had been tested on several bacterial strains including Escherichia coli and

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on food components such as soy protein and water-soluble starch

(http://www.coconutoil.com).

Monolaurin

Lauric acid was first discovered as the main antiviral and antibacterial substance

in human breast milk. It is a medium chain, saturated fatty acid that is also found in

coconut products. Monolaurin is the glycerol ester of lauric acid and is more biologically

active than lauric acid. Monolaurin, of which the precursor is lauric acid, disrupted the

lipid membranes of envelope viruses and also inactivated bacteria yeast and fungi

(Coconut Journal, 1995). Monolaurin disrupts the lipid bilayer of the virus preventing

attachment to susceptible host cells. It binds to the lipid-protein envelope of the virus and

thus inactivates it. Monolaurin inhibits the replication of viruses by interrupting the

binding ability of virus to host cells and prevents uncoating of viruses necessary for

replication and infection. Monolaurin can remove all measurable infectivity by directly

disintegrating the viral envelope. Monolaurin binding to the viral envelope makes the

virus more susceptible to host defenses.

Monolaurin is a derivative of coconut that has been shown to have anti-fungal and

anti-viral properties. Monolaurin is non-toxic and is effective against yeast and fungi,

Staphylococcus aureaus, Streptococcus agalactiae, Chlamydia trachomatis, Candida

albicans, Giardia lamblia, Helicobacter pylori, gonorrhea and ringworm.

Beeswax

Beeswax (C15H31CO2C30H61) has been used since the beginning of the civilization.

It has been found in pharaoh’s tombs sunken viking ships and Roman ruins. Beeswax is
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basically the duct tape of old, with thousands of uses and indispensable. It does not go

bad and has been recovered from ancient ship wrecks heated up and is still useable.

Pure beeswax is solid at normal room temperature. It will have putty like

consistency at above 80-90 ºF. Depending upon its usage, it can sit in a bowl on top of

hot water for a few minutes to allow it to turn into putty like consistency. To melt

beeswax, use a double boiler (a pot within a pot of water). This allows gentle heating

which is important because it can burn rendering a brown hue and loose its aroma. In

melting beeswax, the temperature should not exceed 160-170 ºF for a long period of time.

In food preservation, beeswax is used as a coating for cheese, to protect the food

as it ages. Some cheese-makers have replaced it with plastic but many still used beeswax

to avoid any unpleasant flavors that may result from plastic. As a food additive, beeswax

is known as E901 (http://www.besswaxco.com/besswaxFacts.htm).

Cooking Oil

Cooking oil is edible vegetable oils, which is extracted from fats of plants or

animals. Cooking oil is a mixture of saturated, monounsaturated, polyunsaturated and

trans fats and is liquid at room temperature. Some of edible vegetable oils include olive

oil, palm oil, soybean oil, canola oil, pumpkin seed oil, corn oil, sunflower oil, safflower

oil, peanut oil, grape seed oil, sesame oil, argan oil and rice bran oil. Many other kinds of

vegetable oils are also used for cooking.

Vegetable oil is a blend of oils from seeds and plants. It is extracted from plant

sources such as corn, peanuts and soybeans. It also comes from seeds such as cotton

seeds, safflower seeds, rapeseeds, and sunflower seeds. Vegetable oil can also be used in
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recipes or consumed directly. It is often used for dressings or for marinating. It is also

used for frying. It has a high smoke point and can take high heat. Some choose to use

regular vegetable oil and others use waste vegetable oil as fuel for their vehicles as an

alternative form of energy.

Food Preservatives

Preservatives are additives used to protect against decay, discoloration or spoilage

of foods. Some of these preservatives are the following:

Nitrites that are used in most processed meats such as lunch meats, smoked

fishes, sausage, bacon, hotdogs and canned meats in order to stabilize the color of such

products. High levels of nitrites in food can lead to cardiovascular collapse.

Benzoic acid used in many foods and drinks, low sugar products and cereals.

Meat products can temporarily inhibit the function of the digestive system and may

deplete glycine levels. It is also used to preserve fruit juice. Sodium benzoate or benzoic

acid has been used for the last 100 years to prevent microorganisms from growing in

acidic fruits.

Sulfur dioxide is a preservative known to cause bronchial problems, hypotension

or low blood pressure, flushing tingling sensations or anaphylactic shock.

Ascorbic acid or Vitamin C is used to preserve the color of a fruit drink by

increasing the Vitamin C content, which interacts with the unwanted oxygen and

improves coloration (Lorena D., 2010).

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Review of Related Studies

To be able to support this study, the researchers gathered some studies related to

their research problem.

According to Capulong C. M. et al., utilization of coconut water to produce wax

can be a preservative for fruit and other foodstuff. On their study entitled “Coconut

Water Wax: A Breakthrough in Fruit Preservation”, different fresh fruits were

collected and assigned to four different treatments: T1(control)- fresh fruits without

anything done; T2-fruits soaked in coconut water for ten minutes; T3-fruits covered with

coconut water wax; T4- refrigerated fruits. Fruits used were oranges and other citrus

varieties. To achieve the most favorable result, the prescribed procedure of making wax

was exactly followed by weighing the components of the desired proportions-

2000:100:50 [2000 milliliters (mL) coconut water, 100 mL cooking oil, and 50grams (g)

beeswax]. The components were then mixed, cooked and cooled. Results showed a

significant difference in the duration of fruit freshness, with coconut water wax retaining

freshness for the most number of days.

Another study gathered by the researcher was entitled “Antibacterial

Interactions of Monolaurin with Commonly Used Antimicrobials and Food

Components”. According to this study of Zhang H. et al., coconut oil is a potential food

preservative, but a high fat or low starch content may reduce its action.

Monolaurin is the glycerol monester of lauric acid derived from coconut oil. It has

been generally recognized as safe in the US since 1960s, but its use in the global food

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industry has been limited, with benzoates, sorbates and nitrites used more commonly.

Monolaurin has seen more take up to date by the cosmetics and personal care industry.

One of the barriers to monolaurin in food has been that high concentrations over

500µg/mL can result in a soapy odor and taste that affects sensory acceptability. For this

reason, it may be combined with other microbials to establish a series of hurdles that

microorganisms could not overcome.

The team from Zhejiang University in China wanted to increase understanding of

its potential use and limitations in foods. They obtained monolaurin from Hangzhou

Kangyuan Food Science and Technology with 99 percent monester content. This material

was tested in combination with nisin, sodium lactate, sodium dehydroacetate, calcium

propionate and Ethylenediamenetetraacetic Acid (EDTA), against E. coli,

Staphylococcus aureaus and Bacillus subtilis using microtiter plate assay.

The minimum inhibitory concentrations for the monolaurin were 25µg/mL against

E.coli, 12.5µg/mL against S.aureaus and 30µg/mL. When combined with nisin, it was

seen to be effective against all three of the bugs.

However when used with sodium dehydroacetate or EDTA it was effective only

against the E.coli and B.subtilis. Neither use with sodium lactate nor with calcium

propionate showed any action against the bugs.

Another study was entitled “In Vitro Antimicrobial properties of Coconut Oil

on Candida Species in Ibadan, Nigeria”. According to this study of Ogbolu D. O., Oni

A. A., Daini O. A. & Oloko A. P. the emergence of antimicrobial resistance, coupled

with the availability of fewer antifungal agents with fungicidal actions, prompted this
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present study to characterize Candida species in our environment and determine the

effectiveness of virgin coconut oil as an antifungal on this species. In 2004, 52 recent

isolates of Candida species were obtained from clinical specimens sent to the Medical

Microbiology Laboratory, University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria. Their

susceptibilities to virgin coconut oil and fluconazole were studied by using the agar-well

diffusion technique. Candida albicans was the most isolate from clinical specimens (17);

others were Candida glabrata (nine), Candida tropicalis (seven), Candida parapsilosis

(seven), Candida stellatoidea (six), and Candida krusei (six). C. albicans had the highest

susceptibility to coconut oil (100%), with a Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) of

25% (1:4 dilution), while fluconazole had 100% susceptibility at an MIC of 64

microg/mL (1:2 dilution). C. krusei showed the highest resistance to coconut oil with an

MIC of 100 % (undiluted), while fluconazole had an MIC of > 128 microg/mL. It is

noteworthy that coconut oil was active against species of Candida at 100% concentration

compared to fluconazole. Coconut oil should be used in the treatment of fungal infections

in view of emerging drug-resistitant Candida species.

Definition of Terms

Anaphylaxis- exaggerated allergic reaction to a foreign protein resulting from previous

exposure to it

Anthocyanin- water-soluble pigments that impart to flowers and other plant parts colors

ranging from violet and blue to most shades of red

Cocowax- mixture of coconut oil, cooking oil and beeswax

Diarrhoea- common digestive disorder that virtually all people will suffer at some stage

during their lives


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Enzymes- any complex chemical produced by living cells that is a biochemical catalyst

Fruit Deterioration- loss of moisture of the fruits

Glycerol- sweet syrupy hygroscopic trihydroxy alcohol usually obtained by the

saponification of fats

Lauric Acid- crystalline fatty acid found especially in coconut oil and used chiefly in

making soaps and esters

Meristem- embryonic plant tissue that is actively dividing, as found at the tip of stems

and roots

Phytohormones- hormone-like substance produced by a plant

Preservative- able to keep from decay or spoilage

Zeatin- a naturally occurring growth promoter found in many plants, isolated from

kernels of corn

Research Paradigm

Dependent Variable
Independent Variable
Cocowax (coconut oil, cooking
oil and beeswax) Home preservative for apple,
orange and papaya

Extraneous Variables

Time and place of obtaining the


fruits
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Environmental conditions
Amount of beeswax
Amount of cooking oil
METHODOLOGY

Preparation of Materials
Five matured coconuts were bought from the market. From the fruits, water was

removed. Two hundred milliliters of commercially available cooking oil was bought from

the market. One hundred grams of beeswax was provided by the RS Bee Farm in Kapitan

Pepe Subdivision, Cabanatuan City. Twelve apples, twelve oranges and twelve papaya

were used as test fruits in the study.


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Production of Coconut Oil

Meat from each coconut was grated using a coconut shredder. The grated coconut

meat was placed in a clean container and was soaked in a hot tap water. It was then

squeezed to produce the coconut milk. The coconut milk was heated over a low flame

and was stirred slowly to produce coconut oil. The coconut oil was stored in four

different containers containing 60 mL, 120 mL, 240 mL and 480 mL.

Production of Cocowax

Coconut oil in each container was boiled. After boiling, 25g of beeswax and

50mL of cooking oil was added and melted over a slow flame in a gas stove. Beeswax

was used not only because it does not smell bad and it lasts for a long period of time but

also used to solidify the solution. The melted mixture was then removed from the flame

and set aside to cool and solidify at room temperature.

Testing the Cocowax

The fruit samples (apple, orange, papaya) were bought from the market at the

same time. Each fruit type was assigned to different treatments with three replicates. The

following treatments with the ratios of coconut oil: cooking oil: beeswax were as follows:

Treatment 1- 480:50:25

Treatment 2- 240:50:25

Treatment 3- 120:50:25

Treatment 4- 60:50:25

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Control- without any preservative

The fruit samples were treated with Cocowax. The whole surface of each fruit

sample was covered with wax by wiping it using a spatula. Coconut oil and cooking oil

was measured in milliliters and beeswax in grams.

Data Gathering

The data gathered were the following:

a. Percent deterioration

The initial weight and final weight of each fruit was measured using a weighing

scale and was recorded. The decrease in weight of fruits meant a decrease in its moisture

which often results in withering. The percent deterioration of each fruit was obtained

using the formula:

Initial Weight – Final Weight

Percent deterioration = Initial Weight × 100

b. Number of days before deterioration

The number of days which the fruit samples stayed fresh (in terms of moisture,

texture and color) were also counted and recorded. Replicates number of days which the

fruit stayed fresh were added and were divided by three to get its mean.

c. Fruit preserved for the longest period of time

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Using the mean scores from the number of days before deterioration, the fruit

preserved for the longest period of time was derived. The fruits in each treatment was

ranked from highest to lowest. The ranks were added and the fruit which has the lowest

ranked was preserved for the longest period of time.

Statistical Analysis of Data

The data were arranged and analyzed using Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). The

study laid out using Complete Randomized Design (CRD). Comparisons among means

were done using the Duncan’s Multiple Range Test (DMRT) at 5% level of significance.

Preparation of Materials

Production of Coconut Oil

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Production of Cocowax

Application of Cocowax

Data Gathering

Number of Days before Fruit preserved for the


deterioration longest period of time
Percent Deterioration

Statistical Analysis of Data

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Diagram of the procedures done in the study

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

The results of the statistical test on the percent deterioration of fruits (apple,

orange and papaya), the number of days it takes for them to deteriorate and the longest

period of time for them to preserve are shown in the following tables. Using the DMRT,

the differences among the treatments are compared at 5% level of significance.

Percent Deterioration

Higher percent deterioration computed means that the fruits were more

deteriorated and lower percent deterioration means that the fruits were less deteriorated.

These imply that the treatment with less percent deterioration was more effective

compared with the others.

Table 1. Mean percent deterioration of apples


Treatments R1 R2 R3 Percent Deterioration (%)
Treatment 1 0 0 0 0.00b
Treatment 2 2.14 0 0 0.71b
Treatment 3 -2.22 -3.7 -3.7 -3.21c
Treatment 4 -3.44 0 0 -1.15b
Control 4.29 3.7 3.7 3.90a

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* Means with the same letter superscript were not significantly different at 5% level of significance,
however means with different letter superscript were significantly different at 5% level of significance by
Duncan’s Multiple Range Test.

Table 1 shows the mean percent deterioration of apples. ANOVA revealed no

significant difference on the percent deterioration of apples among the Treatment 1, 2 and

Treatment 4; however, Treatment 3 and the control vary significantly with each other and

to that of the other three treatments. This implies that Treatment 1 and Treatment 2 and 4

have an equal effect on the deterioration of apples. Application of Treatment 3 showed

the lowest percent deterioration.

Table 2. Mean percent deterioration of oranges

Treatments R1 R2 R3 Percent Deterioration (%)


Treatment 1 44 0 5.88 16.63a
Treatment 2 34.29 0 0 11.43a
Treatment 3 44 4.76 0 16.25a
Treatment 4 38.4 0 0 12.80a
Control 5.26 5.26 18.18 9.57a
* Means with the same letter superscript were not significantly different at 5% level of significance,
however means with different letter superscript were significantly different at 5% level of significance by
Duncan’s Multiple Range Test.

The mean percent deterioration of oranges is presented in Table 2. The table

shows no significant difference among the different levels of coconut oil in each of the

treatment. This implies that in terms of percent deterioration, whatever ratio was used in

the treatments revealed no significant difference.

On the other hand, since the fruit with no preservative has the highest score in

terms of percent deterioration, it proves that the control was more effective in lessening

the percent deterioration of oranges.

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Table 3. Mean percent deterioration of papaya

Treatments R1 R2 R3 Percent Deterioration (%)


Treatment 1 2.86 3.77 4 3.54b
Treatment 2 8.16 0 1.01 3.06b
Treatment 3 5.36 9.09 5.5 6.65b
Treatment 4 3.57 7.14 4.1 4.94b
11.7
Control 9.32 19.13 13.40a
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* Means with the same letter superscript were not significantly different at 5% level of significance,
however means with different letter superscript were significantly different at 5% level of significance by
Duncan’s Multiple Range Test.

Table 3 shows the mean percent deterioration of papaya on different treatments.

In this table, ANOVA reveals no significant difference among the different treatments

used in the study. Therefore, it implies that the different treatments that were applied on

papaya have the same effect. Also, the table shows significant difference between the

control and each of the treatment that was applied to papaya.

Number of days before deterioration

Table 4. Mean of days before deterioration of apples

Treatments R1 R2 R3 Days Before Deterioration


Treatment 1 17 15 8 13.33a
Treatment 2 8 15 8 10.33a
Treatment 3 8 15 15 12.67a
Treatment 4 15 15 15 15.00a
Control 8 8 15 10.33a
* Means with the same letter superscript were not significantly different at 5% level of significance,
however means with different letter superscript were significantly different at 5% level of significance by
Duncan’s Multiple Range Test.

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The number of days before deterioration of apples is shown in Table 4. ANOVA

shows no significant difference among all the treatments. It clearly shows that all the

treatments have an equal effect from each other when applied to apple. Treatment 4 was

observed to be the most acceptable in terms of the number of days before it was

deteriorated among all the other treatments because it has the longer number of days

before deterioration.

On the other hand, comparing Table 1 and Table 4, it was proven that when the

apples were subjected to the treatments they have the same number of days before

deterioration.

Table 5. Mean of days before deterioration of orange

Treatments R1 R2 R3 Days Before Deterioration


Treatment 1 17 15 15 15.67a
Treatment 2 8 15 15 12.67a
Treatment 3 17 15 15 15.67a
Treatment 4 8 15 15 12.67a
Control 17 15 8 13.33a

* Means with the same letter superscript were not significantly different at 5% level of significance,
however means with different letter superscript were significantly different at 5% level of significance by
Duncan’s Multiple Range Test.

Table 5 shows the numbers of days before deterioration of oranges. In this table,

ANOVA reveals no significant difference among the fruits at the control and the other

four treatments in terms of the number of days before deterioration. Therefore, it implies

that the fruits are the same with the control in terms of the number of days it takes them

to be deteriorated. Also, they have the same effect when applied to the skin of the

oranges. It was also observed in Table 2 and Table 5 that the oranges subjected to the

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different treatments and control have no difference, which means whether the orange was

subjected to either of the treatments, the same effect will be observed.

Table 6. Mean of days before deterioration of papaya

Treatments R1 R2 R3 Days Before Deterioration


Treatment 1 8 8 8 8.00a
Treatment 2 8 8 8 8.00a
Treatment 3 8 8 8 8.00a
Treatment 4 8 8 8 8.00a
Control 3 8 3 4.67b
* Means with the same letter superscript were not significantly different at 5% level of significance,
however means with different letter superscript were significantly different at 5% level of significance by
Duncan’s Multiple Range Test.

The number of days before deterioration of papaya is summarized in Table 6.

From ANOVA, the papaya samples subjected at each of the four treatments having

Cocowax have no significant difference, which means that they have an equal effect in

the number of days before the papaya was deteriorated. However, these treatments

produced a significant difference when compared to that of the control. This implies that

Cocowax is effective when applied to papaya compared to that of the control.

Fruit Preserved for the longest period of time

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Table 7. Ranked mean of the fruits for the longest period of time before deterioration

TREATMENTS FRUITS MEAN SCORE RANK


Apple 13.33 2
T1 Orange 15.67 1
Papaya 8 3
Apple 10.33 2
T2 Orange 12.67 1
Papaya 8 3
Apple 12.67 2
T3 Orange 15.67 1
Papaya 8 3
Apple 15 1
T4 Orange 12.67 2
Papaya 8 3
Apple 10.33 2
CONTROL Orange 13.33 1
Papaya 4.67 3

Table 7 shows the ranked mean of each fruit for the longest period of time before

deterioration. The table ranked the fruits for the number of days before deterioration. It

was observed that when the rank of each fruits were added, apple had a score of nine,

orange had a score of six and papaya had a score of 15, which means that the orange was

preserved for the longest period of time because it has the lowest rank.

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CONCLUSIONS

Based on the results, the following conclusions were formulated:

• Treatment 1 (480mL coconut oil + 50mL cooking oil + 25g beeswax)

preserved the fruits for the longest period of time.

• Treatment 2 (240mL coconut oil + 50mL cooking oil + 25g beeswax)

was the most effective in lessening the percent deterioration of fruits.

• Orange was preserved for the longest period of time.

RECOMMENDATIONS

The researchers recommended further investigations be conducted to

improve this study. Specifically, the following recommendations are given:

• Use of other fruits like bananas, mangoes, avocadoes, etc. as test

fruits for the study.

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• Application of Cocowax on vegetables.

• Use of other source of monolaurin like salmon oil, palm kernel oil,

goat or cow’s milk.

LITERATURE CITED

Capulong, C.M., Padua, H.C., & Macapagal, J.C. (n.d.). Coconut water wax: A
breakthrough in fruit preservation. Bato balani for Science and Technology,
26(4), 16-18.
Friedman, P. (2002). Grolier Encyclopedia of Knowledge (p. 76). United States of
America: Grolier Incorporated.
Lorena, D. (2010). Buying Food or Mere Additive? Get your Money’s Worth, Buy
Nourishment!. Current Events Digest, 49(5), 1-2.
Zhang H., et al. (nd). Antibacterial Interactions of Monolaurin with Commonly Used
Antimicrobials and Food Components. Journal of Food Science. 74(7).

INTERNET SOURCES

http://coconut-info.com

http://thaifoodandtravel.com/features/cocgood.html

http://www.autismcoach.com/Monolaurin.htm

http://www.besswaxco.com/besswaxFacts.htm

http://www.coconutoil.com

http://www.ehow.com/facts_5955180_types-fruit-preservatives.html

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http://www.island.lk/2010/03/15/features6.html

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19895490

http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2009/09/090908103931.htm

http://www.stanceequine.com.au/mediaroom_detail.php?Antimicrobial-activities-of-

coconut-oil-82

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Appendix Table 1. Initial Weight of Fruits
Initial Weight of Fruits (in grams)
Replicate 1
Treatments Apple Orange Papaya
Treatment 1 130g 125g 420g
Treatment 2 140g 140g 490g
Treatment 3 135g 125g 560g
Treatment 4 145g 125g 420g
Control 140g 95g 590g
Replicate 2
Treatments Apple Orange Papaya
Treatment 1 135g 100g 530g
Treatment 2 145g 105g 500g
Treatment 3 135g 105g 495g
Treatment 4 140g 115g 630g
Control 135g 95g 460g
Replicate 3
Treatments Apple Orange Papaya
Treatment 1 140g 85g 500g
Treatment 2 130g 80g 495g
Treatment 3 135g 95g 545g
Treatment 4 135g 95g 610g
Control 135g 110g 595g

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Appendix Table 2. Final Weight of Fruits

Replicate 1
Treatments Apple Orange Papaya
Treatment 1 130g 70g 408g
Treatment 2 137g 92g 450g
Treatment 3 138g 70g 530g
Treatment 4 150g 77g 405g
Control 134g 90g 535g
Replicate 2
Treatments Apple Orange Papaya
Treatment 1 135g 100g 510g
Treatment 2 145g 105g 500g
Treatment 3 140g 100g 450g
Treatment 4 140g 115g 585g
Control 130g 90g 372g
Replicate 3
Treatments Apple Orange Papaya
Treatment 1 140g 80g 480g
Treatment 2 130g 80g 490g
Treatment 3 140g 95g 515g
Treatment 4 135g 95g 585g
Control 130g 90g 525g

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Appendix Table 3. ANOVA for Percent Deterioration of Apples

Source df SS MS F F .05 F-Prob


Treatment 4 81.8317 20.4579 16.19 3.48 0.0004
Ex. Error 10 12.6345 1.2634
Total 14 94.4662 6.7674

Appendix Table 4. ANOVA for Percent Deterioration of Oranges

Source df SS MS F F .05 F-Prob


Treatment 4 112.4020 28.1005 0.07 3.48 0.9877
Ex. Error 10 4185.5751 418.5575
Total 14 4297.977 306.9984

Appendix Table 5. ANOVA for Percent Deterioration of Papaya

Source df SS MS F F .05 F-Prob


Treatment 4 211.6660 52.9165 4.86 3.48 0.0195
Ex. Error 10 108.8345 10.8834
Total 14 320.5004 22.8929

29
Appendix Table 6. ANOVA for number of days before deterioration of Apples

Source df SS MS F F .05 F-Prob


Treatment 4 48.6667 12.1667 0.85 3.48 0.5248
Ex. Error 10 142.6667 14.2667
Total 14 191.3333 13.6667

Appendix Table 7. ANOVA for number of days before deterioration of Oranges

Source df SS MS F F .05 F-Prob


Treatment 4 28.6667 7.1667 0.62 3.48 0.6597
Ex. Error 10 115.3333 11.5333
Total 14 144.0000 10.2857

Appendix Table 8. ANOVA for number of days before deterioration of Papaya

Source df SS MS F F .05 F-Prob


Treatment 4 26.6667 6.6667 4.00 3.48 0.0342
Ex. Error 10 16.6667 1.6667
Total 14 43.3333 3.0952

30
31
Containers Cooking oil

Coconut oil Beeswax

Weighing scale Matured coconuts

Materials Used in the Study

Oranges

32
Apples

Papaya

Test Fruits

33
Weighing of Fruits

34
Experimental Design

35
Production of Cocowax

36
Cocowax

37
Application of Cocowax

CURRICULUM VITAE

38
Personal Data
Name: Mark D. Tomenes
Nickname: Mac
Address: Zone 1, Sto. Tomas, San Jose City, Nueva Ecija
Date of Birth: March 30, 1995
Father: Larry Tomenes
Mother: Vicky Tomenes
Brothers/Sisters: Mylene, Michael
Hobbies: Reading books, Watching Television
Favorite Subject(s): Mathematics
Ambition: To become a Successful Engineer

Educational Background
a. High School

Muñoz National High School


S.Y. 2007-Present

b. Elementary
Sto. Tomas Elementary School
S.Y. 2001-2007
c. Pre-Elementary
Sto. Tomas Elementary School
S.Y.1999-2000
CHSI Kindergarten
S.Y. 2000-2001

Awards/Honors Received

4th Year
- 4th Zonal Battle of Math-Tiniks – Champion
- 1st Provincial Statistics Quiz Bee – First Runner up
- Thinker’s Club – President

- MTAP Math DepEd Math Challenge - 1st Place

- MTAP Math DepEd Math Finals- Champion

- Bible Quiz Bee (School Level) – 2nd Place


39
- UP-One Quiz Bee- Participant

- IT Quiz Bee - 4th Place

- CBAA’s Honor Circle (Essay Writing contest) - Participant

3rd Year
- 1st Honor
- MTAP Math Challenge Elimination - 1st Place
- MTAP Math Challenge Finals – Champion
- Mathematician of the Year

2nd Year
- 1st Honor
- MTAP Math Challenge Elimination - 1st Place
- MTAP Math Challenge Finals – Champion
- Mathematician of the Year

1st Year
- 4th Honor
- Mathematician of the Year

Elementary
- 1st Honorable Mentioned

CURRICULUM VITAE
40
Personal Data
Name: Benien John B. Angel
Nickname: BJ
Address: Bagong Sikat,Science City of Muñoz, Nueva Ecija
Date of Birth: September 23, 1994
Father: Ben C. Angel
Mother: Venus B. Angel
Brothers/Sisters: Veryl Aubrey Mae B. Angel
Hobbies: Playing computer games, texting, reading books, playing basketball,
and arnis Favorite Subject(s): English
Ambition: to be one of the generals of Philippine army

Educational Background
a. High School

Muñoz National High School


S.Y. 2007-Present

b. Elementary

Science city Montessori School


S.Y. 2001-2005

Precious Child Montessori


S.Y. 2005-2006

Guiding Star Learning Center


S.Y. 2006-2007

c. Pre-Elementary

Baloc Day Care Center


S.Y. 1997-1999

CHSI Kindergarten
S.Y. 1999-2001

Awards/Honors Received
41
4th Year
- CBAA Honor’s Circle (Extemporaneous Speech) – Champion

- Extemporaneous Speaking (School Level) – 1st Place

- Values Organization – P.R.O.

- English Club Organization – President

- Class Organization – Sgt. at Arms

- Thinker’s Club –P.R.O.

- Mr. Senior- Participant

3rd Year
- 3rd Place Arnis Competition
1st year
- 3rd Place Arnis Competition
Elementary
- 2nd honorable Mention

42
CURRICULUM VITAE

Personal Data
Name: Lara Nicole Bermudez
Nickname: Nickie, Larz, Larzy
Address: # 38 Isla Extension Science City of Muñoz, Nueva Ecija
Date of Birth: October 21, 1994
Father: Dexter Bermudez
Mother: Mary Jane Bermudez
Brothers/Sisters; Trisha Jade Bermudez
Hobbies: texting
Favorite Subject(s): English
Ambition: To be a lawyer

Educational Background
a. High School

Muñoz National High School


S.Y. 2007-Present

b. Elementary
Muñoz United Methodist Learning Center
S.Y. 2001-2007
c. Pre-Elementary
Muñoz United Methodist Learning Center
S.Y. 2000-2001

Awards Received/Honors
4th Year
- Division School’s Press Conference – 1st Place
- Thinker’s Club Officer –Treasurer
- Class Organization - Treasurer

43
- I.T. Summit(Powerpoint Presentation) - Champion

CURRICULUM VITAE

Personal Data
Name: Fernebert L. Ganiban
Nickname: Ferne, Fern, Enebet
Address: Teacher’s Village Science City of Muñoz, Nueva Ecija
Date of Birth: November 5, 1994
Father: Felixberto V. Ganiban
Mother: Nehemia L. Ganiban
Brothers/Sisters: Femia Joy, Felbert, Fernan, Felexis, Felix, Femie Laine L.
Ganiban
Hobbies: Surfing the Net, Watching GMA seven, Reading, Listening to radio,
sleeping, and eating
Favorite Subject(s): English, Mathematics and Advanced Physics
Ambition: To be mentor

Educational Background
a. High School

Muñoz National High School


S.Y. 2007-Present

b. Elementary
Muñoz Central School
S.Y. 2001-2007
c. Pre-Elementary

Little Lamb Foundational Learning Center


S.Y. 2000-2001

Awards Received/Honors

4th Year

44
- CBAA Honor’s Circle (Essay Writing Contest) – 2nd Place

- Extemporaneous Speaking (School Division) – Champion

- Bible Quiz Bee – Champion

- Essay Writing Contest – 1st Place

- Division School’s Press Conference – 2nd Place

- Senior Class Organization – Secretary

- EUREKA Club Organization – Sgt. at Arms

- Class Organization – President

- Bible Quiz Bee(Grand Championship)- Finalist

- Regional Schools Press Conference- Finalist

- IT Summit(Power Point Presentation)- Champion

3rd Year
- 6th honor
- Class Organization - President
2nd Year
- 5th Honor
- Class Organization – Presidents
- Filipiniana Club - Treasurer
1st Year
- 12th Honor
- Class organization- Treasurer
Elementary
- Honorable Mention

45
CURRICULUM VITAE

Personal Data
Name: Chrisandra S. Gaston
Nickname: Iya
Address: # 51 Manito Avenue, Capitan Pepe Subdivision, Cabanatuan City
Date of Birth: April 14, 1995
Father: Ben A. Gaston
Mother: Constancia S. Gaston
Brothers/Sisters: Benedict S. Gaston and Andreiline S. Gaston
Hobbies: texting, watching television and surfing the net.
Favorite Subject(s): Computer and Filipino
Ambition: To be successful veterinarian or nurse

Educational Background
a. High School

Muñoz National High School


S.Y. 2007-Present

b. Elementary
College of the Immaculate Concepcion
S.Y. 2001-2007
c. Pre-Elementary
Kapt. Pepe Day Care Center
S.Y. 2000-2001

Awards Received/Honors
High School
46
- Class Organization- Secretary
- Filipiniana Club Officer
- Thinker’s Club Officer
- Step Club Officer
- Champion (Paggawa ng Tula)
- Silver Medalist-Archery (Intramurals)
- Silver and Bronze Medalist- Archery (Microtel Baguio)
- Bronze Medalist- Archery- (CLRAA)
- SSG First Year Representative
- SSG Second Year Representative

Elementary
- Cultural Awardee

47
CURRICULUM VITAE

Personal Data
Name: Kristine C. Macaso
Nickname: Tin-tin, Tine
Address: Magtanggol Science City of Muñoz, Nueva Ecija
Date of Birth: April 11, 1994
Father: Noel F. Macaso
Mother: Marilyn C. Macaso
Brothers/Sisters: Kenneth C. Macaso
Hobbies: texting, watching television, eating, reading and sleeping
Favorite Subject(s): Mathematics (Trigonometry), Research and English
Ambition: To become a successful nurse

Educational Background
a. High School

Muñoz National High School


S.Y. 2007-Present
b. Elementary
Precious Child Montessori
S.Y 2001-2007
c. Pre-Elementary
Dep-ed Kindergarten School
S.Y. 1999-2000
Little Wise Men Learning Center
S.Y. 2000-2001

Awards Received/Honors

48
Elementary
- 3rd Honorable Mention
-
CURRICULUM VITAE

Personal Data
Name: Jobelle M. Pablo
Nickname: Jobs
Address: Maligaya, Science City of Muñoz, Nueva Ecija
Date of Birth: May 28, 1994
Father: Ricardo M. Pablo
Mother: Verlidia M. Pablo
Brothers/Sisters: Freddie, Mario, Louie, Gemma, Mary Grace, Ruther, Ricardo,
Joey Boy
Hobbies: Watching television and reading magazines
Favorite Subject(s): English
Ambition: To be a successful doctor

Educational Background
a. High School

Muñoz National High School


S.Y. 2007-Present

b. Elementary

Manuel L. Quezon Elementary School


S.Y. 2001-2007

c. Pre-Elementary

Malayantoc Day Care Center


S.Y. 2000-2001
Awards/Honors Received

4th Year

- Extemporaneous Speaking (School Level) – 2nd Place

49
3rd Year
- 11th Honor

2nd Year
- 15th Honor

1st Year
- 7th Honor

Elementary
- 1st Honorable Mentioned

50
CURRICULUM VITAE

Personal Data
Name: Efraim A. Sagun
Nickname: Dan-Dan
Address: Linglingay, Science City of Muñoz, Nueva Ecija
Date of Birth: April 6, 1994
Father: Donato Q. Sagun
Mother: Evelyn A. Sagun
Brothers/Sisters: Daniel, Dianalyn, Analyn
Hobbies: Reading books, watching television and playing basketball
Favorite Subject(s): Mathematics and Social Studies
Ambition: To be successful in any field

Educational Background
a. High School

Muñoz National High School


S.Y. 2007-present

b. Elementary
Linglingay Elementary School
S.Y. 2001-2007
c. Pre-Elementary
Santan Day Care Center
S.Y. 2000-2001

Awards/Honors Received

3rd Year
- 3rd Honor

2nd Year
51
- 8th Honor

1st Year
- 5th Honor

Elementary
- Salutatorian

52
CURRICULUM VITAE

Personal Data
Name: Kristine C. Macaso
Nickname: Tin-tin, Tine
Address: Magtanggol Science City of Muñoz, Nueva Ecija
Date of Birth: April 11, 1994
Father: Noel F. Macaso
Mother: Marilyn C. Macaso
Brothers/Sisters: Kenneth C. Macaso
Hobbies: texting, watching television, eating, reading and sleeping
Favorite Subject(s): Mathematics (Trigonometry), Research and English
Ambition: To become a successful nurse

Educational Background
a. High School

Muñoz National High School


S.Y. 2007-Present
b. Elementary
Precious Child Montessori
S.Y 2001-2007
c. Pre-Elementary

53
Dep-ed Kindergarten School
S.Y. 1999-2000
Little Wise Men Learning Center
S.Y. 2000-2001

Awards Received/Honors
Elementary
- 3rd Honorable Mention

54