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FHSST Authors The Free High School Science Texts: Textbooks for High School Students Studying the

FHSST Authors

The Free High School Science Texts:

Textbooks for High School Students Studying the Sciences Mathematics Grade 10

Version 0.5 September 9, 2010

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Copyright 2007 “Free High School Science Texts” Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document unde r the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.2 or any later version published by the Free Software Foundation; with no Invariant S ections, no Front- Cover Texts, and no Back-Cover Texts. A copy of the license is inc luded in the section entitled “GNU Free Documentation License”.

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FHSST Core Team

Mark Horner ; Samuel Halliday ; Sarah Blyth ; Rory Adams ; Spen cer Wheaton

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Contents

I

Basics

1

1

Introduction to Book

 

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1.1

The Language of Mathematics

 

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Grade 10

 

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2 Review of Past Work

 

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2.1 Introduction

 

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2.2 What is a number?

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2.3 Sets

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2.4 Letters and Arithmetic

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2.5 Addition and Subtraction

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2.6 Multiplication and Division

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2.7 Brackets

 

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2.8 Negative Numbers

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2.8.1 What is a negative number?

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2.8.2 Working with Negative Numbers

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2.8.3 Living Without the Number Line

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2.9 Rearranging Equations

 

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2.10 Fractions and Decimal Numbers

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2.11 Scientific Notation

 

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2.12 Real Numbers

 

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2.12.1 Natural Numbers

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2.12.2 Integers

 

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2.12.3 Rational Numbers

 

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2.12.4 Irrational Numbers

 

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2.13 Mathematical Symbols

 

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2.14 Infinity

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2.15 End of Chapter Exercises

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3 Rational Numbers - Grade 10

 

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3.1 Introduction

 

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3.2 The Big Picture of Numbers

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3.3 Definition

 

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vii

CONTENTS

CONTENTS

3.4 Forms of Rational Numbers .

3.5 Converting Terminating Decimals into Rational Numbers

3.6 Converting Repeating Decimals into Rational Numbers

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3.7 Summary

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3.8 End of Chapter Exercises

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4 Exponentials - Grade 10

 

4.1 Introduction

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4.2 Definition

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4.3.1 Exponential Law 1: a 0 = 1

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4.3.2 Exponential Law 2: a m × a n = a m + n

4.3.3 Exponential Law 3:

4.3.4 Exponential Law 4: a m ÷ a n = a m n

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4.3.5 Exponential Law 5: ( ab ) n = a n b n

 

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4.3.6 Exponential Law 6: ( a m ) n = a mn

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5 Estimating Surds - Grade 10

 

5.1 Introduction

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5.2 Drawing Surds on the Number Line (Optional)

5.3 End of Chapter Exercises

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6 Irrational Numbers and Rounding Off - Grade 10

6.1 Introduction

 

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6.2 Irrational Numbers

 

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6.3 Rounding Off

 

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6.4 End of Chapter Exercises

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7 Number Patterns - Grade 10

 

7.1 Common Number Patterns

 

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7.3 Notation

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Patterns and Conjecture

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8 Finance - Grade 10

 

8.1 Introduction

 

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8.2 Foreign Exchange Rates .

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8.2.1 How much is R1 really worth?

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58

CONTENTS

CONTENTS

8.4 Simple Interest

 

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8.4.1

Other Applications of the Simple Interest Formula

 

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8.5 Compound Interest

 

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8.5.1 Fractions add up to the Whole

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8.5.2 The Power of Compound Interest .

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8.5.3 Other Applications of Compound Growth

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