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Ministry of Defence

Defence Standard 02-617


Issue 3 Publication Date 11 October 2004

Design Guide and Requirements for


Equipment to Achieve a Low Magnetic
Signature

Category 2
AMENDMENTS ISSUED SINCE PUBLICATION

AMD NO DATE OF TEXT AFFECTED SIGNATURE &


ISSUE DATE

Revision Note

The Issue of this Standard has been prepared to reflect the change from Interim to Extant
Standard and to reflect minor changes to text and presentation.

Historical Record

DEF STAN 07-242 Issue 2 11 May 2001


DEF STAN 07-242 Issue 1 1 April 2000
DEF STAN 02-617 Issue 1 1 April 2000
NES 617 Issue 3 July 1989
NES 617 Issue 2 December 1988
NES 617 Issue 1 May 1983
DEFENCE STANDARD 02–617 (NES 617)

DESIGN GUIDE AND REQUIREMENTS FOR EQUIPMENT


TO ACHIEVE A LOW MAGNETIC SIGNATURE

ISSUE 3

This Defence Standard is


authorized for use in MOD contracts
by the Defence Procurement Agency and
the Defence Logistics Organisation

Published by:

Defence Procurement Agency


An Executive Agency of The Ministry of Defence
UK Defence Standardization
Kentigern House
65 Brown Street
Glasgow G2 8EX

1
DEF STAN 02–617 / ISSUE 3

SCOPE
1. This Defence Standard (DEF STAN) provides guidance for designers and suppliers of Low
Magnetic Signature equipment, Mine Countermeasures Vessels (MCMV). It includes specific
requirements for the HUNT and Single Role Minehunter (SRMH).
2. The guidance and requirements cover magnetic fields due to ferromagnetic, eddy current and stray
magnetic field sources. A general syetem description is given in Clauses 4.1.1a to 4.1.1f which
outlines the system design principles.
3. The ferromagnetic design guide and requirements contain practical working rules which must be
used only as a guide. The verification processes for equipment acceptance are described.

FOREWORD
Sponsorship
4. This Defence Standard is sponsored by the WSA, MLSIPT, Defence Logistics Organisation
(DLO), Ministry of Defence (MOD).
5. Any user of this Standard either within MOD or in industry may propose an amendment to it.
Proposals for amendments that are not directly applicable to a particular contract are to be made
to the publishing authority identified on Page 1, and those directly applicable to a particular
contract are to be dealt with using existing departmental procedures.
6. If it is found to be unsuitable for any particular requirement, MOD is to be informed in writing
of the circumstances.
7. No alteration is to be made to this Standard except by the issue of an authorized amendment.
8. Unless otherwise stated, reference in this Standard to approval, approved, authorized and similar
terms means by the MOD in writing.
9. Any significant amendments that may be made to this Standard at a later date will be indicated
by a vertical sideline. Deletions will be indicated by 000 appearing at the end of the line interval.
10. Extracts from British Standards quoted within this Standard have been included with the
permission of the British Standards Institution.
11. This Standard has been reissued at Issue 3, dated October 2004 to reflect the status changes from
Interim to Extant and to reflect the minor editorial changes.
Conditions of Release
General
12. This Standard has been devised solely for the use of the MOD, and its contractors in the execution
of contracts for the MOD. To the extent permitted by law, the MOD hereby excludes all liability
whatsoever and howsoever arising (including but without limitation, liability resulting from
negligence) for any loss or damage however caused when the Standard is used for any other
purpose.
13. This document is Crown Copyright and the information herein may be subject to Crown or third
party rights. It is not to be released, reproduced or published without written permission of the
MOD.
14. The Crown reserves the right to amend or modify the contents of this Standard without consulting
or informing any holder.

2
DEF STAN 02–617 / ISSUE 3

MOD Tender or Contract Process


15. This Standard is the property of the Crown. Unless otherwise authorized in writing by the MOD
it must be returned on completion of the contract, or submission of the tender, in connection with
which it is issued.
16. When this Standard is used in connection with a MOD tender or contract, the user is to ensure that
he is in possession of the appropriate version of each document, including related documents,
relevant to each particular tender or contract. Enquiries in this connection may be made to the
authority named in the tender or contract.
17. When Defence Standards are incorporated into MOD contracts, users are responsible for their
correct application and for complying with contractual and any other statutory requirements.
Compliance with an Defence Standard does not of itself confer immunity from legal obligations.
Categories of Defence Standard
18. The Category of this Standard has been determined using the following criteria:
a. Category 1. If not applied may have a Critical affect on the following:
Safety of the vessel, its complement or third parties.
Operational performance of the vessel, its systems or equipment.
b. Category 2. If not applied may have a Significant affect on the following:
Safety of the vessel, its complement or third parties.
Operational performance of the vessel, its systems or equipment.
Through life costs and support.
c. Category 3. If not applied may have a Minor affect on the following:
MOD best practice and fleet commonality.
Corporate Experience and Knowledge.
Current support practice.
Related Documents
19. In the tender and procurement processes the related documents listed in each section and Annex
A can be obtained as follows:
a. British Standards British Standards Institution,
389 Chiswick High Road,
London, W4 4AL.
b. Defence Standards Defence Procurement Agency,
An Executive Agency of the Ministry of Defence,
UK Defence Standardization,
Kentigern House,
65 Brown Street,
Glasgow, G2 8EX.
c. Other documents Tender or Contract Sponsor to advise.
20. All applications to Ministry Establishments for related documents are to quote the relevant MOD
Invitation to Tender or Contract number and date, together with the sponsoring Directorate and
the Tender or Contract Sponsor.
21. Prime Contractors are responsible for supplying their subcontractors with relevant
documentation, including specifications, standards and drawings.

3
DEF STAN 02–617 / ISSUE 3

Health and Safety


Warning
22. This Standard may call for the use of processes, substances and/or procedures that may be injurious
to health if adequate precautions are not taken. It refers only to technical suitability and in no way
absolves either the supplier or the user from statutory obligations relating to health and safety at
any stage of manufacture or use. Where attention is drawn to hazards, those quoted may not
necessarily be exhaustive.
23. This Standard has been written, and is to be used, taking into account the policy stipulated in
JSP 430: MOD Ship Safety Management System Handbook.
Additional Information
Terminology
24. The terminology used in this Defence Standard follows the NATO convention for magnetic
silencing defined in NATO document AMP–14. Terms and Symbols used in this Standard are
defined in Annex B.
System of Units
25. The system of units used in this specification is the International System of Units (SI) complying
with BS 5555 with the Sommerfeld convention for magnetic measurements. This system is the
NATO standard in degaussing and magnetic silencing.
26. For consistency with DEF STAN 02–617 Issue 3, imperial units have been retained for certain
HUNT design parameters.

4
DEF STAN 02–617 / ISSUE 3

CONTENTS
Page No

TITLE PAGE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1

SCOPE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2

FOREWORD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2

Sponsorship ............................................................... 2

Conditions of Release . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2

Categories of Defence Standards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3

Related Documents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3

Health and Safety . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4

Additional Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4

CONTENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5

SECTION 1. PERFORMANCE SPECIFICATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10


1.1 Verification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
Table 1 Verification Stages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
1.2 System Validation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10

SECTION 2. NATIONAL/INTERNATIONAL REGULATIONS . . . . . . . 10

SECTION 3. MILITARY STANDARDS/REQUIREMENTS . . . . . . . . . . . 10

SECTION 4. DESIGN REQUIREMENTS/GUIDANCE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11


4.1 General System Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
4.1.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
4.1.2 Magnetic Signature Requirement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
4.1.3 Magnetic Signature Apportionment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
4.1.3.1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
4.1.3.2 Ferromagnetic Field . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
4.1.3.3 Eddy Current Field . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
4.1.3.4 Stray Field . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
4.2 Magnetic Signature Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
4.2.1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
4.2.2 Contractor’s Average Relative Permeability Checks . . . . . . 14
4.2.3 Contractor’s Magnetic Field Measurements . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
4.2.4 Magnetic Land Ranging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
4.2.5 Position and Orientation on the Vessel of
Equipment Containing Magnetic Sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
4.2.6 Magnetic Sea Ranging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
4.2.7 Magnetic Signature Tracking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
4.3 Extra Low Frequency Electromagnetic and
Underwater Electric Potential Fields . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15

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DEF STAN 02–617 / ISSUE 3

Page No
4.4 Design Guide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
4.4.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
4.5 Design Guide – Ferromagnetic Field Source . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
4.5.1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
4.5.2 Materials having an Electromagnetic Function . . . . . . . . . . . 16
4.5.3 Materials Requiring Mechanical Strength . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
4.5.4 Materials where there is no Practicable Alternative . . . . . . . . 16
4.6 Design Guide – Eddy Current Field Sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
4.7 Design Guide – Stray Field Sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
4.7.1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
4.7.2 Detailed Principles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
4.7.3 Stray Field Design Guide for the Arrangement of Cables . . . 18
4.7.4 Stray Field Design Guide for the Arrangement of Batteries . 18
4.7.5 Stray Field Design Guide for Motor Generators . . . . . . . . . . . 18
4.7.6 Stray Field Design Guide for Induction Clutches . . . . . . . . . . 18
4.7.7 Stray Field Design Guide for Solenoid and Resistors . . . . . . . 18
4.7.8 Stray Field Design Guide for Switch and Contactor Panels . 18
4.8 Design Guide – Working, Handling, Stowage, Packaging
and Transport of Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
4.8.1 General Principles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
4.8.2 Detailed Principles and Guidelines – Magnetic Fields . . . . . . 19
4.8.3 Detailed Principles and Guidelines – Mechanical Stress . . . 20
4.8.4 Detailed Principles and Guidelines – Temperature . . . . . . . . 21
4.9 Detailed Principles and Guidelines – Contamination . . . . . . 21
4.10 Design Guides – Compensation Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
4.11 Design Requirements for HUNT and SRMH . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
4.11.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
4.12 Design Requirement – Ferromagnetic Field Sources . . . . . . 22
4.12.1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
4.12.2 To Calculate Average Relative Magnetic Permeability . . . . . 23
Figure 1 Relationship between Materials with Permeabilities of less
than 2.5, their Volume and Magnetic Field Factor. (SRMH) 25
Figure 2 Relationship between materials with Permeabilities less
than 1.4 (Volume 0.1 cubic feet to 1000 cubic feet)
and Magnetic Field Factor (HUNT) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
Figure 3 Relationship between material with Permeabilities less
than 2.5 (Volume 0.1 cubic feet to 10 cubic feet)
and Magnetic Field Factor (HUNT) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
Figure 4 Relationship between Materials with Permeabilities
of 2.5 and above, their Volume and
Magnetic Field Factor (SRMH) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
Figure 5 Relationship between Materials with Permeabilities of 2.5 and
above (Volume 0.001 cubic feet to 10 cubic feet) and
Magnetic Field Factor (HUNT) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
4.13 Design Requirements – Eddy Current Field Sources . . . . . . 30
4.13.1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
Table 2 Equivalent Values, Conductivity and Resistivity . . . . . . . . . . 30
4.13.2 Sheet Materials (Figures 6 and 7) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30

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DEF STAN 02–617 / ISSUE 3

Page No
Table 3 Sheet Material – Conductivity Calculation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
Table 4 Frames and Pipes – Conductivity Calculation . . . . . . . . . . . 31
4.13.3 Frames and Pipes (Figures 8 and 9) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
Figure 6 Relationship between Area, Thickness and Conductivity
of Sheet Material (SRMH). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
Figure 7 Relationship between Area, Thickness and Conductivity
of Sheet Material (HUNT) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
Figure 8 Relationship between Area, Cross Section and Conductivity
of any Frame or Pipe (SRMH) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
4.14 Design Requirements – Stray Field Sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
Figure 9 Relationship between Area, Cross Section and Conductivity
of any Frame or Pipe (HUNT) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
4.15 Sources of Guidance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35

SECTION 5. CORPORATE KNOWLEDGE AND EXPERIENCE . . . . . . 36

ANNEX A. RELATED DOCUMENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A.1

ANNEX B. ABBREVIATIONS AND DEFINITIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B.1

ANNEX C. PROCUREMENT CHECK LIST . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C.1

ANNEX D. AVERAGE RELATIVE MAGNETIC PERMEABILITY . . D.1


D.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D.1
D.2 Definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D.1
Figure D1 Plot showing Induced Magnetic Moment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D.2
D.3 Assumptions and Approximations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D.4
D.4 Relationship Between Average Magnetic Permeability, Land
Range Measurements and Ship’s Magnetic Signatures . . . . D.4
Figure D2 Relationship Between Magnetic Dipole Moment and
Magnetic Flux Density . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D.5

ANNEX E. AVERAGE RELATIVE MAGNETIC PERMEABILITY . . E.1


E.1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E.1
E.2 When to Measure Relative Magnetic Permeability . . . . . . . . E.1
E.3 Measuring Relative Magnetic Permeability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E.1
E.4 Measuring Relative Magnetic Permeability –
Comments and Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E.2

ANNEX F. CALCULATION OF AVERAGE MAGNETIC


PERMEABILITY (HUNT) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . F.1
F.1 Example 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . F.1
F.2 Example 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . F.1

ANNEX G. CALCULATION OF AVERAGE MAGNETIC


PERMEABILITY (SRMH) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . G.1
G.1 Example 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . G.1
G.2 Example 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . G.1

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DEF STAN 02–617 / ISSUE 3

Page No

ANNEX H. STRAY FIELD – GUIDE FOR THE ARRANGEMENT


OF CABLES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . H.1
H.1 Direct Current Power Cables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . H.1
H.1.1 Four Conductor Quadded Cables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . H.1
H.1.2 Double Conductor Cables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . H.1
H.1.3 Single Conductor Cables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . H.1
H.2 Alternating Current Power Cables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . H.2
H.2.1 Phase Conductors in a Common Core . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . H.2
H.2.2 Phase Conductors in a Separate Cables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . H.2
H.3 Cable Terminal Connections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . H.2
H.3.1 Compatibility of Cable Runs and Terminals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . H.2
H.3.2 Arrangement of Terminals and Approach by Cable Run . . . H.2
H.3.3 Three Terminal Arrangements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . H.2
H.3.4 Connecting Four Single Conductor Cables
to Three Terminals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . H.2
H.3.5 Connecting Eight Single Conductor Cables
to Three Terminals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . H.2
H.3.6 Connecting Six Single Conductor Cables
to Three Terminals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . H.2
Figure H1 Arrangement of Single Conductor dc Cables
for Opposing Current Loops . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . H.3
Figure H2 Unequal Current Division Among Cables
Connected in Parallel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . H.4
Figure H3 Edgewise and Flat Three Terminal Arrangements . . . . . . . . . H.5
Figure H4 Connection of an Endways Cable Run with Four Cables
to Edgewise Terminals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . H.6
Figure H5 Connection of a Crossways Cable Run with Four Cables
to Edgewise Terminals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . H.7
Figure H6 Connection of Endways Cable Run with Four Cables
to Flat Terminals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . H.8
Figure H7 Connection of a Crossways Cable Run with Four Cables
to Flat Terminals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . H.9
Figure H8 Connection to an Endways Cable Run with Eight Cables
to Flat Terminals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . H.9
Figure H9 Connection to a Crossways Cable Run with Eight Cables
to Flat Terminals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . H.10
Figure H10 Connection to a Sideways Cable Run with Eight Cables
to Flat Terminals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . H.10
Figure H11 Connection to an Endways and Crossways Cable Run
with Six Cables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . H.11
ANNEX I. STRAY FIELD – GUIDE FOR THE ARRANGEMENT
OF BATTERIES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I.1
I.1 Definitions and General Principles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I.1
I.2 Series and Parallel Compensation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I.1
I.3 Positioning of Battery Connecting Bus Bars . . . . . . . . . . . . . I.1
I.4 Positioning of Connecting Bus Bars . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I.1
I.5 Preferred Storage Battery Arrangements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I.1
I.6 Battery Arrangement Warning Plates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I.1

8
DEF STAN 02–617 / ISSUE 3

Page No

ANNEX J. STRAY FIELD – GUIDE FOR MOTORS


AND GENERATORS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . J.1
J.1 Frame Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . J.1
J.1.1 Frame Type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . J.1
J.1.2 Frame Material . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . J.1
J.1.3 Frame Outside Shape . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . J.1
J.1.4 Current Carrying Leads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . J.1
J.2 Poles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . J.1
J.2.1 Number of Poles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . J.1
J.2.2 Orientation of Field poles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . J.1
J.2.3 Magnetic Contact . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . J.1
J.3 Symmetry and Uniformity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . J.1
J.3.1 Air Gaps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . J.1
J.3.2 Commutating Poles (Interpoles) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . J.2
J.3.3 Number of Turns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . J.2
J.3.4 Equalizer Connections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . J.2
J.4 Wiring Around the Frame . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . J.2
J.4.1 Field Coils . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . J.2
J.4.2 Commutating Coils and Compensating Windings . . . . . . . . J.2
J.5 Brush Collector Rings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . J.2
J.5.1 Construction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . J.2
J.5.2 Arrangement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . J.2
J.5.3 Current Take–off Point . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . J.2
J.5.4 Connections from Brush Collector Rings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . J.3
J.5.5 Position of Brush Collector Rings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . J.3
J.5.6 Brush Rigging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . J.3
J.5.7 Number of Commutator Bars . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . J.3
J.5.8 Double Armature Machines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . J.3
ANNEX K. STRAY FIELD – GUIDE FOR INDUCTION CLUTCHES K.1
K.1 Field Pole Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . K.1
K.2 Field Coil Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . K.1
K.3 Number of Field Poles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . K.1
ANNEX L. STRAY FIELD – GUIDE FOR SWITCH AND
CONTACTOR PANELS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . L.1
L.1 Basic Conductor Arrangement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . L.1
L.2 Conductor Bends . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . L.1
L.2.1 Conductors Lying in Different Planes on Each Side
of the Bend . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . L.1
L.2.2 Conductors Lying in the Same Plane on Each Side
of the Bend . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . L.1
L.3 Devices in Power Circuits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . L.1
L.3.1 Power Circuit Arrangements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . L.1
Figure L1 Bend for Conductors Lying in Different Planes on
Each Side of the Bend . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . L.2
Figure L2 Bend for Conductors Lying in the Same Plane on
Each Side of the Bend . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . L.3

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DEF STAN 02–617 / ISSUE 3

1. PERFORMANCE SPECIFICATION
Related Documents: There are no related documents in this section.
1.1 Verification

a. The magnetic performance of low magnetic signature equipment shall be verified


as required by the Procurement Authority at the following stages:
Programme Stage Verifying Action Location
Design Approval Check average relative permeability (see Contractor
Clause 4.12.2).
Approve drawings. Procurement
Authority
Manufacture: Check relative permeability Contractor
Inspect raw material (see Annex E.).
Manufacture: Check relative permeability of fabricated Contractor
Check finished items parts (see Annex E.).
Check relative permeability of finished Contractor
assemblies (see
Clause 4.12.2). Contractor
Contractor’s magnetic field measurements
(see Clause 4.2.3).
Measure equipment Ferromagnetic signature (see Land Range
signature on Land Range Clause 4.2.4).
Stray field signature (see Land Range
Clause 4.2.4).
Ship Magnetic Ranging Measure ship’s ferromagnetic signature. Open Sea Range
Set degaussing controls (see Clause 4.2.6).
Measure ship’s eddy current signature.
Set the degaussing controls. Roll Range

Table 1 – Verification Stages

1.2 System Validation

a. The ship’s magnetic signature performance is validated by an open sea magnetic


measuring range (see Clause 4.2.6).

2. NATIONAL/INTERNATIONAL REGULATIONS
This Defence Standard contains no National/International Regulations information.

3. MILITARY STANDARDS/REQUIREMENTS
This Defence Standard contains no Military Standards/Requirements information.

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DEF STAN 02–617 / ISSUE 3

4. DESIGN REQUIREMENTS/GUIDANCE
Related Documents: DEF STAN 02–612; AMP–14; see also Annex A.
4.1 General System Description
4.1.1 Introduction
a. This section provides general background to assist in understanding the Design
Guide (see Clause 4.4) and the Design Requirements for the HUNT and Single Role
Minehunters (SRMH) (see Clause 4.11).
b. A ship’s ferromagnetic fields are exploited by mine designers because the short
range influence maximises the chances of serious damage to the ship. It is essential
therefore that the magnetic fields of Mine Countermeasure Vessel (MCMV) are
reduced to the lowest practical level.
c. Since the hull is made from non–magnetic material (GRP, wood, or special steel),
the magnetic effect of an MCMV is due mainly to the on–board equipments.
d. This section outlines the basis of the guidelines and requirements for designing low
magnetic signature equipments. The process was developed for the HUNT and
SRMH, but may be applied to other vessels by following the Design Guide (see
Clause 4.4) and developing different design requirement limits (see
Clause 4.11 Design Requirement for HUNT and SRMH) as required.
e. This section also outlines the overall process for designing low magnetic signature
vessels and ensuring the requirement is met.
f. The magnetic effect of an MCMV depends on:
(1) Ferromagnetic Field Sources;
(2) Eddy Current Field Sources;
(3) dc Stray Field Sources (ship’s power systems);
(4) ac Stray Field Sources (ship’s power systems);
(5) Extra Low Frequency Electromagnetic (ELFE) and Underwater Electric
Potential (UEP) sources;
(6) Position and orientation of magnetic equipment on the vessel;
(7) The form of magnetic compensation and degaussing;
(8) This Defence Standard gives detailed design guidance for minimising (1),
(2), (3) and (4). Items (5), (6) and (7) are discussed briefly.
4.1.2 Magnetic Signature Requirement
a. A vessel’s magnetic signature requirement is defined by operational assessment
studies and is based on the vessel’s role, the perceived threat and the budget
constraints.
b. The recommended NATO magnetic signature requirement for MCMV is defined in
document AMP–14. Individual navies may choose alternative limits to suit their
particular requirements. In the United Kingdom, ADNA/SR on behalf of
DOR(SEA) define the Signature Target Level (STL) through the committee
structure for input into the appropriate Staff Requirement (SR).

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DEF STAN 02–617 / ISSUE 3

4.1.3 Magnetic Signature Apportionment


4.1.3.1 General
a. The signature requirement is apportioned into detailed ferromagnetic, eddy
current, and stray field requirements for each equipment. These requirements are
the basis of the Design Guide (see Clause 4.4) and the Design Requirements for
HUNT and SRMH (see Clause 4.11).
b. Initially, the magnetic signature requirement is translated into vessel magnetic
moments assuming the vessel is represented as a three–axis dipole source. Whilst
this is not strictly accurate, it has been found sufficient in practice for system design
purposes. These moments are apportioned into total allowable magnetic moments
for the ferromagnetic, eddy current and stray field contributions. The
ferromagnetic portion takes account of the expected improvement due to
degaussing. The apportionment depends on features of construction and
equipment fit, and may typically be 70:20:10 for ferro:eddy:stray.
4.1.3.2 Ferromagnetic Field
a. The allowable ferromagnetic moment is split into an allowance for each equipment
by taking a fraction of the total allowable ferromagnetic moment using the ratio,
(volume of a specific equipment)/(sum of volumes of all equipments).
b. Individual equipment moments are then split into permanent and induced moments
by assuming:
(1) Vertical magnetic equilibrium where PVM = IVM
(2) Randomly orientated horizontal permanent moments and accounting for
them by assuming PLM = 1/3ILM and PAM = 1/3IAM.
c. A major assumption in apportioning ferromagnetic moments and in modelling for
magnetic signature tracking (see Clause 4.2.7), is that the magnetic interaction
between equipments with a low ferromagnetic content is not significant, i.e. the
principle of superposition is valid. This has been found correct to an acceptable
extent for typical equipment and machinery distributions on board an MCMV.
Care must be taken in applying this principle to close proximity ferromagnetic
components.
d. The resulting magnetic moments are the foundation for the Ferromagnetic Design
Guide (see Clause 4.5) and the Ferromagnetic Design Requirements (see Clause
4.12). The latter uses a set of practical rules based on the concept of average relative
magnetic permeability. Since these rules are derived by making certain
assumptions and approximations, they must be used only as a general guide.
Average relative magnetic permeability is defined in Annex B.
e. The ultimate acceptance of an equipment for MCMV service is determined by
magnetic land range measurements (see Clause 4.2.4) or contractor’s certified
magnetic field measurements (see Clause 4.2.3) supported, if necessary, by a
signature tracking acceptance (see Clause 4.2.7)
f. The bench marks for magnetic land range acceptance and signature tracking
acceptance are the apportioned magnetic moments for each equipment. These may
be modified by the magnetic signature design authority as designs evolve and the
vessel programme proceeds. The overall aim is to meet the vessel’s magnetic
signature requirement.

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DEF STAN 02–617 / ISSUE 3

g. The residual magnetic effect of equipments which, by the nature of their function,
cannot be made low magnetic are compensated with degaussing if required
(see Clause 4.10).
4.1.3.3 Eddy Current Field
a. The allowable eddy current magnetic moments are split into an allowance for each
equipment by using the ratio of equipment volumes as in the ferromagnetic case.
The allocated moments are transformed into Design Requirements for suppliers of
equipment for the HUNT and SRMH (see Clause 4.13). The requirements take the
form of limits for the areas of electrically conducting sheets and loops.
b. The allocated equipment moments are also used as bench marks for magnetic land
range acceptance tests, roll range acceptance tests and magnetic signature tracking
acceptance.
c. Eddy current magnetic field sources are reduced by design (Design Guide, see
Clause 4.6; Design Requirements, see Clause 4.13). Degaussing compensation can
be applied if necessary and has been used on the HUNT.
4.1.3.4 Stray Field
a. The dc and ac stray magnetic fields are reduced by the design measures described in
Clause 4.7.
4.2 Magnetic Signature Control
4.2.1 General
a. A ship’s ferromagnetic, eddy current and stray magnetic fields are controlled by a
sequence of steps:
(1) Equipment design and production controls. These controls are applied by
contractors and are based on the Design Guide (see Clause 4.4) and the
Design Requirements (see Clause 4.11) in this specification. Proposed
equipment designs are approved by the appointed design authority. Existing
standard designs could be submitted to the Magnetic Land Range for
approval.
(2) Equipment–final verification. The magnetic effect of individual equipments
is verified in three ways:
(a) Contractor’s average relative permeability checks (see Clause 4.2.2)
(b) Contractor’s magnetic field measurements (see Clause 4.2.3)
(c) Magnetic land range measurements. (see Clause 4.2.4)
(3) Ship magnetic design. The position and orientation of equipments on–board
the ship is controlled (see Clause 4.2.5).
(4) Degaussing. An appropriate degaussing system is fitted to compensate
residual ferromagnetic and eddy current fields (see Clause 4.10)
(5) Validation. The measurement and optimisation of the ship’ s magnetic
signature is carried out on a magnetic sea range (see Clause 4.2.6)
(6) Magnetic signature tracking. This activity co–ordinates the overall process
(see Clause 4.2.7).
b. Verification and validation stages are described in Clauses 1.1 and 1.2.

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DEF STAN 02–617 / ISSUE 3

4.2.2 Contractor’s Average Relative Permeability Checks


a. The method of carrying out these checks is described in Clause 4.12.2.
b. The checks are carried out by the contractor to confirm that a proposed design or a
manufactured item meets the requirement. The process is strictly a guide and may
be confirmed by a contractor’s accredited magnetic field measurements (see Clause
4.2.3) or by magnetic land ranging (see Clause 4.2.4).
4.2.3 Contractor’s Magnetic Field Measurements
a. These checks are carried out by accredited contractors in accordance with
procedures in documents DGUW(N) Pub 84282 and 84281. They are intended to
give contractors increased control, reduce programme delays and reduce the land
range work load.
b. They use magnetic field measurements to determine if an equipment meets the
magnetic signature requirement.
4.2.4 Magnetic Land Ranging
a. A magnetic land range is used to measure the ferromagnetic effect of equipments
prior to on–board installation to confirm they meet the allocated magnetic signature
requirements.
b. A land range may also be used for:
(1) Calibrating the built in degaussing coils on individual equipments;
(2) Measuring Stray Fields;
(3) Measuring Eddy Current Fields. (This function is carried out on the roll
range for the HUNT and SRMH equipments);
(4) Carrying out PVM stabilisation.
4.2.5 Position and Orientation on the Vessel of Equipment Containing Magnetic Sources
a. Equipments containing unavoidable magnetic sources are preferably located as
high in the ship as is practicable and are evenly dispersed through the ship to avoid
producing peaks in the ship’s magnetic signature.
b. Equipment orientation is chosen to minimise the magnetic signature. Where the
choice exists, long thin objects shall be oriented horizontally to minimise their
magnetic fields beneath the ship.
c. The vessel’s magnetic signature must be measured with the vessel in a defined
“reference” condition. Movable equipments having magnetic sources must
therefore have designated stowage spaces.
4.2.6 Magnetic Sea Ranging
a. A magnetic sea range is used to measure the ship’s magnetic signature and set the
vessel’s degaussing system controls to obtain the minimum magnetic signature. An
open sea range is used to measure the ferromagnetic signature and a roll range to
measure the eddy current signature.
b. Degaussing current values are accurately determined for individual equipment
coils on the land range. These settings must be applied on the ship prior to sea
ranging.

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DEF STAN 02–617 / ISSUE 3

4.2.7 Magnetic Signature Tracking

a. Magnetic signature tracking is a computer based magnetic modelling process


which is used to build and maintain a magnetic model of the ship. The model is
constructed in the early stages of design and is used to monitor the vessel’s
predicted magnetic signature as the design evolves and as a vessel is built.
b. Magnetic signature tracking may be used to help decide whether a manufactured
equipment which exceeds the design criteria is acceptable for MCMV service.
c. Magnetic signature tracking is controlled by the vessel’s magnetic signature design
authority.
4.3 Extra Low Frequency Electromagnetic and Underwater Electric Potential Fields

a. Signature Target Levels (STL) are set for Static Magnetic (SM), Static Electric
(SE), Alternating Magnetic (AM) and Alternating Electric (AE) for vessels where
appropriate. The SE term is sometimes referred to as Underwater Electric Potential
(UEP). The main source of UEP is through the use of dissimilar metals, such as
NAB and steel. The Impressed Current Cathodic Protection (ICCP) System is used
to counter the corrosion currents from the dissimilar metals and also contributes to
the SE signature. AE and AM contributions are usually defined in terms of shaft
related (usually referred to as Extra Low Frequency Electromagnetic (ELFE)), and
power related.
b. The electromagnetic fields originating from a ship’s ac power system are
controlled by this specification (stray field design).
c. Corrosion related ELFE and UEP signature control is described briefly in
DEF STAN 02–612.
4.4 Design Guide

4.4.1 Introduction

a. This section provides guidance for suppliers and designers of low magnetic
signature equipment.
b. Materials and their fabrication shall be selected in accordance with Clause 4.5 to
minimise the ferromagnetic field.
c. Electrically conducting materials shall obey the size and construction constraints
defined in Clause 4.6 to minimise eddy current fields.
d. dc (and also ac at power frequencies) electrical systems shall be designed in
accordance with Clause 4.7 minimise stray magnetic fields.
e. Handling, stowage, packaging, and transport of materials shall be in accordance
with Clause 4.8.
f. Residual magnetic fields shall be compensated using the methods in
Clause 4.10.
g. Verification steps specified in Clause 1.1 shall be applied.

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DEF STAN 02–617 / ISSUE 3

4.5 Design Guide – Ferromagnetic Field Source


4.5.1 General
a. The materials used in low magnetic equipments shall, as far as is reasonably
practicable, be non–magnetic. Some materials will necessarily be magnetic and
guidance on them is given in Clauses 4.5.2 to 4.5.4. The net magnetic effect of all
the materials in an equipment shall be such that the equipment’s average relative
magnetic permeability shall not be greater than the vessel’s design requirement.
b. The ferromagnetic design requirements for the HUNT and SRMH are specified in
Clause 4.12. The design requirements for other vessels will be specified by the
magnetic signature design authority for those vessels and they will be applied in the
same way as those for the HUNT and SRMH.
c. Average relative magnetic permeability is defined in Annex B.
d. Low magnetic requirements are difficult to meet. The best chance of meeting them,
with the lowest risk, is to use non–magnetic material to the greatest practicable
extent.
4.5.2 Materials having an Electromagnetic Function
a. Such materials will be magnetic, but the volume of the material and features which
enhance its magnetic effect shall be minimised.
b. These items shall be included in the calculation of average magnetic permeability.
(see Clause 4.12.2).
4.5.3 Materials Requiring Mechanical Strength
a. Where materials require special mechanical strength properties which cannot be
met with a non–magnetic material, then a magnetic material may be used. Its
volume and features which enhance its magnetic effect shall be minimised.
b. These items shall be included in the calculation of average magnetic permeability.
(see Clause 4.12.2).
c. Magnetic remanence (permanent magnetism) shall be minimised by:
(1) Selecting appropriate materials during design;
(2) Taking care in handling materials and parts during manufacture (see Clause
4.8);
(3) Carrying out appropriate magnetic treatment on parts or the whole equipment
after manufacture.
4.5.4 Materials where there is no Practicable Alternative
a. Standard components having some of their parts made from magnetic material will
be allowable provided there is no practicable alternative. The number of such
items, the volume of magnetic material and the features which enhance their
magnetic effect shall be minimised. Examples of items in this category are
semiconductor cases, parts of other standard electronic components and parts of
other proprietary items.
b. These items shall be included in the calculation of average magnetic permeability.
(see Clause 4.12.2 ).

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DEF STAN 02–617 / ISSUE 3

4.6 Design Guide – Eddy Current Field Sources

a. Eddy current field sources shall be controlled during design by selecting suitable
materials and limiting the size of electrically conducting sheets, frames and pipes.
b. The magnitude of an eddy current field source depends on:
(1) The velocity of movement of the vessel (roll, pitch);
(2) The magnitude of the earth’s magnetic field;
(3) The square of the effective area of the sheet, frame or pipe;
(4) The cross sectional area of the sheet, frame or pipe;
(5) The electrical conductivity of the sheet, frame or pipe.
Items (3), (4) and (5) are controlled by design.
c. The enclosed areas of sheets, frames and pipes for equipments intended for the
HUNT or SRMH shall comply with the design requirements in
Clause 4.13.3. The design requirements for other vessels will be specified by the
magnetic signature design authority for those vessels. If the design requirement
areas cannot be met, the areas shall be split as indicated in
Clause 4.13.3. Since the magnitude of the eddy current field is proportional to the
square of the enclosed area, then splitting an area into two equal halves will halve
the total magnitude.
d. All conductors used for electrical grounding shall not form any electrically
continuous loops.
e. The peak magnetic moments, and hence the peak magnetic fields, for simple loops
and sheets can readily be calculated using standard text book formulae. Computer
methods are normally used for more complex shapes and real vessel motions.
4.7 Design Guide – Stray Field Sources

4.7.1 General

a. The stray field sources shall be controlled during design by minimising the
magnetic fields produced by current carrying conductors within an equipment.
This applies to dc and low frequency ac currents.
b. These principles shall be followed for all vessels. There are no specific design
requirement parameters for the HUNT and SRMH.
c. The general principle is to always arrange current carrying circuits so that their
magnetic fields are compensated by equal and opposite circuits. For example, flow
and return conductors are run together as quads and where there are current loops,
their areas must be minimised and their magnetic effects compensated by equal and
opposite closely adjacent loops.
4.7.2 Detailed Principles

a. Simplicity: Use simple solutions. Arrange heavy current cables in quads. Use
four or more poles in dc machines.

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DEF STAN 02–617 / ISSUE 3

b. Current Loops: The net magnetic field from two equal and opposite current loops
is proportional to the current, the loop area, and their distance apart. Minimise each
of these by design.
c. Series or Parallel Compensation: A current carrying circuit shall preferably have
its compensation circuit connected in series to ensure the currents are equal. If
parallel compensation is unavoidable, steps must be taken to ensure currents
remain equal.
d. Self Compensation: An item of equipment is compensated within itself. The
compensation shall not be dependent on the equipment’s orientation (in the vessel).
e. Mutual Compensation: Two or more similar equipments or components are
positioned so that their stray fields cancel each other.
f. Magnetic Material: Magnetic material must never form the core of a current loop
unless it is essential for the design.
4.7.3 Stray Field Design Guide for the Arrangement of Cables

a. Cables shall be arranged in accordance with ANNEX H.


4.7.4 Stray Field Design Guide for the Arrangement of Batteries

a. Batteries shall be arranged in accordance with ANNEX I. Any battery arrangement


whose centre is separated from its associated equipment by more than 1.5 metres
shall be considered a separate stray field source and not as part of the its associated
equipment. Any battery arrangement whose centre is within 0.3 metres of its
associated equipment shall be considered part of the equipment as a stray field
source.
4.7.5 Stray Field Design Guide for Motor Generators

a. Motors and generators shall conform to the requirements of ANNEX J.


4.7.6 Stray Field Design Guide for Induction Clutches

a. Standard commercial forms of induction clutch design can usually be modified to


minimise the stray magnetic field. The design of induction clutches shall conform
with the requirements of ANNEX K.
4.7.7 Stray Field Design Guide for Solenoid and Resistors

a. Solenoids shall be mutually compensated. Additional compensating coils shall be


used where appropriate.
b. Tubular resistors shall be wound non–inductively. Heavy duty ones for motor
starting shall also be mutually compensated.
4.7.8 Stray Field Design Guide for Switch and Contactor Panels

a. Switch and contactor panels shall conform to the requirements of ANNEX L.


b.

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DEF STAN 02–617 / ISSUE 3

4.8 Design Guide – Working, Handling, Stowage, Packaging and Transport of


Materials
4.8.1 General Principles
a. The magnetic performance of materials can be altered by:

(1) Exposure to external magnetic fields;

(2) Imposition of Mechanical stress;

(3) Temperature changes;

(4) Contamination by other magnetic materials.

b. External magnetic fields will magnetise ferromagnetic materials. Stress will


enhance the magnetising effect and can cause a permanent change in permeability if
the material is taken beyond its elastic limit.

c. The general principal of handling is to avoid or minimise exposure to these factors.

d. It is recommended that parts and materials which unavoidably become magnetised


during manufacture are demagnetised.

4.8.2 Detailed Principles and Guidelines – Magnetic Fields

a. All parts and materials intended for MCMV must not be exposed, even for
extremely brief times, to ambient magnetic fields greater than 100 µT. This
includes dc fields and peak ac fields up to 400 Hz. This guideline applies to
transport, storage, assembly and working of parts and materials. As a guide, the
earth’s magnetic field is approximately 50 µT in the United Kingdom.

b. Magnetic fields are produced by:

(1) Electric current carrying conductors, dc or ac;

(2) Permanent magnets, electromagnets, electromagnetic machines;

(3) Ferromagnetic materials used in buildings, jetties, foundations, vehicles,


lifting equipment, pallets, workbenches, storage bins, etc., will become
magnetised in the earth’s magnetic field and act as magnetic sources.

c. Requirement of Clause 4.8.2b (1) implies that parts and materials must not be
placed any closer to current carrying conductors than the distance given by:
distance r = 0.002∗I metres
Where I = Net current in amperes (dc or ac peak) carried
by one or more conductors running together.
Net current = current x number of turns.

This rule is derived from:


µoI
B = 2πr Teslas

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DEF STAN 02–617 / ISSUE 3

d. In certain buildings, areas close to steel support girders or steel foundations may be
unsuitable and items must not be placed near them. The following clearance
distances shall be used as a guide:
(1) Within 1 m of external walls, pillars, or electric lights;
(2) Within 2 m of any pillar of an overhead gantry crane;
(3) Within 1 m of overhead gantry cranes or wires;
(4) Within 2 m of overhead gantry crane racks, electric motors or any pillar
loaded with this type of equipment.
e. Non magnetic shelving systems, storage containers and pallets must be used.
f. Parts and materials placed on steel floors shall be isolated with non–magnetic
pallets. Similarly, they shall be isolated from steel benches by at least 20 mm of
non–magnetic material.
g. Parts and materials must not be lifted or handled with electromagnets or gripped
with magnetic clamps.
h. Permanent magnets must not be used for checking if materials are magnetic.
Magnetic permeability must be checked with a permeability tester as described in
ANNEX E.
i. Certain types of electric fork lift trucks may be unsuitable because of their large
stray magnetic field. Those with the motors away from the lifting forks can
generally be used. Certain types of mechanical fork lift trucks may also be
unsuitable owing to the transient stray magnetic field from the starter motor current
surge. If available, non–ferrous lifting forks are recommended, steel ones can
become magnetised with use.
4.8.3 Detailed Principles and Guidelines – Mechanical Stress

a. All forms of mechanical stress, e.g. cold working, machining, vibration and shock,
can affect the magnetic properties of materials. Stress alone can increase a
material’s magnetisation to the extent that a non–magnetic material with no cold
working, may become magnetic after cold working. Stress combined with a
magnetic field can also increase the magnetisation. The general principle is to
avoid mechanically stressing all parts and materials, especially those which have
been demagnetised after working.
b. Working stresses at room temperature can transform low magnetic, austenitic,
stainless steels into ferromagnetic ferrite or martensitic steels through plastic
deformation. Pipe bending and sheet folding must only be carried out when
essential for certain types of stainless steel.
c. Screws and bolts made from nominally non–magnetic material can become
magnetic because of stresses during manufacture or through over–tightening in
use.
d. Austenitic stainless steels can be obtained with a range of “stability” of the
austenitic phase. For example, the 316LN, 254SMO varieties are very stable and
unlikely to be transformed to magnetic phases under normal working conditions.

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DEF STAN 02–617 / ISSUE 3

e. The 301, 302, 304 and 308 series of stainless materials are often referred to as
“metastable”. These are most likely to be transformed to magnetic phases by
plastic deformation at room temperature. They can also suffer a transformation at
cryogenic temperatures.

f. Most care must be taken when working with these metastable stainless steels.
Heating during fabrication can be tolerated, but care must be exercised over the
method of cooling. A material quench to sub–zero temperatures must be avoided.
Slow cooling to room temperature is more likely to allow unwanted growth of the
equilibrium phase (ferrite), although this is unlikely unless the material is worked
during the cooling process.

g. The storage and carriage of parts and materials shall be effected such that items are
not unduly stressed. Sheets shall be laid horizontally or stood vertically on flat
surfaces rather than “bridged” across supports. Stressing caused by the weight of
items stacked in layers shall be avoided. Parts and materials must be carried and
placed carefully. They must not be dropped (shock).

h. Machining shall be effected using good workshop practices. Undue stressing by


taking deep cuts in milling or turning shall be avoided.

4.8.4 Detailed Principles and Guidelines – Temperature

a. Temperature affects the magnetic properties of materials in several ways:

(1) Causes small reversible magnetisation changes for changes in temperature


around the normal ambient. This is not significant in the present context;

(2) High temperatures (several hundred degrees centigrade) can cause


permanent changes in magnetic properties, e.g. an increase in permeability.
This is most noticeable in metastable austenitic stainless steels, particularly
near welds;

(3) Local heating (e.g. soldering, welding, brazing) can set up mechanical
stresses.

b. The general principle is to avoid unnecessary exposure to high temperatures.

c. For notes on stainless steels see Clauses 4.8.3b to 4.8.3f .

4.9 Detailed Principles and Guidelines – Contamination

a. Welding Filler – The correct consistency of weld electrode or filler must be used to
ensure minimal magnetic content in welded joints. Guidance on welding processes
can be provided by The Welding Institute, Abington Hall, Abington, Cambridge,
CB1 6AL.

b. Machining – For very stringent low magnetic requirements, ferrous particle


contamination from normal machine tools can cause permeability
non–compliance. This is frequently observed in non–metallic materials such as
nylons and plastics.

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DEF STAN 02–617 / ISSUE 3

4.10 Design Guides – Compensation Methods


a. Residual ferromagnetic sources are compensated with degaussing. An MCMV
normally requires a three axis coiling system and the coils may enclose sections of
the vessel, specific compartments or selected equipments. Degaussing
compensates for the induced and permanent magnetisation residuals.
b. The optimum equipment degaussing coil currents are determined by the magnetic
land range (see Clause 4.2.4). These values must be applied during the vessel’s
magnetic ranging (see Clause 4.2.6) when the compartment degaussing coil
currents are determined.
c. Dipole compensation with permanent magnets must not be carried out owing to the
risk of signature contamination by lost magnets, and lost magnets being free to
magnetise other materials.
d. Eddy current field sources are minimised by design in the first instance. Residual
effects may then be compensated with degaussing. The degaussing current settings
are determined on the degaussing roll range.
e. Stray field sources must always be minimised by design. Compensation is part of
the design process and is described in Clause 4.7. Degaussing compensation is not
appropriate.
4.11 Design Requirements for HUNT and SRMH
4.11.1 Introduction
a. The following Clause 4.12 defines the requirements for equipments intended for
the HUNT and SRMH vessels. It covers ferromagnetic and eddy current fields.
The stray field requirements are the same as those in the design guide, see Clause
4.7.
4.12 Design Requirement – Ferromagnetic Field Sources
4.12.1 General
a. The average relative magnetic permeability of all materials and components used
in an equipment shall not be greater than 1.05 (HUNT) and 1.35 (SRMH). Average
relative magnetic permeability shall be calculated as shown in
Clause 4.12.2.
b. To assist understanding, average relative magnetic permeability is defined in
Annex B. It is a concept which provides practical rules for the design of low
magnetic signature equipments. Since the rules are derived by making certain
assumptions and approximations, they must only be used as a guide.
c. The ultimate acceptance of an equipment for MCMV service is determined by
magnetic land range measurements (see Clause 4.2.4) or contractor’s certified
magnetic field measurements (see Clause 4.2.3) supported, if necessary, by a
signature tracking acceptance (see Clause 4.2.7).
d. The average relative magnetic permeability limits for other future vessels shall be
applied in the same way. Different limits may be necessary depending on other
vessels’ magnetic signature requirements. They will be determined by the vessel’s
magnetic signature design authority by the process outlined in Clause 4.1.3.

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DEF STAN 02–617 / ISSUE 3

4.12.2 To Calculate Average Relative Magnetic Permeability


a. The average relative magnetic permeability is calculated as follows:
(1) Estimate the volume of the equipment;
(2) Estimate the volume of all its ferromagnetic parts;
(3) Measure the relative magnetic permeability, µr, of all its ferromagnetic parts
after fabrication. Guidance on measuring relative permeability is given in
Annex E. (During design, data sheet relative permeability values are used);
(4) Apply the permeability acceptance criteria in Figure 1 to Figure 3
(µr less than 2.5) and Figure 4 and Figure 5 (µr greater than 2.5);
(5) Example calculations are given in Annex F. (HUNT), and Annex G.
(SRMH).
b. Materials with µr less than 2.5. Figure 1 to Figure 3:
(1) Estimate and record the total volume (in cubic metres or cubic feet) of each
material used in the construction of the equipment;
(2) Erect a perpendicular from the volume value to intersect the associated
permeability line and note the corresponding magnetic field factor, X1, for
each material;
(3) Calculate the total volume, V, and the sum of all the magnetic field factors,
Σ(X1).
c. Materials with µr equal to, or greater than 2.5. Figure 4 and Figure 5:
(1) Estimate and record the volume of each item used in the construction of the
equipment;
(2) Measure the major axis and estimate the mean value of the two minor axes of
the item;
(3) Divide the major axis by the mean value of the two minor axes and obtain the
shape factor, S. If the shape factor is not an integer, take the next higher value;
(4) Erect a perpendicular from the volume value to intersect the associated shape
factor line, and note the corresponding magnetic field factor, X2;
(5) Repeat for each item and finally calculate the total volume, V, and the sum of
the magnetic field factors, Σ(X2).
d. Determine the average relative magnetic permeability:
(1) Obtain the total volume of all the items used in the equipment , Σ(V), and the
total summation of all the magnetic field factors, Σ(X1) + Σ(X2);
(2) If Σ(X1) + Σ(X2) is equal to Σ(V), the average relative magnetic permeability
is 1.05 (HUNT) or 1.35 (SRMH) and the equipment as a whole is acceptable;
(3) If Σ(X1) + Σ(X2) is less than Σ(V), the average relative magnetic
permeability is less than 1.05 (HUNT) or 1.35 (SRMH) and the equipment as
a whole is acceptable;
(4) If Σ(X1) + Σ(X2) is greater than Σ(V), the average relative magnetic
permeability is greater than 1.05 (HUNT) or 1.35 (SRMH) and the
equipment as a whole is not acceptable.

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DEF STAN 02–617 / ISSUE 3

e. If an equipment is shown to be unacceptable, each item is to be considered


individually to determine which, if any, could be made of a lower permeability
material. Examples are given for the HUNT in Annex F. and for the SRMH in
Annex G.

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DEF STAN 02–617 / ISSUE 3

Figure 1 – Relationship between Materials with Permeabilities of less than 2.5, their Volume and
Magnetic Field Factor. (SRMH)

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DEF STAN 02–617 / ISSUE 3

Figure 2 – Relationship between Materials with Permeabilities less than 1.4, (Volume 0.1 cubic feet
to 1000 cubic feet) and Magnetic Field Factor. (HUNT)

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DEF STAN 02–617 / ISSUE 3

Figure 3 – Relationship between Materials with Permeabilities less than 2.5, (Volume 0.1 cubic feet
to 10 cubic feet) and Magnetic Field Factor. (HUNT)

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DEF STAN 02–617 / ISSUE 3

Figure 4 – Relationship between Materials with Permeabilities of 2.5 and above, their Volume and
Magnetic Field Factor. (SRMH)

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DEF STAN 02–617 / ISSUE 3

Figure 5 – Relationship between Materials with Permeabilities of 2.5 and above,(Volume 0.001
cubic feet to 10 cubic feet) and Magnetic Field Factor. (HUNT)

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DEF STAN 02–617 / ISSUE 3

4.13 Design Requirements – Eddy Current Field Sources

4.13.1 General

a. The sizes of electrically conducting sheets, frames and pipes, in equipments


intended for the HUNT or SRMH, shall comply with the limits specified in Clauses
4.13.2 and 4.13.3.
b. The limits for other vessels may be different but shall be applied in the same way.
c. Electrical conductivity is expressed as percentage International Annealed Copper
Standard (% IACS).
% IACS = (1.7 x 100 )/(resistivity in microhm–cms)
The equivalent resistivity values are given in Table 1.
Conductivity % Resistivity
IACS microhm – cms
100 1.7
90 1.9
80 2.2
70 2.5
60 2.9
50 3.4
40 4.3
30 5.7
20 8.6
10 17.2
5 34.5

Table 2 – Equivalent Values, Conductivity and Resistivity

d. Electrical conductivity in siemens per metre is the reciprocal of electrical resistivity


in ohm–metres.
σ (S/m) = 1/ρ (ohm–metres)
4.13.2 Sheet Materials (Figures 6 and 7)

a. For the largest sheet (of Area A) in an equipment, erect a perpendicular from the
sheet thickness value in Figure 6 (SRMH) or Figure 7 (HUNT) to intersect the
associated % IACS line. Read off the maximum allowable area, Area B. Follow
the guidance in Table 2. Repeat for other sheets as required.

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DEF STAN 02–617 / ISSUE 3

Sheet Size Guidance


BA Not Acceptable
1.4B  A > B Not Acceptable Form by two sheets of equal size insulated from each
other by at least 1 ohm
or
Halve the thickness
or
Use another material of lower conductivity
1.7B  A > B Not Acceptable Form by three sheets of equal size insulated from each
other by at least 1 ohm
or
Use a sheet of one third thickness
or
Use another material of lower conductivity
2B  A > B Not Acceptable Form by four sheets of equal size insulated from each
other by at least 1 ohm
or
Use a sheet of one quarter the thickness
or
Use another material of lower conductivity
A > 2B Not Acceptable Use another material

Table 3 – Sheet Material – Conductivity Calculations

4.13.3 Frames and Pipes (Figures 8 and 9)

a. For the largest frame or pipe (enclosing an Area A) in an equipment, erect a


perpendicular from the cross sectional area value in Figure 8 (SRMH) or
Figure 9 (HUNT) to intersect the associated % IACS line. Read off the
maximum allowable enclosed area, Area B. Follow the guidance in Table 3.
Repeat for other frames or pipes as required.

Enclosed Area Guidance


BA Acceptable
A>B Not Acceptable Break the continuous loop and insert two insulating
sections of at least 1 ohm resistance. The sections shall
be approximately 180 degrees apart.
NOTE: Special care is to be taken to ensure that when
breaking continuous loop, the break cannot be
bypassed by another loop member.

Table 4 – Frames and Pipes – Conductivity Calculations

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DEF STAN 02–617 / ISSUE 3

Figure 6 – Relationship between Area, Thickness and Conductivity of Sheet material (SRMH)

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DEF STAN 02–617 / ISSUE 3

Figure 7 – Relationship between Area, Thickness and Conductivity of Sheet Material (HUNT)

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DEF STAN 02–617 / ISSUE 3

Figure 8 – Relationship between Area,Cross Section and Conductivity of any Frame or Pipe
(SRMH)

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DEF STAN 02–617 / ISSUE 3

Figure 9 – Relationship between Area, Cross Section and Conductivity of any Frame
or Pipe (HUNT)

4.14 Design Requirements – Stray Field Sources

a. There are no special design requirement parameters for the HUNT and SRMH. The
guidance given in Clause 4.7 shall be followed.

4.15 Sources of Guidance

a. The equipment Design Authority or the equipment Sponsor are the source of
guidance for all queries.

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DEF STAN 02–617 / ISSUE 3

5. CORPORATE KNOWLEDGE AND EXPERIENCE


This Defence Standard contains no Corporate Knowledge and Experience information.

36
DEF STAN 02–617 / ISSUE 3

ANNEX A.

RELATED DOCUMENTS
A1. The following documents and publications are referred to in this DEF STAN:
BS 5555 Specification for SI Units and Recommendations for the use of their
multiples and of certain other units
JSP 430 Ships Safety Management Systems Handbook:
Volume 1: Policy and Guidance on MOD Ship and Equipment Safety
Management
BR 6506 (111) Impressed Current Cathodic Protection System - Active Shaft
Grounding System - Nuclear Submarines
BR 6619 Signature Controls and Special Features - HUNT Class MCMV
BR 825/4 Manual of Degaussing:
Part 4: Degaussing by Magnetic Treatment
DEF STAN Guide to the Design of Ferromagnetic Signature Control Systems
02-612 and Degaussing
(NES 612)
DGUW(N) Mine Countermeasures (MCM) Division Magnetic Field Testing by
Pub 84281 Contractors and Guidelines for MOD(N) Project Manager
DGUW(N) Mine Countermeasures (MCM) Division Magnetic Field Testing by
Pub 84282 Contractors
AMP-14 Protection of Vessels from Electromagnetic Mines
(or Electromagnetic Silencing)

A.1 ANNEX A
DEF STAN 02–617 / ISSUE 3

Containing System (Ship)


Other Systems
Signature Control Systems

Electromagnetic Signature Other Signature


Control Systems Control Systems

Ferromagnetic Signature Eddy Current Ship’s Power Corrosion Related


Control Systems Signature Systems Signature Electromagnetic
NES 612 Control Systems Control Systems Signature Control Systems

Low Magnetic On–board Magnetic Eddy Stray Signature Impressed Active Shaft
Construction Degaussing Treatment Current Field Reduction Cathodic Grounding
BR825/4 Reduction Reduction through Protection (ASG)
MCMV MCMV System (ICCP) BR 6506 (111)
NES 617 NES 617 Design

Steel MCMV MCMV


Ships Design Control
NES 617 BR 6619

Figure A.1 – Electromagnetic Signature Control Systems Related NES and Defence Manuals

ANNEX A A.2
DEF STAN 02–617 / ISSUE 3

ANNEX B.

ABBREVIATIONS AND DEFINITIONS


B1. For the purpose of this DEF STAN the following abbreviations apply:
ac Alternating Current
ADNA/SR Assistant Director Naval Architecture/Signature Reduction
AE Alternating Electric
AM Alternating Magnetic
DEF STAN Defence Standard
dc Direct Current
DG Degaussing
DLO Defence Logistics Organisation
DOR(Sea) Director Operation Requirements (Sea)
DPA Defence Procurement Agency
ELFE Extra Low Frequency Electromagnetic
GRP Glass Reinforced Plastic
IACS International Annealed Copper Standard
ICCP Impressed Current Cathodic Protection
IAM Induced Athwartships Magnetisation
ILM Induced Longitudinal Magnetisation
IVM Induced Vertical Magnetisation
MCMV Mine Countermeasures Vessel
MHSC Mine Hunter Sweeper Coastal
MOD Ministry of Defence
NATO North Atlantic Treaty Organisation
NES Naval Engineering Standard
PAM Permanent Athwartships Magnetisation
PLM Permanent Longitudinal Magnetisation
PVM Permanent Vertical Magnetisation
SE Static Electric
SM Static Magnetic
SRMH Single Role Minehunter
STL Signature Target Level
UEP Underwater Electric Potential

B.1 ANNEX B
DEF STAN 02–617 / ISSUE 3

B2. For the purpose of the DEF STAN the following definitions apply:

Degaussing Degaussing is the compensation of a magnetic field using current


carrying coils.
Degaussing Coil A current carrying coil whose magnetic field is used to compensate
the ferromagnetic or eddy current magnetic field of an equipment or
part of a ship.
Demagnetising Factor (N) A ferromagnetic body which is magnetised by an applied
magnetising force, Ho, generates an internal demagnetising force, HD
, which opposes Ho and gives a net internal magnetising force, Hin.
HD is caused by the formation of poles and is a function of body
shape. HD is related to magnetisation M and other parameters by the
demagnetising factor, N.
HD = NM
Hin = Ho – HD = Ho – NM
N has a value between 0 and 1 depending on shape.
Approximate Demagnetising Factors for Common Shapes
Body Shape Aspect Ratio N
Toroid 0
Very long cylinder 0
Cylinder 20 0.006
Cylinder 10 0.016
Cylinder 5 0.04
Cylinder 1 0.27
Sphere 1 0.33
Thin disc 1.0
Reference: D.C.Jiles, Introduction to Magnetism and Magnetic
Materials, Chapman and Hall, 1991.
Eddy Current Magnetic Field The magnetic field generated by eddy currents induced in electrically
conducting materials or structures by the ship’s motion in the earth’s
magnetic field.
Ferromagnetic Field The magnetic field generated by a magnetised ferromagnetic
material.
Induced Magnetisation See Magnetisation.
Magnetic Equilibrium A body is in magnetic equilibrium when its permanent
magnetisation has attained its maximum possible value in the
presence of magnetic shaking or mechanical stress for a constant
applied magnetising force, Ho. In this condition, known as
equilibrium permanent magnetisation, the body’s internal
magnetising force, Hin, is very small.
Magnetic Flux Density (B) Primary magnetic vector quantity. It is a measure of the mechanical
force experienced by an element of electric current at a point in a
magnetic field. Units are Teslas (T). NanoTeslas (nT) and
microTeslas (µT) are normally used in ship’s magnetic silencing
work. It is the unit commonly used to describe magnetic field
strength in air. (See Magnetising Force).

ANNEX B B.2
DEF STAN 02–617 / ISSUE 3

Magnetic Moment (m) Magnetic moment is a measure of the strength of a magnetic dipole,
i.e. a measure of the strength of the magnetising force, H, producing
a field at points in space by a single plane current loop or a
magnetised body. The term “moment” derives from the mechanical
force or moment experienced by a current carrying loop situated in a
magnetic field. Magnetic moment is a vector quantity whose
magnitude, for a plane current loop, is equal to the product of loop
area (in square metres) and the total loop current in amperes. (Total
loop current = current x number of turns). The vector direction is
normal to the plane of the loop in a sense which the current is
clockwise when looking along the direction of the vector. Units are
ampere metres squared (Am2).
m = current x area Am2

Magnetisation (M) Magnetisation is the magnetic moment per unit volume of a solid. It
is a vector quantity and is the property of a magnetic material which
causes the ferromagnetic field. For engineering convenience, it is
sub–divided into induced and permanent magnetisations. For
practical purposes, the induced magnetisation is directly proportional
to the applied magnetising force, H, it lies in the same sense as H
and changes immediately with H. The permanent magnetisation
(due to magnetic remanence) is changed only by magnetic treatment,
or by mechanical stress. See Magnetic Equilibrium. Magnetisation
is related to magnetising force, H, flux density, B, and the
permeability of free space, µo, by:
B = µo(H + M)

Magnetising Force (H) Secondary magnetic vector quantity. It is a measure of the ability of
an element of current to produce a magnetic flux density at a point in
space. Units are Amperes per metre (A/m).
B and H are related in free space by: B = µ0H
Where µ0 is the permeability of free space. µ0 = 4p*10–7 Henries per
metre.

Permanent Magnetisation See Magnetisation.


PVM Stabilisation PVM stabilisation is where a body is magnetically treated to achieve
equilibrium permanent vertical magnetisation for an earth’s magnetic
field greater than that in the vessel’s proposed operating area. (see
Magnetic Equilibrium).

Relative Magnetic This defines the relationship between B and H at a point within a
Permeability (mr) magnetic material.
B= µ0 µr H where µr is a dimensionless ratio and describes the
relationship between B and µ0H.

Shape Factor (S) The shape factor is the aspect ratio of a component derived by
dividing the overall length by the mean diameter.

Stray Magnetic Field The unwanted magnetic field generated by dc and low frequency ac
current carrying conductors within shipborne equipments and
machinery under normal operation.

B.3 ANNEX B
DEF STAN 02–617 / ISSUE 3

B3. The following are Conversion Factors used within this DEF STAN:
1 Oersted (Oe) = 103/4π Amperes per metre (A/m)
1 Gauss (G) = 10–4 Teslas (T)
1 Gamma (γ) = 10–5 Oersted (Oe)
A magnetising force of 1 Gamma is equivalent to a flux density of 1 nT in free space.

B4. The following are Symbols used within this DEF STAN:
A/m Amperes per metre. Units of H
Am2 Ampere metres squared. Unit of magnetic moment
B magnetic flux density in Teslas
H magnetising force in A/m
Ho applied magnetising force in A/m
Hin magnetising force inside a material in A/m
m magnetic moment; or metres
nT nanoTesla
N demagnetising factor
S shape factor (aspect ratio)
V volume in cubic metres
x1 magnetic field factor
x2 magnetic field factor
µ absolute permeability. µ = µ0µr
µ0 permeability of free space
µr relative magnetic permeability
µT microTesla
σ electrical conductivity in siemens per metre
ρ electrical resistivity in ohm–meters

ANNEX B B.4
DEF STAN 02–617 / ISSUE 3

ANNEX C.

PROCUREMENT CHECK LIST


C1. No revelant information included.

C.1 ANNEX C
DEF STAN 02–617 / ISSUE 3

ANNEX C C.2
DEF STAN 02–617 / ISSUE 3

ANNEX D.
AVERAGE RELATIVE MAGNETIC PERMEABILITY
D.1 Introduction
a. This Annex defines Average Relative Magnetic Permeability and shows how it is
used to create practical pass/fail acceptance criteria for equipment designs.
Assumptions and approximations are stated. The relationship to land range
measurements and a vessel’s magnetic signature is described.
b. Average relative magnetic permeability is a design and acceptance criteria for
equipments having a low magnetic signature. It is applied by following the set of
rules in Clause 4.12. The purpose of the rules is to provide design and inspection
guide–lines which people without magnetics knowledge can apply.
c. This Annex describes the basis of the rules in order to:
(1) Understand the limitations of the rules because of the inherent assumptions
and approximations;
(2) Provide additional information to make pass/fail judgements more easily in
marginal cases;
(3) Understand the relationship between the rules, land range magnetic field
measurements and ship’s magnetic signatures;
(4) Enable the rules to be amended to suit the requirements of new vessels.
D.2 Definition
a. The induced magnetic moment, m, for a ferromagnetic ellipsoid is given by:
H 0V
m= Am2 (1)
1
+N
µr − 1
Where m = magnetic moment in Am2
H0 = applied magnetising force in A/m
V = volume of solid, m3
µr = relative magnetic permeability
N = demagnetising factor (value between 0 and 1, Annex B)
b. Eq (1), without H0V, is plotted in Figure D1 for a range of µr and N.
c. In the region µr >> 2.5, Eq (1) can be approximated as:

m = H 0V N (2) for µr >> 2.5


because m largely depends on N.
d. In the region µr just > 2.5, to µr >> 2.5, Eq (2) does not hold. The error is the
difference between the curves and the dashed lines on the graph. The consequences
of using Eq (2) to describe all the region µr > 2.5 is a pessimistic acceptance
criterion for µr just > 2.5. i.e. the limit set by the rules is tighter in this region than
is really required.

D.1 ANNEX D
DEF STAN 02–617 / ISSUE 3

1/(1/(u–1)+N) versus u
(u = relative permeability: N = demagnetising factor)
(1/(1/(u–1)+N) is proportional to the par unit induced magnetic moment)
1/(1/(u–1)+N)

KEY: u, relative permeability (Log Scale)

Figure D1 – Plot showing Induced Magnetic Moment

e. In the region µr < 2.5, Eq (1) can be approximated to Eq (3) below because m is
not significantly dependent on N.
m = H 0V ( µr − 1) (3) for µr < 2.5
f. Consider firstly Eq (3), where µr < 2.5
k 1m
x1 = = k1V ( µr − 1)
Let H0 (4)
where x1 is called the magnetic field factor. (It is proportional to the per unit
induced moment, m/H0).
1
k1 = = 2.857
( 1.35 − 1)
Then (5) for µr = 1.35, V = 1, x1 = 1
V ( µr − 1)
x1 =
(1.35 -1)
And (6) for a single body

ANNEX D D.2
DEF STAN 02–617 / ISSUE 3

g. For several bodies, of volumes Va, Vb, etc, the combined magnetic field factor, x1’,
assuming superposition is:

Va( µra − 1) Vb( µrb − 1)


x1’ = + +
(1.35 -1) (1.35 -1)
(7)

h. If the magnetic effect, x1’, of several bodies is equivalent to that of a single body
occupying the same total volume, i.e. x1=x1’, then, from (6) and (7):

V ( µr − 1) Va( µra − 1) Vb( µrb − 1)


= + +
(1.35 − 1) (1.35 − 1) (1.35 − 1) (8)
And x1 = ( x1a + x1b +...) (9)

i. From (8), the permeability µr is described as the average relative magnetic


permeability because the volume V with permeability µr has an equivalent
magnetic effect to several bodies of volumes Va, Vb, etc, with permeabilities µra,
µrb, etc.

j. From (6), x1 = V for µr = 1.35 (10)


And x1 < V for µr < 1.35 (11)

k. From (9) and (11), the average relative magnetic permeability of an assembly of
items is equal to or less than the target of 1.35 or 1.05 provided:

( x 1a + x1b +...) ≤ (Va + Vb +...) (12)

l. From (6), a family of permeability curves can be drawn (Figure 1, SRMH; Figure
2 and Figure 3, HUNT) and used to infer values of x1a, x1b, etc.

m. The case where µrr > 2.5, from Eq (2), is now considered:

m = H 0V N (2) for µr > 2.5


k 2 m k 2V
x2 = =
Let H0 N (13)

k 1m k 2m
x1 = = x2 =
n. By letting H0 H0 from (4) and (10):

Then k1 = k2 = 2.857
k 2V 2.857
x2 = = = 8.658
And N 0.333 (14) for V = 1

o. The value of the demagnetising factor, N, lies between 0 and 1 depending on the
item’s aspect ratio, (or shape factor), S. For a sphere or a cube, S = 1 and
N = 0.333. (Demagnetising Factor, Annex B).

D.3 ANNEX D
DEF STAN 02–617 / ISSUE 3

p. By similar reasoning to that in Clauses D.2g. and D.2h. magnetic field factors x2ae,
x2bf,, etc, can be assigned to each item in an equipment such that:

x 2 = ( x 2 e + x 2 f +...) (15)
And ( x 2 e + x 2 f +...) ≤ Ve + Vf +...) (16)
q. From (14), a family of aspect ratio curves can be drawn (Figure 4, SRMH; and
Figure 5, HUNT) and used to infer values of x2ae, x2f, etc. These values are added
to x1a, x1b, etc, so that the average relative magnetic permeability of an equipment
is less than 1.35 or 1.05 provided:

( x 1a + x1b +... x 2 e + x 2 f +...) ≤ (Va + Vb +... Ve + Vf +...) (17)

i.e.  x1 +  x 2 ≤  V (18)

r. The procedure for applying this process is described in Clause 4.12.

D.3 Assumptions and Approximations


a. The above process has been developed by making certain assumptions and
approximations which are listed below. Because of this, the process must be used
only as a general working guide.
b. The method is based on ellipsoid shaped bodies and is only approximate for other
shapes. It is only very approximate for a body consisting of an assembly of items
represented by a single volume with an average relative magnetic permeability.
c. The method does not distinguish between a solid object and a shell where each have
the same weight of steel. A thin walled spherical shell has a much greater magnetic
moment than a solid of the same weight.
d. It is assumed that the magnetic interaction between different ferromagnetic items
within an equipment is small and that superposition applies.
e. Magnetic behaviour is described for µr > 2.5 and µr < 2.5. It ignores the errors in
the transition region.
f. Individual items are assumed to have a uniform µr. In practice it will vary and an
average will be used.

g. Predictions based on this method may not align with land range results. The
predictions assume far field conditions and ignore the distribution of items within
an equipment. Land range measurements automatically include the distribution.
This difference may mean that some items which are acceptable by the average
relative magnetic permeability criteria are not acceptable by the land range criteria
and vice versa. Final acceptance is by the land range or by an authorised
contractor’s magnetic field measurements.
D.4 Relationship Between Average Magnetic Permeability, Land Range Measurements
and Ship’s Magnetic Signatures
a. The magnetic moment, m, of an ellipsoid of volume V, permeability µr and
demagnetising factor N, can be calculated from equation (1). This can be
approximated by equation (2) or equation (3).

ANNEX D D.4
DEF STAN 02–617 / ISSUE 3

b. The magnetic field at a distance r metres from an ellipsoid of moment m, can be


calculated from the simple dipole formulae in Figure D2 assuming far field
conditions.

c. A vessel’s magnetic signature is the sum of the magnetic field contributions from
all the dipole sources on the vessel. Dipole sources are three axis.
d. Bearing in mind the assumptions and approximations in Clause D.3, the
equipments in a vessel can be magnetically modelled as ellipsoids and the vessel’s
magnetic signature calculated.
e. The process can be applied in a reverse sense. A vessel’s magnetic signature target
can be translated into an allowable average magnetic moment per unit volume of
equipment within the vessel and this in turn can be translated into an allowable
average relative magnetic permeability for equipments. The allowable
permeability values for the HUNT and SRMH are given in
Clause 4.12.

– moment, m, Am2

+
a Magnetic Flux Density, B, nT
Bt
Distance r, meters

P By

Br
Bz
Radial component Br = (200 m Cos a)/r3 nT
Tangential component Bt = (100 m Sin a)/r3 nT
z component Bz = 100 m (3 Cos2 a –1)/r3 nT
y component By = 100 m (1.5 Sin2 a)/r3 nT

Figure D2 – Relationship Between Magnetic Dipole Moment and Magnetic Flux Density

D.5 ANNEX D
DEF STAN 02–617 / ISSUE 3

ANNEX D D.6
DEF STAN 02–617 / ISSUE 3

ANNEX E.
GUIDELINES FOR MEASURING RELATIVE MAGNETIC PERMEABILITY
E.1 General
a. This Annex gives guidance on:
(1) When to Measure Relative Magnetic Permeability;
(2) How to Measure Relative Magnetic Permeability;
(3) Comments and Problems;
(4) Sources of Advice and Guidance.
E.2 When to Measure Relative Magnetic Permeability
a. Relative magnetic permeability must be measured during the initial stages of
manufacture shown in Section 1 to give confidence that an equipment will meet its
magnetic signature target. They are detailed in Clauses E.2c. to E.2e. below and
shall be applied as appropriate.
b. The acceptance of an equipment for MCMV service is determined by magnetic
land range measurements (see Clause 4.2.4) or an approved contractor’s magnetic
field measurements (see Clause 4.2.3), supported if necessary, by signature
tracking acceptance (see Clause 4.2.7).
c. Received raw materials must be checked and accepted before use. Measurements
on large pieces of material must be taken at several points to obtain a representative
average.
d. When materials have been cut, worked or machined the parts must be checked.
Ideally readings shall be taken at several points to obtain a representative average.
Gross non–compliance implies that the working or machining process is unsuitable
for this class of material and an alternative material or process must be considered.
e. Finished parts must be checked to ensure that assembly processes have not caused
any permeability changes.
E.3 Measuring Relative Magnetic Permeability
a. Example of instrument: Forster Magnetoscope Type 1.068:
Supplier: Forster Instruments UK Limited,
Wrens Court, 50 Victoria Road,
Sutton Coalfield, West Midlands,
B72 1SY
b. Permeability testing must be carried out in an area reasonably free from magnetic
fields. For bench tested items, the recommended position for a test bench is:
(1) Not less than 2 metres from external walls, pillars, electrical cables, inert
magnetic sources or ferromagnetic material which could become magnetic;
(2) Not less than 3.5 metres from any active sources including machines, power
cables, etc.

E.1 ANNEX E
DEF STAN 02–617 / ISSUE 2

c. Testing shall be carried out in accordance with the instrument instructions.

d. The instrument shall be calibrated and zeroed before use. Reference materials,
supplied by an accredited supplier, should be used for calibration. Suitable
measures must be taken to protect the materials.

e. The probe must be used in the orientation that it was calibrated. It must be
recalibrated for a different orientation.

f. The probe tip must be kept clean of dirt and swarf.

g. The probe must not be placed on a sample which is known to be magnetised or has
a known high permeability (e.g. a steel work bench). It is recommended that initial
checks are made with a finger placed over the probe tip to prevent overloading the
instrument and the probe. Subsequent checks are then made directly.

h. Measurements shall be made at the following points:

(1) Round Bar. – Circumferentially at intervals not exceeding 150 mm along the
bar. On the faces at each end of the bar;

(2) Sheet. – On both surfaces at intervals not exceeding 150 mm;

(3) Irregular shapes. – At intervals not exceeding 150 mm in two orthogonal


directions over the surface, in the most practical manner that the surface will
permit.

i. Sheet materials which are significantly thinner than the instrument’s calibration
sample will give low readings. If a thin sheet has a reading higher than the
requirement, it can be ruled outside specification. The reading obtained from
stacked thin samples is not reliable.

j. The probe must not be used in a cavity where the walls are close to the probe.

k. Tiny parts may not give reliable readings and it may only be possible to indicate
high or low permeability. Take measurements on the flattest surface. Check
threaded or knurled parts on the end.

E.4 Measuring Relative Magnetic Permeability – Comments and Problems

a. Relative magnetic permeability does not indicate the magnetisation of a body, and
consequently does not indicate its magnetic signature. A highly magnetised, square
hysteresis loop material, e.g. a permanent magnet, could give a low relative
permeability reading, but still give a large magnetic signature.

b. A permeability probe contains a powerful magnet which could locally magnetise


a material at the test point. A minimum number of test points shall be used to
prevent excessive magnetisation over the surface of an item.

c. Materials must never be “tested” with a permanent magnet, the material may
become permanently magnetised.

ANNEX E E.2
DEF STAN 02–617 / ISSUE 3

ANNEX F.
CALCULATION OF AVERAGE MAGNETIC PERMEABILITY (HUNT)
F.1 Example 1
a. Aluminium reel on stand with mild steel axle and ball races. Reel containing
stainless steel wire.
NOTE The materials used in this example have been chosen to illustrate the
method and may not be otherwise compatible together.

b. Materials with permeabilities less than 2.5, using Figure 2 or Figure 3:

Item Material Volume Permeability Magnetic Field


(ft3) (µr) Factor (X1)
1. Drum Aluminium 0.5 1.01 )
2. Stand Aluminium 0.6 1.01 ) 0.22
3. Wire on Drum Stainless Steel 0.35 2.00 7.00
(EN58B)
4. Ball Race Cages Stainless Steel 0.01 1.01 0.002
(EN58A)
Σ Volume = 1.46 ΣXI = 7.222

c. Materials with permeabilities 2.5 and above, using Figure 5:

Item Material Volume Shape Factor Magnetic Field


(ft3) (S) Factor (X2)
5. Axle Mild Steel 0.005 10 4.25
6. Ball Race Balls Steel 0.01 1 0.5
Σ Volume = 0.0015 Σ X2 = 4.75

Total Volume = 1.46 + 0.015 = 1.475 ft3


ΣXl + ΣX2 = 7.222 + 4.75 = 11.972
Total Magnetic Field Factor (ΣXl + ΣX2) is greater than Total Volume and
therefore the equipment is not acceptable without modification (see Clause F.2
Example 2).

F.1 ANNEX F
DEF STAN 02–617 / ISSUE 3

F.2 Example 2
a. Equipment as in Example 1, with the wire on drum (Item 3) and the axle
(Item 5) considered to be of materials of lower permeability than before.
b. Materials with permeabilities less than 2.5, using Figure 2 and Figure 3.

Item Material Vol Permeabil Magnetic


ume (f ity Field
t 3) (µr) Factor (XI)
1. Drum Aluminium 0.5 1.01)
)0.22
2. Stand Aluminium 0.6 1.01)
3. Wire on Drum Stainless 0.35 1.01)
Steel )0.072
(EN58A)
4. Ball Race Stainless 0.01 1.01)
Cages Steel
(EN58A)
5. Axle K Monel 0.005 1.01 0.001
Σ Volume = 1.465 ΣXI = 0.293

c. Materials with permeabilities 2.5 and above, using Figure 5.

Item Material Volume Shape Factor Magnetic Field


(ft3) (S) Factor (X2)
6. Ball Race Balls Steel 0.01 1 0.5

Total Volume = 1.465 + 0.01 = 1.475 ft3


ΣXI + ΣX2 = 0.293 + 0.5 = 0.793
Total Magnetic Field Factor (ΣXI + ΣX2) is now less than Total Volume and
therefore the equipment is acceptable.

ANNEX F F.2
DEF STAN 02–617 / ISSUE 3

ANNEX G.
CALCULATION OF AVERAGE MAGNETIC PERMEABILITY (SRMH)
G.1 Example 1
a. Aluminium reel on stand with mild steel axle and ball races. Reel containing
stainless steel wire.
NOTE The materials used in this example have been chosen to illustrate the
method and may not be otherwise compatible together.

b. Materials with permeabilities less than 2.5, using Figure 1:

Item Material Volume Permeability Magnetic Field


(m3) (µr) Factor (XI)
1. Drum Aluminium 0.014 1.01 0.000435
2. Stand Aluminium 0.017 1.01 0.00053
3. Wire on Drum Stainless Steel 0.01 2.00 0.0315
(EN58B)
4. Ball Race Cages Stainless Steel 0.00028 1.01 0.000008
(EN58A)
ΣVolume = 0.04128 ΣXl = 0.032473

c. Materials with permeabilities 2.5 and above, using Figure 4:

Item Material Volume Shape Factor Magnetic Field


(m3) (S) Factor (X2)
5. Axle Mild Steel 0.00014 10 0.019
6. Ball Race Balls Steel 0.00028 1 0.0022
Σ Volume 0.00042 ΣX2 = 0.0212

Total Volume = 0.04128 + 0.00042 = 0.0417 m3


ΣXI + ΣX2 = 0.0325 + 0.0212 = 0.0537
Total Magnetic Field Factor (ΣXl + ΣX2) is greater than Total Volume and
therefore the equipment is not acceptable without modification (see Clause G.2
Example 2).

G.1 ANNEX G
DEF STAN 02–617 / ISSUE 3

G.2 Example 2
a. Equipment as in Example 1, with the wire on drum (Item 3) and the axle
(Item 5) considered to be of materials of lower permeability than before.
b. Materials with permeabilities less than 2.5, using Figure 1.

Item Material Volume Permeability Magnetic Field


(m3) (µr) Factor (XI)
1. Drum Aluminium 0.014 1.01 0.000435
2. Stand Aluminium 0.017 1.01 0.00053
3. Wire on Drum Stainless Steel 0.01 1.01 0.00031
(EN58A)
4.Ball Race Cages Stainless Steel 0.00028 1.01 0.000008
(EN58A)
5. Axle K Monel 0.00014 1.01 0.000004
Σ Volume = 0.04142 ΣXI = 0.001287

c. Materials with permeabilities 2.5 and above, using Figure 4.

Item Material Volume Shape Factor Magnetic Field


(m3) (S) Factor (XI)
6.Ball Race Balls Steel 0.00028 1 0.0022

Total Volume = 0.0414 + 0.0003 = 0.0417 m3


ΣXI + ΣX2 + 0.00129 + 0.0022 = 0.0035
Total Magnetic Field Factor (ΣXI + ΣX2) is now less than Total Volume and
therefore the equipment is acceptable.

ANNEX G G.2
DEF STAN 02–617 / ISSUE 3

ANNEX H.
STRAY FIELD – GUIDE FOR THE ARRANGEMENT OF CABLES
H.1 Direct Current Power Cables
H.1.1 Four Conductor Quadded Cables
a. Four conductor quadded cables shall be used for dc power cables wherever
practicable.
H.1.2 Double Conductor Cables
a. Where four conductor quadded cable is not available or not practicable, one double
conductor cable may be utilised in a dc cable run if it is twisted such that the cable’s
conductors are transposed at regular intervals by the twist of the conductors to form
the lay of the cable or the conductors are concentric and the size of the cable is small
enough to handle conveniently for the selected application. Two or more double
conductor cables connected in parallel shall only be utilised with care in dc cable
runs since unequal division of current between conductors connected in parallel can
give rise to a magnetic field of objectionable magnitude.
H.1.3 Single Conductor Cables
a. An even multiple of single conductor cables in the positive and negative branches
of a dc cable run shall be utilised. The cables shall be arranged in accordance with
Clauses H.1.3b. to H.1.3e. Cable runs consisting of only one or an odd multiple
of single conductor cables in the positive and negative branches of a dc circuit shall
not be utilised since an odd number of current loops makes magnetic field
compensation by arrangement impracticable and results in large magnetic fields.
b. Arrangement of Cables for Opposing Current Loops: Parallel, single
conductor cables in the positive and negative branches of a dc cable run shall be
arranged in a manner that gives opposing current loops, so that their magnetic fields
are self compensating. Figure H.1 illustrates several preferred and non–preferred
arrangements and their resulting fields.
c. Equal Current Division Among Cables Connected in Parallel: Parallel, single
conductor cables in the positive and negative branches of a dc cable run shall be
selected and installed so that the resistance in each branch is equal to ensure equal
current sharing. Figure H.2 gives several examples of unequal current division.
d. Spiralling the Cable to Minimise the Effects of Unequal Currents: A dc circuit
cable run array consisting of multiple, single conductor cables shall be spiralled
from one cable hanger to the next so that any magnetic field created by unequal
current divisions in parallel circuits shall be minimised. Cable runs less than 1.5
metres need not be spiralled. Spiralling will aid in minimising the separation
between adjacent conductors of the cable.
e. Cable Spacing: Multiple, single conductor dc cables in a cable run shall be spaced
equally to each other along their entire run to effect a balanced compensation.
Cables in a quad shall be pressed tightly together all along the run with their centres
at the corners of a square. Equal spacing of cables in a circular array shall be
accomplished by utilising cables of the same diameter, tightly clamped around a
suitably sized central core.

H.1 ANNEX H
DEF STAN 02–617 / ISSUE 3

H.2 Alternating Current Power Cables

H.2.1 Phase Conductors in a Common Core

a. Special cable arrangement is not necessary when all phase conductors of an ac


circuit are in the same cable.

H.2.2 Phase Conductors in a Separate Cables

a. Where this is necessary, the cables shall not be grouped on the same cable hangers
with dc power cables and shall be as close together as practicable throughout the
entire length of the cable run. Closed loops of magnetic material around a phase
conductor and the placing of magnetic material between the phase conductor cables
shall be avoided.

H.3 Cable Terminal Connections

H.3.1 Compatibility of Cable Runs and Terminals

a. The terminals on equipment shall be arranged for ready connection to the cable runs
which take current to and from the equipment. In the absence of a terminal
arrangement to which the cable run can be conveniently connected, an adapter
between the cable run and the equipment shall be utilised.

H.3.2 Arrangement of Terminals and Approach by Cable Run

a. Terminals for cable runs shall be equally spaced, parallel terminals in the same
plane arranged edgeways or flat, with the cable run approaching the terminals
endways, crossways, or sideways. Edgewise terminals are preferred since the
centre to centre distance between terminals can be made smaller than for flat
terminals, which results in smaller current loops. Edgewise terminals can utilise
the same type of cable lugs for endways and crossways connections.

H.3.3 Three Terminal Arrangements

a. Three terminal arrangements are preferred and shall be in accordance with Figure
H.3. The figure also shows endways, crossways and sideways orientation of the
cable run approach.

H.3.4 Connecting Four Single Conductor Cables to Three Terminals

a. Connections shall be made in accordance with Figure H.4 to Figure H.7. A


sideways approach to edgewise or flat terminals shall be avoided since special bus
bar adapters are required to make a connection giving minimum stray field.

H.3.5 Connecting Eight Single Conductor Cables to Three Terminals

a. Connections shall be made in accordance with Figure H.8 to Figure H.10. In each
case the positive cables shall be located symmetrically about the cable run axis; this
applies to negative cables similarly.

ANNEX H H.2
DEF STAN 02–617 / ISSUE 3

H.3.6 Connecting Six Single Conductor Cables to Three Terminals


a. Connections shall be generally in accordance with Figure H.11 and as follows:
(1) Draw in every other cable and connect it to a single conductor which lies
along the axis of the cable group. Connect the single conductor to the centre
terminal.
(2) Connect the remaining three cables to a conducting ring which is concentric
with the axis of the cable group.
(3) Connect two diametrically opposite points on this ring to the two outside
terminals.
b. This arrangement creates current loops of equal area and opposite polarity, and
reduces the stray magnetic field.

H.3 ANNEX H
DEF STAN 02–617 / ISSUE 3

A. Typical preferred cable arrangements.


Cable Arrangement Max. magnetic flux density – NanoTesla
2.0

1.0

B. Typical non–preferred cable arrangements.


Cable Arrangement Max. magnetic flux density – NanoTesla
90
570
280
280

150

850
280
50

150

NOTE
1. Cable arrangement figures illustrate the cross–sectional views of the
single conductor cables in a cable run. “+” indicates positive conductor
cables connected in parallel. “–” indicates negative conductor cables
connected in parallel. For a given arrangement, if all “+” are changed
to “–” and all “–” changed to “+”, the same indicated maximum flux
density will result.
2. The indicated maximum flux density is the vertical component
calculated on a plane 7.5 metres above or below the cable run based
upon cables with an outside diameter of 40 mm that are touching each
other so that the centre–to–centre distance between adjacent cables is
40 mm. The length of the cable run is 18 metres and the direct current
magnitude is 2000 amperes (A) (1000 A per cable for cable runs with
two cables in each branch and 667 A per cable for cable runs with three
cables in each branch). No magnetic materials are assumed to be
present anywhere in the region around the cable run and the total
current is assumed to be equally divided between conductors
connected in parallel.

Figure H.1 – Arrangement of Single Conductor dc Cables for Opposing Current Loops

ANNEX H H.4
DEF STAN 02–617 / ISSUE 3

Cable 1

Cable 2
Cable 3

Cable 4

Current Division Among Conductors (Amperes) Maximum Magnetic


Flux Density
Cable 1 Cable 2 Cable 3 Cable 4 (NanoTesla)
1000 1000 1000 1000 1
2000 2000 0 0 280
0 1000 1000 2000 150
900 900 1100 1100 30

NOTE
1. Cable arrangement figures illustrate the cross–sectional views of the
single conductor cables in a cable run. “+” indicates positive conductor
cables connected in parallel. “–” indicates negative conductor cables
connected in parallel. For a given arrangement, if all “+” are changed
to “–” and all “–” changed to “+”, the same indicated maximum flux
density will result.
2. The indicated maximum flux density is the vertical component
calculated on a plane 7.5 metres above or below the cable run based
upon cables with an outside diameter of 40 mm that are touching each
other so that the centre–to–centre distance between adjacent cables in
40 mm. The length of the cable run is 18 metres and the direct current
magnitude is 2000 amperes (A) (1000 A per cable for cable runs with
two cables in each branch and 667 A per cable for cable runs with three
cables in each branch). No magnetic materials are assumed to be
present anywhere in the region around the cable run and the total
current is assumed to be equally divided between conductors
connected in parallel.

Figure H.2 – Unequal Current Division Among Cables Connected in Parallel

H.5 ANNEX H
DEF STAN 02–617 / ISSUE 3

Crossways cable approach

Sideways cable approach

Endways cable approach


Terminals

A - Edgewise Arrangement

Crossways cable approach

Sideways cable approach

Endways cable approach


Terminals

B - Flat Arrangement

Figure H.3 – Edgewise and Flat Three Terminal Arrangements

ANNEX H H.6
DEF STAN 02–617 / ISSUE 3

T1

T2
2
1
3 T3

2
1
3 Direction of current
4

NOTE
1. The cable run shall approach the terminals with its axis in line with the
horizontal axis of the centre terminal T2.
2. The two Cables 1 and 3, which lie in a horizontal plane, shall be bolted
to the opposite sides of terminal T2.
3. Cable 2 is bent to the left and slightly down to connect to terminal T1.
Cable 4 is bent to the right and slightly up to connect to terminal T3.
4. The area outlined by cables 1 and 4 equals the area of the cable run
outlined by Cables 2 and 3.
5. The polarity of the current in the loop made by Cables 1 and 4 is
opposite to the polarity of the current in the loop made by Cables 2 and
3.

Figure H.4 – Connection of an Endways Cable Run with Four Cables to Edgewise Terminals

H.7 ANNEX H
DEF STAN 02–617 / ISSUE 3

1 2
4 3

Direction of current

2
3
1

T1 4

T2

T3

NOTE
1. This figure can be obtained from Figure H.4 by rotating through 90
degrees the cable run (or terminals) about an axis through the points of
attachment of the cables to the terminals, when these points are on a line
perpendicular to the terminals.
2. The cable run shall approach the terminals with its axis in line with the
vertical axis of the centre terminal T2.
3. The two Cables 1 and 3, which lie in a vertical plane, shall be bolted to
the opposite sides of terminal T2.
4. Cable 2 is bent to the left and slightly forward to connect to terminal T1.
Cable 4 is bent to the right and slightly back to connect to terminal T3.
5. The area outlined by cables 1 and 4 equals the area outlined by Cables 2
and 3.
6. The polarity of the current in the loop made by Cables 1 and 4 is
opposite to the polarity of the current in the loop made by Cables 2 and
3.

Figure H.5 – Connection of a Crossways Cable Run with Four Cables to Edgewise Terminals

ANNEX H H.8
DEF STAN 02–617 / ISSUE 3

Direction of current

T1

T2

1 T3
2
4
3

2
3
1 4

NOTE
1. The cable run shall approach the terminals with its axis in line with the
horizontal axis of the centre terminal T2.
2. The two Cables 2 and 4 which lie in a vertical plane, shall be bolted to
the upper and lower sides of the terminal T2.
3. Cable 1 is bent to the left and slightly down to be bolted to the under
side of terminal T1. Cable 3 is bent to the right and slightly up to the
upper side of terminal T3.
4. The area outlined by cables 1 and 4 equals the area outlined by Cables 2
and 3.
5. The polarity of the current in the loop made by Cables 1 and 4 is
opposite to the polarity of the current in the loop made by Cables 2 and
3.

Figure H.6 – Connection of Endways Cable Run with Four Cables to Flat Terminals

H.9 ANNEX H
DEF STAN 02–617 / ISSUE 3

1 2
4 3
Direction of current

1 2
4
3
T1
T2
T3

NOTE
1. The cable run shall approach the terminals with its axis in line with the
vertical axis of the centre terminal T2.
2. The two Cables 2 and 4 which lie in a vertical plane, shall be bolted to the
upper side of the terminal T2.
3. Cable 1 is bent to the left and slightly forward to be bolted to the upper side of
terminal T1. Cable 3 is bent to the right and slightly back to the upper side of
terminal T3.
4. The area outlined by Cables 1 and 4 equals the area outlined by Cables 2 and
3.
5. The polarity of the current in the loop made by Cables 1 and 4 is opposite to
the polarity of the current in the loop made by Cables 2 and 3.

Figure H.7 – Connection of a Crossways Cable Run with Four Cables to Flat Terminals

Direction of current

Cable
(typical – shown reduced size for clarity)

Terminal (typical)

Figure H.8 – Connection to an Endways Cable Run with Eight Cables to Flat Terminals

ANNEX H H.10
DEF STAN 02–617 / ISSUE 3

Direction of current

Cable
(typical – shown reduced
size for clarity)

Terminal (typical)

Figure H.9 – Connection to a Crossways Cable Run with Eight Cables to Flat Terminals

Cable
(typical – shown reduced size for clarity)

Direction of current

Terminal (typical)

Figure H.10 – Connection to a Sideways Cable Run with Eight Cables To Flat Terminals

H.11 ANNEX H
DEF STAN 02–617 / ISSUE 3

A. Crossways cable run

Direction of current
Cable
(typical – shown reduced
size for clarity)

Terminal (typical)

B. Endways cable run

Direction of current

Cable
(typical – shown reduced
size for clarity)

Terminal (typical)

Figure H.11 – Connection to an Endways and Crossways Cable Run with Six Cables

ANNEX H H.12
DEF STAN 02–617 / ISSUE 3

ANNEX I.
STRAY FIELD – GUIDE FOR THE ARRANGEMENT OF BATTERIES
I.1 Definitions and General Principles
a. A battery tray consists of one or more battery cells assembled in a single unit. Each
cell has one positive and one negative terminal. The cells are electrically linked
with inter–cell connections. A battery circuit consists of one or more battery trays
linked together to a pair of output terminals which connect to an external circuit.
Stray magnetic fields are minimised by choosing arrangements of inter–cell
connections and inter–tray bus bars which result in groups of equal and opposite
self cancelling current loops. The magnetic moments of equal and opposite loops
shall be as small as possible and the distance between loops shall be as small as
possible. The arrangements shall be made in the simplest manner possible.
I.2 Series and Parallel Compensation
a. Series compensation is preferred. Parallel compensation may be used if care is
taken to minimise the effects of unequal current sharing.
I.3 Positioning of Battery Connecting Bus Bars
a. Except for cross–over points, the centrelines of the bus bars connected to the
battery shall be in the same horizontal plane as the centrelines of the inter–cell
connections. At cross–over points, the bus bars or cable links shall depart from this
plane only as much as needed for insulation clearance.

I.4 Positioning of Connecting Bus Bars


a. Bus bars shall be used for connecting battery trays together to facilitate fabrication
and preserve equal area current loops.
I.5 Preferred Storage Battery Arrangements
a. The preferred arrangement is an even number of battery trays where half the trays
have an inter–cell connection pattern which is a mirror image of the other half. The
trays shall be arranged so that the small current loops in the mirror image pairs are
equal and opposite and result in a minimum stray magnetic field.
I.6 Battery Arrangement Warning Plates
a. Warning plates shall show the physical arrangement of and the connections to the
battery trays. The plates shall be fitted close to the batteries.

I.1 ANNEX I
DEF STAN 02–617 / ISSUE 3

ANNEX I I.2
DEF STAN 02–617 / ISSUE 3

ANNEX J.
STRAY FIELD – GUIDE FOR MOTORS AND GENERATORS
J.1 Frame Design
a. The frame design shall meet the following requirements.
J.1.1 Frame Type
a. The magnetic frame shall be either a one piece construction with no joints or
laminated. This avoids the non–symmetry at a split. The weld in the frame shall
be at the main pole.
J.1.2 Frame Cross Section
a. The frame shall have a uniform cross section. If necessary, the inside and outside
surfaces shall be machined.
J.1.3 Frame Material
a. The frame material shall be magnetically homogeneous throughout.
J.1.4 Frame Outside Shape
a. The exterior of the frame shall be smooth and cylindrical in nature with its axis
coincident with the axis of the generator. Magnetic feet and other major projections
shall be avoided. Pole boltheads shall be recessed (bolts with slotted round heads
which almost completely fill the recessed holes are preferable).
J.1.5 Current Carrying Leads
a. Current carrying leads shall not be passed through the frame or other magnetic part
of the machine, although they may go through some part of the enclosure which
is non magnetic.
J.2 Poles
J.2.1 Number of Poles
a. Two pole machines must not be used for any application of 100 watts or more and
even for these small machines, four poles are to be employed wherever possible.
In general, the largest number of poles possible shall be used for all applications.
J.2.2 Orientation of Field Poles
a. To minimise the vertical component of stray field, one pair of main field poles shall
be oriented in a vertical plane or oriented so that a vertical plane equally divides
the angle between adjacent main field poles.
J.2.3 Magnetic Contact
a. Care shall be taken, if necessary by grinding, to ensure good magnetic contact
between the poles and the inside of the frame.
J.3 Symmetry and Uniformity
J.3.1 Air Gaps
a. All air gaps are to be uniform and as equal as possible.

J.1 ANNEX J
DEF STAN 02–617 / ISSUE 3

J.3.2 Commutating Poles (Interpoles)


a. In machines which have commutating poles, there shall be as many commutating
poles as main poles.
J.3.3 Number of Turns
a. All coils of the same kind (shunt field coils, commutating field coils) shall be the
same size and shape and shall have exactly the same number of turns.
J.3.4 Equalizer Connections
a. If these are fitted to a lap wound armature, they shall be in the form of rings of
uniform cross section throughout.
J.4 Wiring Around the Frame
J.4.1 Field Coils
a. Connections to field coils shall have no net turns around the shaft and no
uncompensated current loops. This shall be implemented by looping back the field
coil connections on themselves to effect a stray field cancellation between the
forward and return conductors. Shunt field connections shall all be at the same end
of the machine and as close together as possible.
J.4.2 Commutating Coils and Compensating Windings
a. The end connections to the commutating coils and the compensating winding shall
have no net turns around the shaft and no uncompensated current loops. It is
essential that the conductors are as close together as possible.
J.5 Brush Collector Rings
J.5.1 Construction
a. The brush collector rings shall be complete rings, concentric with the axis of the
machine and of uniform cross section throughout the entire circumference.
J.5.2 Arrangement
a. There shall be either:
(1) Three brush collector rings equally spaced in the direction parallel to the axis
of the machine, with the centre ring carrying full positive (or negative)
current and each of the two outer rings carrying one half of the negative (or
positive) current;
or:
(2) Two concentric rings, one larger than the other, mounted in the same plane
perpendicular to the axis of the machine.
J.5.3 Current Take–off Point
a. The current take–off points shall be either:
(1) in line with the axis of the machine for machines with three brush connector
rings,

ANNEX J J.2
DEF STAN 02–617 / ISSUE 3

or:
(2) in a plane passing through the axis of the machine for machines with two
concentric brush rings in the same plane.

b. The current take–off point from one brush collector ring shall be at the same point
where one set of brushes is connected to the ring.
J.5.4 Connections from Brush Collector Rings
a. The connections from brush collector rings of a machine and the associated circuit
shall be arranged with a central conductor carrying the full current and the two
symmetrically placed flanking conductors, each carrying half current, all so
arranged as to avoid unbalanced current loops.
J.5.5 Position of Brush Collector Rings
a. The axial distance from the brush collector rings to the commutator risers shall be
selected in a manner to minimise the effect of unequal current division between
different sets of brushes.

J.5.6 Brush Rigging


a. Brush rigging shall be designed in a manner to force a well defined current path
between a set of brushes and the brush collector ring. This current path shall be in
a plane which passes through the axis of the machine.
J.5.7 Number of Commutator Bars
a. The number of commutator bars shall be equal to an integral multiple of the number
of field poles.
J.5.8 Double Armature Machines
a. Machines with two armatures on the same shaft shall be designed in accordance
with the principle of mutual compensation. The two armatures shall be as alike as
possible and have their connections so arranged that the magnetic field of one is
in opposition to the other.

J.3 ANNEX J
DEF STAN 02–617 / ISSUE 3

ANNEX J J.4
NES 617
Issue 4
October 2000

ANNEX K.
STRAY FIELD – GUIDE FOR INDUCTION CLUTCHES
K.1 Field Pole Requirements
a. A series of long and narrow field poles, which are alternately North and South, shall
be utilised in the induction clutch design. Field poles shall be wound with field
coils. Pole pieces may be fixed on the outside of the inner member or the inside
of the outer member.
K.2 Field Coil Requirements
a. Each field coil wound round a field pole piece shall be interconnected as for a dc
machine described in Clause J.1.4. Field coil connections shall be at the same end
of the clutch assembly and arranged as close together as possible. The connections
shall be arranged to prevent a single concentric turn from being formed around the
shaft of the machine.
K.3 Number of Field Poles
a. The preferred induction clutch design shall have 16 or more field poles.

K.1 ANNEX K
NES 617
Issue 4
October 2000

ANNEX K K.2
DEF STAN 02–617 / ISSUE 3

ANNEX L.
STRAY FIELD – GUIDE FOR SWITCH AND CONTACTOR PANELS
L.1 Basic Conductor Arrangement
a. The basic arrangement of conductors in switch and contactor panels shall be three
parallel and closely adjacent conductors in the same plane. The central conductor
shall carry two units of current in the forward sense and the two symmetrically
disposed outer conductors shall each carry one unit of current in the return sense.
This is the same principle as the three terminal arrangement for cable runs in Annex
F.
b. The distance between devices and conductors in compensation circuits shall be the
minimum required by the electrical creepage and clearance distances of the
applicable specification for the switch boxes and contactor panels.
L.2 Conductor Bends
a. Conductor bends can be of two types:
(1) the conductors lie in different planes on each side of the bend;
or
(2) the conductors lie in the same plane on each side of the bend.
L.2.1 Conductors Lying in Different Planes on Each Side of the Bend
a. Three parallel and closely adjacent conductors in the same plane shall maintain the
same separation and turn through the same angle as they bend into another plane.
This is shown in Figure L.1.
L.2.2 Conductors Lying in the Same Plane on Each Side of the Bend
a. Three parallel and closely adjacent conductors in the same plane which bend in that
plane shall alter the spacing between themselves on the bend such that the area
between the outer and the centre one is equal to the area between the centre and the
inner one during the bend. This is shown in Figure L.2.
L.3 Devices in Power Circuits
a. Two terminal, series connected devices in power circuits such as ammeter shunts
and overload relays, shall always be arranged as the centre limb in a three terminal
arrangement. The limbs on either side shall be the conductors for the return path
and be symmetrically arranged to effect the best cancellation.
L.3.1 Power Circuit Arrangements
a. Power circuit arrangements shall be the folded or criss–cross type. The
straight–through type, i.e. cables entering one side of the panel or box and leaving
on the opposite side, shall not be used. The folded arrangement inherently requires
the incoming and outgoing terminals to be on the same end of the panel or box.
The arrangement of conductors within the box shall be for best stray field
compensation and the distances between ingoing and outgoing conductors shall be
the minimum needed for creepage and clearance requirements.

L.1 ANNEX L
DEF STAN 02–617 / ISSUE 3

A
Conductor

Angle of the bend (angle A) is


the same for all three conductors
A. Conductor bent in two planes

W
Conductor
A
X

A
Y
A
Z
If the currents in the two
outer conductors are equal
and if Area W = Area X and
Area Y = Area Z, then zero
net magnetic moment of
B. Resulting current loops current will result.

Figure L.1 – Bend for Conductors Lying in Different Planes on Each Side of the Bend

ANNEX L L.2
DEF STAN 02–617 / ISSUE 3

If the currents in the two


B outer conductors are equal
and if Area Z = Area X, then
zero net magnetic moment
of current will result.
C
X
Z

D E F

Conductors

Figure L.2 – Bend for Conductors Lying in the Same Plane on Each Side of the Bend

L.3 ANNEX L
DEF STAN 02–617 / ISSUE 3

ANNEX L L.4
Inside Rear Cover
© Crown Copyright 2004
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