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MAILAM ENGINEERING COLLEGE

MAILAM – 604 304

DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONICS


ENGINEERING

EE 2257 – CONTROL SYSTEM LABORATORY MANUAL

NAME :

ROLL NO. :

CLASS : B.E. / EEE - B

YEAR / SEM : II Yr / IV Sem


SYLLABUS

EE 2257 – CONTROL SYSTEM LABORATORY

LIST OF EXPERIMENTS

1. Determination of transfer function of DC Servomotor

2. Determination of transfer function of AC Servomotor

3. Analog simulation of Type - 0 and Type – 1 systems

4. Determination of transfer function of DC Generator

5. Determination of transfer function of DC Motor

6. Stability analysis of linear systems

7. DC and AC position control systems

8. Stepper motor control system

9. Digital simulation of first order systems

10. Digital simulation of second order systems


CYCLE - 1
LIST OF EXPERIMENTS

1. (a)Determination of transfer function of armature controlled DC Servomotor.


(b)Determination of transfer function of field controlled DC Servomotor.

2. Determination of transfer function of AC Servomotor.

3. Analog simulation of Type - 0 and Type – 1 systems.

4. Determination of transfer function of DC Generator.

5. (a) Determination of transfer function of armature controlled DC Motor.


(b) Determination of transfer function of field controlled DC Motor.

6. Digital simulation of first order systems.

CYCLE - 2
LIST OF EXPERIMENTS

7. Stability analysis of linear systems.

8. DC and AC position control systems.

9. Stepper motor control system.

10. Digital simulation of second order systems.


INDEX

EX.
DATE NAME OF THE EXPERIMENT MARKS SIGNATURE
NO.
Ex. No. – 1(a)

DETERMINATION OF TRANSFER FUNCTION PARAMETERS OF


ARMATURE CONTROLLED DC SERVOMOTOR

Aim:
To determine the transfer function parameters of armature controlled DC servomotor.

Apparatus Required:

S.No. Apparatus Quantity


1. DC servomotor trainer kit 1
2. DC servomotor 1

Name plate details of DC servomotor:

Armature voltage 48 V DC
Field voltage 48 V DC
Armature current 2.5 A
Power 100 W
Speed 1500 rpm

Theory:

DC Servo motor is basically a torque transducer which converts electrical energy


into mechanical energy It is basically a separately excited type DC motor. The torque
developed on the motor shaft is directly proportional to the field flux and armature
current, Tm = Km Φ Ia. The back emf developed by the motor is Eb = Kb Φ ωm..

Fig.1.1 Circuit diagram of armature controlled DC servomotor.

Front Panel diagram:


In an armature controlled DC Servo motor, the control signal available from the
servo amplifier is applied to the armature of the motor. This signal is based on the
feedback information, supplied to the controller. Due to this armature current changes
which in turn changes the torque produced. The field winding is supplied with constant
current hence the flux remains constant. Therefore these motors are called as constant
magnetic flux motors.

Derivation of transfer function:


Let,
Ra = Armature Resistance
La = Armature Inductance
Eb = Back emf
Ia = Armature current
T = Torque developed in the motor
J = Moment of inertia
B = Dashpot
θ = Angular Displacement
Kt = Armature torque constant
Kb = Back emf constant

From equivalent circuit,

Differential equation of electrical circuit can be written as


Ra ia +La dia/dt + eb = Va ------------------------ 1

Differential equation of mechanical system can be written as


J d2θ /dt2 + B dθ / dt = T
------------------------ 2

Torque is directly proportional to the armature current


T α Ia ϕ , T α Ia
T = K t Ia ------------------------ 3

Motor back emf is directly proportional to the speed (Angular velocity )


Eb = Kb dθ / dt ------------------------ 4

Taking laplace transform for equations 1, 2, 3 & 4 we get

Ra Ia(s) + Las Ia(s) + Eb(s) = Va(s)


(Ra + Las) Ia(s) + Eb(s) = Va(s) ------------------------ 5

Js2θ (s) + Bsθ (s) = T(s) ------------------------ 6

T(s) = Kt Ia(s) ------------------------ 7

Eb(s) = Kbs θ (s) ------------------------ 8


Equating equation 6 & 7 we get,
KtIa(s) = Js2θ (s) + Bsθ (s)
KtIa(s) = (Js2 + Bs) θ (s)

Ia(s) = (Js2 + Bs) θ (s) / Kt ------------------------ 9

Substitute eqn. 8 & 9 in 5,

[ (Ra + Las) (Js2 + Bs) θ (s) / Kt ] + Kbs θ (s) = Va(s)

θ (s) [(Ra + Las) (Js2 + Bs) + Kb Kt s ] / Kt = Va(s)

θ (s) Kt
 = 
Va(s) (Ra + Las) (Js2 + Bs) + Kb Kt s

Procedure:

(a) To find Ra:


1. Initially keep all the switches in OFF position.
2. Initially keep AC voltage adjustment POT in minimum position.
3. Initially keep armature and field voltage adjustment POT in minimum position.
4. Connect the armature terminals of the trainer kit to the motor armature terminal.
5. Switch ON the power switch and SPST switch S1.
6. Shaft should not rotate, when applying DC input voltage.
7. Note the armature voltage and current for the various values of armature voltage.
8. Calculate armature resistance Ra.

(b) To find La:


1. Initially keep all the switches in OFF position.
2. Initially keep AC voltage adjustment POT in minimum position.
3. Initially keep armature and field voltage adjustment POT in minimum position.
4. Connect the AC voltage terminal of the trainer kit to the motor armature terminal.
5. Switch ON the power.
6. Shaft should not rotate, when applying AC input voltage.
7. Note the AC voltage and current for the various values of AC voltage.
8. Calculate armature inductance La.

(c) To find Kb:

1. Initially keep all the switches in OFF position.


2. Initially keep AC voltage adjustment POT in minimum position.
3. Initially keep armature and field voltage adjustment POT in minimum position.
4. Connect the armature terminals of the trainer kit to the motor armature terminal.
5. Connect the field terminals of the trainer kit to the motor field terminal.
6. Switch ON the power switch and SPST switches S1 and S2.
7. Set the field voltage at rated value (48 V).
8. By varying the armature voltage, note the corresponding armature current and
speed till the rated speed is reached.
9. Plot the graph Eb versus ω. From the graph calculate the value of Kb.

(d) To find Kt:


1. Initially keep all the switches in OFF position.
2. Initially keep AC voltage adjustment POT in minimum position.
3. Initially keep armature and field voltage adjustment POT in minimum position.
4. Connect the armature terminals of the trainer kit to the motor armature terminal.
5. Connect the field terminals of the trainer kit to the motor field terminal.
6. Switch ON the power switch and SPST switches S1 and S2.
7. Set the field voltage at rated value (48 V).
8. Vary armature voltage till motor runs at rated speed.
9. By varying the load, note the armature voltage, current and spring balance
readings.
10. Plot the graph T versus armature current. From the graph calculate the value of Kt.

Tabulation:

To find Ra :
Armature voltage Armature current Armature Resistance
( Va) ( Ia) R a = V a / Ia

Average Ra = _________ Ω

To find La :

Armature Armature Armature Armature Armature


voltage current Impedence Reactance Inductance
( Va) ( Ia) Za=Va/Ia Xa=:√( Za2 - Ra2) La= Xa/ 2π f

Average La = _________ H

To find Kb :

Armature Armature Speed


voltage current (N) Eb =Va - IaRa ω =2π N/60
( Va) ( Ia) Rpm Volts rad/sec

To find Kt :

Armature Armature S1 S2 S1 - S2 Torque


current voltage (Kg) (Kg) (Kg) (Ta) = 9.81(S1-S2) R
( Ia) ( Va) Nm

Model Graph:

Measurement of Back Emf constant (Kb) :


Eb
∆ Eb

∆ω

ω (radians/sec)

Measurement of Kt :

Torque Vs Armature current (Ia)

T
(Nm) ∆T

∆ Ia

Ia (A)

Model calculation :

Kb = ∆ E b / ∆ ω

Kt = ∆ T/ ∆ Ia
B = 0.001 Nm/ (rad/sec)
J =0.0074 Kg m2
R = 0.075 m
Result:
Thus the transfer function of the armature controlled DC servomotor is determined as

Ex. No. – 1(b)

DETERMINATION OF TRANSFER FUNCTION PARAMETERS OF FIELD


CONTROLLED DC SERVOMOTOR

Aim:
To determine the transfer function parameters of field controlled DC servomotor.

Apparatus Required:

S.No. Apparatus Quantity


1. DC servomotor trainer kit 1
2. DC servomotor 1

Name plate details of DC servomotor:

Armature voltage 48 V DC
Field voltage 48 V DC
Armature current 2.5 A
Power 100 W
Speed 1500 rpm

Theory:

DC Servo motor is basically a torque transducer which converts electrical energy


into mechanical energy. It is basically a separately excited type DC motor. The torque
developed on the motor shaft is directly proportional to the field flux and armature
current, Tm = Km φ Ia. The back emf developed by the motor is Eb = Kb φ ω m.

In a field controlled DC Servo motor, the electrical signal is externally applied to


the field winding. Hence current through field winding is controlled in turn controlling
the flux. In a control system, a controller generates the error signal by comparing the
actual o/p with the reference i/p. Such an error signal is not enough to drive the DC
motor. Hence it is amplified by the servo amplifier and applied to the field winding. With
the help of constant current source, the armature current is maintained constant.

When there is change in voltage applied to the field winding, the current through
the field winding changes. This changes the flux produced by field winding. This motor
has large Lf / Rf ratio, so time constant of this motor is high and it can’t give rapid
responses to the quick changing control signals.
Front panel diagram:
Fig. 1.2 Circuit diagram of field controlled DC servomotor.

Derivation of transfer function:


Let,
Rf = field Resistance
Lf = field Inductance
T = Torque developed in the motor
J = Moment of inertia
B = Dashpot
θ = Angular Displacement
Kf = Field torque constant

From equivalent circuit,

Differential equation of electrical circuit can be written as


Rf if +Lf dif/dt = Vf ------------------------ 1

Differential equation of mechanical system can be written as


J d2θ /dt2 + B dθ / dt = T
------------------------ 2

Torque is directly proportional to the armature current


T α Ia ϕ , T α If
T = K f If ------------------------ 3

Taking laplace transform for equations 1, 2, & 3 we get

Rf If(s) + s Lf If(s) = Vf(s)


(Rf + s Lf) If(s) = Vf(s) ------------------------ 4

Js2θ (s) + Bsθ (s) = T(s) ------------------------ 5

T(s) = Kf If(s) ------------------------ 6


Equating equation 5 & 6 we get,
Kf If(s) = Js2θ (s) + Bsθ (s)
Kf If(s) = (Js2 + Bs) θ (s)

If(s) = (Js2 + Bs) θ (s) / Kf ------------------------ 7

Substitute eqn. 7 in 4,

[ (Rf + s Lf) (Js2 + Bs) θ (s) / Kf ] = Vf(s)

θ (s) [(Rf + s Lf ) (Js2 + Bs) ] / Kf = Vf(s)

θ (s) Kf
 = 
Vf(s) (Rf + s Lf ) (Js2 + Bs)

Procedure:

(a) To find Rf :
1. Initially keep all the switches in OFF position.
2. Initially keep AC voltage adjustment POT in minimum position.
3. Initially keep armature and field voltage adjustment POT in minimum position.
4. Connect the field terminals of the trainer kit to the motor field terminal.
5. Switch ON the power switch and SPST switch S1.
6. Shaft should not rotate, when applying DC input voltage.
7. Note the field voltage and current for the various values of field voltage.
8. Calculate field resistance Rf.

(b) To find Lf :
1. Initially keep all the switches in OFF position.
2. Initially keep AC voltage adjustment POT in minimum position.
3. Initially keep armature and field voltage adjustment POT in minimum position.
4. Connect the AC voltage terminal of the trainer kit to the motor field terminal.
5. Switch ON the power.
6. Shaft should not rotate, when applying AC input voltage.
7. Note the AC voltage and current for the various values of AC voltage.
8. Calculate field inductance Lf.

(c) To find Kf :
1. Initially keep all the switches in OFF position.
2. Initially keep AC voltage adjustment POT in minimum position.
3. Initially keep armature and field voltage adjustment POT in minimum position.
4. Connect the armature terminals of the trainer kit to the motor armature terminal.
5. Connect the field terminals of the trainer kit to the motor field terminal.
6. Switch ON the power switch and SPST switches S1 and S2.
7. Set the armature voltage at rated value (48 V).
8. Vary field voltage till motor runs at rated speed.
9. By varying the load, note the field voltage, field current and spring balance
readings.
10. Plot the graph T versus field current. From the graph calculate the value of Kf.

Tabulation:

To find Rf :
Field voltage Field current Field Resistance
( Vf) ( If) R f = V f / If

Average Rf = _________ Ω

To find Lf :

Field Field Field Armature Armature


voltage current Impedence Reactance Inductance
( Vf) ( If) Z f = V f / If Xf = √( Zf2 – Rf2) Lf = Xf / 2π f

Average Lf = _________ H

To find Kf :
Field Field current S1 S2 S1 - S2 Torque
voltage ( If) (Kg) (Kg) (Kg) (T) = 9.81(S1-S2) R
( Vf) Nm

Model Graph:

Measurement of Kf :

Torque Vs Field current(If) :

T
(Nm) ∆T

∆ If

If (A)

Model calculation :

Kf = ∆ T/ ∆ If
B = 0.001 Nm/ (rad/sec)
J = 0.0074 Kg m2
R = 0.075 m
Result:
Thus the transfer function of the field controlled DC servomotor is determined as

Ex. No. – 2

DETERMINATION OF TRANSFER FUNCTION PARAMETERS OF AC


SERVOMOTOR

Aim:
To determine the transfer function parameters of AC servomotor.

Apparatus Required:

S.No. Apparatus Quantity


1. AC servomotor trainer kit 1
2. AC servomotor 1

Name plate details of AC servomotor:

Main winding voltage 230 V


Control winding voltage 230 V
Load current per phase 350 mA
Input power 100 W
Full load Speed 900 rpm

Theory:

It is an electromechanical device, which converts electrical signal into angular


displacement. An AC servomotor basically a two-phase induction motor except for certain
special design features. The rotor of the servomotor is built with high resistance, so that X /
R ratio is small which result in linear speed-torque characteristics.
The stator consists of two pole pairs mounted on the inner periphery of the stator,
such that their axes are at an angle of 90o in space. Each pole pairs carries a winding. One
winding is called Reference winding and the other is called Control winding.
The rotor construction is usually squirrel cage .The squirrel cage rotor is made of
laminations. The rotor bars are placed on the slots and short-circuited at both ends by end
rings. The diameter of the rotor is small in order to reduce inertia and to obtain good
accelerating characteristics. The Drag cup construction is employed for very low inertia
application. In this type of construction the rotor will be in the form of hollow cylinder
made of aluminum. The aluminum cylinder itself acts as short-circuited rotor conductors.

Front Panel diagram of AC servomotor:


Fig. 2.1 Circuit diagram of AC servomotor

Derivation of transfer function:

Let,
Tm = Torque developed by servomotor
Q = Angular displacement of rotor
ω = Angular speed
TL = Torque required by the load
J = Moment of inertia
B = Viscous frictional coefficient
K1 = Slope of control-phase voltage Vs torque characteristic
K2 = Slope of speed-torque characteristic

Torque developed by motor,


Tm = K1 ec – K2 dθ / dt ----------------- 1

Load torque,
TL = J d2θ / dt + B dθ / dt
------------------ 2

At equilibrium motor torque is equal to load torque

J d2θ / dt + B dθ / dt = K1ec – K2 dθ / dt
------------------ 3

On taking laplace transform of above equation, we get

Js2 θ (s) + Bs θ (s) = K1 Ec(s) – K2 s θ (s)


( Js2+ Bs+K2 s) θ (s) = K1 Ec(s)

θ (s) K1
 = 
Ec(s) s (Js+B+K2)

θ (s) K1 / (B+K2 )
 = 
Ec(s) s [ ( J s / (B+K2)) + 1]
θ (s) Km
 = 
Ec(s) s (τ m s + 1)

Where, Km = K1 / B+K2 = Motor gain constant


τ m = J / B+K2 = Motor time constant

Procedure:

To find K1 :
1. Apply 3-phase AC supply to the 3-phase input terminal of the trainer kit.
2. Switch on the power switch.
3. Switch on the control winding and main winding switches S1 and S2.
4. Apply rated voltage (230 V) to the reference phase winding.
5. Apply a certain voltage to the control phase winding and make the motor run at
low speed.
6. Apply load to motor. Motor speed will decrease. Increase the control voltage until
the motor runs at same speed as on no-load.
7. Note down control voltage and load.
8. Repeat steps 6 & 7 for various loads.
9. Calculate the torque using the formula, T = 9.81 x Radius of shaft x Load.
10. Plot the graph between T versus control voltage.
11. From the graph find the motor constant K1.

To find K2 :
1. Apply 3-phase AC supply to the 3-phase input terminal of the trainer kit.
2. Switch on the power switch.
3. Switch on the control winding and main winding switches S1 and S2.
4. Apply rated voltage to the reference phase winding and control phase winding.
5. Apply the load in step by step upto the motor run at zero rpm and note the speed
of motor and applied load.
6. Calculate the torque using the formula, T = 9.81 x Radius of shaft x Load.
7. Plot the graph between T versus Speed.
8. From the graph find the motor constant K2.

Tabulation:

To find K1 :

Control voltage Load Torque


S.No
(V) (Kg) (Nm)
To find K2 :

Speed Load Torque


S.No (rpm) (Kg) (Nm)

Model graph:

Torque Vs control voltage:

Torque
(Nm)
Slope K1

Control voltage (V)

Torque Vs Speed:

Torque
Slope K2

Speed
Model calculation:

K1 = ΔT / ΔV
K2 = ΔT / ΔN

T = 9.81 x Radius of shaft x Load

J = 0.0155 Kg m2
B = 0.85 x 10-4 kg m s

Result :
Thus the transfer function parameters of AC servomotor is found and the transfer
function is determined as,
Ex. No. – 3

ANALOG SIMULATION OF TYPE-0 AND TYPE-1 SYSTEM

Aim:
To study the response of type-0 and type-1 system in open and closed loop.

Apparatus Required:

S.No. Apparatus Quantity


1. Process simulator kit 1
2. CRO 1
3. Patch wires As required

Theory:

When a number of elements or components are connected in a sequence to perform a


specific function, the group thus formed is called a SYSTEM. The input and output
relationship of the system can be expressed by a differential equation.

Order of the system:


The order of the system is given by the order of the differential equation governing the
system. The input output relationship can be expressed by transfer function also. Transfer
function of a system is obtained by taking laplace transform of the differential equation
governing the system and rearranging them as ratio of two polynomials in ‘s’. The order
is given by the maximum power of ‘s’ in denominator polynomial Q(s).

T(s) = P(s) / Q(s)


P(s) - Numerator polynomial
Q(s) - Denominator polynomial

Q(s) =ao sn + a1 sn-1 + a2 sn-2 + …………. + an-1 s + an

If n=0, then system is Zero-Order system.


If n=1, then system is First-Order system.
If n=0, then system is Second-Order system.

Type Number of system:


Type number is given by the number of poles lying at the origin.
If N=0, the system is a Type Zero system.
If N=1, the system is a Type One system.
If N=0, the system is a Type Two system.

Block diagram:

Type-0 Open-loop system:

Type-0 closed-loop system:

Type-1 Open-loop system:

Type-1 closed-loop system:

Procedure:
1. Give the connections as per the block diagram in the process simulator kit using
the front panel diagram.
2. Set the input (set point) by using the set value knob.
3. Observe the measured value or process value (PV) using CRO.
4. Tabulate the readings and calculate the % error.
5. Repeat the same for type-0 and type-1 first order systems in open and closed loop.
6. Plot the response in the graph.
Front panel diagram:
Tabulation:

Type-0 first order system:

Set point Process variable Settling time Error = % error =


(SP) (PV) SP – PV (SP – PV) / PV
X 100
Open loop

Closed
loop

Type-1 first order system:

Set point Process variable Settling time Error = % error =


(SP) (PV) SP – PV (SP – PV) / PV
X 100
Open loop

Closed
loop

Model graph:

Response of first order system:

Result:
Thus the analog simulation of type-0 and type-1 first order system has been observed
using process control simulator.
Ex. No. – 4

DETERMINATION OF TRANSFER FUNCTION OF SEPERATELY EXCITED


DC GENERATOR
Aim:
To determine the transfer function of separately excited DC generator.

Apparatus Required:

S.No. Apparatus Quantity


1. Voltmeter
2. Ammeter
3 Rheostat
4. Connecting wires
5.
6.

Name plate details:

Generator Motor

Fuse Rating:
Fuse Rating = 125% of rated current

Derivation of transfer function:

Applying KVL to the field side,

ef = Rf if + Lf (dif / dt) .............


1
Applying KVL to the armature side,

eg = Ra ia + La (dia / dt) + RL ia .............


2

V L = RL i a .............. 3
Also eg α if , So, eg = Kg if .............
4

Taking Laplace transform of equation (1) we get

Ef (s) = Rf If(s) + s Lf If(s)


Ef (s) = If (s) [Rf + sLf]
If (s) = Ef (s) / [Rf + sLf] .................
5

Taking Laplace transform of equation (2) we get

Eg (s) = Ra Ia(s) + sLa Ia(s) + RL Ia(s)


Eg (s) = Ia(s) [Ra + sLa + RL] ...............
6

Taking Laplace transform of equations (3) and (4) we get

VL(s) = RL Ia( s)
Therefore, Ia( s) = VL(s) / RL ................
7

Eg(s) = Kg If(s) ................ 8

Substituting. equations (7) and (8) in equation (6) we get

Kg If(s) = [Ra + sLa + RL] [VL(s) / RL] ...............


9

Substituting the value of If (s) in the above equation we get

Kg Ef (s) / [Rf + sLf] = [Ra + sLa + RL] [ VL(s) / RL]

Hence transfer function,

VL(s) / Ef (s) = Kg RL / [ (Rf + sLf) (Ra + sLa + RL) ]

Procedure:

(a) To find Ra:


1. Connections are given as per the circuit diagram.
2. Apply DC voltage to the armature terminals.
3. By varying the resistance, note the armature voltage and armature current.
4. Calculate the armature resistance by using the formula, Ra = Va / Ia .

(b) To find La:


1. Connections are given as per the circuit diagram.
2. Apply AC voltage to the armature terminals.
3. By varying the resistance, note the AC armature voltage and AC armature current.
4. Calculate the armature impedance by using the formula, Za = Va / Ia .
5. Now calculate the armature reactance, Xa and then the armature Inductance, La.

(c) To find Rf:


1. Connections are given as per the circuit diagram.
2. Apply DC voltage to the field terminals.
3. By varying the resistance, note the field voltage and field current.
4. Calculate the field resistance by using the formula, Rf = Vf / If .

(d) To find Lf:


1. Connections are given as per the circuit diagram.
2. Apply AC voltage to the field terminals.
3. By varying the resistance, note the AC field voltage and AC field current.
4. Calculate the armature impedance by using the formula, Zf = Vf / If .
5. Now calculate the field reactance, Xf and then the field Inductance, Lf.

(e) To find Kg :
1. Connections are made as shown in the circuit diagram.
2. The motor field rheostat should be in minimum resistance position and the
generator field rheostat should be in maximum resistance position while
switching ON and switching OFF the supply side DPST switch.
3. Ensure that the DPST switch on the load side is open.
4. Switch ON the supply and DPST switch.
5. The generator is brought to its rated voltage by varying the generator field
rheostat.
6. The DPST switch on the load side is closed, and the load is varied for
Convenient steps of load.
7. Note load voltage VL and load current Ia .
8. Plot graph between VL and IL. The slope of the graph gives Kg.

Circuit diagram:

(a) To find Ra :
(b) To find La :

(c) To find Rf :
(d) To find Lf :

(e) To find Kg :
Tabulation:

To find Ra :
Armature voltage Armature current Armature Resistance
( Va) ( Ia) R a = V a / Ia
Average Ra =
_________ Ω

To find La :

Armature Armature Armature Armature Armature


voltage current Impedence Reactance Inductance
( Va) ( Ia) Za=Va/Ia Xa= √( Za2 - Ra2) La= Xa/ 2π f

Average La = _________ H

To find Rf :
Field voltage Field current Field Resistance
( Vf) ( If) R f = V f / If

Average Rf = _________ Ω
To find Lf :

Field Field Field Field Reactance Field Inductance


voltage current Impedence Xf= √( Zf2 – Rf2) Lf= Xf/ 2π f
( Vf) ( If) Zf=Vf/If

Average Lf = _________ H
To find Kg :

Load voltage, VL Load current, IL


(V) (A)

Model graph:
Result:
Thus the transfer function of the separately excited DC generator is determined as,
Ex. No. – 5 (a)

DETERMINATION OF TRANSFER FUNCTION OF ARMATURE


CONTROLLED DC MOTOR
Aim:
To determine the transfer function of armature controlled DC motor.

Apparatus Required:

S.No. Apparatus Quantity


1. Voltmeter
2. Ammeter
3 Rheostat
4. Connecting wires
5.
6.

Name plate details:

Motor

Fuse Rating:
Fuse Rating = 125% of rated current

Theory:
The DC motor converts electrical energy into mechanical energy. The electrical
energy supplied at the armature terminals is converted into controlled mechanical energy.

In armature control, the field current is kept constant and the armature voltage is
varied and hence the speed is varied. The field current If is maintained constant by
keeping the Vf constant and the armature current Ia is varied to change the torque T of the
load connected to the motor shaft. Thus the input variable of the motor is the armature
voltage Va and the output variable is the torque T. The speed of the DC motor is directly
proportional to the armature voltage and inversely proportional to the flux in the
armature. In the armature controlled DC motor, the desired speed is obtained by varying
the armature voltage.
Derivation of transfer function:
Let,
Ra = Armature Resistance
La = Armature Inductance
Eb = Back emf
Ia = Armature current
T = Torque developed in the motor
J = Moment of inertia
B = Dashpot
θ = Angular Displacement
Kt = Armature torque constant
Kb = Back emf constant

From equivalent circuit,

Differential equation of electrical circuit can be written as


Ra ia +La dia/dt + eb = Va ------------------------ 1

Differential equation of mechanical system can be written as


J d2θ /dt2 + B dθ / dt = T
------------------------ 2

Torque is directly proportional to the armature current


T α Ia ϕ , T α Ia
T = K t Ia ------------------------ 3

Motor back emf is directly proportional to the speed (Angular velocity )


Eb = Kb dθ / dt ------------------------ 4

Taking laplace transform for equations 1, 2, 3 & 4 we get

Ra Ia(s) + Las Ia(s) + Eb(s) = Va(s)


(Ra + Las) Ia(s) + Eb(s) = Va(s) ------------------------ 5

Js2θ (s) + Bsθ (s) = T(s) ------------------------ 6

T(s) = Kt Ia(s) ------------------------ 7

Eb(s) = Kbs θ (s) ------------------------ 8

Equating equation 6 & 7 we get,


Kt Ia(s) = Js2θ (s) + Bsθ (s)
Kt Ia(s) = (Js2 + Bs) θ (s)

Ia(s) = (Js2 + Bs) θ (s) / Kt ------------------------ 9

Substitute eqn. 8 & 9 in 5,


[ (Ra + Las) (Js2 + Bs) θ (s) / Kt ] + Kbs θ (s) = Va(s)

θ (s) [(Ra + Las) (Js2 + Bs) + Kb Kt s ] / Kt = Va(s)

θ (s) Kt
 = 
Va(s) (Ra + Las) (Js2 + Bs) + Kb Kt s

Procedure:

(a) To find Ra:

5. Connections are given as per the circuit diagram.


6. Apply DC voltage to the armature terminals.
7. By varying the resistance, note the armature voltage and armature current.
8. Calculate the armature resistance by using the formula, Ra = Va / Ia .

(b) To find La:

6. Connections are given as per the circuit diagram.


7. Apply AC voltage to the armature terminals.
8. By varying the resistance, note the AC armature voltage and AC armature current.
9. Calculate the armature impedance by using the formula, Za = Va / Ia .
10. Now calculate the armature reactance, Xa and then the armature Inductance, La.

(c) To find Kb:

1. Connections are given as per the circuit diagram.


2. Keep the field rheostat in minimum position and switch on the supply.
3. Adjust the field rheostat to rated speed.
4. For various values of armature voltage Va, note Va, Ia and N.
5. Plot the graph Eb versus ω. From the graph calculate the value of Kb.

(d) To find Kt:

1. Connections are given as per the circuit diagram.


2. Set the field voltage at rated value .
3. Vary armature voltage till motor runs at rated speed.
4. By varying the load, note the armature voltage, current and spring balance
readings.
5. Plot the graph T versus armature current. From the graph calculate the value of Kt.
Circuit diagram:

(f) To find Ra :

(g) To find La :

(h) To find Kb and Kt :


Tabulation:

To find Ra :
Armature voltage Armature current Armature Resistance
( Va) ( Ia) R a = V a / Ia

Average Ra = _________ Ω
To find La :

Armature Armature Armature Armature Armature


voltage current Impedence Reactance Inductance
( Va) ( Ia) Za=Va/Ia Xa= √( Za2 - Ra2) La= Xa/ 2π f
Average La = _________ H
To find Kb :

Armature Armature Speed


voltage current (N) Eb =Va - IaRa ω =2π N/60
( Va) ( Ia) rpm Volts rad/sec

To find Kt :

Armature Armature S1 S2 S1 - S2 Torque


current voltage (Kg) (Kg) (Kg) (Ta) = 9.81(S1-S2) R
( Ia) ( Va) Nm

Model Graph:

Measurement of Back Emf constant (Kb) :

Eb
∆ Eb

∆ω

ω (radians/sec)

Measurement of Kt :

Torque Vs Armature current (Ia)

T
(Nm) ∆T

∆ Ia
Ia (A)

Model calculation :

Kb = ∆ E b / ∆ ω

Kt = ∆ T/ ∆ Ia
B = 0.001 Nm/ (rad/sec)
J =0.0074 Kg m2
R = 0.075 m

Result:
Thus the transfer function of the armature controlled DC motor is determined as

Ex. No. – 5 (b)

DETERMINATION OF TRANSFER FUNCTION OF FIELD CONTROLLED DC


MOTOR
Aim:
To determine the transfer function of field controlled DC motor.

Apparatus Required:

S.No. Apparatus Quantity


1. Voltmeter
2. Ammeter
3 Rheostat
4. Connecting wires
5.
6.

Name plate details:

Motor
Fuse Rating:
Fuse Rating = 125% of rated current

Theory:
The DC motor converts electrical energy into mechanical energy. The electrical
energy supplied at the armature terminals is converted into controlled mechanical energy.

In field control method, the armature current Ia is maintained constant while the
field voltage Vf is varied to control the speed or torque of the motor. Thus the input of the
motor is field voltage Vf and the output is the motor speed, ω and the load displacement
θ.

Derivation of transfer function:


Let,
Rf = field Resistance
Lf = field Inductance
T = Torque developed in the motor
J = Moment of inertia
B = Dashpot
θ = Angular Displacement
Kf = Field torque constant

From equivalent circuit,

Differential equation of electrical circuit can be written as


Rf if +Lf dif/dt = Vf ------------------------ 1

Differential equation of mechanical system can be written as


J d2θ /dt2 + B dθ / dt = T
------------------------ 2

Torque is directly proportional to the armature current


T α Ia ϕ , T α If
T = K f If ------------------------ 3

Taking laplace transform for equations 1, 2, & 3 we get

Rf If(s) + s Lf If(s) = Vf(s)


(Rf + s Lf) If(s) = Vf(s) ------------------------ 4

Js2θ (s) + Bsθ (s) = T(s) ------------------------ 5

T(s) = Kf If(s) ------------------------ 6


Equating equation 5 & 6 we get,
Kf If(s) = Js2θ (s) + Bsθ (s)
Kf If(s) = (Js2 + Bs) θ (s)

If(s) = (Js2 + Bs) θ (s) / Kf ------------------------ 7

Substitute eqn. 7 in 4,

[ (Rf + s Lf) (Js2 + Bs) θ (s) / Kf ] = Vf(s)

θ (s) [(Rf + s Lf ) (Js2 + Bs) ] / Kf = Vf(s)

θ (s) Kf
 = 
Vf(s) (Rf + s Lf ) (Js2 + Bs)

Procedure:

(d) To find Rf:

5. Connections are given as per the circuit diagram.


6. Apply DC voltage to the field terminals.
7. By varying the resistance, note the field voltage and field current.
8. Calculate the field resistance by using the formula, Rf = Vf / If .

(e) To find Lf:

7. Connections are given as per the circuit diagram.


8. Apply AC voltage to the field terminals.
9. By varying the resistance, note the AC field voltage and AC field current.
10. Calculate the armature impedance by using the formula, Zf = Vf / If .
11. Now calculate the field reactance, Xf and then the field Inductance, Lf.

(f) To find Kf:

1. Connections are given as per the circuit diagram.


2. Set the field voltage at 50 % rated value.
3. Set the armature voltage at 50 % rated value.
4. By varying the load, note the field voltage, current and spring balance
readings.
5. Plot the graph T versus field current. From the graph calculate the value of Kf.
Circuit diagram:

(a) To find Rf :

(b) To find Lf :

(c) To find Kf :
Tabulation:

To find Rf :
Field voltage Field current Field Resistance
( Vf) ( If) R f = V f / If

Average Rf = _________ Ω

To find Lf :

Field Field Field Field Reactance Field Inductance


voltage current Impedence Xf= √( Zf2 – Rf2) Lf= Xf/ 2π f
( Vf) ( If) Zf=Vf/If
Average Lf = _________ H
To find Kf :

Field Field voltage S1 S2 S1 - S2 Torque


current ( Vf) (Kg) (Kg) (Kg) (T) = 9.81(S1-S2) R
( If) Nm

Model Graph:

Measurement of Kf :

Torque Vs Field current (If)

T
(Nm) ∆T

∆ If

If (A)

Model calculation :

Kf = ∆ T/ ∆ If
B = 0.001 Nm/ (rad/sec)
J =0.0074 Kg m2
R = 0.075 m
Result:
Thus the transfer function of the field controlled DC motor is determined as

Ex. No. – 6

DIGITAL SIMULATION OF FIRST-ORDER SYSTEMS


Aim:
To study the time response characteristics of the first-order system.

Software used:
Matlab
Simulation of First-order system:

Open loop system:

1. For step input:

Code:
num=[1];
den=[4 2];
sys=tf(num,den);
step(sys)

2. For impulse input:

Code:
num=[1];
den=[4 2];
sys=tf(num,den);
impulse(sys)

3. For sine input:

closed loop system:

1. For step input:


Code:
num=[1];
den=[1 1];
sys1=tf(num,den);
sys2=1;
sys=feedback(sys1,sys2);
step(sys)

2. For impulse input:

Code:
num=[1];
den=[1 1];
sys1=tf(num,den);
sys2=1;
sys=feedback(sys1,sys2);
impulse(sys)

3. For sine input:

Result:
Thus the response of first-order system has been simulated and studied.