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Part II

One Way-ANOVA

Second, use MINITAB

One-Way ANOVA Individual Statistics and Confidence Intervals
One-Way ANOVA
Individual Statistics and Confidence Intervals
get from the MINITAB. the following result:
get from the MINITAB.
the following result:

In the following we explain how one can read the results he /she may

When you use the one-way ANOVA for your data which consists of four

levels (groups) named Blend 1, Blend 2, Blend 3 and Blend 4, you will get

The following are the descriptions of the results shown above.

Individual statistics

Use the table of individual statistics to assess the following properties

of your data:

statistics to assess the following properties of your data: · N . The number of observations

·

N. The number of observations included for each level of the

factor.

·

Mean. The mean of the observations for each level. These sample

means provide an estimate of the population means for each level.

·

StDev. The sample standard deviations for each level. Analysis of

variance assumes that the population standard deviations for all levels

equal variances command. ·
equal variances command.
·

are equal. Thus, if the sample standard deviations differ by a lot, you

might want to test the data for equality of variances using the test for

Pooled StDev. The pooled standard deviation is an estimate of the

common standard deviation for all levels.

The results of the paint hardness analysis indicate that:

· Blend 2 has the lowest mean hardness (8.567) and Blend 4 has the

highest (18.067).

· The standard deviations for the different blends do not appear to

vary enough from each other to be cause for concern.

The pooled standard deviation is 3.950.

Each asterisk represents a sample mean. Each set of parentheses encloses a 95% confidence interval
Each asterisk represents a sample mean.
Each set of parentheses encloses a 95% confidence interval for the

If the intervals for two means do not overlap, it suggests that the

Individual confidence intervals

MINITAB presents 95% confidence intervals for each level of the factor.

When the p-value in the analysis of variance table indicates there is a

difference among the factor level means, you can use the table of individual

confidence intervals to explore the differences:

·

·

mean of a population. You can be 95% confident that the population mean for

each level is within the corresponding interval.

·

population means are different. You should interpret these intervals with

r e n t . You should interpret these intervals with caution , however, since your

caution, however, since your rate of type I error increases when making

multiple comparisons. Thus, when making multiple comparisons, you should use

one of the four available methods for controlling the rate of type I error.

In the paint hardness results, the intervals for the means of Blend 2 and

Blend 4 do not overlap. This suggests that the population means for these

levels are different.

of Blend 2 and Blend 4 do not overlap . This suggests that the population means

Case study

Suppose that the financial analyst wishes to compare the mean earnings per

share of three types of non-industrial business of companies: commercial

types of non-indu strial business of companies: commercial banks , retailers , and utilities . The

banks, retailers, and utilities.

The following table shows the data collected from these three non-industrial

business companies.

Table 3.1 Data from non-industrial business companies

Commercial banks Retailers 6.42 3.52 2.83 4.21 8.94 4.36 6.80 2.67 5.70 3.49 4.65 4.68
Commercial banks
Retailers
6.42
3.52
2.83
4.21
8.94
4.36
6.80
2.67
5.70
3.49
4.65
4.68
6.20
3.30
2.71
2.68
8.34
7.25
0.16

Utilities

3.55

2.13

3.24

6.47

3.06

1.80

5.29

2.96

2.90

1.73

Answer:

Now, use MINITAB

Do the following steps

1. Put the data in columns C1-c3 2. Name these columns as 'Comercial banks', 'Retailers'
1.
Put the data in columns C1-c3
2.
Name these columns as 'Comercial banks', 'Retailers' and 'Utility',
respectively.
3.
Type the following command
MTB > AOVOneway 'Comercial banks' 'Retailers' 'Utility'.
You will get the following results
One-way ANOVA: Comercial banks; Retailers; Utility
Source DF
SS
MS
F
P
Factor
2
35.40
17.70 5.28
0.012
Error
26
87.11
3.35
Total
28 122.51
S = 1.830
R-Sq = 28.89%
R-Sq(adj) = 23.42%
Level
Comercial banks
Retailers
Utility
N
Individual 95% CIs For Mean Based on
Pooled StDev
Mean StDev ------+---------+---------+---------+---
9
5.843
2.166
(-------*-------)
10
3.632
1.798
(-------*-------)
10 3.313 1.509 (-------*-------)
------+---------+---------+---------+---
3.0
4.5
6.0
7.5
Pooled StDev = 1.830
The decision F F = 3 37 . c = , α 1 − 2

The decision

The decision F F = 3 37 . c = , α 1 − 2 ;
F F = 3 37 . c = , α 1 − 2 ; c
F
F
= 3 37
.
c =
,
α
1
2 ; c
1
,n
0 95
.
;
2 26
,

Since the F =5.28 exceeds

the financial

analyst may reject commercial banks, retailers, and utilities are not all equal. 0.05, then the
analyst may
reject
commercial banks, retailers, and utilities are not all equal.
0.05, then the financial analyst may
reject
H 0 at the 0.05 level.
Utility do not overlap, This suggests that the financial analyst may
reject
H
at the 0.05 level

H 0 at the 0.05 level and conclude that the means of the

earnings per share of three types of non-industrial business of companies:

In fact, the P-value “the probability of obtaining such a result as 5.28 or one

even more extreme when H 0 is true” is 0.012. Since this P-value is less than

Also, the 95% confidence intervals of the means of Comercial banks and

0