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Technical Information September 2007 Honda Motor Co., Ltd. Public Relations Division
Technical Information
September 2007
Honda Motor Co., Ltd.
Public Relations Division
Robot Development 4 Robot Development Process 5 TECHNOLOGY 1 7 TECHNOLOGY 2 9 TECHNOLOGY 3
Robot Development
4
Robot Development Process
5
TECHNOLOGY 1
7
TECHNOLOGY 2
9
TECHNOLOGY 3
11
ASIMO, the Humanoid Robot
13
Design Concept
15
Smoother and More Stable Walking
17
i-WALK
19
Featuring Intelligence Technol ogy
21
New ASIMO Debut
23
Improved Physical Capabilities
25
Improving adaptability to changes in environment
27
Carrying Using Tools
31
Future Dreams for ASIMO
32
*The "E" in Models E0~E6 *The "P" in Models P1~P3 stands for ÒExperimental Model." stands
*The "E" in Models E0~E6 *The "P" in Models P1~P3 stands for ÒExperimental Model." stands
*The "E" in Models E0~E6 *The "P" in Models P1~P3 stands for ÒExperimental Model." stands
*The "E" in Models E0~E6 *The "P" in Models P1~P3 stands for ÒExperimental Model." stands
*The "E" in Models E0~E6 *The "P" in Models P1~P3 stands for ÒExperimental Model." stands
*The "E" in Models E0~E6 *The "P" in Models P1~P3 stands for ÒExperimental Model." stands

*The "E" in Models E0~E6 *The "P" in Models P1~P3

stands for ÒExperimental Model." stands for "Prototype Model."

Start of R&D

stands for "Prototype Model." Start of R&D Examining the Principles of Two-Legged Locomotion First, a
stands for "Prototype Model." Start of R&D Examining the Principles of Two-Legged Locomotion First, a
stands for "Prototype Model." Start of R&D Examining the Principles of Two-Legged Locomotion First, a
stands for "Prototype Model." Start of R&D Examining the Principles of Two-Legged Locomotion First, a

Examining the Principles of Two-Legged Locomotion

of R&D Examining the Principles of Two-Legged Locomotion First, a two-legged robot was made to walk.

First, a two-legged robot was made to walk.

Walking by putting one leg befo

re the other was successfully

achieved. However, taking nearly five seconds between steps, it walked very slowly in a straight line.

Slow Walking & Fast Walk

ing

Slow Walking Movement of Center of Gravity Sole of Foot Movement of Center of Gravity
Slow Walking
Slow Walking

Movement of Center of Gravity

Sole of Foot

Movement of Center of Gravity Sole of Foot Fast Walking
Movement of
Center of Gravity
Sole of Foot
Fast Walking

During slow walking, the body's center of gravity remains always centered on the soles of the feet.Movement of Center of Gravity Sole of Foot Fast Walking When body movement is used for

When body movement is usedof gravity remains always centered on the soles of the feet. for smooth, fast walking, the

for smooth, fast walking, the

center of gravity is not always on the soles of the feet.

To increase walking speed, or

surfaces or slopes, fast wal

to allow walking on uneven

king must be realized.

fast wal to allow walking on uneven king must be realized. Realizing Rapid Two-Le gged Walking

Realizing Rapid Two-Le

gged Walking

king must be realized. Realizing Rapid Two-Le gged Walking To achieve a fast walking pace, it
king must be realized. Realizing Rapid Two-Le gged Walking To achieve a fast walking pace, it
king must be realized. Realizing Rapid Two-Le gged Walking To achieve a fast walking pace, it
king must be realized. Realizing Rapid Two-Le gged Walking To achieve a fast walking pace, it

To achieve a fast walking pace, it was necessary to

study how human being

s walk.

Human walking was thoroughly

researched and analyzed. In

addition to human walking, animal walking and other forms of walking were also studied, and the movement and location of

the joints needed for walkin

Based on data derived from human walking, a fast walking

g were also researched.

program was created, input int were begun.

o the robot and experiments

The E2 robot achieved fast on flat surfaces.

wa lking at a speed of 1.2 km/h

The next step was to realize

living environment, especially on uneven surfaces, slopes and steps, without falling down.

fast , stable walking in the human

without falling down. fast , stable walking in the human Completing the Basic Functions of Two-Legged
without falling down. fast , stable walking in the human Completing the Basic Functions of Two-Legged
without falling down. fast , stable walking in the human Completing the Basic Functions of Two-Legged

Completing the Basic Functions of Two-Legged Walking

human Completing the Basic Functions of Two-Legged Walking Establishing Technology for Stable Walking Research on
human Completing the Basic Functions of Two-Legged Walking Establishing Technology for Stable Walking Research on
human Completing the Basic Functions of Two-Legged Walking Establishing Technology for Stable Walking Research on

Establishing Technology for Stable Walking

Research on Completely Independent Humanoid Robots

Walking Research on Completely Independent Humanoid Robots Advances in Humanoid Robots Honda investigated techniques
Walking Research on Completely Independent Humanoid Robots Advances in Humanoid Robots Honda investigated techniques
Walking Research on Completely Independent Humanoid Robots Advances in Humanoid Robots Honda investigated techniques
Walking Research on Completely Independent Humanoid Robots Advances in Humanoid Robots Honda investigated techniques

Advances in Humanoid

Robots

Honda investigated techniques for stabilizing walking, and developed three control techniques.

The 3 Posture Controls Needed for Stable Walking

Floor Reaction Control Target ZMP Foot Planting Control Location Control
Floor
Reaction
Control
Target ZMP
Foot Planting
Control
Location Control

The walking mechanism was

E5 robot achieved stable, two-legged walking, even on steps or sloping surfaces.

established with the E5. Honda's

The next step was to attach humanoid robot.

the

legs to a body and create a

P1

P2

Humanoid Robot Model #1

Height: 1,915mm Weight 175kg

The robot can turn ex

switches on and off, grab doorknobs, and pick up and carry things. Research was also carried out on coordination between arm and leg movements.

ternal electrical and computer

The world's first self-regulating, two-legged humanoid

walking robot debuted i n D ecember, 1996.

P3

Height: 1,820mm Weight:

210kg

Using wireless techniques, the torso contained a computer,

ss radio and other necessary

devices, all of which were built in. Independent walking,

walking up and down operations were achi independent operation.

motor drives, battery, wi

rele

stairs, cart pushing and other eved without wires, allowing

The first completely ind epe

ndent, two-legged humanoid

walking robot was completed in September, 1997.

Height: 1,600mm Weight: 1

30kg

Size and weight were reduced by changing component

materials and by decentralizing the control system. Its

smaller size is better suite

d

for use in the human environment.

size is better suite d for use in the human environment. Achieving Stable Walking Advances in
size is better suite d for use in the human environment. Achieving Stable Walking Advances in
size is better suite d for use in the human environment. Achieving Stable Walking Advances in
size is better suite d for use in the human environment. Achieving Stable Walking Advances in

Achieving Stable Walking

suite d for use in the human environment. Achieving Stable Walking Advances in Humanoid Robots H

Advances in Humanoid Robots

suite d for use in the human environment. Achieving Stable Walking Advances in Humanoid Robots H
suite d for use in the human environment. Achieving Stable Walking Advances in Humanoid Robots H
suite d for use in the human environment. Achieving Stable Walking Advances in Humanoid Robots H
suite d for use in the human environment. Achieving Stable Walking Advances in Humanoid Robots H
suite d for use in the human environment. Achieving Stable Walking Advances in Humanoid Robots H
suite d for use in the human environment. Achieving Stable Walking Advances in Humanoid Robots H
suite d for use in the human environment. Achieving Stable Walking Advances in Humanoid Robots H
suite d for use in the human environment. Achieving Stable Walking Advances in Humanoid Robots H
suite d for use in the human environment. Achieving Stable Walking Advances in Humanoid Robots H
suite d for use in the human environment. Achieving Stable Walking Advances in Humanoid Robots H

H

suite d for use in the human environment. Achieving Stable Walking Advances in Humanoid Robots H

Research On

uman Walking

suite d for use in the human environment. Achieving Stable Walking Advances in Humanoid Robots H
suite d for use in the human environment. Achieving Stable Walking Advances in Humanoid Robots H
suite d for use in the human environment. Achieving Stable Walking Advances in Humanoid Robots H
suite d for use in the human environment. Achieving Stable Walking Advances in Humanoid Robots H
suite d for use in the human environment. Achieving Stable Walking Advances in Humanoid Robots H
suite d for use in the human environment. Achieving Stable Walking Advances in Humanoid Robots H
suite d for use in the human environment. Achieving Stable Walking Advances in Humanoid Robots H
suite d for use in the human environment. Achieving Stable Walking Advances in Humanoid Robots H
Res earch On Human Walking The robot's walk is modeled on a human being's In
Res earch On Human Walking The robot's walk is modeled on a human being's In
Res earch On Human Walking The robot's walk is modeled on a human being's In
Res earch On Human Walking The robot's walk is modeled on a human being's In
Res earch On Human Walking The robot's walk is modeled on a human being's In

Res

earch On Human Walking

The robot's walk

is modeled on a

human being's

In studying the fundamental principles of two-legged walking, Honda researched both

human and other for an immense amount

ms of walking, perform

ed numerous experiments and collected

of data. Based on this research, Honda established fast-walking

technology just lik

e a human's.

fast-walking technology just lik e a human's. Leg Joint Placement The human skeleton was leg joints.

Leg Joint Placement

The human skeleton was

leg joints. Regarding the toes' influence clear that the location where

used for reference when locating the

on the walking function, it bec

ame

the toes were attached and the

where the heel joint was positioned were very important in

determining how the robot's weight was supported.

Contact sensations from t

Because the foot joints turn from front to back, and left to right,

he surface come from the foot joints.

there is stability in the longitudinal direction during no

rmal

walking, and feel for surface variations in the lateral direction is

enhanced when traversing The knee joint and hip descending stairs, as well

and

a s lope at an angle.

joint are needed for climbing as for straddling.

The robot system was given

joints, knee joints and foot

join

many joint functions such as hip ts.

Hip Joint

Knee Joint

Foot Joint

Hip Joint Knee Joint Foot Joint
such as hip ts. Hip Joint Knee Joint Foot Joint Range of Joi nt Movement Regarding

Range of Joi

nt Movement

Regarding the range of joi

stairs. Joint movements were

nt movement during walking, research was carried out on human walking on flat ground and on

measured, and this determined the range of movement for each jo

int.

and this determined the range of movement for each jo int. Leg Dimensi ons,Weight & Center

Leg Dimensi

ons,Weight & Center of Gravity Locatio

n

To determine the location

of e ach leg's center of gravity, the hu man body's center of gravity was used for reference.

hu man body's center of gravity was used for reference. Torque Exerted on Leg Joints W

Torque Exerted on Leg Joints

W

hile Walking

exerted on the joints while walking, the vectors at the joints duri

ng human walking and during

To determine the ideal torque

occasional floor reaction were measured.

the ideal torque occasional floor reaction were measured. Sensors F or Walking Human beings have the
the ideal torque occasional floor reaction were measured. Sensors F or Walking Human beings have the
the ideal torque occasional floor reaction were measured. Sensors F or Walking Human beings have the

Sensors F or Walking

Human beings have the following three senses of balance:

Speed sensed by the otolith of the inner earHuman beings have the following three senses of balance: Angular speed sensed by the semicircular canals

Angular speed sensed by the semicircular canalsof balance: Speed sensed by the otolith of the inner ear Deep sensations from the muscles

Deep sensations from the muscles and skin, which sense the operating angle of the joints, pressure on the soles of the feet, and skin sensationsinner ear Angular speed sensed by the semicircular canals To "comprehend" the foot's movement during

To "comprehend" the foot's movement during walking, the robot

angular speed, muscle power,

system is equipped with a joint angle sensor, a 6-axis force

sensor, and a speed sensor and gyroscope to determine position.

and a speed sensor and gyroscope to determine position. Human beings have structural elements such as

Human beings have structural elements such as soft skin

These combine with moveable parts which absorb bending

softening the impact force

.

Impact Force During Walking

and heels, as well as arch structures consisting of toe joints.

impacts to the joints when the foot contacts the ground,

Experiments and analyses of human walking have shown that when walking speed increases, floor reaction increases

even when the impact reduction functions are at work. At

weight; at 8km/h, the load

With the robot, impact-absorbing material on the soles of th

walking speeds of 2~4km/h, the

imp

act is 1.2~1.4 times body

increases to 1.8 times body weight.

e feet and compliance controls are used to reduce the impact.

is 1.2~1.4 times body increases to 1.8 times body weight. e feet and compliance controls are
is 1.2~1.4 times body increases to 1.8 times body weight. e feet and compliance controls are
is 1.2~1.4 times body increases to 1.8 times body weight. e feet and compliance controls are
Ach ieving Stable Walking To ach ieve stable walking Issues to be address in order
Ach
ieving Stable Walking
To ach
ieve stable walking
Issues to be address in order to achieve
stable walking
¥Not falling down even
when the floor is uneven. ¥Not
falling down even when push
ed.
¥Being able to walk stable on stairs or slopes.
Floor Reaction Cont
rol
Posture Con
trols to Achieve Stable Walking
The floor reaction cont
rol absorbs irregularities in
the floor and controls the
placement of the soles of the feet when falling is imminent
. For example, if the tip of
Target Inertial
Force
on a rock, the actual center of ground reaction shifts to the tip
Floor Reaction Control
Firm standi ng control of the soles of the
feet while a bso rbing floor unevenness.
the robot's toe steps
of the toe. The floor
reaction control then causes the toe
to rise slightly, returning
Target Total
Target
Gravity
Inertial Force
Floor Reaction
the center of ground reaction to the target ZMP.
Another example would be if something caused the robot t
o lean forward, the tips of
Control
Target ZMP Control
Control to maintain position by accelerating
Floor Reaction
the toes would be lowered, placing more pressure on them and the actual floor
the upper torso in the direction in which it
threatens to fall
when the soles of the feet
reaction action point would be shifted forward, generating
However, because the center of ground reaction cannot
a position recovery force.
exceed the scope of the
Target ZMP
Foot Planting
Target ZMP=Center of Ground Reacti
on
foot sole contact patch there is a limit to the position recovery force, and if the robot
cannot stand firmly.
Control
Location Control
leans too far forward
it wi
ll fall. forward it will fall.
Foot Planting Location
Control
Control us
ing
side steps to adjust for
Target ZMP Cont
rol
irregularities in
the upper torso caused by
Re
covery Force
target ZMP
control.
Target Inertial
Force
If the robot leans too far over, the target ZMP control operates to prevent it from
falling.As stated above, misalignment of the target ZMP and the actual floor
reaction action point generates a falling force. However, the target ZMP control
* ZMP = Zero Moment Point: The point when total inertial force is 0.
Upper Torso
Target Total
Accele
ration
maintains the robot's stability.For example, in the dia
gram to the left, if the robot
Inertial Force
Target Gravity
starts to fall forward,
its walking speed is accelerated forward from the ideal walking
3 Position-Control Arrangements
pattern. As a result, th
e target ZMP is shifted rea
reaction action point and a rearward falling force is
robot's position.
rward from the actual floor
created which corrects the
Floor Reaction
When the robot is walki
ng, it is influenced by inertial
forces caused by the earth's
gravity and the accel
eration and deceleration of walking.T
hese combined forces are
Target ZMP
Center of Groun
d Reaction
Target Inertial
called the total inertial
Force
influenced by a react
ion
force. When the robot's foot contacts the ground it is
from the ground called the floor reaction force.
Foot Planting Location Control
Target Total
Target Gravity
Misalignment of Target Upper Torso Position
Inertial Force
When the target ZMP control operates, the target pos
ition of the upper torso shifts
The intersection of the fl
force moment of 0, so it
oor and the axis of the total inerti
is called the Zero Moment Point
al force has a total inertial
.The point where the floor
Floor Reaction
in the direction of accele
the feet will fall behind
ration. When the next step is t
ake
the torso. The stepping placem
n in the ideal step length,
ent control idealizes the
reaction force operates is called the floor reaction point.
ideal relationship between torso speed and length of stride is
Basically, an ideal walking pattern is created by the computer and the robot's joints
stride to ensure the
maintained.
are moved accordingly. The total inertial force of the i
deal walking pattern is called
Target ZMP=Center of Ground
Reaction
the target total inertial force, and the ZMP of the ideal walking pattern is called the
target ZMP.
When the robot is m
aint
aining perfect balance while walking, the axes of the target
total inertial force and th
e actual floor reaction are the
same. Accordingly, the target
Falling
Force
Correction of Foot Planting Location
ZMP and the center of ground reaction are the same.
Target Inertial
lks
across uneven ground, the axes
Force
When the robot wa
force and the actual
floor reaction force are out of a
lign
of the target total inertial
ment, balance is lost and
Target Total
Target Gravity
Inertial Force
falling force is generated
.
This falling force is
comparable to the misalignment of
the target ZMP and the
center of ground reactio
n. In short, the misalignment
Floor Reaction
the center of ground
reaction is the main cause of loss
between the target ZMP and
of balance.
loses its balance and threatens
to fall, the following three
Target ZMP
Center of Grou
nd Reaction
When the Honda robot
control systems operate
to prevent the fall and allow continued walking.
Advances in Humanoid Robots Creating a Hum anoid Robot After establishin g the two-legged walk
Advances in Humanoid Robots
Creating a Hum
anoid Robot
After establishin
g
the two-legged walk
ing technology, work was begun on
combining an upper torso with the
technology.Studies were carried out to
legs
and
developing
humanoid robot
de
termine what a humanoid robot should
be like to function in society and in a human living environment, and a prototype
model of almost human size was completed.
Antenna
Basic Stru
cture
Height
160cm
Data is transmitted between the
robot
and the operating computer vi
wireless communication.
a
Weight
130kg
Walking Speed
2km/h(Max.)
Movement by
Battery
Two-Legged Walki
ng Mechanism
Cam
era
The nickel-zinc battery allows
approximately 25 minutes of
operation.
Imag
es from the camera show the
operator how to direct the robot and
detect the target location.
To work in harmony with people
and for ease of operation,
Work by Two-Armed Mechanism
it was decided that the robot
should have two arms.
Gyroscope
& Acceleration Sensor
Body
These sense body lean and
acceleration.
The body is made of a very lightweight
and
tough magnesium alloy.
Basic Functi
ons
6-Ax
is Force Sensor
Target Point Movement
This
senses the direction and amount
From the erect position, a camera is used to recognize two markers placed on the floor o
r other spots. After the robot
of force on the hand.
estimates its present location
amount of walking required
and direction, it designates a
target point. It then calculates the method giving the minimum
to move from its present location to the target point. The gyroscope is used for inertial
navigation as it moves to t
he target point, correcting for irregula
rities caused by slippage, etc.
Actuator
Degrees of Freedom
( For Human
Joints )
Climbing/Descending Stairs
A
b
rushless DC servomotor and
Arm
A 6-axis force sensor is used to measure steps, so the robot can
inuously without missteps.
Shoulder Joint (F/B,U/D,RT)*1
Elbow joint (F/B)
Wrist joint (F/B,L/R,RT)
3
DOF
negotiate even long stairways cont
harm
onic drive speed reducer perform
1
DOF
the
functions of human muscles.
3
DOF
Cart Pushing
7
DOF x 2 arms = 14 DOF
The robot can push carts
at a set speed, but if the cart encounters some kind of resistance the robot shortens its stride in
Hand
Grasping movement
1
DOF x 2 hands = 2 DOF
response to avoid excessive pushing.
Foot
Pelvis joint (F/B,L/R,RT)
Knee joint: (F/B)
Ankle joint: (F/B,L/R)
3
DOF
6
-Ax
is Force Sensor
Passing Through Doorways
1
DOF
Images from the camera show the
2
DOF
The robot can open and
clo
response to the door's openin
se doors while passing through
g/closing condition.
doorways. As in cart pushin
g, its steps are regulated in
o
perator how to direct the robot and
6
DOF x 2 legs = 12 DOF
d
etect the target location.
Degrees of freedom (DOF) are the directions in which the hands and feet
Carrying Things
can move. For example, the human wrist
joint can move in three
st, so it has three degrees of
Each arm can carry up to
2kg
while walking.
directions: up, down, left, right, and twi
freedom.
Compact & Lightweight
*1
Working Via Remote Operation
F/B
:
Forward/Backward
Light
weight and compactness were
U/D : Up/Down
achieved using lightweight materials
The robot can tighten bolts and perform other tasks with the master arm while sensing hand operating pressure.
L/R
:
Left/Right
Rotation
Degrees of Freedom
and
decentralizing the controls.
RT
:
DOF :
ASIMO I s Born! ASIMO Features ASIMO was conceived As exemplified by P2 and P3,
ASIMO
I
s Born!
ASIMO Features
ASIMO was conceived
As exemplified by P2 and P3, the two
-le
gged walking technology developed by
Compact & Lightweight
en
to function in an
vironment in the
Honda represents
a
unique approach to the challenge of auto
no
Using the know-how gained from these
prototypes, research
mous locomotion.
and development
actual human living
near future.
It
is easy to operate
, has a convenient
began on new tech
nology for actual use. ASIMO represents the fruition of this
More AdvancedWalkingTechnology
size and weight and can move freely
pursuit on November 20, 2000.
Wider Arm Operating Parameters
within the human living
with a people-friendly de
environment, all
sign.
Easy to Operate
Friendly Design
Naming ASIMO
-
- - New Era
-
- - Stepping
-
- - Innovation
-
- - Mobility
ASIMO stands for Advanced Step in Innovative Mobility.
It means advanced innovative mobility for a new era.
The Pe ople-Friendly Robot. Small, Useful Size The robot's size was chosen to allow it
The Pe
ople-Friendly Robot.
Small, Useful Size
The robot's size was chosen to allow it to operate freely in the
human living space
and to make it people-friendly. This size a
llows the robot to operate light switches
and door knobs, and work at tables and work benches. Its eyes
level of an adult's
eyes when the adult is
sitting in a chair. A hei
gh
are located at the
t of 120cm makes
it easy to communicate with.
Honda feels that
a
robot height between
120cm and that of
an
adult is ideal for
operating in the human living space.
I
n the Office
At Home
Swi
tch
1100
Co
pier
96
0
D
o
o
rknob
900
Cart
Handle
84
0
Ki
tch
en
Sink
830
W
orkbe
nch
800
Table
7
0
0
Keyb
oar
d
700
C
offee Table
5
00
Sta
irs
1
80
* The above heights are examples to serve as a reference (mm).
Smoother and More StableWalking The introduction of intelligent, real-ti me, flexible-walking i-WALK technology
Smoother and More StableWalking
The introduction
of intelligent, real-ti
me, flexible-walking i-WALK technology
allowed ASIMO to walk continuously wh
ile
changing directions
, a
nd gave the robot
even greater stab
ility in response to sudden movements.
Earlier Ways of Walking
Creating Earlier Walking Patterns
Earlier walking technology allowed roughly two different walking patterns.
In the past,
different patterns
were used for straight walking and
Straight (foot lifting with toes
upward and landing o
n heel)
for turning, and a slight pause was required durin
g the transition.
When walking in a strai
ght
line, the robot followed an
ordered pattern of start-acceleration walking, steady
Start-Acceleration
Steady Speed Walking
Deceleration-Stop
For Robots up to P3
speed walking and decelerati
on-stop walking, all of which
Walking
Walking
was stored as time series
dat
a.
Temporary
Temporary
Straight (A)
Turn (
B)
Straight (C)
Pause
Pause
For example, when the P3 robot turned sharply when
walking straight, its movement
had to stop to make the turn.
was awkward because it
Turning (Direction-Changing Walking)
Turning was accomplished
different, turn-walking pattern
by initiating multiple,
s based on strides (time
per step) stored as time series data.
Walking strides (time per step)
w
ere limited to only
a
few variations.
Because each walking pattern has a different stride(time per
flexibly.
step), the robot could not change its stride(time per step)
For example, the P3 robot
combined 20û and 40û
Composite
walking patterns to turn at
30û.
Intelligent Real-Time Flexibl eWalking = i-WALK i-WALK technology features a predicted movement control added to
Intelligent Real-Time Flexibl
eWalking
= i-WALK
i-WALK technology
features a predicted movement control added to the earlier
walking control technology. This new two-legged walking technology permits more
flexible walking. As a result, ASIMO now
walks more smoothly and more naturally.
Creating Predicti
on Movement Control
Intelligent, Rea
l-Time, Flexible Wa
lking Achieved!
When human beings walk straight ahead and start to turn
a corner, before commencing the turn they shift their
Continuou
s movement is possib
le without pauses.
Normal Straight-Ahead Walking
Cornering
center of gravity toward th
Thanks to i-WALK techno
movement in real time a
anticipation.
e in
side of the turn.
Center-of-Gravity Shift
logy, ASIMO can predict its next
nd
shift its center of gravity in
(Predicted Walking)
Center of Gravity
Straight
Straight
Center of Gravity
Turning
Ahead
Ahead
Centrifugal
Force
Because continuous flexible walking is possible, ASIM
O
can move and walk rapidly and
smoothly at all times.
OUT
IN
Load Point (ZMP)
Load Point (ZMP)
In addition to changes in foot placement and turni
ng, the stride
ZMP : Zero Moment Point
(time per ste
p) can be freely cha
nged.
Control Block Map from i-WALK Technology
Predicted Movement Control
ASIMO = i-WALK Technology
Robots up to the P3 turne
ASIMO creates walking p
d according to combinations of stored walking patterns.
atte
rns in real time and can chan
ge
foot placement and turning angle
Speed & Turning Angle
Command
Predicted amount of
center-of-gravity shift
¥Target Movement Pattern
¥Target Load Shift (Floor impact) Pattern
walk smoothly in many directions. In addition, because strid
movements are much more natural.
e (time per step) can also
be
f
at will. As a result, it can
reely changed, ASIMO's
(from operating device)
Turn desired
If turning continues,
the center of gravity
how much will
fall outward?
To move
the center of gravity to the
inside of a turn, how much and for
how long should the load point be
shifted to the outside?
Future-Behavior
Target
Wal
king
Prediction
Section
Pattern
Changer
Reflective Movement Control
( Earlier stable walking technology )
Posture Co
ntrol
Motor Drive
for Stabl
e Walking
Floor Reaction Control ¥ Target ZMP
Control ¥ Foot Planting Control
ASIMO Featuring is I ntelligen ceTechnol ogy a gesture (posture recognition) December 5, 2002 to
ASIMO Featuring is I ntelligen ceTechnol ogy a gesture (posture recognition) December 5, 2002 to
ASIMO Featuring is I ntelligen ceTechnol ogy a gesture (posture recognition) December 5, 2002 to
ASIMO Featuring is I ntelligen ceTechnol ogy a gesture (posture recognition) December 5, 2002 to

ASIMO

Featuring

is

I ntelligen ceTechnol ogy

ASIMO Featuring is I ntelligen ceTechnol ogy a gesture (posture recognition) December 5, 2002 to ASIMO
ASIMO Featuring is I ntelligen ceTechnol ogy a gesture (posture recognition) December 5, 2002 to ASIMO

a gesture (posture recognition)

December 5, 2002 to ASIMO which and gestures of

response. ASIMO's ability to interact with humans has

Honda added intelligence technology

g the postures

humans and moving

independently in

Environm

ent recognition

capable of interpretin

assess its immediate environment, recognizing the

col lisions.

which suddenly appears in its path;

in its path and move around them.

Using the visual information, ASIMO is able to

avoiding them to prevent

position of obstacles and

advanced significan

tly, it can greet approaching people,

by

A

SIMO is the world's

such

a

broad

range

Specifically, ASIMO can:

: stop and start to avoid a human being or other moving object

follow them, move in the direction they indicate, and even

name. Further,

recognize their faces and address them

such as the Internet, ASIMO can

utilizing networks

tasks such as first humanoid of intelligent

: recognize immobile objects

first humanoid of intelligent : recognize immobile objects ASIMO's ability to id voices and other sounds

ASIMO's ability to id

voices and other sounds

ent

: recognize sudden, unusual

id voices and other sounds ent : recognize sudden, unusual ASIMO has the ability to being

ASIMO has the ability to being is moving.

For example, ASIMO can

: recognize the faces of

Distinguishing sounds

provide information while executing

reception duties. robot to exhibit capabilities.

e is

ify the source of sounds

.

has been improved, and it

called, and turn to face the source of the sound;

can distinguish between

sounds, such as that of a falling object or a collision, and face in that direction.

a falling object or a collision, and face in that direction. For example, ASIMO can: :
a falling object or a collision, and face in that direction. For example, ASIMO can: :

For example, ASIMO can:

: recognize when its nam

: look at the face of the person speaking, and respond;

Movement in response to

Advanced communication ability

Movement in response to Advanced communication ability thanks to recognition technology Face recognition Recogniti

thanks to recognition technology

Face recognition

Recogniti

on of moving objects

:

recognize faces, even when ASIMO or the human

people which have been pre-registered, addressing them by

people which have been pre-registered, addressing them by Distinguish between registered faces. people with its

Distinguish between registered faces.

people with its camera;

he approaches.

Recognition of the distance and direction

movement of multiple objects

of

the distance and direction movement of multiple objects of mounted in its head, ASIMO can detect

mounted in its head,

ASIMO can detect the movements of multiple objects, assessing distance and direction

Using the visual information captured by the camera

name, communicating messages to them, and guiding them;

:

Specifically, ASIMO can:

: follow the movements of

: follow a person;

: greet a person when he or s

recognize approximately ten different people.

Network integ

recognize approximately ten different people. Network integ ration ASIMO can: : execute functions appropria : greet

ration

ASIMO can:

: execute functions appropria

: greet visitors, informing

: guide visitors to a prede

: greet visitors, informing : guide visitors to a prede Recognition of postures and ge stures
: greet visitors, informing : guide visitors to a prede Recognition of postures and ge stures

Recognition of postures and ge

stures

Integratio n with user's network system

of human beings.

a handshake is offered

back (gesture recognition).

beings. a handshake is offered back (gesture recognition). Movement to an indicated location R e c

Movement to an indicated location

(gesture recognition). Movement to an indicated location R e c o g n i t i

Recognition of hand movements such as the waving of a hand

Based on visual inform the positioning and

ovement of a hand, gestures. Thus ASIMO

can react not only to voice commands, but also to

m

recognizing postures and

ation, ASIMO can interpret

tely based on the user's custo

mer data;

personnel of the visitor's arrival by transmitting messages and pictures

termined location, etc.

of the visitor's face;

the natural movements

For example, ASIMO can:

: recognize an indicated location and move to that location (posture recognition);

Internet connectivity

ons , etc.

e a

provider of news and weathe

r updates, for example, ready

: shake a person's hand when (posture recognition);

: respond to a wave by waving

Accessing information via the Internet, ASIMO can becom

to answer people's questi

: respond to a wave by waving Accessing information via the Internet, ASIMO can becom to
: respond to a wave by waving Accessing information via the Internet, ASIMO can becom to
: respond to a wave by waving Accessing information via the Internet, ASIMO can becom to
New AS IMO Debut Major Advanc ement of New ASI MO Honda debuted a new
New AS
IMO Debut
Major Advanc
ement of New ASI
MO
Honda debuted a new ASIMO humanoid robot which features the ability to pursue key
Improved Runn
ing Ability
tasks in a real-life
environment such as an
office and an advance
d level of physical
capabilities. Compared to the previous model, the new ASIMO achieves the enhanced
Enhanced Ability to Act in SyncWith People
ability to act in sync
hands. A new functi
with people - for example, walking with a
pe
rson while holding
1300mm
on to carry objects
us
ing
a cart
was also
added. Further, the
development of a
"total control system" enables ASIMO to automatically perform the
Function to Carry
Objects UsingTools
tasks of a receptionist or information guid
the running capabi
speed of 6km/hour
lity is dramatically impro
e and carry out delivery service. In addition,
ved, with ASIMO now capable of running at a
and of running in a circula
r pattern
370mm
Total Height
130cm
Weight
54kg
Running Speed (Straight)
6
km/h
Running Speed (Circular Pattern)
5
km/h (2.5m radius)
Walking Speed (Normal)
2.7
km/h
Walking Speed (While Carry
ing ObjectWith)
1.6
km/h (carrying o
bject weighing 1kg)
Degrees of Freedom (The human joint has one degree of
freedom for each range of movement )
Head
Neck joint (U/D, L/R RT)
3
DOF
Arm
Shoulder joints (F/B, U/D, RT)
Elbow joints (F/B)
3
DOF
1
DOF
Wrist joints (U/D, L/R,
RT)
3
DOF
7
DOF x 2 arms = 14 DOF
Hands
4 fingers (to grasp objects) / Thumb
2 DOF
2 DOF x 2 hands = 4 DOF
Hip
RT
1
DOF
Legs
Crotch joint (F/B, L/R,
Knee joints (F/B)
Ankle joints (F/B, L/R)
RT)
3 DOF
1 DOF
2 DOF
*1
F/B
:
Forward/B
ackward
6 DOF x 2 legs = 12 DOF
U/D : Up/Down
L/R
: Left/R
ight
TOTAL
RT
: Rotati
on
34 DOF
DOF : Degre
es o
f Freedom
23
24
New T echnology in ASIMO Improved physical capabilities Further ad vanced walking function High-Spee d
New T echnology in ASIMO
Improved physical capabilities
Further ad
vanced walking function
High-Spee
d
Running Turn in a Circular
Pattern
To
maintain balance while increasing walking speed and p
reventing the feet from
Running in a circular pattern at high speed was achieved by tilt
ing the center of gravity of ASIMO's body inside of the circle
slipping or rotating in mid-air, we developed new posture
control logic that
to maintain balance with the
amount of centrifugal force experienced. The tilting. ASIMO changes its speed according to
employs active use of the bending and twisting of the u
pper body, as well as
the radius of the circle and controls its tilted posture.
highly responsive hardware. This has enabled ASIMO to run at 6 km/h, and also
improved the walking speed to 2.7 km/h.
High Spee
d
Running
There were two challenges in making ASIMO run. One was to obtain an accurate
jump function and absorb shock when landing, and the other was to prevent the
rotation and slipping as a
result of the increased speed.
Accurate l
eap and absorption
of the landing impa
ct
In
order for ASIMO to run, it
had to be able to repeat the movements
Ground Reaction Force
(G)
of
pushing off the ground, sw
inging its legs forward, and landin
g within
Leaptime
Landing:
0.24 s
econds
a
very short time cycl
e and without any delay, absorb
ing the
0.08seconds
2
instantaneous impact shock of landing. ASIMO is a hardware
equipped with a newly
developed high-speed processing
circuit,
highly-responsive and high-power motor drive unit, and
and highly rigid leg structure,
light-weight
1
BendDown
Kick-up
0
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
Time (seconds)
Prevention of spinning and slipping
Coordinati
o
n of the Enti
re Body
Due to reduced pressure between the bottom of the feet and
before the foot leaves the floor and right after the foot lands
floor, spinning and slipping a
re more likely to happen right
on the floor. Combining Honda's
independently developed
The development of highly responsive hardware enable A
SIMO to freely change speed while
it is in motion. This allows
theory of bipedal walking control with proactive bending and twisting of the torso, ASIMO achieved stable running while
preventing slipping.
ASIMO to conduct flexible and rapid movements using the entire body while maintaining its overall body balance.
When a human runs, the step cycle is 0.2 to 0.4 seconds
depending on one's speed, and
the
leap time, when both feet
are off the ground, varies between 0.05 to 0.1 seconds. The
0.08 seconds, which are equivalent to that of a person jogging.
step cycle of ASIMO is 0.32
seconds with an leap time of
Speed
Stride
Leap distance*
Leap time
6km/h
525mm
50mm
0.08sec
*Distance ASIMO moves forward while both feet are off the ground
25
26
New T ech n ology in ASIMO Improving adaptability to changes in environment Autonomous Continuous
New T ech
n
ology in ASIMO
Improving adaptability to changes in environment
Autonomous Continuous
Movement
ASIMO can maneuver toward its destination without stopping by comparing any deviation between the
Correcting Its Own Position
input map information and the information obtained
sensor.
about the surrounding area
from its floor surface
ASIMO corrects its own positions without stopping based on
memorized map information.
information obtained from the sensors as it walks and the pre-
ASIMO's Environment
Identifying Sensor
Visual Sensor
Identifying Obstac
les
ASIMO selectively use its multiple sensors based on its own judgments, and adjusts the sensitivity of the sensors according to the
surrounding circumstances
in order to consistently identify obstacles.
Visual Sensor
Ground Sensor
Ground Sensor
Ultrasonic Sensor
Ultrasonic Sensor
ASIMO, avoiding a person ahead
Ultrasonic Sensor
Automatic Detour Function
When its ground sensor or the visual sensor on its head identifies an obstacle, it ASIMO selects
judgment.
a d
ifferent route using its own
start
start
start
obstacle
Visual Sensor   
Reads
the
contour characteristics taken from c
ontinuous images of the eye camera (camera with high dynamic
range)
to distinguish a person, and evaluates the reliability from the contextual data to identify it accurately as
a
person.
de
stination
obstacle
destination
obstacle
destination
Ground Sensor  
A
sensing
system comprised of a laser sensor and an infrared sensor. The laser
sensor detects the ground
surface and any obstacles two meters from its feet, while the infrared sensor
identifies the floor markings by
adjusting the shutter speed according to brightness. The differences are corrected according to the robot's
map information.
2) Diverts to an alternative route when it
3) When
it
finds
an
obstacle
on
its
1) Establishes the shortest route
origin to the destination.
from the
finds an obstacle on th
established.
e shortest route it
alternative route, it diverts to another
alternative route.
Ultrasonic Sensor
The sonic
wave sensors detect obstacles
three meters ahead, including glas
s th
at the visual sensor cannot
detect.
27
28
New T echnology in ASI MO Improving adap tability to chang es in environment Movement

New T echnology in ASI

MO

New T echnology in ASI MO Improving adap tability to chang es in environment Movement in

Improving adap

tability to chang

es in environment

Movement in concert with human motion

Identifying movi

ng subjects

From the characteristics of images obtained from its visual

sensor on its head, ASIMO extracts multiple moving subjects,

direction to those subjects and

and identifies the distance and

likelihood of those subjects

being people.

the distance and likelihood of those subjects being people. Shakes hands in sync with the motion

Shakes hands in sync with the motion

person's

By detecting people's movments through visual sensors in its

people's movments through visual sensors in its 29 head and force (kinesthetic) sensors on its wrists,

29

head and force (kinesthetic) sensors on its wrists, ASIMO can

shake hands in concert with

shaking, ASIMO steps backward when the hand is pushed and steps forward when the hand is pulled. ASIMO moves in concert with a person by taking steps to the direction of the force.

a p erson's movement. During hand

of the force. a p erson's movement. During hand Recognizes people Based on the information on

Recognizes people

Based on the information on the IC Communication Card,

the position of the person is

its own position to face the person.

ide

ntified, and ASIMO adjusts

position to face the person. ide ntified, and ASIMO adjusts Walking hand-in-hand With its force sensors

Walking hand-in-hand

With its force sensors on the wrists, ASIMO detects the

strength and direction of the force applied to its hand and

rection. ASIMO takes steps

in any direction according to the strength and direction of the

force applied to its hand, ASIMO in any direction.

therefore a person can walk

adjusts the walking speed an d di

a person can walk adjusts the walking speed an d di IC Commu In collaboration w

IC Commu

In collaboration w

communication functions, ASIMO autonomously selects and executes

n

ith

ication Card

Honda's unique IC communication card, an IC tag with optical

its tasks.

Based on customer infor

mation pre-registered in the IC communication card, ASIMO identifies the characteristics and

relative position of its target

person. Even with multiple peop

le around, ASIMO can determine their positions and who

they are, and respond to each person individually.

Optical communication area (all directions, 8 beams)

ASIMO can detect the direction of the human wearing IC communication card.

communication area ( all directions, 8 beams ) ASIMO can detect the direction of the human

Radiowavecommuni

cationarea

According to th

from IC communication

card, ASIMO can kno is holding the card.

e infor

mation

w who

cationarea According to th from IC communication card, ASIMO can kno is holding the card. e
can kno is holding the card. e infor mation w who Attending to a person while

Attending to a person while recognizing the person

Based on the information i

card, ASIMO recognizes the person accordingly.

n the IC Communication

the individual and attends to

n the IC Communication the individual and attends to Attending to a person while measuring the

Attending to a person while measuring the distance to the person

Calculating the relative distance between ASIMO and the

person to attend, ASIMO adju

sts its walking speed. If the

distance becomes too great, ASIMO waits until the person comes closer.

too great, ASIMO waits until the person comes closer. Attending to a person while specifying the

Attending to a person while specifying

the position of the

person

Based on the information in th

ASIMO specifies the positio position to attend to them w

n of

hile

e IC Communication card the person and adjusts its facing toward that person.

card the person and adjusts its facing toward that person. Greeting people as they pass by

Greeting people as

they pass by

When passing a person who carries an IC communication

rd information and greets

card, ASIMO identifies the ca appropriate for the person.

who carries an IC communication rd information and greets card, ASIMO identifies the ca appropriate for
who carries an IC communication rd information and greets card, ASIMO identifies the ca appropriate for

30

who carries an IC communication rd information and greets card, ASIMO identifies the ca appropriate for
who carries an IC communication rd information and greets card, ASIMO identifies the ca appropriate for
who carries an IC communication rd information and greets card, ASIMO identifies the ca appropriate for
New T echnology in ASI MO Carrying obj ects while using tools Carrying a tray
New T echnology in ASI
MO
Carrying obj
ects while using
tools
Carrying a
tray
Aiming for
Even More Progress
ASIMO can deliver
objects on a tray to a specified destination.
Handing the tray
ASIMO will tru
ly
By detecting the movement of the person through the eye camera in its head
and force sensors on its wrists, ASIMO can move in concert w
ith the person
and accurately receive or
han
d over the tray .
be able to help p
eople
in the 21st cen
tu
ry.
Walking with the tr
ay
Honda's dream is that
While carrying the tray, ASIMO uses its entire body to c
ontrol the tray to
prevent spilling of the objects
to fall, ASIMO's wrist sensors
on the tray. Even if the tray slides and is about
detect the weight differences
on
its hands and
ASIMO will help
improve life
automatically stop walking before it drops the tray.
in human society.
Staying true to
our
Putting the tray on
a table
'Challenging S
pirit,'
When the force sensors
on
its wrists detect reduction of the load on the
wrists as the tray touches the surface of the table, ASIMO sets the tray on
the table. By using the entire body to set the tray down, ASI
with tables of different heights.
MO can work
Honda's resea
rch & development
will continue w
ith ASIMO,
to realize our dreams
Handling a cart
for the future.
It can transport heavy
flexible manner.
loads by handling a wagon in a
Being able to handle a cart f
reely, ASIMO is now capable
of carrying heavy
objects
ASIMO is capable of handling a cart freely while maintaining an appropriate
distance from the cart by
the force sensor on its
disturbed, ASIMO can co
adjusting the force of its arms to
push a cart using
wrists. Even when the movement of the cart is
ntin
as slowing down or changing
(The maximum load is 10 kg.)
ue maneuvering by taking flexible actions such
directions.
31
32