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THE
MATHEMATICS
OF GAMBLING
By
Dr. Edward O. ThorpTable of Contents
SECTION ONE—CARD GAMES 1
Chapter 1: Introductory Statement. .
Chapter 2: Blackjack.
Chapter 3: Baccarat
SECTION TWO—THE WHEELS 4
Chapter 4: Roulete.......
Chapter 5: The Wheel of Fortune
SECTION THREE—OTHER GAMES.
Chapter 6: Horse Racing .
Chapter 7; Backgammon «
SECTION FOUR—MONEY
MANAGEMENT ........
‘Chapter 8: Mathematical Systems ..........-.1I3
Chapter 9: Optimal Betting ....
Appendices «...
Keeping Your Gaming Knowledge Current ......14LAbout the Author
‘Edward Thorp i adjunct professor of finance and mathematios
atthe University of California at Irvine, where he has taught
courses in finance, probability and functional analysis. He
previously taught atthe University of California at Ls Angeles,
the Masachusens Instnte of Technology and New Mexico Ste
University
‘Thorp’ interest in gambling dates back almost 30 years, while
Ihe was tll in graduate school at ICT-A. Tt was bere that he fist
formulated his dream of making money from the development
‘ofa scientifically based winning gambling systema, His first sub-
Jest of study was the roulewe wheel, which offered him the op-
Foray fuse modern pss o pect te resin place
With the roulete work unfinished, Thorpsatenton was diverted
by the blackjack work of Raldwin, Cantey, Mrizel and MeDer-
‘ott. He st to work on this new problem. With the ad of com-
puter, Thorp developed the basic strategy and the five-couat, en-
‘count and ultimate counting strategies. He used these methodswith sucess inthe Nevada casinos. The work was first publiciz-
ed in a scientific journal and saw broad public exposure inthe
1962 book Beat the Dealer. The book underwent a revision in
1966 aid it ill epated as the lassi aly wrk a Ue “ack
Jack revolution” which continues to this dey
nthe late 1960s, Thorp developed with Sheen Kassout a sue-
cessful method for stock market investing involving warrants that
proved 50 profitable that Thorp turned $40.00 into $100.00 in
two years. The strategy was publised in Beat the Market in 1967
‘Additionally, using this strategy and further eefinements, Thorp
‘naiages ul-nilionllasiavesineat portfolio. He is Pres
ent of Oakley Sutton Management Corp, and Chairman of the
the Board of Oakley Sutton Securities Corp.
“Thorp has continued to advance new theories for eambling and
other games, as wel asthe stock market.
Section One
Card Games
Casino card games such as baccarat and blackjack
) ¢-z 914%,
£2 10%,The Mathenaics of Gambig
is win rates en units pe hour and his verge bet
SURG a’ Civen thse assumptions, being chested ten
Heer hour ov onetenh ofthe time would ene hi advan-
{ape Beng cheated more than ten pact ofthe time would prob-
Sj fimino ate
regi the real words probably moreefTectvethanintne
typothetial example just ted, because te calculations fr that
‘Rane assure cheating equal kl fr small bes and big
Seas my experience, the Bettor Se riuch more Healy to be
hesied on lage bes than on smal ones. Therefor, the dar
tho cheats wih mimi effeney wil wait uni a player
Thakes his top be, Suppose that bet total five nis. Ifthe cheat
Shifts the odds to 80 perent in favor Of the house, ie expected
Tosis 2-1/2, ands four cheaing efforts per 100hands wil
‘acl a profesional players advantage. A cheating rate of ive
‘rte hand per 100 pt this player aa eevee dcadeansage
‘We can sce fom his that comparavely small amount of
cheating applied to the larger hands can have a significant impact
onthe game’s outcome. This gives you an idea of what tolook for
Shen you ar in he casinos and nk tat someting may be
Missing Cards: The Short Shoe
have heard complaints that cards have been missing from the
‘pack in some casino blackjack games. We'll discuss how you
‘ight spot this cheating method.
In 1942, | wrote on page SI of Beat the Dealer, “Counting
the. card, is an invaluable asst in the detection of cheating
‘because a comnnion devices to remove one or more cards from the
deck." Lance Humble discusses cheating methods for fourdeck
games dealt from a shoe in his Intemational Blackack Cub
newsletter. He say, “The house can take certain cards such a8
tens and aces out of the shoe. This is usually done after several
rounds have been dealt and after the decks have been shuffled
several imes. Its done by paiming the cards while they are being
2
Blokick
shuffled and by hiding them on the dealer's person, The dealer
lien disposes Of the cards when he goes oh fis break.” But
cheating this way is not limited tothe casino, Payers have been
known to remove “small” cards from the pack to tit the edge
their way, The casino can spot tis simply by taking the pack and
‘counting it; the player usually has to use statistical methods.
In the cheating trade, the method i known asthe short shoe.
Lets say the dealer is dealin froma shoe containing four decks
‘of 92 varus each In 32 cards, there should be 16 ten-value cards:
‘the ens, jacks, queens and kings. Logically, in four decks of 208
cards, there should be 64 ten-value cards” I'l call all ofthese
ens" from now on. Casinos rarély remove the aces—even
‘novice players sometimes count these.
‘Suppose the sift boss or pit boss takes outa total of ten tens,
some ofeach kn, of course, not all kings o queens The shoes
shottened fu 6 ves wo 34 tens, and the four decks from 208
cards to 198 card
‘Thelossof these ten tens shits the advantage from theplayer to
the dealer or house. The ratio of exhers/tene changes from the
sonal 14/64 =2.3510 144/54 =2.67, and this gainsalitle over
‘one percent forthe house. How can you discover the ack of tens |
without te dealer knowing it?
__ Hewes one method tha is sed. If you're playing a the black-
jack table, stn the last chairon the dealer's right. Bet asmal fixed
‘amount throughout a whole pack of four decks. After the deer
ts the ct card back ony, ler's say, ten percent ofthe way into
the four shuffled decks and returns the decks into the shoe then |
ready yourself to count the cards. Play your hand mechanically,
only pretending interest in your good or bad fortunes. What
you'einerested in finding outs the numberof tensin the whole
Four-deck shoe,
‘Les say the shift boss has removed ten tens. Reports are that
they soem to love removing exactly ten from a four-deck shoe)
‘When the white eut card shows atthe face of te shoe, let's say
that the running count of tens has reached $2. That means
‘mathematically that if all 64 ten-value cards were in the shoe,
aThe Mathematics of Gambling
then, ofthe remaining 15 cards behind the cut card, as many as 12
of them would be teas, which mathematically is very unlikely.
This is how one detects the missing ten tens because the dealer
never shows their faces but just places them face dawn on top of
thestack of ducarded cardstohisright, which then proceedsto
shuffle face down in the usual manner preparatory to another
ourdeck shoe session.
Although at first the running counts not easy to keepin areal
casino situation, a secondary ciTiculy is estimating the appror-
mate number of cards let behind the cut card aftr al the shoe
bas been dealt. To practice this, take any deck of S2cards and cut
off what you think are ten, 18 or 20 cards, commit yourself to
some definite number, and then count the cards to confirm the
closeness of your estimate. After awhile, you can look atabunch
‘of cards cutoff and come quite lose to their actual number.
Insuramary, count theniumber of tens seen trom the Desig
of a freshly shuffled and allegedly complete shoe, When the last
card is seen and itis time to reshuffle the shoe, subtract the
‘umber often sen from the number that are supposed to be in
the shoe—68 fora four-deck shoe—to get the numberof unseen
tenwalue cards which should remain. If $8 ten-value cards were
seen, there should be ten tens among the unused cards. Then
estimate the umber of unseen cards. You have to besuretoadd
to the estimated residual stack any cards which you didnot see
uring the course of play, such as burned cards. Step fouristoask
‘whether the numberof unseen ten-value cards is remarkably large
for the numberof residual cards. If 50, consider seriously the
possibility thatthe shoe may be short. For instance, suppose there
are 1S unseen cards, ten of which are supposed tobe ten-values. A
‘computation shows thatthe probably that the last 1S cards of a
‘wellshuffed four-deck shoe will havea least ten en-au cards
{5 0.003247 or about one chance in 308.
Tihs the evidence against the casino on the basis of this one
shoe alone isnot overwhelming, Buif we wereto count down the
same shoe several times and each ime were to find the remaining
cards suspiciously ten-tch, then the evidence would become very
Pa
lacjack
ssrong. Suppose that we counted down the shoe four times and
‘har each time there were exactly 15 unseen card. Suppose that
the numberof unseen tens, assuming a ful our decks, was nine,
1, ten, and [3 respectively. Then referring to Table 2-4, the pro-
bbls to six decimal places are H() = 14651 wo have nine
‘or more unseen tens, and fr at last I, ten, and 13 respectively,
the chances are Hl) = .000539, HO) = .003247, and H(3)
"= 000005, These correspond io odds of about 168, 1855, V308
and 17200000 respectively. The odds against al ese events hap-
‘ning ogether is much greater sil. In ths eaample, the evidence
‘Sonal suggests that upto nine ea-alue cards are missing, There
can't be more than nine missing, of course, because we sw all
‘but nine on one countdown.
‘If the casino shuffles after only 104 cards are seen, itis not so
easy totellif ten ten-value cards were removed. A mathematical
‘roof of this fs contained in the appendix.»
“This discussion should makeit clear thatthe method suggested
is generally not able to easy spot the removal often-value cards|
ules he shoes counted sea times os del down clos to
‘One of the interesting ironies of the short shoe method of
cheating playersis that neither the shift boss nor the ptboss—the
laver bringing the decks of cars the dears ble—ueed el
the dealer that his shoe s shor. Thus, the dealer doesn’t necessarily
hhavetoknow that he'scheatng. Afterall he's jut dealing. I'san
{pe question how many deals know ta the ding from
‘Reports are that the short shoe is a frequent method that,
casinos use in cheating at blackjack using more than one deck.
“The tables with higher minimums (say $23) are more tempting
‘candidates for short shoes than those with the lower minimums.
“An experienced card counter can improve the method by count-
ing hoth tens and non-iens. Then hell now exactly how many
unseen cards there are, aswell as unseen tens. Table 2-4.can then
‘be use with greater confidence.
Inpractce, you don’t need to count through a shoe while bet-
2 see Arent peThe Mathematics of Ganbing
Table 24
ting (and thus losing money in the proces) to find out that the
‘casino cheating. Ifyou suspect foul play, count whe sanding
‘Behind the player tothe dealer's right
"You might easy catch a short shoe by simply counting all the
cards that are used, whether or not yousee what they are, Then if
the remaining cards, atthe reshuffle, are few enough so you can
6
Buactjack
‘accurately estimate their number, you can check the total count.
For istance, you count 165 eards used and you estimate dat 31
‘& 3cardsremain. Thenthere were 196 = 3 cards athe than the
208 expected, 50 the shoes short.
‘Acting conntermeasireisto put hack a, $or6 fo each ace
or ten-value card removed. Then the total number of cards
remains 208, and thecasno gets an even greater advantage thanit
‘would froma short shoe.
‘Cards do get added to the deck, and there's u spooky ci
«idence oillustrate this. On page SI of Bea the Dealer, rotein
1942, “One might wonder a this point whether casinoshave also
rind adding cards tothe deck Uhave only sen it done once. Iis
very risky. Imagine the shock and fury ofa player who picks up
his hand and ses that not only are both his cards S, but they are
also both spades." And then 15 years late in 1977, a player ina
‘one-deck game did peta hand with two ofthe sare Garde Sot
spades. Walter Tyminsk's casino gaming newsleter, Rogue et
‘Noir News, reported on page3of the June 15,1977 issue, “What
‘would you dof the player a you right ina single blackjack game
had two 5 of spades? Nicholas Zaika, a bail bondsman from
‘Deri ad that experience at the Saharain Las Vegason May 24
ata $5 minimum table.
“zatea wasnt inthe best of humor because he had reportedly
lost $394,000 at other Sahara tables, by far the largest loss he
has ever experienced. Zaika had the blackjack supervisor check
the cards and there were 53 cards in the deck, the duplicate be-
inthe 5 of spades. The gumer has engaged the services of Las
Vegas attorey George Grazadei to pursue claims he feels that
be has against the casino.
The Sahara denies ayy wrongdoing and says that it i
‘cooperating fully with th investigation... Players arentlikelyt0|
{introduce a exzaS because the presence ofthe extra’ favors the
Inoue and not the player”
‘Suppose instead of ust counting tens used and totalcards sed,
you kept track of how many aces, 25,36, queens, kings, andso on
‘Were used. Ths extra information should give the player a better
zThe Mathematics of Gambling
‘chance of detecting the short shoe. The ultimate proof would be
to count the number of each of the 52 types of cards which have
ben used. Mathematical readers might wish to investigate effec-
‘tive statistical or other ways of using information for detecting
thoes in which the numbers of some of the cards have been
4
2s
Baccarat
“The games of baccarat and chemin de fe are wel known gam-
‘bing games playee for high stakes in several pars ofthe world.
is sid tobe a card game of Falan org that was
troduced into France about 1190 A.D. Two forms ofthe game
Aevelped One form wae caled Rocce andthe oer ws alls
chemin ofr. The mos basi diference between these tw
is simply that chee hands ate dealt n bacarat (called bocarat
en bang in England) and two had ae dealt in chemin de fet
(Galles baccaratcheman de Yr in England and Nevada)
The cards ae trough ine are each wort terface valve
and the cards ten jack, queen and king are each worth 20 pins.
‘Aandi evan asthe umn modo tn of i card, 4.8, om.
iy the las digit ofthe (oui counted. The objet ofthe game
is tobe a lose to eght or ine as posible wth two cards, of
4 clos to nine as possible with at most thee cards if one does
othave eight or nine on is st wo cards Then Ge high hand
“The games ofbacarat and chemin defer Became popula in
»‘The Mathematics of Gambling
ic casios allover Europ, as wells in priate games, about
EBD Arthe presen me, one orth of ese games ae well
oa in Landon, southern France, the Riviera, Germany and
the nied Sten A form of chemin def, which we shal ell
ewe acer us boo payed ina Nev cain nce
ae
"Te ules, state and fat ofthe thre games ave s00g
sina’ studied Nevada baccarat with William E, Walden
Smt tssvely because te casos weve splayed wore ear
I} accesible, Our technigs can be cried ove othe ober
foams of bacart and chemin de fe
"ie were oiginaly motte by the oeration hat baccarat
and chen de er have several pots of resemblance fo the game
St blackjack, or twenty.one. The fat that practical wining
Stateice fv twenty-one have been discovered sugested that
fhetnigh doe praca winning ttl fr baccarat and
hen defer. incor ote sian intwent-one, we found
tare are no caret pracal wing statis forthe main
past of th games efor the money Ranker and Player bts
Rules and Procedures
‘To besin the Nevada baccarat game, cight decks of cards are
shuffled and a joker is placed face upnear the end, tbe cards are
then pu into a wooden dealing box calle a shoe. The first cards
‘exposed, and is values noted, face cards being counted as tens.
‘Then this uuniber of cards is discarded, or *bumed.”
"The table has twelve seats, occupied by an assortment of
customers and sil sili house employee who bets money
fand pretends to be a player in order to attract customers oF
‘Smale play. We refer to them indiscriminately a “player.”
‘There are (wo principal bets, called “Banker” and “Players.”
‘Anyplayer may make either ofthese bets before the beginning of
fay round of play, oF “coup.”
To begin the eveing’s pay, two ofthe players are singled out,
‘Oneis termed The Banker and he otheris termed The Player. The
seats are numbered counterclockwise from one totwehe. Player
0
Bocce
‘number one i initally The Banker, unless he refuses. In thiscase
the opportunity ate vounterlockwise aroun the table wn
someone accepts. The Players generally chosen tobe that player,
other than The Banker, wo has the lngest bet on the Player. We
hhave not noticed an oecasion when there were no bets on The
Player. When we played, there were shils in the game and they
‘generally bet on The Plver (except when acting as The Banker,
‘when they generally bet on The Bankes).
“The Banker fais the shoe and deals as long as the bet
“Banker” (which we also refer to as a bet on The Banker) does
not lose, When the bet “Players (which we aso refer to asa bet
‘on The Player) wins, the shoe moves tothe player on the right.
‘This player now becomes The Banker. I the coup isa tie, the
players are allowed to alter their bes in any manner they wish.
‘The same Banker then deals another coup.
To begin a coup, The Danker and The Player are dealt (wo
‘cards each. As we oted above, the cards ace through nine are
each worth her fae valueand tens and face cards ar each worth
zero points. Only the las distin the total is counted.
‘After The Banker and The Player each receive two cards, the
‘roupier faces their hands. IF ether wwo-card total equals 8 or 9
((ermed anatural 8 ora natural 9, asthe case may be), all bets are
sealed at once.
If nether The Player nor The Banker have a natural, The
layer and The Banker then draw orstand according tothe set of|
rules in Table 3-1.
‘The high hand wins. Ifthe hands are equal, thereisateand no
money changeshands. Playersare the freeto change their betsin
any desired manner. If the coup being played is complete when
tie joker is reached, the shoe cnds and the cards azereshuled.
(Otherwise the coup is ist played out to completion. Then the
shoe ends and the card are reshuffled. However, the casino may
reshulle the cards at anytime between coups.The Mathematis of Gambling
Table 341
Player having
05 draws acard
67 stands
89 tums cards over
Banker having draws whan does not dkaw when
Tho Playercraws The Player draws
o one, 0.8
1 one, 09
2 ‘one, 08
3 ‘none, 07,9 8
4 one, 27 0.1.89
5 one, 47 0389
6 67 one, 05, 8,9
7 stands stands
8 tums cards over tune cards ovor
8 tumscards over turns cards over
‘The Main Bets
‘Two main bets agsinst the house can be made. One can bet on
ther The Banker or The Player. Winning bets on The Player are
paidat even money. Winning beison The Banker arepaid0.95of
fhe armour Ux. The five percent tax which i imposed on what
otherwise would have been an evenmoney pay-off is called
“igorish.” For eight complete decks, the probability that The
‘Baanker wins is 0.458597, andthe probabily of a ies 0.095156.
“The basic idea of thecaculation ofthese numbers isto consider
all possible distinc sit-card sequences. The outcome for each
sequence is computed and the corresponding probability of that
2
acca
sequence is computed and aocumulated in the appropriate
egter. Numerous shortcuts, which simplify and abbreviate the
calculation, were taken.
‘The house advantage (we use advantage as a synonym for
mathematical expectation) over The Player is 1.2351 percent. The
house advantage over The Banker is 0.458597X5
percent—1.2351 percent or 1.0579 percent, where 2.2930 percent
{sthe effectiveousetax on The Banker's winnings. Itiesarenot
counted as trials, then the figures for house advantage should be
‘ultplied by 1/0.904844, which give a house advantage per bet
that isnot ate, over The Banker of 1.1692 percent and over The
layer of 1.3680 percent. The effective house taxon The Banker
in this stuation is 2.5341 percent.
‘Weattemptedto determine whether or not the abnormal com-
positions of the shoe, which arise as successive coups ae dealt,
sve rise to uctuations in the expectations of The Banker and
“The Player bets which are sufficient to overcome the house ede.
[tturs out that this oocasionaly happens but the fluctuations are
not large enough nor frequent enough to be the basis ofa practical
‘winning strategy. This was determined in two ways. Fist, we
varied the quantity of cards of a single numerical value. The
results were negative.
"Wenextinguired as to whether, ifone were able to analyze the
endeeck perfectly (eg. the player might receive radioed instruc-
‘tions froma compute) there were appreciable player advantages
con ether bot aignificnt part ofthe time. We selected 29 xs of
13 cards each, each set drawn randomly from eight complete
decks. There'were small positive expectations in only two
instanoss out of $8, Once The Player had a 3.2% edge and once
‘The Banker had a0.1% edge.
‘Wenext proved, byargumentstoo lengthy andintricateto give
Ihre, that the probability distributions desribing the conditional
expectations of The Banker and The Player epread out as the
‘number of unplayed cards decreases. Thus there are fewer advan-
tageous bets of each type, and they are less advantageous, a the
numberof unplayed cards increases above 13. The converse oc-
PsThe Mathematics of Gambling
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‘euo yoes1qnsThe Mathematics of Ganbling
curs asthe numberof unplayed cards decreased below 13.
"The observed practical minimum ranged from eight 0 17 in
‘one casino and from 20 up in another. The theoretical minimum,
‘when no cards are burned, is six. Ths the rests for 13 unplayed
ards seem 10 conclusively demonstrate that no practical win-
‘ing strategy is possible forthe Nevada game, even with a com
puting machine playing a perfect game.
‘To see why, consider te accompanying Table 3-2 (pp. 4-35),
based on Table 2 of Walden's thesis
rom this Table we see the effect of removing one of any card
from the eight-deck baccarat pack. Proceeding in the way we
developed the theory of Blackjack, we get relative pont vas
‘which ae listed in the next to the last column. The last column
ves a simpler approximate point count system.
‘We would now like 10 know how powerful a point count
system n baccarat s compared with poi count systems in black-
Jack. Todo this we compute theroot mean square (RMS) value of
the column called “Change in Advantage of Banker Bet."
"We do this by equaring each of those numbers, counting the
square for zero-value cards four times because there are four
times as many. Then we add these square, divide by 13 and take
the square root. The resulting root mean square or RMS valueis
O64, That measures now lat the deck shifts fromis base ta-
ing value fora full pack.
“Taking one card ofa given rank (we think of there being 13
sanks) changes the fraction of ay ofthese 18 ranks by anamonnt
532/416-31/415 which equals .00222. If we divide the RMS value
by this vale we get (288 asa measure of how rapidly thisadvan-
tage ofthe two bes shifts from the starting value asthe compas:
tion ofthe deck changes.
'Now we ze going to compare this with the situation in back
jack, Table 23, for one-deck blackjack, can be treated in the
Ses way to aus how fart the advantage changes in blackjack.
‘The Table is from Peter Griffin's book, Theory of Blackjack
Revised, page 44, We get RMS valu of 0.467%. Thecorrespond-
ing change in the fraction of asinglerank when one cardi drawn,
6
Baccarat
Table 33
(One-Deck Blackjack
Subtract One Card of Value | Change In Advantage of Payer
-081%
035%
oases
055%
083%
046%
028%
00%
eovroanane
18%
51%
{34/52/51 or O18. The rao of RMS valu o this value is
‘258, If we dvi this byte corresponding re in boa
cezi’rwhhcn tester counting as
changin plajer advantage or ddvanage shifts in ines
as fast in blackjack as it does in baccarat. ee
aThe Mathematics of Gambling
[Note that dividing the RMS value by the “change in fraction”
‘ofa single peck adjusts the one deck blackjack figures and the
‘Gehtdleck baccarat figures so they are comparable. If we had
ted, for example, an eight dock blackjack table instead, we still
‘would have had a final rato of about nine times.
“This allows us to translate how well a point count in baccarat
‘works compared with one in blackjack. ln baccarat we start Out
‘wih more thana Ie disadvantage and with eight decks, Imagine
{blackjack game with an eight deck pack and a 18 disadvan.
tage, Now imagine play continues through the blackjack deck.
“The blackjack deck advantage froma ~ 1%e starting level might,
‘on very rare oceasions, shift 9% fo a + 8% advantage.
‘As often as this happenin blackjack would be the approx
imate frequency with which we would get 1/9th as much shift in
baccarat; meaning froma ~ 1Mfadvantageto a OMe advantage or
break even forthe banker bet, Since there are two bets, banker
and player, the player Bet would also be break even or beter
about as often.
‘The conclusionis that you night expect to break even or better
ineight dock baccarat about twice as often a you woul expectto
have an BM edge in eight-deck blackjack. How often would you
have a Io advantage in eight deck baccarat? About twice as
‘oficnasyou would gota 7M edgein blackjack. Theobvimsean-
‘luson that advantagesin baccarat are very small, they are very
fare and the few that occur are measly always in the lst five to
20 cards inthe pack.
‘The Tie Bet
In addition to wagers onthe Player or Banker hands, the casinos
sank and Player hands
Ihave the seme total, this bet gains nine times the amount bet.
Otherwise the bet i lost. The probability ofa tie is 9.51565,
heace the expectation ofthe bet is ~4884%.
it is lear, however, thatthe probability and thus the expecta-
tion of a tie depends on the subset of unplayed cards. For in-
stance, in theexireme ad improbableevent thatthe residual deck
”
consist solely often valuecards, the probability ofatieisequlto
‘ne and the expectation nine Thit card cing Sete
Potent advantagous.
‘Using computer smulton, random subs of diferent sizes
vere selected from a complete l6card (ight deck) pack. The
Fesuls were dsappotning fiom a money-making pespec=
tivemthe advaniages which oocur with complete knowledge of
‘he wed cards ae limited tothe extreme end ofthe pack ad ate
generally not large. Practical card counting rates are at bet
‘rg, and at bes precarious, forthe are easy elminated by
shuffling the deck with 25 cards remaining.

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