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INSTALATII DE ARDERE

Suport de curs
2005

Prof.dr.ing.Ion IONITA
E-mail< ion.ionita@ugal.ro>
Stimati studenti

Bine aţi venit la cursul “Instalaţii de ardere”!

Numele meu este Ion IONIŢĂ şi timp de două semestre, câte două ore pe
săptămână, împreună cu Dumneavoastră vom căuta să aflăm de ce a acordat
omenirea atâta importanţă producerii căldurii.
• Oare de ce a existat mitul lui Prometeu, titanul care a furat focul din
Olympul lui Zeus şi l-a dăruit oamenilor?
• Ce au făcut oamenii cu darul lui Prometeu, începând cu paleoliticul anilor
6000 i.e.n. si până acum?
• De ce la renumitul British Museum cea mai vastă secţie este dedicată
primei revoluţii industriale din istoria omenirii, epoca maşinii cu aburi, care
continuă să coexiste cu energetica nucleară şi cu informatica?

Acestea sunt primele din multele întrebări la care vom afla răspunsul urmărind cursul „Instalaţii de ardere”. Desigur
că va trebui să ne situăm la nivelul calitativ al ingineriei secolului XXI, căutând să folosim mijloace educaţionale
interactive, cu un puternic suport informatic.
Trebuie să fim conştienţi că va fi foarte dificil să descifrăm în 56 ore de curs ceea ce ştiinţa şi tehnologia au
acumulat în ultimele trei secole, de când Denis Papin a produs abur în marmita sa în 1679.
Pentru a fi cât mai eficienţi, va trebui ca acest curs să constituie doar o îndrumare generală, pe baza căreia
Dumneavoastră să puteţi învăţa cât mai mult şi cât mai bine prin studiu individual.
Cursul caută să vă pregătească nu atât pentru nota de absolvire a disciplinei, ci pentru examenul permanent şi mult
mai dur pe care-l veţi avea de susţinut în viaţa Dumneavoastră inginerească. Gândind aşa, vom rezolva săptămânal
câte o temă de casă cu probleme concrete de instalaţii de ardere şi vom fi notaţi săptămânal pentru ce am lucrat.
Notele finale semestriale le veţi primi după susţinerea celor 11 (sem.6), respectiv 12(sem.7) teme de casă, de
preferinţă tehnoredactate personal pe calculator, poate chiar în limba engleză, aşa cum vi se va cere mai târziu şi la
orice interviu de angajare.
Aveţi la dispoziţie calculatoarele sălii G102, unde la adresa < My Computer/ E: Public,>, puteţi accesa
Suportul de curs IA 2005.
Acest suport cuprinde:
- Programa analitică, ce conţine toate capitolele cursului;
- Lista cărţilor recomandate.
- Planul calendaristic, din care puteţi afla ce capitol se discută la fiecare curs, vă puteţi documenta în
prealabil şi puteţi adresa întrebări profesorului;
- Lista temelor de casă, cu planificarea lor calendaristică;
- Recomandări pentru rezolvarea temelor de casă;
- Prezentarea cursului pe capitole, cu indicarea bibliografiei recomandate. Vă stăm la dispoziţie pentru
copierea pe dischete a suportului de curs;
Faţă de bibliografia recomandată puteţi folosi în plus orice material care tratează temele programei
analitice, noi vi le-am recomandat pe cele pe care vi le putem pune la dispoziţie în cadrul laboratorului.
Nu uitaţi Internetul, cu posibilităţile sale de documentare practic nelimitate.

Din echipa noastra face parte Domnul prep.drd.ing. Spiru


Paraschiv, care va indruma rezolvarea temelor de casa.

În încheiere, acum în prag de primăvară vă ofer


un ghiocel cultivat chiar de mine pentru prieteni.
El este floarea speranţei că eforturile noastre vor fi încununate de succes
şi că la încheierea cursului voi putea să va numesc
nu numai „stimaţi-„ ci şi „dragi studenţi”.
• Programa analitica
UNIVERSITATEA “DUNAREA DE JOS” GALATI SPECIALIZAREA
FACULTATEA DE MECANICA INGINERIA MEDIULUI
CATEDRA DE TERMOTEHNICA SI MASINI TERMICE INGINERI ZI

INSTALATII DE ARDERE Sem.6 14 săpt 2C+2L Verificare


Sem. 7 14 săpt 2C+2L Examen Nr.ore
1 Generatoare termice. Cazane si cuptoare 2
2 Combustibili fosili, clasificare, compoziţie, proprietăţi. 2
3 Combustibili solizi 4
4 Combustibili lichizi 2
5 Combustibili gazoşi 2
6 Legea lui Avogadro. Determinarea volumelor de aer de combustie şi de gaze de ardere 4
7 Determinarea parametrilor funcţionali ai instalaţiei gazodinamice 4
8 Controlul calităţii arderii. 2
9 Agresivitatea faţă de mediu a produselor de combustie. 2
10 Corodarea de joasă temperatură 2
11 Conţinutul de căldură şi temperatura adiabatică a gazelor de ardere 2
12 Bilanţul energetic direct al unei instalatii de ardere 2
13 Pierderi energetice. Determinarea indirecta a randamentului energetic 6
14 Temperatura adiabatica a gazelor de ardere 2
15 Pierderi exergetice. Determinarea randamentului exergetic 4
16 Analiza exergoeconomică a cazanului de abur 6
17 Optimizarea termoeconomică a producerii gazelor de ardere, aburului sau apei calde 4
18 Analiza ecologic-economică a unui cazan. Rentabilitatea protejarii mediului. 4
Plan calendaristic I

UNIVERSITATEA “DUNAREA DE JOS” GALATI


FACULTATEA DE MECANICA
CATEDRA DE TERMOTEHNICA SI MASINI TERMICE INGINERI ZI
SPECIALIZAREA INGINERIA MEDIULUI IN INDUSTRIE

INSTALAŢII DE ARDERE I
A. CURS
Sem. 6 14 sãpt. x 2 ore/sãpt.
Sãpt. Data CAPITOLUL Nr.
ore
I 2 mart. 2005 Obiectul cursului. Functia unei instalaţii de ardere 2
II 9 mart. 2005 Combustibili fosili. Clasificare, compoziţie, proprietãţi 2
III 16 mart. 2005 2
IV 23 mart. 2005 Combustibili solizi 2
V 30 mart. 2005 2
VI 6 apr. 2005 Combustibili lichizi 2
VII 13 apr. 2005 2
VIII 20 apr. 2005 Combustibili gazoşi 2
IX 27 apr. 2005 2
X 4 mai. 2005 Legea lui Avogadro 2
XI 11 mai. 2005 Determinarea volumelor de aer de combustie si de gaze de ardere 2
XII 18 mai 2005 2
XIII 25 mai. 2005 Determinarea parametrilor funcţionali ai instalaţiei gazodinamice pentru un cazan sau 2
cuptor
XIV 1 iun. 2005 2
• Plan calendaristic II

CATEDRA DE TERMOTEHNICA SI MASINI TERMICE INGINERI ZI


SPECIALIZAREA INGINERIA MEDIULUI IN INDUSTRIE

Disciplina INSTALAŢII DE ARDERE II


CURS
Sãpt. Data CAPITOLUL Nr.ore
I 6 oct 2004 Controlul calităţii arderii 2
II 13 oct. 2004 Agresivitatea faţă de mediu a produselor de combustie 2
III 20 oct. 2004 Corodarea de joasă temperatură 2
IV 27 oct. 2004 Conţinutul de caldura al gazelor de ardere 2
V 3 nov. 2004 Bilanţul energetic direct al unei instalaţii de ardere 2
VI 10 nov. 2004 Pierderi energetice. 2
VII 17 nov. 2004 Determinarea indirectă a randamentului energetic 2
VIII 24 nov. 2004 Temperatura adiabatică a gazelor de ardere 2
IX 1 dec. 2004 Pierderi exergetice si distrugeri de exergie.
Determinarea randamentului exergetic 2
X 8 dec. 2004 Analiza exergoeconomică a unei instalaţii de ardere(1) 2
XI 15 dec. 2004 Analiza exergoeconomică a unei instalaţii de ardere (2) 2
XII 22 dec. 2004 Analiza comparata cost/calitate a producerii căldurii 2
XIII 5 ian. 2005 Analiza ecologic-economică a unei instalaţii de ardere (1) 2
XIV 12 ian. 2005 Analiza ecologic-economică a unei instalaţii de ardere (2) 2

Prof.dr.ing. Ion C.IONITA


Teme de casa 2004
1. Alegerea a cate 5 combustibili solizi, lichizi şi gazosi (termen 2 mrt.2005).
2. Ecuatiile de compozitie ale combustibililor. Factori de convertire de la o stare la alta (termen 9 mrt.2005).
3. Determinarea prin calcul a caldurilor de ardere pentru combustibilii de la pct.1. Erori relative de calcul, stabilirea celor mai
potrivite formule statistice de calcul. Caldura inferioara şi caldura superioara de ardere (termen 16 mrt.2005).
4. Coeficientii de calcul pentru combustibil conventional, corespunzatori combustibililor solizi de la pct.1 (termen 23 mrt.2005).
5. Schemele de analiza tehnica a combustibililor de la pct.1 (termen 30 mrt.2005).
6. Schemele de analiza elementara pentru combustibilii de la pct.1 (termen 6 apr.2005).
7. Determinarea temperaturilor de pompare şi de pulverizare a combustibililor lichizi de la pct.1 (termen 13 apr.2005).
8. Determinarea prin calcul a volumelor de aer de ardere excedentara pentru combustibilii de la pct.1 (termen 20 apr.2005).
9. Determinarea prin calcul a volumelor de gaze de ardere excedentara pentru combustibilii de la pct.1 (termen 27 apr.2005).
10. Determinarea prin calcul a cantitatii de CO2 produs prin arderea unitatii de masa sau de volum de combustibili de la pct.1
(termen 4 mai 2005).
11. Determinarea prin calcul a cantitatii de anhidrida sulfuroasa (SO2) produsa prin arderea unitatii de masa sau de volum de
combustibil de la pct.1 (termen 11 mai 2005)
12. Determinarea prin calcul cu ajutorul factorului de convertire, a cantitatii de anhidrida sulfurica (SO3) produsa prin arderea
unitatii de masa sau de volum de combustibil de la pct.1. Corectarea cantitatii de SO2 de la pct.11 ( termen 18 mai 2005)
13. Controlul arderii combustibililor. Sa se scrie si sa se reprezinte grafic ecuaţiile planurilor de ardere si ecuaţiile dreptelor
arderilor perfecte pentru combustibilii studiaţi.
14. Temperatura de rouă a gazelor de ardere. Să se calculeze si să se reprezinte grafic funcţiile tr(λ) pentru combustibilii studiaţi.
15. Corodarea de joasă temperatură. Să se calculeze vitezele de corodare de joasă temperatură, in mm/an, pentru combustibilii
studiaţi si o instalaţie de ardere aleasă.
16. Determinarea continutului de caldura a gazelor de ardere pentru temperaturi din zona temperaturii adiabatice.Diagrama Iga(t, λ)
pentru combustibilii de la pct.1.
17. Alegerea unei instalatii de ardere executate şi prezentarea ei constructiva şi functionala.
18. Bilantul termic direct al instalatiei de la pct.17. Randamentul energetic.
19. Determinarea prin calcul a pierderilor energetice ale instalatiei producatoare de caldura de la pct.17. Randamentul calculat pe
cale indirecta.
20. Determinarea prin calcul a temperaturii adiabatice a gazelor de ardere pentru combustibilii de la pct.1, folosind datele calculate
la punctele 2,8,9,16,18,19.
21. Randamentul exergetic al instalatiei de la pct.17.
22. Analiza termoeconomica a instalatiei de la pct.17.
23. Eficienta economica a instalatiilor depoluante.
Indrumari teme casa

Pentru rezolvarea şi susţinerea temelor de casă sunt necesare următoarele:


1. Studierea cursului şi altor cărţi care tratează întreaga tematică a programei analitice. Este esenţială participarea la toate
cursurile didactice.
2. Rezolvarea pe cont propriu a tuturor temelor de casă şi discutarea lor cu cadrul didactic.
3. Menţionarea bibliografiei folosite când se aleg valori din tabele, indicaţii de rezolvare, formule statistice etc.
4. Intocmirea unui dosar personal care să cuprindă: lista temelor rezolvate, rezolvarea fiecărei teme şi bibliografia
folosită.Dosarul personal poate fi pe suport de hartie sau suport magnetic (discheta cu eticheta nominalizata)
5. Se acordă puncte suplimentare pentru:
─ tehnoredactare computerizată personal;
─ redactare în limba engleză;
─ susţinere în limba engleză.
6. La susţinerea temelor de casă trebuie răspuns la întrebări care verifică nivelul de cunoştinţe acumulate.
Exemple de întrebări:
Cum aţi rezolvat tema de casă?
Se descriu etapele de rezolvare parcurse
In ce a constat rezolvarea tuturor temelor?
Se prezintă pe scurt ce s-a lucrat la fiecare temă şi ce s-a obţinut în ansamblu.
Ce material bibliografic aţi folosit pentru pregătirea cursului şi rezolvarea temelor?
Se prezintă lista cărţilor utilizate, cu date de recunoaştere şi găsire a cărţii.
Ce semnificaţie are o anumită mărime utilizată şi care este unitatea de măsură?
Care este legătura dintre două teme rezolvate?
Atunci când vă simţiţi apt pentru susţinerea temelor solicitaţi la profesor o programare de susţinere.
Mult succes!
Notă. Conform legii, prezenţa la toate orele de lucrări practice este obligatorie. Intrucât nu există ore planificate pentru
recuperări, orice absenţă la lucrări duce la imposibilitatea prezentării la susţinerea temelor de casă.
Atenţie mare la prezenţa la ore !
Bibliografia cursului
Capitolul 1. Generatoare termice.
Cazane si cuptoare
• Fig.1.1
• Fig.1.2.
Schema unui generator termic mural
Sadi Carnot

Sadi Carnot was the eldest son of Lazare Carnot and he was born in the Palais du Petit-Luxembourg. His
younger brother was Hippolyte Carnot. At the time of Sadi's birth, his father was a member of the Directory,
the French Revolutionary government which lasted four years from November 1795 to November 1799. Sadi
was given named after a medieval Persian poet and philosopher called Sadi of Shiraz. Sadi Carnot was born
at a time of unrest and political turmoil in France and, due the position of his father, whose fortunes changed
dramatically many times, he was brought up in a totally unstable environment of interacting politics and
science. His father was appointed to the high office of Napoleon's minister of war in 1799. Lazare Carnot
resigned in 1807 and devoted himself to the education of his two sons.
His famous work on the motive power of heat (Réflexions sur la puissance motrice du feu, 1824 is concerned
with the relation between heat and mechanical energy. Carnot devised an ideal engine in which a gas is
allowed to expand to do work, absorbing heat in the process, and is expanded again without transfer of heat
but with a temperature drop. The gas is then compressed, heat being given off, and finally it is returned to its
original condition by another compression, accompanied by a rise in temperature. This series of operations,
known as Carnot's cycle, shows that even under ideal conditions a heat engine cannot convert into
mechanical energy all the heat energy supplied to it; some of the heat energy must be rejected. This is an
illustration of the second law of thermodynamics. Carnot's work anticipated that of Joule, Kelvin, and others.
Under his father's tuition, Sadi Carnot showed great promise and was sent to the Lycée Charlemagne in Paris
to prepare him for the examinations to the Ecole Polytechnique in Paris. In 1812, at age 16 the minimum age
possible, Carnot entered the Ecole Polytechnique where Poisson Ampére and Arago were among his teachers.
Chasles was in the same class as Carnot and their friendship lasted throughout Carnot's life. Carnot graduated
from the Ecole Polytechnique in 1814 but, before he graduated, Carnot and other students from the Ecole
Polytechnique fought unsuccessfully with Napoleon to defend Vincennes.
In October 1815 after the defeat of Napoleon, Carnot's father was exiled and he went to Germany never to
return to France. It is probable that a military career was not the easiest one for Carnot with his father in
exile. Carnot was moved from place to place, given jobs of inspecting fortifications, drawing up plans and
writing reports. However, it seems that he was not well treated and his recommendations were ignored.
Unhappy at his lack of promotion and the refusal to give him a job which allowed him to make use of his
training, in 1819, he sat and passed the examinations to join the recently formed General Staff Corps in Paris.
Almost immediately he took leave on half pay, living in Paris in his father's former apartment, but he
remained on call for army duty.
Carnot began to attend courses at various institutions in Paris, including the Sorbonne and the Collège de
France. At this time he became interested in industrial problems and, in particular, began to study the theory
of gases. The first of Carnot's major works was a paper which he wrote in 1822-23. This paper attempted to
find a mathematical expression for the work produced by one kilogram of steam. Carnot continued with his
research after the publication of his book and although nothing of this was published, notes that Carnot made
as his ideas developed have survived. In 1827, however, the General Staff Corps in Paris was reorganised and
he was recalled to full time duties.
Following his father's political views, Carnot was strongly republican so he was pleased with
the direction France seemed to be going with the July 1830 Revolution. Around this time he
became interested in public life, in particular he was interested in improving public
education. He was suggested for a government position, but he declined and, after the
monarchy was restored, he returned to his scientific work. In June 1832 he took ill and had
not fully regained his strength when the cholera epidemic of 1832 hit Paris. Although only
36 years of age, he died within a day of contracting cholera.
That Carnot's important book Réflexions sur la puissance motrice du feu et sur les machines
propres à développer cette puissance should have been neglected at the time of its
publication is certainly not because it went unnoticed. It was published on 12 June 1824 and
on 26 July of that year Pierre Girard gave a long review of it to the Académie des Sciences
in Paris. 'Pierre Girard's review was a very positive one and was published in the Revue
encyclopédique. Perhaps the problem with the review was that although it stated the
theorems and the conclusions of Carnot's work fully, it did not comment on the highly
original reasoning which Carnot had employed to achieve his results. (reference)
• Fig. 1.3
Denis Papin

Denis Papin attended a Jesuit school in Blois then, in 1661, he began his studies at the University of Angers.
He graduated with a medical degree in 1669.
Papin assisted Huygens with air pump experiments from 1671 to 1674, during which time he lived in
Huygens's apartments in the Royal Library in Paris. Papin went to London in 1675 to work with Boyle. He
remained in this post until 1679 when he became Hooke's assistant at the Royal Society. Papin was elected a
Fellow of the Royal Society in 1680.
In 1681 Papin left for Italy where he was director of experiments at the Accademia publicca di scienze in
Venice until 1684. There was an attempt to turn the Accademia in Venice into a Society modelled on the
Royal Society in London and the Académie Royale in Paris but lack of financial support ended the attempt.
There were religious reasons why Papin could not return to France. He was a Calvinist, born into a Huguenot
family, and after the Edict of Nantes which had granted religious liberty to the Huguenots was revoked by
Louis XIV in 1685, he became an exile.
Papin returned to London in 1684 working again with the Royal Society until 1687. After this Papin left
England and went to Hesse-Kassel where he was appointed professor of mathematics at the University of
Marburg. He held this post until 1696 when he worked for the Landgrave of Hesse-Kassel until 1707. This
time in Hesse-Kassel was not a successful one for Papin who found himself in disagreement with his
colleagues.
Papin is best known for his work as an inventor, particularly his work on the steam engine. In 1679 he
invented the pressure cooker and, in 1690 he published his first work on the steam engine in De novis
quibusdam machinis. The purpose of the steam engine was to raise water to a canal between Kassel and
Karlshaven. He also used a steam engine to pump water to a tank on the roof of the palace to supply water for
the fountains in the grounds. In 1705, when Leibniz sent Papin a sketch of a steam engine, Papin began
working on that topic again and wrote The New Art of Pumping Water by using Steam (1707). He designed a
safety valve to prevent the pressure of steam building up to dangerous levels.
Other inventions which Papin worked on were the construction of a submarine, an air gun and a grenade
launcher. He tried to build up a glass industry in Hesse-Kassel and also experimented with preserving food
both with chemicals and using a vacuum.
In 1707 Papin built the first paddle boat and that same year he returned to London where he lived in obscurity
and poverty until his death. The date given for his death is only a guess since no records seem to exist of his
last years in London. His last known letter is dated 23 January 1712.
Article by: J J O'Connor and E F Robertson
Bibliografie la cap. 1

• Ion C. Ioniţǎ- “Generatoare de abur”,vol.1-


Universitatea din Galaţi 1990
• -Funcţia generatorului de abur:pag.1-7

Nicolae A. Pǎnoiu-“Cazane de abur”-Editura Didacticǎ şi Pedagogicǎ


Bucureşti 1982
Generalitǎţi:pag.11-14
Clasificarea cazanelor de abur-pag. 14-17

C. Ungureanu - “Generatoare de abur pentru instalaţii energetice, clasice


şi nucleare”- Editura Didacticǎ şi Pedagogicǎ Bucureşti 1977
Generatoare de abur cu circulaţie naturalǎ-pag. 235-271
Generatoare de abur cu circulaţie forţatǎ-pag.325-366
• Corneliu Ungureanu, Nicolae Pǎnoiu, Victor Zubcu, Ioana
Ionel-“Combustibili. Instalaţii de ardere. Cazane”-
Editura Politehnicǎ Timişoara 1998
– Procese de ardere şi cazane-pag.15-20

D. Arǎdǎu, I. Biriş, C. Iosifescu-“Manualul inginerului termotehnician”-


vol.1- Editura Tehnicǎ Bucureşti 1986
- Instalaţii de ardere, de cazane şi de cuptoare-pag.519-834

Stefan Gheorghiu-“Cazane de abur”- Ed. Didacticǎ şi Pedagogicǎ


Bucureşti 1966
-Utilizarea cazanelor de abur:pag.7
Descrierea sumarǎ a unui cazan de abur:pag.7-13
Capitolul 2. Combustibili fosili.
Clasificare, compozitie, proprietati.
Svante
Arrhenius

Svante August Arrhenius was born on February 19, 1859, the son of Svante Gustaf Arrhenius and Carolina Christina
Thunberg. His ancestors were farmers; his uncle became Professor of Botany and Rector of the Agricultural High
School at Ultuna near Uppsala and later Secretary of The Swedish Academy of Agriculture. His father was a land
surveyor employed by the University of Uppsala and in charge of its estates at Vik, where Svante was born. The family
moved to Uppsala in 1860. The boy was educated at the Cathedral school where the rector was a good physics teacher.
From an early age Svante had shown an aptitude for arithmetical calculations, and at school he was greatly interested
in mathematics and physics. In 1876 he entered the University of Uppsala, studying mathematics, chemistry and
physics. The practical instruction in physics was not of the best, and in 1881 he went to Stockholm to work under
Professor E. Edlund at the Academy of Sciences.
Here, Arrhenius began by assisting Edlund in his work on electromotive force measurements in spark discharges but
soon moved to an interest of his own. This resulted in his thesis (1884) Recherches sur la conductibilité galvanique des
électrolytes (Investigations on the galvanic conductivity of electrolytes). From his results the author concluded that
electrolytes, when dissolved in water, become to varying degrees split or dissociated into electrically opposite positive
and negative ions. The degree to which this dissociation occurred depended above all on the nature of the substance
and its concentration in the solution - being more developed the greater the dilution. The ions were supposed to be the
carriers of the electric current, e.g. in electrolysis, but also of the chemical activity. The relation between the actual
number of ions and their number at great dilution (when all the molecules were dissociated) gave a quantity of special
interest ("activity constant").
The idea of a connection between electricity and chemical affinity, once advocated by Berzelius, had,
however, so completely vanished from the general consciousness of scientists that the value of Arrhenius'
publication was not well understood by the science faculty at Uppsala, where the dissertation took place. On
the other hand, Otto Pettersson, Professor of Chemistry at Stockholms Högskola, emphasized the originality
of the dissertation*, and Wi. Ostwald travelled to Uppsala to make the acquaintance of the young author. The
fundamental importance of Arrhenius' work was thus made clear, and at the end of 1884 he got a docentship
at Uppsala in physical chemistry - the first in Sweden in this new branch of science. Through Edlund's
influence he was awarded a travelling fellowship from the Academy of Sciences which enabled him to work
in 1886 with Ostwald in Riga and with Kohlrausch in Würzburg. In 1887 he was with Boltzmann in Graz and
in 1888 he worked with van 't Hoff in Amsterdam. During these years Arrhenius was able to prove the
influence of the electrolytic dissociation on the osmotic pressure, the lowering of the freezing point and
increase of the boiling point of solutions containing electrolytes. Later on he studied its importance in
connection with biological problems such as the relationship between toxins and antitoxins, serum therapy,
its role for digestion and absorption as well as for the gastric and pancreatic juices. The paramount
importance of the electrolytic dissociation theory is today universally acknowledged, even if certain
modifications have been found necessary.
In 1891, Arrhenius declined a professorship offered to him from Giessen, Germany, and soon afterwards he
obtained a lectureship in physics at Stockholms Högskola. In 1895 he became Professor of Physics there. He
was in addition Rector from 1897 to 1905, when he retired from the professorship. He had got an invitation to
a professorship in Berlin, and the Academy of Sciences then decided (1905) to start a Nobel Institute for
Physical Chemistry with Arrhenius as its chief. Initially he had to work in a rented flat, but a new building
was inaugurated in 1909. A large number of collaborators came to him from Sweden and from other
countries, and helped to give his ideas wider currency.
In 1900 Arrhenius published his Lärobok i teoretisk elektrokemi (Textbook of theoretical electrochemistry),
in 1906 followed Theorien der Chemie (Theories of Chemistry) and Immunochemistry and in 1918 the
Silliman lectures Theories of solutions. He took a lively interest in various branches of physics, as illustrated
by his theory of the importance of the CO2-content of the atmosphere for the climate, his discussion of the
possibility that radiation pressure might enable the spreading of living spores through the universe
(panspermy) and by his various contributions to our knowledge of the northern lights. In 1903 appeared his
Lehrbuch der kosmischen Physik (Textbook of cosmic physics).
Many lectures and short publications gave witness of his interest and capacity for writing for the general
public. Especially during the last decades of his life he published a number of popular books, which were
usually translated into several languages and appeared in numerous editions. To these belong Världarnas
utveckling (1906, Worlds in the Making), Stjärnornas Öden (1915, Destiny of the Stars) and others. In 1913
appeared Smittkopporna och deras bekämpande (Smallpox and its combating) and in 1919 Kemien och det
moderna livet (Chemistry and modern Life).
Arrhenius was elected a Foreign member of the Royal Society in 1911, and was awarded the Society's Davy
medal and also the Faraday Medal of the Chemical Society (1914). Among the many tokens of distinction
that he received were honorary degrees from the Universities of Birmingham, Cambridge, Edinburgh,
Greifswald, Groningen, Heidelberg, Leipzig and Oxford.
Arrhenius was a contented man, happy in his work and in his family life. During the First World War, he
made successful efforts to release and repatriate German and Austrian scientists who had been made
prisoners of war.
He was twice married - in 1894 to Sofia Rudbeck, by whom he had one son, and in 1905 to Maria Johansson
by whom he had one son and two daughters.
He died at Stockholm on October 2, 1927, and is buried at Uppsala.

* The Stockholms Högskola (High School of Stockholm) corresponded in those days to a science faculty of the universities, but it was a private
foundation and did not have the right to hold examinations for degrees or to judge the value of theses. It was not until 1960 that the University of
Stockholm, with its many faculties, was established by the State.
From Nobel Lectures, Chemistry 1901-1921.
• 2.1. Surse de energie
termica
• Tabel 2.1

• Sursa Caldura de reactie Consum zilnic (24 ore) pentru CET de 1000 MW

• Carbune 1,5 107 13500 t/zi (200 vagoane) pentru η = 0,40


• Pacura 4,1 107 4800 t/zi pentru η = 0,40
• Izotopul fisionabil
• de uraniu (235 U) 8,2 1013 3 kg de 235U sau 430 kg de uraniu natural ptr η = 0,30
• Deuteriu (2H) fuziunea termonucleara
• controlata) 2,4 1014 1 kg 2H sau 30 m3 apa de mare pentru η = 0,30
• Fig. 2.1
• Fig. 2.2
James Watt

James Watt was born in Greenock in 1736, the son of a ship's chandler (trader in canvas, etc). Watt had little
formal education due to poor health in his youth, but pottering about in his father's shop he developed an
interest in trying to make things "work like clockwork. In 1757 James Watt became instrument maker for the
University of Glasgow. There he developed his lifelong interest in steam engines. Watt became acquainted
with the Newcomen engine when he was repairing the University's model of it. After careful consideration
Watt understood that the Newcomen engine model used too much steam (more than that generated). (portrait
courtesy)
The steam was being used in reheating the cylinder after each injection of cold water. Watt wrote:"...the idea
came into my mind that, as steam was an elastic body, it would rush into a vacuum, and, if a communication
were made between the cylinder and an exhausted vessel, it would rush into it, and might be there condensed
without cooling the cylinder. Watt built a first engine model and decided that the steam would to go in the
cylinder above the piston.
The cylinder was closed with a cap with a stuffing box for the rod to pass through. The steam helped
atmospheric pressure to drive the piston down. In 1769 Watt sought and obtained a patent for a "new method
for lessening the consumption of steam and fuel in fire engines". When Watt gained support for developing
his engine from the great Birmingham manufacturer, Matthew Boulton, he started manufacturing engines.
In 1776, he built an engine with a cylinder of 127 cm diameter to pump water at Bloomfield Colliery. In
the same year Wilkinson, iron master, built a new type of lathe. This lathe made possible to bore a
cylinder with a precision which had never before been seen. The final version of the new Watt engine
(please see the animation) worked in 1778. In 1782 Watt made his double-acting engine (please see the
animation). With this improvement the engine had double the power with the same displacement. To
further save coal, the steam was admitted inside the cylinder for a fraction of the stroke which continued
by steam expansion. Watt never developed engines that were powerful for their weight, because he
refused to use high-pressure steam. He feared that could not make the boiler and engine strong enough to
withstand such pressure with the iron and workmanship of the time. He did, however, make minor
improvements, such as the steam governor that now is named "Watt's governor".
In 1882, 63 years after Watt's death, the British Association gave his name to the unit of electrical power
- and today James Watt's name is to be found written on almost every light bulb in the world.
• 2.2. Cãldura de ardere a combustibililor

n
Qs = ∑ p z Qsz [MJ / kg sau MJ / m 3N (2.1)
z =1

Qi = 12,635(CO)c + 10,742(H2 )c + 35,707(CH4 )c +


+ 59,461(C2H4 )c + 63,572(C2H6 )c [MJ / m3N ] (2.2)

Q is = 338Ci + 125,5H i + 108,3(Sic − O i ) [ kJ / kg ] ( 2.3)


• Tabel 2.2.

Substanta Formula Qi Unit.masura


Hidrogen atomic H Qi=121,266 (Qs=143,846) MJ/kg
Carbon C 33,800 MJ/kg
Sulf S 10,450 MJ/kg
Hidrogen molecular H2 10,742 MJ/m3N
Hidrogen sulfurat H2S 23,381 MJ/m3N
Monoxid de carbon CO 12,635 MJ/m3N
Metan CH4 35,707 MJ/m3N
Acetilena C2H2 56,870 MJ/ m3N
Etilen C2H4 59,461 MJ/ m3N
Etan C2H6 63,572 MJ/ m3N
Propilen C3H6 86,402 MJ/ m3N
Propan C3H8 91,023 MJ/ m3N
Butilen C4H8 113,706 MJ/ m3N
Butan C4H10 118,339 MJ/ m3N
Benzen C6H6 140,20 MJ/ m3N
Pentan C5H12 145,767 MJ/ m3N
• Formule statistice

• - din literatura germanã:

Qii = 340Ci + 1017Hi + 63Ni + 191Sic − 98Oi − 25Wti [kJ / kg] (2.4)

Q smc = 33494 + V mc ( 293 − 6,91V mc ) [ kJ / kg ] ( 2 .5)


• - din literatura rusa

Qis = 33913+12,35Vi (40− Vi ) [kJ/ kg] (2.6)

Qis = 387Ci + 1160Hi − 145Oi [kJ / kg] (2.7)


• - pentru lemne:

Qis = 372Ci + 1115Hi − 139Oi [kJ / kg] (2.8)


• - pentru turbã şi pãcurã

Qis = 364Ci + 1093H i − 136Oi [ kJ / kg ] ( 2 .9 )


• - pentru cãrbune brun:

Qis = 35Ci + 1072 H i − 134Oi [ kJ / kg ] (2.10)


• - pentru antracit:

Qimc = 34068+ 154Vmc − 4,48(Vmc)2 [kJ / kg] (2.11)


• - relaţia Vondracek:

⎛ 4 ⎞
Qis = ⎜ 329 + 11,72 100 − C mc ⎟Ci − 1130(H i − 0,10) + 1105 Sic [kJ / kg] (2.12)
⎝ ⎠
Qia = Qsa − r (WH + Wt ) [MJ / kg ] (2.13)

m cQ b = c w ( t f − t i )m w (2.14)

Q vg Qs = Q mw c w ( t f − t i ) (2.15)

n
am
Qi = ∑ p z Qiz [MJ / kg] (2.16)
z =1

Qiam = Qim + nQig [MJ / kg] (2.17)

n = Bg / B m [ m 3N / kg ] (2.18)
• 2.3. Combustibil conventional
m cc ⋅ 29,309 = m c Qi (2.19)

m cc = m c Qi / 29,309 [ kg cc] (2.20)

2.4. Conditii generale


2.5. Clasificarea combustibililor organici
Combustibili solizi
Combustibili lichizi
Combustibili gazosi
Bibliografie la cap. 2

• Ion C. Ioniţǎ- “Generatoare de abur”,vol.1-


Universitatea din Galaţi 1990
• Combustibili organici, proprietǎţi termoenergetice –
pag.7-79

Nicolae A. Pǎnoiu-“Cazane de abur”-Editura Didacticǎ şi Pedagogicǎ


Bucureşti 1982
Combustibili energetici-pag. 17

C. Ungureanu - “Generatoare de abur pentru instalaţii energetice, clasice


şi nucleare”- Editura Didacticǎ şi Pedagogicǎ Bucureşti 1977
Combustibili energetici-pag. 11-35
Corneliu Ungureanu, Nicolae Pǎnoiu, Victor Zubcu, Ioana Ionel-
“Combustibili. Instalaţii de ardere. Cazane”- Editura Politehnicǎ
Timişoara 1998
Combustibili-pag.23

Stefan Gheorghiu-“Cazane de abur”- Ed. Didacticǎ şi Pedagogicǎ


Bucureşti 1966
Combustibili-pag.18

Constantin Banu-“Manualul inginerului de industrie alimentarǎ”


-vol.1 Editura Tehnicǎ Bucureşti 2002
Combustibili organici-pag.1042-1045
Capitolul 3.
Combustibili solizi
• 3.1. Clasificarea carbunilor
• 3.2. Caracterizarea categoriilor de carbuni
• 3.3. Compozitia carbunilor
• 3.4. Recoltarea şi formarea probelor pentru
analiza
3.5. Analiza tehnica a carbunilor

• 3.5. Analiza tehnica a


carbunilor
Fig.3.1

Fig.3.2
• 3.6. Umiditatea carbunilor
• Umiditatea de imbibatie

i
Wi = (m − m1)100 / m [%] (3.1)
• Umiditatea higroscopica

Wha = (m1 − m 2 )100 / m1 [%] (3.2)

i i i
Wt = Wh + Wi = (m − m 2 )100 / m [%] (3.3)

⎛ ⎞
Wti = Wii + Wha = ⎜100 − Wii ⎟ / 100 (3.4)
⎝ ⎠
• 3.7. Materiile volatile

i
V = (m 2 − m3 )100 / m (3.5)
• Fig.3.3
• Fig. 3.4
• Fig. 3.5
• 3.8. Cenusa

• 3.9. Analiza elementara a carbunilor


• Fig.3.6
• - compoziţia probei iniţiale:

i i i i i i i i
C + H + N + O + So + Ss + M + Wt = 100% (3.6)
• - compoziţia probei de analizã:

a a a a a a a a
C + H + N + O + So + Ss + M + Wh = 100% (3.7)
• - compoziţia combustibilului anhidru:

anh anh anh anh anh anh anh


C +H +N +O + So + Ss +M = 100% (3.8)
• - compoziţia masei combustibile:

C mc + H mc + N mc + O mc + Somc + Ssmc = 100% (3.9)


• - compoziţia masei organice:

Co + H o + N o + Soo = 100% (3.10)


⎧ mc mc mc mc mc mc
⎪ C + H + N + O + S o + Ss = 100

⎨ (3.11)
⎪ anh anh anh anh anh anh anh
⎪⎩C +H +N +O + So + Ss = 100 − M

⎧⎛ mc ⎞ ⎛ mc ⎞ ⎛ mc ⎞ ⎛ mc ⎞
⎪⎜ C / 100 ⎟ + ⎜ H / 100 ⎟ + ⎜ N / 100 ⎟ + ⎜ O / 100 ⎟ +
⎪⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠
⎪ ⎛ mc ⎞ ⎛ mc ⎞
⎪+ ⎜ So / 100 ⎟ + ⎜ Ss / 100 ⎟ = 1
⎪ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠
⎪ (3.12)

⎨ anh ⎛ anh ⎞ anh ⎛ ⎞
⎪C / ⎜⎝100 − M ⎟⎠ + H / ⎜100 − M anh ⎟ +
⎪ ⎝ ⎠
⎪ anh ⎛ ⎞ ⎛ ⎞
⎪+ N / ⎜100 − M anh ⎟ + Oanh / ⎜100 − M anh ⎟ +
⎪ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠
⎪ anh ⎛ anh ⎞ anh ⎛ anh ⎞
+ S
⎪ o ⎝ / ⎜ 100 − M ⎟ + Ss / ⎜ 100 − M ⎟ =1
⎩ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠

⎧ mc anh ⎛ anh ⎞
⎪C / 100 = C / ⎜100 − M ⎟
⎪ ⎝ ⎠

⎨ (3.13)

⎪H mc / 100 = H anh / ⎛⎜100 − M anh ⎞⎟
⎪⎩ ⎝ ⎠
⎛ anh ⎞
K1 = 100 / ⎜100 − M ⎟ > 1 (3.14)
⎝ ⎠

⎛ anh ⎞
K 2 = ⎜100 − M ⎟ / 100 < 1 (3.15)
⎝ ⎠

⎧ mc anh anh mc
⎪ C = K1 C sau C = K 2 C

⎨ (3.16)
⎪ mc anh anh mc
⎪⎩ H = K 1H sau H = K 2 H

mc i ⎛ i i⎞
C = C 100 / ⎜100 − Wt − M ⎟ (3.17)
⎝ ⎠
• Tabel 3.1
• 3.10. Masa organica conventionala
• Carbonul C si Hidrogenul H, Azotul N, Oxigenul O
• Fig. 3.7
• Fig. 3.8
• Tabel 3.2
• 3.11. Balastul unui combustibil (B)
• Fig.3.9
Bi = Mi + Wi [%] (3.17' )
t
Tabel 3.3.
• 3.12 Caracteristicile tehnologice ale
carbunilor
• 3.12.1. Densitatea carbunilor
• Densitatea reala

( )
ρ = 100 ρo /[100 − A anh 1 − 0,345 ρo ] [ t / m3 ] (3.18)

⎛ mc mc ⎞ 3
ρo = 100 / ⎜ 0,53 C + 5H ⎟ [ t / m ] (3.19)
⎝ ⎠

⎛ mc mc ⎞ 3
ρo = 100 / ⎜ 0,334 C + 4,25H + 23 ⎟ [ t / m ] (3.20)
⎝ ⎠
Tabel 3.3.
• Densitatea aparenta
( )[ ( ) ⎛
] a⎞ 3
ρa = 100ρo 100 − Wlim / 100 + ρo − 1 Wlim ⎜100 − Wh ⎟ [ t / m ] (3.21)
⎝ ⎠

• Densitatea in vrac (gramada)


3
ρ v = 0,63 ρa [ t / m ] (3.22)

p p 3
ρ v = 0,5 ρa + 0,004 R 88 [ t / m ] (3.23)

p ⎛ a⎞ ⎛ p⎞ 3
ρa = ⎜100 − Wh ⎟ρa / ⎜100 − W ⎟ [ t / m ] (3.24)
⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠
• 3.12.2. Capacitatea de alunecare
• Tabel 3.4
Tabel 3.5
• 3.12.3. Segregarea carbunilor

• 3.12.4. Rezistenta de stocare

• 3.12.5. Granulatia carbunilor

• Sortul (clasa) granulometrica


3.13. Brichetarea carbunilor
Tabel 3.6
Tabel 3.7
• 3.14. Rezistenta mecanica a carbunilor

• 3.15. Macinabilitatea carbunilor

[(
m VTI = 2 ln(100 / R 88 ) )]2 / 3 (3.25)

m v = 1,625m VTI − 0,35 = 1,13m IE + 0,05 (3.26)

( )
m Hg = 40 mTKTI 0,78 70m VTI − 20 (3.27)

1, 28
mTKTI = 0,0089⎛⎜ m Hg ⎞⎟ (3.28)
⎝ ⎠

1, 25
m VTI = 0,0034⎛⎜ m Hg ⎞⎟ = 0,375mTKTI + 0,584 (3.29)
⎝ ⎠
• Tabel 3.8
• 3.16. Caldura specifica a carbunilor
• Tabel 3.9

i ⎛ i ⎞ anh i
cp = ⎜100 − Wt ⎟cp / 100 + Wt cp / 100 (3.40)
⎝ ⎠ H 2 O
3.17. Temperatura de aprindere a carbunilor
Fig.3.10
o
t a = 8910g ⋅ d + b [ ] (3.41)

Tabel 3.10

• Autoaprinderea carbunilor
• 3.18. Criteriul de aprindere a carbunilor

i i i⎛ i i i⎞
K a = V / Cf = V ⎜100 − Wt − A − V ⎟ (3.42)
⎝ ⎠
• 3.19. Criteriul de intensitate a arderii

i i i ⎛ i i i⎞
K i = A / Cf = A / ⎜100 − Wt − A − V ⎟ (3.43)
⎝ ⎠
• 3.20. Umiditatea raportata
rap i MJ
W = Wt / Qi [% kg / KJ ] (3.44)

• 3.21. Cenusa raportata

A rap = Ai / QiMJ [% kg / MJ ] (3.45)


• 3.22. Caracteristicile sisturilor bituminoase
• Tabel 3.11
• 3.23. Prelucrarea energotehnologica a
combustibililor inferiori

• Piroliza combustibilului solid


C ⊕ H 2O → CO ⊕ H 2 (3.46)

CO ⊕ H 2O → CO2 ⊕ H 2 (3.47)

CO ⊕ 3H 2 → CH 4 ⊕ H 2O (3.48)
• Prelucrarea plasmochimica

2C ⊕ H 2 → C2H 2 (3.49)
Bibliografie la cap.3

• Ion C. Ioniţǎ- “Generatoare de abur”,vol.1- Universitatea din


Galaţi 1990
– Combustibili solizi-pag.19-79

Nicolae A. Pǎnoiu-“Cazane de abur”-Editura Didacticǎ şi Pedagogicǎ


Bucureşti 1982
Combustibili solizi:pag.17-75

N. Pǎnoiu, C. Cazacu, L. Mihǎescu, Cr. Totolo, Al. Epure-“ Instalaţii de


ardere a combustibililor solizi”- Editura Tehnicǎ Bucureşti 1985
Combustibili solizi şi caracteristicile lor energetice-pag.15-38
C. Ungureanu- “Generatoare de abur pentru instalaţii energetice,
clasice şi nucleare”- Editura Didacticǎ şi Pedagogicǎ
Bucureşti 1977
- Combustibili solizi-pag.16-35

Corneliu Ungureanu, Nicolae Pǎnoiu, Victor Zubcu, Ioana Ionel -


“Combustibili. Instalaţii de ardere. Cazane”- Editura Politehnicǎ
Timişoara 1998
Combustibili solizi-pag.24-50

Constantin Banu-“Manualul inginerului de industrie alimentarǎ”-


vol.1
Editura Tehnicǎ Bucureşti 2002
Combustibili solizi-pag.1044-1052
Stefan Gheorghiu-“Cazane de abur”- Ed. Didacticǎ şi Pedagogicǎ Bucureşti 1966
Combustibilii solizi. Proprietǎţile lor.-pag.18-25
Capitolul 4.
Combustibili lichizi
• 4.1. Pacura
• Tabel 4.1.
• 4.2. Densitatea absoluta
• Densitatea relativa
d 20
20 = ρ 20 20
/ ρ w = ρ 20
/ 0,9982 (4.1)

d15
15 = ρ15 15
/ ρ w = ρ15
/ 0,9991 (4.2)

ρ 103[kg/m3]
m = ρ t V ( t ) ( 4.3)

d 4t = d 20
4 − γ ( t − 20 ) [ kg / m 3
] (4.4)

Fig.4.1
• 4.3. Caldura specifica

c p = 1,738 + 0,0025 t [ kJ / kg K ] ( 4.5)


• 4.4. Conductivitatea termica

λ t = λ 20 − α( t − 20) [ W / m K ] (4.6)

⎡ ⎛ ⎞ ⎤
[
λ em = λ p ⎢1 − ⎜1 − Kλ w / λ p ⎟ Ww ⎥ / 1 + (K − 1) Ww ] W / m K ] (4.7)
⎣ ⎝ ⎠ ⎦
• 4.5. Viscozitatea pacurii
• Viscozitatea cinematica
τ = − η(dw / dn ) (4.8)

ν = η / ρ (4.9)

2
1 N s / m = 10 P ( 4.10)

1m 2 / s = 104 St (4.11)
• Viscozitatea conventionala Engler
• Fig. 4.2
Fig. 4.3
• Temperatura de congelare
• Temperatura limita de pompare
• Temperatura de pulverizare
• Fig.4.4.
• 4.6. Inflamabilitatea
• Punctul de inflamabilitate

• 4.7. Puritatea

• 4.8. Cocsarea arzatoarelor


Bibliografie la cap.4.

• Ion C. Ioniţǎ- “Generatoare de abur”,vol.1- Universitatea


din Galaţi 1990
-Combustibili lichizi-pag.86-101

Nicolae A. Pǎnoiu-“Cazane de abur”-Editura Didacticǎ şi


Pedagogicǎ Bucureşti1982
-Combustibili lichizi-pag. 75-80

C. Ungureanu- “Generatoare de abur pentru instalaţii energetice, clasice şi


nucleare”- Editura Didacticǎ şi Pedagogicǎ Bucureşti 1977
- Combustibili lichizi-pag 37-38
Corneliu Ungureanu, Nicolae Pǎnoiu, Victor Zubcu, Ioana
Ionel-“Combustibili. Instalaţii de ardere.
Cazane”- Editura Politehnicǎ Timişoara 1998
• - Combustibili lichizi-pag.50-58

Constantin Banu-“Manualul inginerului de industrie alimentarǎ”-vol.1


Editura Tehnicǎ Bucureşti 2002
Combustibili lichizi-pag.1052-1055

N. Lemneanu, E. Cristea, C. Jianu- “Instalaţii de ardere cu


combustibili lichizi” Editura Tehnicǎ Bucureşti-
Caracteristici fizico-chimice ale combustibililor lichizi-pag.9-18
Stefan Gheorghiu-“Cazane de abur”- Ed. Didacticǎ şi Pedagogicǎ Bucureşti
1&&&&966
Combustibilii lichizi. Proprietǎţile lor.-pag.26
Capitolul 5.
Combustibili gazosi
• 5.1. Gazele naturale
• Gazele libere
• Gazele dizolvate
• Gazele asociate

• Tabel 5.1 Compozitia unor gaze naturale din Ardeal


Tabel 5.2 Compozitia unor gaze de sonda romanesti
• 5.2. Gazele combustibile artificiale
• Gazeificarea carbunelui

C ⊕ H 2O → CO ⊕ H 2 − 118 [MJ / kmol] (5.1)

C ⊕ CO 2 → 2CO − 157,8 [ MJ / kmol] (5.2)

C ⊕ 2H 2O → H 2 ⊕ CO − 75 [MJ / kmol] (5.3)

C ⊕ 0,5O2 → CO ⊕ 124,5 [MJ / kmol] (5.4)

C ⊕ 2H 2 → CH 4 ⊕ 75 [MJ / kmol] (5.5)

CO ⊕ 3H 2 → CH4 ⊕ H 2O ⊕ 206 [MJ / kmol] (5.6)


• Gazul de gazogen
• Gazul de apa
• Gazul de aer
• Gazul de furnal
• Gazul de cocs
C ⊕ O2 → CO 2 ⊕ 406 [MJ / kmol] (5.7)

3Fe2O3 ⊕ CO → 2Fe3O4 ⊕ CO2 ⊕ 37,12 [MJ / kmol] (5.8)

2Fe3O4 ⊕ 2CO → 6FeO ⊕ 2CO2 − 41,77 [MJ / kmol] (5.9)

6FeO − 6CO → 6Fe ⊕ 6CO2 ⊕ 81,62 [MJ / kmol] (5.10)


3Fe2O3 ⊕ 9CO → 6Fe ⊕ 9CO2 ⊕ 76,97 [MJ / kmol] (5.11)

CaCO3 → CaO ⊕ CO2 − 177,97 [MJ / kmol] (5.12)


FeO ⊕ C → Fe ⊕ CO − 144,2,12 [MJ / kmol] (5.13)

2 H 2O → 2 H 2 ⊕ O 2 (5.14)
C ⊕ CO2 ⇔ 2CO (5.15)
Tabel 5.3
• Gazele de rafinarie
• Tabel 5.4
• 5.3. Determinarea compozitiei amestecurilor
combustibile gazoase
anh anh anh anh
CO + CO 2 + H2 + H 2S +
anh anh anh
+ ∑ Cm H n + O2 + N2 = 100 [%] (5.16)

CO + CO 2 + H 2 + H 2S +

+ ∑ Cm H n + O 2 + N 2 + 100VH O ⋅ d = 100 (5.17)


2

COi + COi2 + Hi2 + H 2Si +

+ ∑ C m Hin + Oi2 + Ni2 + Wti = 100 [%] (5.18)

anh anh
CO = KCO ; CO 2KCO2 ; etc. (5.19)

K = 100 /(100 + 124,5 d ) (5.20)

Wti = K ⋅ 124,5 d = 100 ⋅ 124,5 d /(100 + 124,5 d) [%] (5.21)


• 5.4. Determinarea caldurii de ardere a unui amestec
combustibil gazos, de componenti si participatii cunoscute

n
anh anh v 3
Qi am = ∑ Qi z rz [kJ / m N c.g.uscat] (5.22)
z =1

Q*i = Qianh − rd [kJ / m3N c.g.uscat ] (5.23)


• Tabel 5.5

i * 3
Qi = Qi 100 /(100 + 124,5d) [kJ / m N c.g.umed] (5.24)
• 5.5. Densitatea unui amestec de combustibili gazosi

n
ρanh
am =
anh v 3
∑ ρz ⋅ rz [kg / m N g.c.uscat] (5.25)
z =1

⎛ ⎞
ρiam = ⎜ ρanh
am + d ⎟ /(1 + 1, 245d ) [ kg c.g.uscat / m 3
N ] (5.26)
⎝ ⎠
Fig.5.1
• 5.6. Caldura specifica a amestecurilor combustibile
gazoase
• Tabel 5.6

n
canh
pam =
anh v 3
∑ cpz rz [kJ / m N K c.g.uscat] (5.27)
z =1

i ⎛⎜ anh ⎞
⎟ 100 /(100 + 124,5 d ) [kJ / K m3N c.g.umed] (5.28)
cp = ⎜ cp + 1,245 d cp ⎟
H 2O
⎝ ⎠
• Tabel 5.7 Caldurile specifice medii ale componentelor necarburante
• 5.7. Combustibili cu utilizari deosebite
• 5.8. Biogazul
• 5.8.1. Ce este biogazul ?
• 5.8.2. Formarea biogazului
• Fig.5.2
• Fig. 5.3
• 5.8.3. Particularitati si performante ale instalatiilor de
biogaz
• Tabel 5.8
Bibliografie la cap.5

Ion C. Ioniţǎ- “Generatoare de abur”,vol.1- Universitatea din Galaţi 1990


-Combustibili gazoşi-pag. 102-116

Nicolae A. Pǎnoiu-“Cazane de abur”-Editura Didacticǎ şi


Pedagogicǎ Bucureşti1982
-Combustibili gazoşi-pag.80-87

C. Ungureanu- “Generatoare de abur pentru instalaţii energetice, clasice


şi nucleare”- Editura Didacticǎ şi Pedagogicǎ Bucureşti 1977
-Combustibili gazoşi. Origine, clasificare şi proprietǎţi-pag.42-45
• Constantin Banu-“Manualul inginerului de industrie
alimentarǎ”-vol.1
• Editura Tehnicǎ Bucureşti 2002
• -Combustibili gazoşi-pag.1055-1056

Stefan Gheorghiu-“Cazane de abur”- Ed. Didacticǎ şi Pedagogicǎ


Bucureşti1966
Combustibilii gazoşi. Proprietǎţile lor.-27-28
Capitolul 6. Legea lui Avogadro.
Determinarea volumelor de aer
de combustie si de gaze de
ardere
Amedeo Avogadro

Lorenzo Romano Amedeo Carlo Avogadro, conte di Quaregna e di Cerreto (1776 - 1856), was born in
Turin, Italy, on 9th August, 1776. He was the son of Count Filippo Avogadro and Anna Maria Vercellone.
His father was a distinguished lawyer and civil servant, becoming a senator of Piedmont in 1768, and was
appointed advocate general to the senate of Vittorio Amedeo III in 1777. Under the French rule of 1799 he
was made president of the senate.
Amedeo Avogadro went to school in Turin. Coming from a family of well established ecclesiastical lawyers,
Avogadro was guided toward a legal career, and became a bachelor of jurisprudence in 1792, at the ripe old
age of just 16 years. Four years later he gained his doctorate in ecclesiastical law and began to practice. In
1801 he was appointed secretary to the prefecture of the department of Eridano.
In spite of his successful legal career, Avogadro also showed an interest in natural philosophy, and in 1800 he
began private studies of mathematics and physics. His first scientific research in 1803, undertaken jointly
with his brother Felice, was on electricity.
In 1806, Avogadro was appointed demonstrator at the Academy of Turin, and in 1809 became professor of
natural philosophy at the college of Vercelli. In 1820, when the very first chair of mathematical physics in
Italy was established at the University of Turin, Avogadro was appointed. Unfortunately, his post was short
lived, since political changes suppressed the chair and Avogadro was out of a job by July, 1822. The chair
was eventually reestablished in 1832, and Avogadro was reappointed to the position in 1834. Here he
remained until his retirement in 1850.
Avogadro had succeeded to his father's title in 1787. He married Felicita Mazzé, and they had a total of six
children. Avogadro led an industrious life, and was a modest man, working in isolation. This probably
contributed to his relative obscurity, particularly outside Italy. Avogadro died on the 9th July, 1856. He was
described as religious, but not a bigot.

Avogadro - his contribution to chemistry


In order to understand the contribution that Avogadro made, we must consider some of the ideas being
developed at this time. Chemistry was just beginning to become an exact science. The Law of Definite
Proportions and the Law of Multiple Proportions were well accepted by 1808, at which time John Dalton
published his New System of Chemical Philosophy.
Dalton proposed that the atoms of each element had a characteristic atomic weight, and that it was atoms that
were the combining units in chemical reactions. Dalton had no method of measuring atomic weights
unambiguously, so made the incorrect assumption that in the most common compound between two
elements, there was one atom of each.
At around this time, Gay-Lussac was studying the chemical reactions of gases, and found that the ratios of
volumes of the reacting gases were small integer numbers. This provided a more logical method of assigning
atomic weights. Gay-Lussac did not carry through the full implications of his work. However, Dalton realised
that a simple integral relation between volumes of reacting gases implied an equally simple relation between
reacting particles. Dalton still equated particles with atoms, and could not accept how one particle of oxygen
could yield two particles of water. This was a direct threat to the relatively new atomic theory, and therefore
Dalton tried to discredit the work of Gay-Lussac.
In 1811, Avogadro published an article in Journal de physique that clearly drew the distinction between the
molecule and the atom. He pointed out that Dalton had confused the concepts of atoms and molecules. The
"atoms" of nitrogen and oxygen are in reality "molecules" containing two atoms each. Thus two molecules of
hydrogen can combine with one molecule of oxygen to produce two molecules of water.
Avogadro suggested that equal volumes of all gases at the same temperature and pressure contain the same
number of molecules which is now known as Avogadro's Principle.The work of Avogadro was almost
completely neglected until it was forcefully presented by Stanislao Cannizarro at the Karlsruhe
Conference in 1860. He showed that Avogadro's Principle could be used to determine not only molar
masses, but also, indirectly, atomic masses. The reason for the earlier neglect of Avogadro's work was
probably the deeply rooted conviction that chemical combination occurred by virtue of an affinity between
unlike elements. After the electrical discoveries of Galvani and Volta, this affinity was generally ascribed
to the attraction between unlike charges. The idea that two identical atoms of hydrogen might combine into
the compound molecular hydrogen was abhorrent to the chemical philosophy of the early nineteenth
century.
Avogadro - his number
It was long after Avogadro that the idea of a mole was introduced. Since a molecular weight in grams
(mole) of any substance contains the same number of molecules, then according to Avogadro's Principle,
the molar volumes of all gases should be the same. The number of molecules in one mole is now called
Avogadro's number. It must be emphasised that Avogadro, of course, had no knowledge of moles, or of
the number that was to bear his name. Thus the number was never actually determined by Avogadro
himself. As we all know today, Avogadro's number is very large, the presently accepted value being
6.0221367 x 1023. The size of such a number is extremely difficult to comprehend. There are many awe-
inspiring illustrations to help visualize the enormous size of this number. For example: An Avogadro's
number of standard soft drink cans would cover the surface of the earth to a depth of over 200 miles.
If you had Avogadro's number of unpopped popcorn kernels, and spread them across the United States of
America, the country would be covered in popcorn to a depth of over 9 miles.
If we were able to count atoms at the rate of 10 million per second, it would take about 2 billion years to
count the atoms in one mole.
Determination of the number
Cannizarro, around 1860, used Avogadro's ideas to obtain a set of atomic weights, based upon oxygen having
an atomic weight of 16. In 1865, Loschmidt used a combination of liquid density, gaseous viscosity, and the
kinetic theory of gases, to establish roughly the size of molecules, and hence the number of molecules in 1
cm3 of gas. During the latter part of the nineteenth century, it was possible to obtain reasonable estimates for
Avogadro's number from sedimentation measurements of colloidal particles. Into the twentieth century, then
Mullikens oil drop experiment gave much better values, and was used for many years.
A more modern method is to calculate the Avogadro number from the density of a crystal, the relative atomic
mass, and the unit cell length, determined from x-ray methods. To be useful for this purpose, the crystal must
be free of defects. Very accurate values of these quantities for silicon have been measured at the National
Institute for Standards and Technology (NIST).
To use this approach, it is necessary to have accurate values of atomic weights, often obtained by measuring
the mass of atomic ions. For example, an ion trap, employing extremely uniform and stable magnetic and
electric fields should allow such measurements to be made to better than 1 part in 1010. The relative atomic
mass of silicon is particularly important, since silicon crystals are used in the x-ray methods mentioned
above. As a continuation of this approach, one of the 1999 NIST Precision Measurement Grants has been
awarded to David Pritchard, physics professor at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. He will conduct
cyclotron frequency measurements on ions that could achieve a 100-fold improvement in the accuracy of
atomic mass measurements. MIT has developed the world's most accurate mass spectrometer capable of
measuring the atomic mass of atoms to one part in 10 billion. Pritchard proposes to simultaneously measure
the cyclotron frequencies of two different ions in order to improve the values of several fundamental
constants, including Avogadro's number. At the present time, information on Avogadro's number from many
different experiments is pooled with other observations on other physical constants. A most probable and
self-consistent set of physical constants that best fits all reliable data is then found by statistical methods. The
size of Avogadro's number is determined by our definition of the mole. What it does demonstrate is how
small an atom or molecule is compared to the amounts of material we are familiar with in everyday life, since
the definition of the mole involves amounts of material we are completely familiar with.
Tabelul Mendeleev

Intr-o forma simplificata acest tabel se poate consulta si in format electronic in


My Computer/E:Public/e-Mendeleev.htm
• 6.1. Ecuatiile stoechiometrice de ardere

• Arderea carbonului

C ⊕ O 2 → CO 2 (6.1)

1 kmol C + 1 kmol O 2 → 1 kmol CO 2 ⊕ 406,45 MJ (6.2)

3 3
12 kg C ⊕ 22,41 m N O 2 → 22,41 m N CO 2 (6.3)

1 kg C ⊕ (22,41 / 12)m3N O 2 → (22,41 / 12)m3N CO 2 (6.4)


• Arderea incompleta a carbonului

C ⊕ 0,5 O 2 → CO (6.4' )

1 kmol C + 0,5 kmol O 2 → 1 kmol CO ⊕ 246,859 MJ (6.4" )

12 kg C ⊕ (22,41 / 2)m3N O 2 → 22,41 m3N CO (6.5)

3 3
1 kg C ⊕ (22,41 / 2,12)m N O 2 → (22,41 / 12)m N CO (6.6)
• Arderea hidrogenului

H 2 ⊕ 0,5 O 2 → H 2O (6.7)

1 kmol H 2 ⊕ 0,5 kmol O2 → 1kmol H 2O ⊕ 241,44 MJ (6.8)

3 3
2 kg H 2 ⊕ (22,41 / 2)m N O 2 → 22,41 m N H 2O (6.9)

1 kg H 2 ⊕ (22,41 / 2)m3N O 2 → (22,41 / 2) m3N H 2O (6.10)

3 3 3
1 m N H 2 ⊕ 0,5 m N O 2 → 1 m N H 2O (6.11)
• Arderea sulfului

S ⊕ O 2 → SO 2 (6.12)

1 kmol S ⊕ 1 kmol O 2 → 1 kmol SO 2 ⊕ 296,308 MJ (6.13)

32 kg S ⊕ 22,41 m3N O 2 → 22,41 m3N SO 2 (6.14)

3 3
1 kg S ⊕ (22,41 / 32) m N O 2 → (22,41 / 32) m N SO 2 (6.15)
• Arderea hidrogenului sulfurat

H 2S ⊕ 1,5 O2 → SO 2 ⊕ H 2O (6.16)

1 kmol H 2S ⊕ 1,5 kmol O 2 → 1 kmol SO 2 ⊕ 1 kmol H 2O (6.17)

22,41 m3N H 2S ⊕ (1,5 ⋅ 22,41)m3N O 2 → 22,41 m3N O 2 ⊕ 22,41 m3N H 2O (6.18)

1 m3N H 2S ⊕ 1,5 m3N O 2 → 1 m3N SO 2 ⊕ 1 m3N H 2O (6.19)


• Arderea monoxidului de carbon

CO ⊕ 0,5 O 2 → CO 2 (6.20)

1 kmol CO ⊕ 0,5 kmol O 2 → 1 kmol CO 2 ⊕ 283,859 MJ (6.21)

3 3 3
22,41 m N CO ⊕ (0,5 ⋅ 22,41) m N O 2 → 22,41 m N CO 2 (6.22)

1 m3N CO ⊕ 0,5 m3N O 2 → 1 m3N CO 2 (6.23)


• Arderea metanului
CH 4 ⊕ 2O 2 → CO 2 ⊕ 2H 2O (6.24)

1 kmol CH 4 ⊕ 2 kmol O 2 → 1 kmol CO 2 ⊕ 2 kmol H 2O ⊕ 888,172 MJ (6.25)

22,41 m3N CH 4 ⊕ (2 ⋅ 22,41) m3N O 2 → 22,41 m3N CO 2 ⊕ (2 ⋅ 22,41) m3N H 2O (6.26)

1 m3N CH ⊕ 2 m3N O 2 → 1 m3N CO 2 ⊕ 2 m3N H 2O (6.27)


• Arderea hidrocarburilor CmHn

Cm H n ⊕ [m + (n / 4)]O 2 → m CO 2 ⊕ (n / 2)H 2O ⊕ QC H → (6.28)


m n

1 kmol Cm H n ⊕ [m + (n / 4)] kmol O 2 → m kmol CO 2 + (n / 2) kmol H 2O (6.29)

22,41 m3N Cm H n ⊕ [m + (n / 4)] 22,41 m3N O2 → 22,41 m m3N CO2 ⊕ 22,41 (n / 2) m3N H 2O (6.30)

1 m3N Cm H n ⊕ [m + (n / 4)] m3N O 2 → m m3N CO 2 ⊕ (n / 2) m3N H 2O (6.31)


• 6.2. Volumul stoechiometric de aer de combustie
o i i i i
VO = ( 22,41 / 12) C + (22,41 / 2 ⋅ 2)H + (22,41 / 32)(S − O ) (6.32)
2

Vao = VOo / 0,21 [ m3N aer / kg comb.] (6.33)


2

o anh anh anh anh


VO = 0,5 (CO) + 0,5 H 2 + 1,5(H 2S) + 2(CH 4 )
2

{ }
+ ∑ [m + (n / 4)]Cm H n ] anh − O2
anh 3 3
[m N O 2 / m N c.g.] (6.34)

x = 0,622 ϕa ps /( p b − ϕa ps ) [kg H 2O / kg aer usc.] (6.35)

o o 3
VH O = x ρa Va / ρH O [m N H 2O / kg comb.] (6.36)
2 2

o o o o 3
Va = (1 + x ρa Va / ρH O ) Va = (1 + 1,61 x )Va [m N / kg ] (6.37)
2
• 6.3.Volumul stoechiometric de gaze de ardere
• Pentru combustibili masici
VCO = (22,41/ 12)Ci [m3N CO2 / kg comb.] (6.38)
2

' i 3
VH O = (22,41/ 2)H + (22,41/ 18) Wt i [m N / kg ] (6.39)
2
3
ρa = p b / R a Ta [kg / m N ] (6.40)
" o 3
VH O = p b x Va / R a Ta ρH O [m N H 2O / kg comb.] (6.41)
2 2

'" 3
VH = W / ρ [ m N / kg ] (6.42)
2O p H 2O

o ' '' ''' i i


VH = V + V + V = 22, 41[( H / 2 ) + ( Wt / 18)] +
2O H 2O H 2O H 2O
o 3
+ p b xVa / R a Ta ρH O + ( Wp / ρH O ) [m N H 2O / kg comb] (6.43)
2 2

i 3
VSO = (22,41/ 32)Sc [m N / kg] (6.44)
2
VRO = VCO + VSO (6.45)
2 2 2

o i o 3
VN = (22,41 / 28) N + 0,79 Va [m N N 2 / kg comb.] (6.46)
2

o o
Vgu = VCO + VSO + VN = 22,41[(Ci / 12) + (Sic / 32) + ( Ni / 28)] +
2 2 2
o 3
+ 0,79Va [m N / kg ] (6.47)

o o o 3
Vga = Vgu + VH [ m N / kg comb.] (6.48)
2O

o
V ga = 0 , 79 V ao + 22 , 41 [( C i / 12 ) + ( S ic / 32 ) +

+ ( N i / 28 )] + 1, 244 ( 9 H i + W ti + Wp ) + 1, 61 xV ao ( 6 . 49 )
• Pentru combustibili gazosi
anh anh anh
VCO = (CO) + ∑ m (C m H n ) + (CO2 ) (6.50)
2

VSO = (H 2S)anh [m3N SO2 / m3N comb.] (6.51)


2

o
VN = ( N 2 )anh + 0,79 Vao [m3N N 2 / m3N comb.] (6.52)
2

o anh anh anh


VH = ( H ) + ( H S) + ( n / 2 ) ⋅ ( C H ) +
2O 2 2 m n

+ 1,61xVa0 [m3N H 2O / m3N comb.] (6.53)

o o
Vgu = VCO + VN + VSO = (CO)anh + (∑ mCm H n )anh + (CO 2 )anh +
2 2 2

+ (H 2S)anh + ( N 2 )anh + 0,79Vao [m3N / m3N comb.] (6.54)

o
Vga = (CO)anh + ∑ [m + (n / 2)] (Cm H n )anh + (CO 2 )anh + 1,61xVa0 +

+ 2(H 2S)anh + N anh


2 + 0,79 Va
o
+ ( H 2 ) anh
[ m 3
N / m 3
N comb.] (6.55)
• 6.4. Formule statistice

Vao = aQii + b [m3N aer / kg comb.] (6.56)

o
Vga = cQii + d [m3N h.a. / kg comb.] (6.57)
• Tabel 6.1
• 6.5. Arderea cu supliment de aer

o
λ = Va / Va (6.58)

λ fD = λ f + [0,7 − (D / D n )] (6.59)

λ fD = λ f + 0,5[0,5 − (D / D n )] (6.60)
• Tabel 6.2
• Tabel 6.2. continuare
• Tabel 6.2. continuare
λ fD = λ f + 0,5[0,5 − (D / D n )] (6.61)

Δλ fD = Δλ f D n / D (6.62)

Δλ f = Δλ(Dn / D)0,5 (6.63)


o
Va = λ f Va (6.64)

" o 3
VH = p xλ V / R T ρ [ m N H 2O / kg comb.] (6.65)
2O b f a a a H 2O

VH O = 22,41[(H / 2) + ( W / 18)] + (p bλ f Vao x / R a Ta ρH O ) +


2 2
3
+ ( Wp / ρH O ) [m N H 2O / kg comb.] (6.66)
2

VH O = ( H 2 )anh + ( H 2S)anh + ( n / 2)(C m H n )anh + p b xλ f Vao / R a Ta ρ H O


2 2

[ m 3N H 2O / m 3N comb.] (6.67 )
Fig.6.1
o 3 3 3
VO = 0,21(λ f − 1)Va m N O 2 / kg comb.] sau [m N O 2 / m N comb.] (6.68)
2

o 3
VN = (22,41/ 28) N + 0,79λ f Va [m N N 2 / kg comb.] (6.69)
2

VN = Nanh
2 + 0,79λ V
f a
o
[ m 3
N
N 2 / m 3
N comb.] (6.70)
2

o 3
Vgu = 22,41[C / 12) + (Sc / 32) + ( N / 28)] + (λ f − 0,21)Va [m N / kg comb.] (6.71)

anh anh anh anh anh o 3 3


Vgu = (CO ) + ( ∑ mC m H n ) + (CO 2 ) + ( H 2S) + N2 + (λ f − 0,21) Va [ m N / m N comb.] (6.72)

Vga = 22,41[C / 12) + (Sc / 32) + ( N / 28) + (H / 2) + ( W / 18)] + (λ f − 0,21)Vao +


o 3
+ (p bλ f Va x / R a Ta ρH O ) + ( Wp / ρH O ) [m N / kg comb.] (6.73)
2 2

anh anh anh anh anh anh


Vga = (CO) + ∑ [m + ( n / 2)](Cm H n ) + (CO 2 ) + 2(H 2S) + N2 + H2 +

+ (λ f − 0,21)Vao + p b xλ f Vao / R a Ta ρH O [m3N ga / m3N comb.] (6.74)


2

Vga = {0,238[b + a (λ − 1)]}Qii + {5,97[b + a (λ − 1)] + 12,42}10−3 Wti [m3N ga / kg comb.] (6.75)

Vga = (0,265 λ + 0,034) Qianh [m3N ga / kg comb.] (6.76)


• Tabel 6.3
• 6.6. Determinarea prin calcul a proprietatilor termofizice ale gazelor de
ardere
• Participatiile volumice

v
rCO = (CO 2 )fum = VCO / Vga (6.77)
2 2

v
rSO = (SO 2 )fum = VSO / Vga (6.78)
2 2

v um
rN = ( N 2 )f = VN / Vga (6.79)
2 2

rHv O = ( H 2O)fum = VH O / Vga (6.80)


2 2

rOv = (O 2 )fum = VO / Vga (6.81)


2 2

v v v
rCO + rSO + rN + rHv O + rOv = 1 (6.82)
2 2 2 2 2
• Participatiile masice rzm
m N
rCO = VCO ρCO / m ga (6.83)
2 2 2

m N
rSO = VSO ρSO / m ga (6.84)
2 2 2

m N
rN = VN ρ N / m ga (6.85)
2 2 2

m N
rH O = VH OρH O / m ga (6.86)
2 2 2

rOm = VO ρO
N
/ m ga (6.87)
2 2 2

n
mga = ∑ VzρzN (6.88)
z =1

m ga = 1 − (1 − x a )( A / 100) + λρ anh
a (1 + x ) V o
a + Wf [ kg aer / kg comb.] (6.89)

m m m
rCO + rSO + rN + rHm O + rOm = 1 (6.90)
2 2 2 2 2
• Presiunile partiale pz [Pa]

v
pz = p rz [Pa ] (6.91)

n
p = ∑ p z [Pa ] (6.92)
z =1
• Densitatea N [kg / m3 ]
ρga N

3
ρz ( t ) = p / R z ( t + 273) [kg / m ] (6.93)

n
ρga ( t ) = ∑ ρz ( t ) ⋅ rzv [kg / m3 ] (6.94)
z =1
• Masa molara
n
M ga = ∑ rzv M z [kg / kmol] (6.95)
z =1

• Caldura specifica

n n
v N v N
c pga ( t ) = ∑ [rz ρz c pz ( t )] / ∑ (rz ρz ) [J / kg K ] (6.96)
z =1 z =1

c pz [ J / m3N K ] = c pz [ J / kg K ]ρzN [ kg / m3N ] (6.96' )


• Entalpia specifica iga(t) [kJ/kg ga]

⎡n v N ⎤ n v N
iga ( t ) = ⎢ ∑ rz ρz i z ( t )⎥ / ∑ rz ρz [kJ / kg ga ] (6.97)
⎢⎣z =1 ⎥⎦ z =1

3 N 3
i z [kJ / m N ] = i z [kJ / kg ]ρz [kJ / m N ] (6.97' )

i z ( t ) = c pz ( t ) ⋅ t [kJ / kg comb.] (6.98)


• Tabel 6.4
• Entropia specifica sga(t) [kJ/kg K]

⎡n v v ⎤ n v v
sga ( t ) = ⎢ ∑ rz ρz s z ( t )⎥ / ∑ rz ρz [kJ / kg K ] (6.99)
⎢⎣z =1 ⎥⎦ z =1
• Tabel 6.5.
• Viscozitatea dinamica ηga (t) [Pa s]

n
1 / ηga ( t ) = ∑ rzv / ηz ( t ) [1 / Pa ⋅ s] (6.100)
z =1

• Viscozitatea cinematica νga(t)

ν ga ( t ) = ηga ( t ) / ρga ( t ) [m 2 / s] (6.101)


Tabel 6.6
• Conductivitatea termica λga(t) [W/(m K)]

n
v
λ ga ( t ) = ∑ rz λ z ( t ) [ W / m ⋅ K ] (6.102)
z =1
• Tabel 6.7
• Difuzivitatea termica aga(t) [m2/s]

2
a ga ( t ) = λ ga ( t ) / cpga ( t )ρga ( t ) [m / s] (6.103)

• Criteriul Prandtl Prga(t)

Prga ( t ) = ν ga ( t ) / a ga ( t ) (6.104)
• Tabel 6.8
• Constanta de gaz Rga

⎛ n v N ⎞ ⎛ n v N⎞
R ga = ⎜ ∑ rz ρz R z ⎟ / ⎜ ∑ rz ρz ⎟ (6.105)
⎜ z =1 ⎟ ⎜ z =1 ⎟
⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠
Bibliografie la cap.6

• Ion C. Ioniţǎ- “Generatoare de abur”,vol.1- Universitatea


din Galaţi 1990
– Calculul arderii combustibililor –pag.130-144

N. Lemnearu, E. Cristea, C. Jianu- “Instalaţii de ardere cu combustibili


lichizi” Editura Tehnicǎ Bucureşti
Calculul arderii complete-pag. 341-345

Nicolae A. Pǎnoiu-“Cazane de abur”-Editura Didacticǎ şi Pedagogicǎ


Bucureşti1982
Calculul volumului de aer şi de gaze de ardere-pag.116-124
C. Ungureanu- “Generatoare de abur pentru instalaţii energetice,
clasice şi nucleare”- Editura Didacticǎ şi Pedagogicǎ Bucureşti
1977
Bilanţul material al proceselor de ardere-pag.45-56

Corneliu Ungureanu, Nicolae Pǎnoiu, Victor Zubcu, Ioana Ionel-


“Combustibili. Instalaţii de ardere. Cazane”- Editura Politehnicǎ
Timişoara 1998
Calculul volumului de aer necesar arderii şi volumului de gaze de
ardere-pag.94-96

Constantin Banu-“Manualul inginerului de industrie alimentarǎ”-vol.1


Editura Tehnicǎ Bucureşti 2002
Bilanţul material al arderii combustibililor-pag.1056-1062
Stefan Gheorghiu-“Cazane de abur”- Ed. Didacticǎ şi Pedagogicǎ Bucureşti 1966
Calculul cantitǎţii reale de aer de ardere şi a cantitaţii reale de gaze de ardere-
pag.44-49
Capitolul 7
Determinarea parametrilor
functionali ai instalatiei
gazodinamice
Bibliografie la cap.7

C. Ungureanu- “Generatoare de abur pentru instalaţii


energetice, clasice şi nucleare” - Editura Didacticǎ şi
Pedagogicǎ Bucureşti 1977
Calculul aero- şi gazo-dinamic al generatoarelor de abur-pag.478-
481

Corneliu Ungureanu, Nicolae Pǎnoiu, Victor Zubcu, Ioana Ionel-


“Combustibili. Instalaţii de ardere. Cazane”- Editura Politehnicǎ
Timişoara 1998
- Calculul aerogazodinamic al cazanelor: pag.351-366

L..Mihãescu, T.Prisecaru, I.Oprea- ’Cazane şi turbine- Noţiuni de bazã,’


Ed. MatrixRom, Bucureşti, 1999- Cap.8.Calculul aero-gazodinamic-
pag.126-132.
• N.Pãnoiu, “Cazane de abur”, Ed.Didacticã şi Pedagogicã, Bucureşti1 982
Cap.10.Calculul aerogazodinamic al cazanelor de abur, pag.470-493
Capitolul 8
Controlul calitatii arderii
Wilhelm Ostwald

Wilhelm Ostwald was born on September 2, 1853, in Riga, Latvia, as the son of master-cooper Gottfried
Wilhelm Ostwald and Elisabith Leuckel.
He was educated at the "Real gymnasium" there and in 1872 was admitted to Dorpat University to read
chemistry. After taking his final examinations three years later, he obtained the post of assistant at the
Physics Institute under Professor Arthur von Oettingen, and subsequently took a similar position in the
Chemistry Laboratory under Carl Schmidt. Ostwald himself declared that he was most indebted to these two
teachers for his scientific training. In 1877 he was admitted as unpaid academic lecturer at Dorpat University,
and this was followed (1881) by the appointment of full time Professor of Chemistry at the Polytechnicum in
Riga. Six years later he accepted an invitation as Professor of Physical Chemistry at Leipzig University.
Among his later famous pupils are Arrhenius (Nobel Prize 1903), Van 't Hoff (Nobel Prize 1901), Nernst
(Nobel Prize 1920), Tammann and Wislicenus. Ostwald remained in Leipzig until he retired in 1906, with the
short interruption for one term as first "Exchange Professor" at Harvard University, Cambridge (Mass.) in
1904-1905.
Ostwald started his experimental work in 1875, with an investigation on the law of mass action of water in
relation to the problems of chemical affinity, with special emphasis on electrochemistry and chemical
dynamics.
In consequence of his pioneering work especially in the field of electrochemistry, which also led to the
discovery of the law of dilution named after him, his activities as a writer and his gift for organization,
Ostwald became one of the founders of classical physical chemistry. He published numerous textbooks,
starting with the Lehrbuch der Allgemeinen Chemie (Textbook of general chemistry) in 1884. This was
followed by Grundriss der Allgemeinen Chemie (Outline of general chemistry) in 1889 and Hand- und
Hilfsbuch zur Ausführung physikalisch-chemischer Messungen (Handbook and manual for physicochemical
measurements) in 1893. Numerous other scientific works on analytical chemistry, electrochemistry, inorganic
chemistry followed.
Ostwald also founded and edited the Zeitschrift für physikalische Chemie in 1887; Ostwald himself edited
100 volumes, up to 1922.
He was also in charge of the organization of the Department of Physical Chemistry at Leipzig University, and
in 1894 he founded the "Deutsche Elektrochemische Gesellschaft" (German Electrochemical Society) which
in 1902 expanded to become the "Deutsche Bunsen-Gesellschaft für angewandte physikalische Chemie"
(German Bunsen-Society for Applied Physical Chemistry).
In 1909 Ostwald was awarded the Nobel Prize for Chemistry for his work on catalysis, chemical equilibria
and reaction velocities. He received honorary doctorates from several universities in Germany, Great Britain
and the USA, and was made an honorary member of learned societies in Germany, Sweden, Norway, the
Netherlands, Russia, Great Britain and the USA. In 1899 he was made a "Geheimrat " by the King of Saxony.
After his retirement in 1906, Ostwald found a new sphere for his scientific and organizatorial talents. Besides
continuing his studies and publication on philosophy, such as Der energetische Imperativ (The energetic
imperative), Moderne Naturphilosophie (Modern natural philosophy), Die Pyramide der Wissenschaften
(The pyramid of the sciences), he also took an active part in public life. He supported the middle-class
pacifist movement, was interested in educational reforms and in monism. He believed that in view of his
position he could decisively fight the Church's claim to power in the field of natural sciences and to spread a
modern scientific ideology. This aim he pursued in his writings Monistische Sonntagspredigten (Monistic
Sunday sermons) and Arbeiten zum Monismus (Works on monism).
In 1902 Ostwald founded Annalen der Naturphilosophie and edited 14 volumes up to 1921. He
also founded Klassiker der exakten Wissenschaften in 1889, of which some 250 volumes have
been published.
Right up to the end of his life Ostwald studied colours and shapes, in the endeavour to find a
scientific standardization for colours. His main works in this field are Die Farbenfibel (The
coulour primer), Die Farbenlehre (Colour theory), Die Harmonie der Farben (Harmony of the
colours). He also published a periodical Die Farbe (Colour).
Ostwald was married to Helene von Reyher in 1880. They had two daughters and three sons, one
of whom, Dr. Karl Wilhelm Wolfgang (known in the scientific literature as Wo. Ostwald), was
Lecturer in the University of Leipzig, and Editor of the Zeitschrift für Chemie und Industrie der
Kolloide, the forerunner of the Kolloid-Zeitschrift.
After an extremely active life, Ostwald died at his country home near Leipzig on April 3, 1932.
From Nobel Lectures, Chemistry 1901-1921.
Triunghiul Ostwald

22, 41 22, 41 ⎡ 1
Oc = O min − (1 − x)C = C τ − (1 − x) ⎤ [m3N / kg] (8.1)
2,12 12 ⎣ 2 ⎦

22, 41
VCO 2 = xC [m3N / kg] (8.2)
12

22, 41
VCO = (1 − x)C [m3N / kg] (8.3)
12

22, 41 ⎡ 1− x ⎤ 3
VO 2 = λ f O min − Oc = C ⎢ τ(λ f − 1) + ⎥ ( λ f ≥ 1) [m N / kg] (8.4)
12 ⎣ 2 ⎦
0, 79 22, 41
VN 2 = λ f τC [m3N / kg] (8.5)
0, 21 12

22, 41 C ⎡ 3− x⎤ 3
Vgu = ⎢ τ ( λ f − 0, 21) + 0, 21 ⎥ [m N] (8.6)
12 0, 21 ⎣ 2 ⎦

(CO2 )f = VCO2 / Vgu = 0, 21x / β (8.7)

(CO)f = VCO / Vgu = 0, 21(1 − x) / β (8.8)

⎡ 1− x ⎤
(O 2 )f = VO2 / Vgu = 0, 21 ⎢ τ(λ f − 1) + ⎥ /β (8.9)
⎣ 2 ⎦

(N 2 )f = VN 2 / Vgu = 0, 79 λf τ / β (8.10)
β = τ(λ f − 0, 21) + 0, 21(3 − x) / 2 (8.11)

N2 f 0, 79 λ f τ
= (8.12)
(CO2 )f + (CO)f 0, 21

0, 21(N 2 )f
λf = (8.13)
0, 79τ [ (CO2 )f + (CO)f ]

(CO 2 )f
=x (8.14)
(CO 2 )f + (CO)f

0, 21
(CO2 )f + (CO)f = (8.15)
3− x
τ(λ f − 0, 21) + 0, 21
2
⎣ (
2 ⎦ )
(0, 21 + 0, 79τ)(CO2 )f + ⎡0, 21 + 0, 79 τ − 1 ⎤ (CO)f + (O2 )f = 0, 21 (8.16)

(CO 2 )f + 2 A + Bλ f
= (8.17)
(O 2 )f − 1 C + Dλ f

(CO 2 )f = 0; (8.18)
0, 21
(O 2 )f max = (8.19)
2(0, 79τ + 0, 21 ⋅1,5)

0, 21
(CO 2 )f max = ; (8.20)
0, 79τ + 0, 21
(O 2 )f = 0 (8.21)
⎣ ( )
(CO)f max = 0, 21/ ⎡0, 21 + 0, 79 τ − 1 ⎤
2 ⎦
(8.22)

(O 2 )f < 0; (8.23)

(CO)f < 0; (8.24)

(CO 2 )f < 0 (8.25)


Diagrama universală pentru controlul arderii

C ' = 22, 41C /12 [m3N / kg]


Fig.8.1
Fig.8.2
Bibliografie la cap.8

C.Ungureanu – „Generatoare de abur pentru instalaţii


energetice, clasice şi nucleare”-Editura Didacticǎ şi
Pedagogicǎ, Bucureşti 1977
- Diagrama Ostwald pentru combustibili solizi şi lichizi :pag. 64 – 71

Nicolae A. Pănoiu – „Cazane de abur”, Editura Didacticǎ şi Pedagogicǎ,


Bucureşti 1982 pag.108 – 115

Corneliu Ungureanu, Nicolae Pănoiu, Victor Zubcu, Ioana Ionel –


„Combustibili – Instalaţii de ardere. Cazane”- Editura Politehnicǎ,
Timişoara 1998
-Controlul procesului de ardere pe cale graficǎ: pag.82 – 87
N. Pănoiu, C. Cazacu, L. Mihăescu, Cr. Totolo, Al. Epure – „Instalaţii de
ardere a combustibililor solizi” Ed. Tehnică Buc. 1985
„Controlul procesului de ardere in exploatare” :pag.48 – 49

M. Marinescu, D. Stefănescu, Al. Chisacof, O. Adler –


„Instalaţii de ardere” Ed. Tehnică Bucureşti 1985
„Controlul arderii. Diagrama Ostwald” pag. 47 – 50

N. Lemneanu; E. Cristea; C. Jianu „Instalaţii de ardere cu combustibili


lichizi” – Ed. Tehnică Bucureşti 1982
Controlul arderii – pag. 348-354
Constantin Banu – Manualul inginerului de industrie alimentară vol. 1
Ed. Tehnică Bucuresti 2000
- Controlul arderii pag. 1062 –1064
Capitolul 9.
Agresivitatea fata de mediu a
produselor de combustie
• 9. Agresivitatea pacurii
• 9.1. Influenta elementelor agresive din pacura

S ⊕ O2 → SO2 (9.1)

o
t < 2127 C
SO 2 ←⎯ ⎯ ⎯⎯⎯ S ⊕ O 2
(9.2)
o
t > 2127 C
SO 2 ⎯⎯ ⎯ ⎯⎯→ S ⊕ O 2

SO2 ⊕ (1 / 2)O2 → SO3 (9.3)

V2O5 ⊕ SO 2 ⇔ V2O 4 ⋅ SO3 (9.4)


V2O5 ⋅ SO2 ⊕ (1/ 2)O2 → V2O5 ⊕ SO3 (9.5)

2VO ⋅ SO 4 ⇔ V2O 4 ⊕ 2SO 3 (9 . 6 )

2VO ⋅ SO 4 ⇔ V2O5 ⊕ SO 2 ⊕ SO3 (9.7)

2 NaCl ⊕ SO3 ⊕ H 2O → Na 2SO 4 ⊕ 2HCl (9.8)

4 NaCl + 2SO2 ⊕ 2H 2O ⊕ O2 → 2 Na 2SO4 ⊕ 4HCl (9.9)

Na 2SO4 ⊕ SO3 ⇔ Na 2S2O7 (9.10)

Fe2O3 ⊕ 3SO3 → Fe2 (SO4 )3 (9.11)


Me ⊕ V2O5 ( topit) → MeO ⊕ V2O4 (solid) (9.12)

2V2O4 (solid) ⊕ O2 → 2V2O5 ( topit ) (9.13)

Na 2O ⋅ V2O 4 ⋅ 5V2O5 ⊕ 1 O2 → Na 2O ⋅ 6V2O5 (cu aspect sticlos) (9.14)


2

Na 2O ⋅ 6V2O5 ⊕ Me → Na 2O ⋅ V2O4 ⋅ 5V2O5 ⊕ MeO (9.15)

MeO ⊕ SO3 → MeSO 4 (9.16)

2FeSO4 ⊕ SO2 ⊕ O2 → Fe2 (SO4 )3 (9.17)

o
t > 600 C
Fe2 (SO 4 )3 ⎯⎯ ⎯ ⎯
⎯→ Fe2O3 ⊕ 3SO3
(9.18)
t < 600o C
Fe2 (SO 4 )3 ←⎯ ⎯ ⎯ ⎯ Fe2O3 ⊕ 3SO3
• 9.2. Continuturile de sulf, vanadiu si sodiu
• Tabel 9.1
Bibliografie la cap.9

Ion C. Ioniţă – „Generatoare de abur” vol. 1, Universitatea din Galaţi 1990


-Agresivitatea păcurii. pag. 97 – 102
-Roua gazelor de ardere şi fiabilitatea cazanului. pag. 181 – 190
-Cenuşa, zgura pag 32 – 43

Ioana Ionel – „Dispersarea noxelor”. Teorie şi aplicaţii, Editura


Politehnica Timişoara 2000
-Exemple privind emisiile din centrale termice româneşti pag.116-121

Nicolae A. Pănoiu – „Cazane de abur” Editura Didacticǎ şi Pedagogicǎ


Bucureşti 1982
Temperatura punctului de rouă şi temperatura punctului de rouă acidă - pag.
133 – 135
Capitolul 10
Corodarea de joasa temperatura
• 10.1 Roua gazelor de ardere si fiabilitatea cazanului

p H O = p(VH O / Vga ) (10.1)


2 2

• Fig. 10.1
• Tabel 10.1
Fig.10.2
SO3 ⊕ H 2O → H 2SO 4 (10.2)

• Fig.
10.3
v
pSO = p αs rSO [ Pa ] (10.3)
3 2

• Tabel 10.2
log pSO = A ⋅ B + 4,1416 (10.4)
2

−5
A = [1 /(0,22 + 1,02 ⋅ 10 p H O )] − 9,563
2

B = [258,92 /( t ra + 50,206)] − 0,7799


Fig.10.3
Fig.10.4

• Fig. 10.5. Fig. 10.6


• 10.2. Viteza corodarii de joasa temperatura

ΔCSO / Δτ = (K o )1C0O,5 CSO exp .(−11 ⋅ 100 / Tf ) (10.5)


3 2 2 1

K = Fλ Fs Fr Ft (10.6)

Fλ = (λ f − 1) /[0,06 + 0,6(λ f − 1)] (10.7)

i i
Fs = S /(1 + 0,66S ) (10.8)

Fr = 1 /[3,18 + 2,18(Q mab / Q mabo )] (10.9)

2
Ftt = 1 /(33,3 − 0,57 t pg + 0,025 t pg ) (10.10)

Ft = 0,5Ftt (10.11)
1

2
Ftr = 1 /(88 − 1,73 t pg + 0,0088 t pg ) (10.12)
• Fig. 10.7
• Fig. 10.8
t ma = t ra − Δt (10.13)

• Fig.10.9
• Fig. 10.10 Viteza de corodare pentru combustibili fluizi
• Fig. 10.11 Viteza de corodare pentru combustibili solizi
Bibliografie la cap.10

C.Ungureanu – „Generatoare de abur pentru instalaţii


energetice, clasice şi nucleare”-Editura Didacticǎ şi Pedagogicǎ,
Bucureşti 1977
-Coroziunea suprafeţelor de incǎlzire de joasǎ temperaturǎ şi mǎsuri de
protecţie: pag319-323

Nicolae A. Pănoiu – „Cazane de abur”, Editura Didacticǎ şi


Pedagogicǎ,Bucureşti 1982
Temperatura punctului de rouǎ şi temperatura punctului de rouǎ
acidǎ:pag.133-135

Corneliu Ungureanu, Nicolae Pănoiu, Victor Zubcu, Ioana Ionel – „Combustibili –


Instalaţii de ardere. Cazane”- Editura Politehnicǎ, Timişoara 1998
_ Temperatura de rouǎ şi temperatura de rouǎ acidǎ:pag.92-93
L..Mihãescu, T.Prisecaru, I.Oprea- “Cazane şi turbine- Noţiuni de
bazã”
Ed. MatrixRom, Bucureşti, 1999
Coroziunea de joasǎ temperaturǎ:pag.111-113

Ion C. Ioniţă – „Generatoare de abur” vol. 1, Universitatea din Galaţi


1990
Viteza corodǎrii de joasǎ temperaturǎ:pag.190-195

Stefan Gheorghiu-“Cazane de abur”- Ed. Didacticǎ şi Pedagogicǎ Bucureşti


1966
Punctul (temperatura) de rouǎ al gazelor de ardere: pag.65-66
Capitolul 11.
Continutul de caldura a gazelor
de ardere
• 11.1. Entalpia [ kJ/kg comb. sau kJ/m3N comb.] a
aerului si produselor de ardere

Ioa ( t ) = Vaoia ( t ) [kJ / kg comb.sau kJ / m3N comb.] (11.1)

ia ( t ) = c pa ( t ) ⋅ t [kJ / m3N ] (11.2)

o 3
Ia ( t ) = (λ − 1)Ia ( t ) [kJ / kg comb.sau kJ / m N comb.] (11.3)

Ioga ( t ) = VCO
o o
iCO ( t ) + VH i (t ) +
2 2 2O H 2O
o o
+ VSO iSO ( t ) + VN i N ( t ) [kJ / kg comb.sau kJ / m3N comb.] (11.4)
2 2 2 2

Icen ( t ) = x a A icen ( t ) [kJ / kg comb.] (11.5)


o o o
Iga ( t , λ ) = VCO iCO ( t ) + VH O i H O ( t ) + VSO iSO ( t ) +
2 2 2 2 2 2
o
+ VN i N ( t ) + x a (Ai / 100)icen ( t ) + (λ − 1) Ioa ( t )
2 2
3
[kJ / kg comb.sau kJ / m N comb.] (11.6)
• Fig. 11.1
11.2 Diagrama universala a gazelor de ardere
Vaex = (λ − 1) Vao100 /[ Vga
o
+ (λ − 1)Vao ] [%] (11.7)

Iga ( t , λ) = Vga (λ)iga ( t, λ) (11.8)

o
Vga (λ ) = Vga + (λ − 1)Vao (11.9)
• 11.2. Calculul arderii simultane a mai multor combustibili
n n
Cam = ∑ miCi ; H am = ∑ mi H i ; etc. (11.10)
i =1 i =1
n
m i = q i Qi / ∑ q i Qi (11.11)
i i
i =1

3
n = Bg / Bm [ m N c.g. / kg c.m.] (11.12)

( Vga )am = ( Vga )cm + n ( Vga )cg [ m3N / kg c.m.] (11.13)

3
(Iga )am = (Iga )cm + n ( Iga )cg [ m N / kg c.m.] (11.14)

q = (Qi )cm /[(Qi )cm + n (Qi )cg (11.15)

n = (1 − q )(Qi )cm / q (Qi )cg [ m3N c.g. / kg c.m.] (11.16)


• 11.3. Entalpia gazelor de ardere cu recirculatie
• Fig.11.3

r = Vgr / Vga (11.17)

3 3 3
Vgam = Vga + Vgr = (1 + r ) Vga [ m N / kg sau m N / m N ] (11.18)

3
Igam ( t , λ ) = Iga ( t , λ) + Igr ( t , λ) [kJ / kg sau kJ / m N ] (11.19)
Bibliografie la cap.11

Ion C. Ioniţă – „Generatoare de abur” vol. 1,Universitatea din Galaţi


1990
„Entalpia aerului si produselor de ardere” pag 168 – 176

C.Ungureanu – „Generatoare de abur pentru instalaţii energetice,


clasice şi nucleare”- Editura Didacticǎ şi Pedagogicǎ,Bucureşti,1977
„Entalpia aerului şi gazelor de ardere” pag.56 – 59

Nicolae A. Pănoiu – „Cazane de abur” Editura DidacticǎşiPedagogicǎ,


Bucureşti 1982 - Calculul diagramei entalpie-temperaturǎ(I-t): pag. 124 – 130
Corneliu Ungureanu, Nicolae Pănoiu, Victor Zubcu, Ioana Ionel –
„Combustibili – Instalaţii de ardere. Cazane” Ed.
Politehnica, Timişoara, 1998
Diagrama entalpie – temperatură :pag.87 – 91

Stefan Gheorghiu-“Cazane de abur”- Ed. Didacticǎ şi Pedagogicǎ


Bucureşti1966
- Calculul entalpiei gazelor de ardere. Diagrama entalpie – temperatură
pag.59-65
Capitolul 12
Bilantul energetic direct al unei
instalatii termoenergetice
• Fig.12.1
• Fig.12.2
• Fig.12.3
• 12.1. Metoda directa de bilant termic

ηtb = φ1 / φt = (φt − φp ) / φt = (1 − φp / φt ) (12.1)

φc = Bcpc ( t cc − t o ) [kW] (12.2)

φar = BQi [kW ] (12.3)

o '
φa = Bλ f Va c pa ( t ac − t o ) [kW ] (12.4)

φw = (1 + K pj )Q mabc pw ( t w − t o ) [kW ] (12.5)


2
⎡ i o ' ⎤
φ t = B ⎢c pc ( t cc − t o ) + Qi + λ f Va c pa ( t ac − t o )⎥ +
⎣ ⎦
+ (1 + K pj )Q mabc pw ( t w − t o ) [kW ] (12.6)
2

⎛ ⎞
φ1 = ⎜ Q mab − Q mj ⎟(i5 − i 2 ) + Q mab (i5" − i5' ) +
⎝ 2⎠

+ K pjQ mab (i3 − i 2 ) [kW ] (12.7)

⎡⎛ ⎞ ⎤
φ1 = Q mab ⎢⎜1 − K j ⎟(i5 − i 2 ) + (i5" − i5' ) + K pj (i3 − i 2 )⎥ [kW ] (12.8)
⎢⎣⎝ 2⎠ ⎥⎦
• 12.2. Randament termodinamic net

(
ηtn = φ1 / φt + N PA + N MC + N VA + N VGA + N PR ) (12.9)
Bibliografie la cap.12

Ion.C.Ioniţã,”Generatoare de abur”, vol.I., Universitatea din Galaţi,


1990,
-.Metoda directã de bilanţ termic, pag.214-217.

C.Ungureanu, “Generatoare de abur pentru instalaţii energetice


clasice şi nucleare”. Ed. Didacticǎ şi Pedagogicǎ Bucureşti 1977
-Principiile şi modul de întocmire a bilanţului termic prin
metoda directã, pag.74-76.

Corneliu Ungureanu, Nicolae Pănoiu, Victor Zubcu, Ioana Ionel –


„Combustibili – Instalaţii de ardere. Cazane” Ed. Politehnica, Timişoara,
1998
-.Calculul randamentului pe cale directã, pag.123.-125
Constantin Banu – Manualul inginerului de industrie alimentară vol. 1
Ed. Tehnică Bucuresti 2000
Bilanţul energetic direct al cazanului:pag.1084-1085
Capitolul 13
Pierderi energetice, determinarea
indirecta a randamentului
energetic
• 13.1 Pierderile termice ale cazanului de abur

φz = BQz [kW ] (13.1)

Q z = φz / B (13.2)

q z = Q z100 / Q t (13.3)
• 13.1.1. Pierderi prin caldura fizica a gazelor de ardere evacuate


⎢⎣
( ) ( ) ⎛ i



(⎤
Q 2 = ⎢Iga t c , λ c − Iga t o , λ c + x a ⎜ A / 100 ⎟icen ( t c )⎥ 1 − 0,01q 4
⎥⎦
)
3
[kJ / kg comb. sau kJ / m N comb.] (13.4)
• Tabel 13.1
• 13.1.2. Pierderi termice prin ardere chimic incompleta
3
q v = BQi / Vf [kW / m ] (13.5)

(CO)f = 100VCO / Vgu [%] (13.6)

(H 2 )f = 100VH / Vgu [%] (13.7)


2

(CH 4 )f = 100VCH / Vgu [%] (13.8)


4
Q3 = VCO (Qi )CO + VH (Qi ) H + CCH (Qi )CH
2 2 4 4
3
[kJ / kg comb. sau kJ / m N comb.] (13.9)

Q3 = [126,35(CO)f + 107,42(H 2 )f + 357,05(CH 4 )f ] / Vgu


3
[kJ / kg comb. sau kJ / m N comb.] (13.10)
• Fig. 13.1
• Tabel 13.2
• Tabel 13.3
• 13.1.3. Pierderi termice prin ardere fizic incompleta

τa = τp + τv + τrc [s] (13.11)

τ = ⎡do − d (τ)⎤ / k (13.12)


2 2
⎢⎣ ⎥⎦

τt = H / w p (13.13)

τa ≤ τ t (13.14)
Q 4 = (BcazQicaz + Bzg Qizg + Ban Qian ) / B [kJ / kg comb.] (13.15)

i
Q 4 = Qi (Bcaz. + Bzg + Ban ) / B [ kJ / kg comb.] (13.16)

i
q 4 = Q 4100 / Qi [%] (13.17)

i 2
q gr = BQi / Sgr [kW / m ] (13.18)
• 13.1.4. Pierderi termice prin racirea suprafetelor exterioare ale
cazanului

(
φ5 = ∑ k i Ai t fi − t a ) [ W ] (13.19)
i

⎡ ⎤
k i = 1 / ⎢(1 / α1) + ∑ (δ1 / λi ) + (1 / α 2 )⎥ (13.20)
⎢⎣ i ⎥⎦

φ5 = ϕ∑ Ai + φc [ W ] (13.21)

q5 = q5n ⎛⎜ Q nmab / Q mab ⎞⎟ (13.22)


⎝ ⎠
• Fig. 13.2
• Fig. 13.3
s
q5 = ϕA ⋅ 100 / B ⋅ Qi [%] (13.23)

ϕA = Qmr (i 2 − i1) [kW ] (13.24)


• 13.1.5. Pierderi termice prin caldura fizica a produselor masice de
ardere evacuate

o
t zg = t c + 100 [ C] (13.25)

[
Q6 = (1 − x a )(Ai / 100) icen ( t cen ) + rcen − icen ( t o ) ] [kJ / kg comb.] (13.26)
• 13.2. Determinarea prin proiectare a randamentului cazanului

Q t = Q1 + Q 2 + Q3 + Q 4 + Q5 + Q6 [kJ / kg comb. sau kJ / m3N comb.] (13.27)

Q t = φt / B (13.28)

( )
Q t = cpc t cc − t o + Qi + λ f Vaoc pa ⎛⎜ t 'ac − t o ⎞⎟ +
⎝ ⎠
+ (1 + k pj )(Qmab / B)c pw ⎛⎜ t w − t o ⎞⎟ [kJ / kg comb. sau kJ / m3N comb] (13.29)
⎝ 2 ⎠

Q1 = φ1 / B (13.30)
( ⎡⎛
) ⎞
( )( ⎤
) ( )(
Q1 = Q mab / B ⎢⎜1 − k j ⎟ i5 − i 2 + i5" − i5' ⎥ + k pj i5 − i 2 i3 − i 2
⎢⎣⎝ 2⎠ ⎥⎦
)
3
[kJ / kg comb. sau kJ / m N comb.] (13.31)

ηtb = Q1 / Q t (13.32)

( ) ( ) (
⎡ Q1 / Q t + Q 2 / Q t + Q3 / Q t + ⎤ )
100 = ⎢
( ) ( ) (⎥100
⎢⎣+ Q 4 / Q t + Q5 / Q t + Q6 / Q t ⎥⎦ ) (13.33)

6
ηtb = 100 − ∑ q z (13.34)
z=2
• Fig. 13.4
• Randamentul focarului

(
ηf = 100 − q3 + q 4 + q5f + q 6 ) (%) (13.35)

q5f = 0,01 q5 φ1f / φ1 (13.36)


• Randamentul arderii

(
ηa = 100 − q3 + q 4 ) [%] (13.37)
13.3. Functia de debit de abur a randamentului cazanului
Fig.13.5
⎡ ⎛ ⎞ ⎤
λ f = λ fo + ⎢0,7 − ⎜ Q mab / Q mabo ⎟⎥ (13.38)
⎢⎣ ⎝ ⎠⎥⎦

⎡ ⎛ ⎞ ⎤
λ f = λ fo + 0,5⎢0,5 − ⎜ Q mab / Q mabo ⎟⎥ (13.39)
⎢⎣ ⎝ ⎠⎥⎦

Φ u = kAΔt m [kW ] (13.40)

BVga = Str Wp [m3N / s] (13.41)


Fig.13.6
13.4. Determinarea prin proiectare a debitului de combustibil
consumat de cazan

P1 = (1 − k j2 )(i5 − i 2 ) + (i5" − i5' ) + k pj (i3 − i 2 ) (13.42)

P2 = c pc ( t cc − t o ) + Qii + λ f Vaoc pa ( t 'ac − t c ) (13.43)

P3 = (1 + k pj )Qmabcpw ( w 2 − t o ) = (1 + k pj )Qmab (i 2 − io ) (13.44)

Bc = (Qmab ⋅ P1 / ηtb P2 ) − (P3 / P2 ) (13.45)

i
Bcc = BcQi / 29309 [kg cc / s] (13.46)
mcc = Bccτz τo [kg cc] (13.47)

b m = Bc / Q mab [kg comb / kg ab] (13.48

b mcc = Bcc / Q mab [kg cc / kg ab] (13.49)

bc = 3600 Bc / Φ1 [kg comb / kWt h ] (13.50)

bcc = 3600Bcc / Φ1 [kg cc / kWt h ] (13.51)


• 13.5. Cum este influentat debitul de combustibil de randamentul
cazanului

Bc = (a / ηtb ) − b (13.52)

Bc 2 = Bc1[(a / ηtb 2 ) − b] /[(a / ηtb1) − b] (13.53)

a = Q mabP1 / P2 (13.54)

b = P3 / P2 (13.55)

Bc 2 = Bc1[(Q mabP1 / ηtb 2 ) − P3 ] /[(Q mabP1 / ηtb1) − P3 ] (13.56)


Bibliografie la cap.13

• Ion C. Ioniţă – „Generatoare de abur” vol.1, Universitatea


din Galaţi 1990
• Pierderile termice ale cazanului de abur, pag.218-237.

L..Mihãescu, T.Prisecaru, I.Oprea- “Cazane şi turbine- Noţiuni


de bazã” Ed. MatrixRom, Bucureşti, 1999
-Randamentul cazanelor, pag.43-46.

Pãnoiu N., “Cazane de abur”, Ed. Didacticã şi Pedagogicã, Bucureşti,


1982.
Calculul pierderilor de cãldurã;. Calculul randamentului, pag.141-167.
• Ungureanu, C. ş.a, “Combustibili, Instalaţii de ardere, Cazane,
• ” Ed. Politehnica, Timişoara, 1998,
• - Calculul randamentului pe cale indirectã, pag.123-124
• -Calculul pierderilor de cãldurã, pag.106-120.

Ungureanu C., “Generatoare de abur pentru instalaţii energetice clasice


şi nucleare”, Editura Didacticã şi Pedagogicã, Bucureşti, 1977
-Principiile şi modul de intocmire a bilanţului termic prin metoda
indirectǎ: pag.76-91.

Stefan Gheorghiu-“Cazane de abur”- Ed. Didacticǎ şi Pedagogicǎ


Bucureşti 1966
-Pierderi de cǎldurǎ. Randament:pag. 224-242
Capitolul 14
Temperatura adiabatica a gazelor
de ardere
Fig. 14.1
i " "
Qi + ic + Wabiab + (1 − 0,01q 4 )Iaum (λ p , t p ) + Q MV =

= (1 − 0,01q 4 )Iga ( t ad , λ f ) + Q5t + Q5m + Q5f + Q3 + Q 4 + Q6

[kJ / kg sau MJ / m3N ] (14.2)

3
ic = cc t c [kJ / kg sau kJ / m N ] (14.2)
• 14.1. Influenta recircularii gazelor de ardere asupra temperaturii
lor adiabatice

Qii + ic + Wabi ab + (1 − 0,01q 4 )Iaum (λ"p , t"p ) + Q MV + (1 − 0,01q 4 )Igr ( t , λ ) =


3
= (1 − 0,01q 4 )Igam ( t ad , λ ) + Q3 + Q 4 + Q5t + Q5m + Q5f + Q6 [kJ / kg sau kJ / m N ] (14.3)
Bibliografie la cap.14

• Ion C.Ioniţã.,”Generatoare de abur”, vol.I., Universitatea din Galaţi,


1990, Temperatura adiabaticã a gazelor de ardere, pag.176-180.

L.Mihãescu, T.Prisecaru, I.Oprea- “Cazane şi turbine- Noţiuni de


bazã” Ed. MatrixRom, Bucureşti, 1999
- Temperatura teoreticã de ardere în focar, pag.58-59.

Moran, M.,” Fundamentals of engineering thermodynamics,” 4th Edition,


John Wiley & Sons, New-York, 1999,
Determining the adiabatic flame temperature :pag. 719- 722.
• Pãnoiu N., “Cazane de abur”, Ed. Didacticã şi Pedagogicã, Bucureşti, 1982.
• Calculul temperaturii teoretice a gazelor de ardere în cazul arderii teoretice,
pag.130-133.
Capitolul 15
Pierderi exergetice. Determinarea
randamentului exergetic
• 15.1. Analiza exergetica a functionarii cazanului de abur
• 15.1.1. Exergia
• Exergia caldurii
• Fig.15.1
EQ = (1 − To / T)Q [kJ] (15.1)

T p = const T

⎛ T ⎞
E = Q ⎜⎜1 − o ⎟⎟
⎝ T ⎠
1 kJ 1 kJ

T
A=Q o
E(T ) T A(T )

Q = E(T ) + A(T )
• Exergia chimica
• Exergia radiatiei
• Exergia termomecanica

e = i − io − To (s − so ) = (i − Tos) − (io − Toso ) (15.2)

e = er + ep (15.3)
• Exergia substantei aflate intr-un volum inchis
e v = u − u o − To (s − so ) + po ( v − vo ) (15.4)

• 15.1.2. Anergia

AQ = To (Q / T) = To ΔSQ (15.5)

Q = EQ + AQ (15.6)

i = e + [io + To (s − so )] = e + a (15.7)
• 15.1.3. Determinarea exergiei chimice
i
ech = 0,975 Qs [kJ / kg ] (15.8)

ech = 0,95 Qis [kJ / kg ] (15.9)

i
ech = Qi [kJ / kg ] (15.10)
⎛ i i i⎞
⎛ i i ⎞ ⎜ H O N ⎟
⎜ ⎟
ech = ⎜ Qi + rWi ⎟ ⎜1,0437 + 0,1896 + 0,0617 + 0,0428 ⎟
i i i
⎝ ⎠⎜ C C C ⎟
⎝ ⎠
i
+ +9710 St [kJ / kg] (15.11)
⎡ i i ⎤
H
⎢1,0401 + 0,1728 + 0,0432 O
+⎥
⎢ C i
Ci ⎥
⎛ ⎞
ech = ⎜⎜ Qii + rWti ⎟⎟ ⎢⎢ ⎥ [kJ / kg] (15.12)
i⎛ i⎞ ⎥
⎝ ⎠⎢ S ⎜ H ⎟ ⎥
0,2196 ⎜1 − 2,0628 ⎟
⎢ Ci ⎜ Ci ⎟ ⎥
⎢⎣ ⎝ ⎠ ⎥⎦
⎡ ⎤
⎢ i i⎥
⎢ 0,131O + 0,116Wt ⎥ i
ech = ⎢1,009 + ⎥ Qi [kJ / kg ] (15.13)
⎛ i i ⎞
⎢ 100 − ⎜⎜ A + Wt ⎟⎟ ⎥
⎢ ⎝ ⎠ ⎥⎦

⎡ ⎤
⎢ i i⎥
⎢ 0,267O + 0,103Wt ⎥ i
ech = ⎢0,978 + ⎥ Qi [kJ / kg ] (15.14)
⎛ i i⎞
⎢ 100 − ⎜⎜ A + Wt ⎟⎟ ⎥
⎢ ⎝ ⎠ ⎥⎦

i
ech = 1,01 Qi [kJ / kg ] (15.15)

ech = 1,02 Qii [kJ / kg] (15.16)

H mc N mc
ech = 35904 + 91899 + 6281 −
mc mc
C C
Omc Smc
− 11092 + 10571 [kJ / kg] (15.17)
mc mc
C C
• 15.1.4. Ireversibilitatea procesului de ardere
• Fig.15.2
πa = (s 4 − s1)To = (s5 − s1)To (15.18)

ηexa = aria 1 − 4 − 5 − 1 / aria 1 − 4 − 6 − a − 1 (15.19)


• 15.1.5. Bilantul exergetic al cazanului

ηex = E u 100 / E t = (E t − π)100 / E t (15.20)

πa = Ech + Ecb + E a − E pa [kW] (15.21)

E ch = e n B [kW ] (15.22)

'
πsc = (E1' − E '2 ) − (E"2 − E1" ) − E5 (15.23)

E5 = Φ5 (1 − To / Tp ) [kW] (15.24)

" ' "


πsc = E + E − E am [kW ] (15.25)
• Fig.15.3
• 15.2. Solutii de majorare a randamentului
exergetic
• 15.2.1. Ciclul combinat gaz-abur

• Fig.15.4.
• Fig.15.5
m(i8 − i9 )ηr = i 2' − i 2 (15.26)

m (i 8 − i 9 ) η r = i 2 ' − i 2 (5.125 )
• 15.2.2. Generatorul magnetohidrodinamic MHD
• Fig.15.6
• Fig.15.7.
• Fig.15.8
Q mg (i12 − i13 )η r = Q mab (i 5 − i 2 ) (5.126)

m = Q mg / Q mab (5.127 )

m (i 12 − i 13 ) η r = i 5 − i 2 (5.128 )
Bibliografie la cap.15

Bejan, A., Tsatsaronis, G., Moran, M.,” Thermal Desigh &Optimization”,


John Wiley & Sons, New-York, 1996,
-Exergy balance, pag.121-131; Chemical Exergy , Applications, pag.138-
159.

Dobrovicescu, Al.,” De ce exergie? De ce exergoeconomie?,” COFRET’02,


Bucureşti, 2002, pag.9-26.

Ioniţã C.I.,”Comparaţie între analiza energeticã şi analiza exergeticã


a funcţionãrii cazanelor de abur”, Conferinţa Naţionalã de
Termotehnicã, Cluj-Napoca, 26-27 Mai, 1995, vol.II, pag.9-14.
Ioniţã, C.I, “Generatoare de abur”, vol.I., Universitatea din Galaţi, 1990,
Analiza exergeticã a funcţionãrii cazanului de abur, pag.253-267.

Moran, M.,” Fundamentals of engineering thermodynamics”,


4th Edition, John Wiley & Sons, New-York, 1999
Developing the exergy balance pp.324-329

Panait, T., Gheorghiu, C., Uzuneanu, K., Drãgan, M.,” Aplicarea analizei
exergetice la studiul sistemelor termoenergetice complexe”,
COFRET’02, Bucureti, 2002, pag.68-72.
Capitolul 16
Analiza exergoeconomica a
cazanului de abur
 =C
C  + Z + Z [lei / s] (16.1)
P F CI OM

CP = CF + ZCI + ZOM [lei / buc] (16.2)

Z CI + Z OM = Z [lei / s] (16.3)

ZCI + ZOM = Z [lei / buc] (16.4)


 = c E = c (m
C  i ei ) [lei / s] (16.5)
i i i i

 = c E = c (m
C  e ee ) [lei / s] (16.6)
e e e e

C w = c w W
 [lei / s] (16.7)

 = c E
C [lei / s] (16.8)
q q q

∑ e w q ∑ i
e
 +C
C  =C
 + C
 + Z
i
[lei / s] (16.9)
Aplicatie
Un cazan de abur foloseste combustibil gaz natural al carui flux
 = 100 MW
de exergie la intrare este E i
Aburul paraseste cazanul la 50 [bari] si 450 [0C] avand fluxul
 = 35 MW
exergetic E i
Debitul de abur este 25 [kg/s] . Costul unitar al combustibilului
este 1,5 [centi/kW h de exergie].
Costul orar de procurare si exploatare a cazanului este 1000 $/h
Apa de alimentare si aerul au la intrare exergii si costuri
neglijabile. Produsele de ardere sunt evacuate direct in atmosfera
cu costuri neglijabile. Se neglijeaza de asemenea pierderile de
caldura in mediul exterior, precum si efectele de energie cinetica
si potentiala. Se cere sa se calculeze raportul cost/calitate pentru
aburul produs in conditiile sus mentionate si de asemenea pentru
20 bari si 300 oC.
Gaze de ardere
• Fig.1.
E ga ≅ 0

Combustibil
Z c = 1000 cent / h
E c = 100 MW
cc = 1,5 cent / kWh

Abur
Aer
50 bar; 450oC
E a ≅ 0  ab = 25 kg / s; E ab = 35 MW
m
Apă alimentare cab [cent / kWh ]

E ≅ 0
w

Modelul termoeconomic al cazanului


• Rezolvare
Pentru volumul de control care cuprinde cazanul se poate
scrie ecuatia:
c E = c E + Z
ab ab c c c (1)

In ecuatia (1) sunt cunoscute:


-Fluxul exergetic de abur E ab = 35 MW
-Costul unitar exergetic al combustibilului cc = 1,5 centi/kWh
-Fluxul exergetic de combustibil E c = 100 MW
-Costul orar de investitie si exploatare Z c = 1000 dolari / h
Singura necunoscuta este costul unitar al aburului
E c Z c
c ab = c c + (2)
E E
ab ab
Inlocuind valorile cunoscute se obtine

cab = 7,14 centi / kWh


Pentru a tine cont si de calitatea aburului, nu numai de costul sau,
calculam costul unitar care exprima raportul cost/calitate, c Qab
PH
c e
c Qab = ab [centi / kg abur] (3)
3600
ePH – exergia fizica specifica a aburului, [kJ/kg].
ePH = h – ho – To(s – so) [kJ/kg] (4)
h si ho – entalpiile specifice ale aburului la parametrii de lucru si
respectiv, la parametrii mediului ambiant, [kJ/kg];
To – temperatura mediului ambiant (To = 293 K);
s si so- entropiile specifice ale aburului la parametrii de lucru si
respectiv, la parametrii mediului ambiant, [kJ/kg K];
Pentru abur la 50 bari si 450 oC din Vukalovici extragem:
h = 3315 kJ/kg; s = 6,815 kJ/kg K
Pentru abur la 1 bar si 20 oC gasim:
ho = 83,9 kJ/kg; so = 0,2964 kJ/kg K
Inlocuim valorile in ecuatia (4) si obtinem ePH (50; 450) = 1288,56 kJ/kg
Inlocuind acum in ecuatia (3) valorile calculate pentru cab si ePH obtinem:

cQab (50; 450) = 2,55 centi / kg abur

Pentru aburul de parametrii mai scazuti 20 bari si 300 oC valorile


corespunzatoare sunt:
h = 3019 kJ/kg si s = 6,757 kJ/kg K
Inlocuind valorile cunoscute in ecuatia (4) se obtine:
ePH (20;300)= 1009,84 kJ/kg.
Costul unitar al combustibilului cc este exprimat in centi/kWh pentru
claritatea expunerii. Comercial insa, acest cost se exprima in
centi/mcN. Daca notam costul comercial ccm [centi/mcN] intre cele
doua costuri exista relatia:
3600 ccm
cc = (5)
Qi
Qi [kJ/mcN] – caldura inferioara de ardere a combustibilului (pentru gaz
natural Qi = 35700 kJ/mcN)
Inlocuind valorile cunoscute in ecuatia (5) se obtine
ccm = 14,875 centi/mcN
 se calculeaza cu relatia:
Marimea E c

E ab = m
 ab e PH (6)

 se calculeaza cu relatia
Marimea E
c

E c = m
 c ec ≅ m
 c Qi (7)

Cu ajutorul ecuatiilor (2), (6) si (7) se obtine ecuatia costului aburului

m c Qi Z c
c ab = PH
+ (8)
 ab e
m  ab e PH
m

Inlocuind valorile cunoscute in ecuatia (7) se calculeaza


 c = 2,8 mcN / s
m
Cand cazanul livreaza abur de parametri mai scazuti debitul sau de
combustibil se modifica conform ecuatiei de bilant exergetic

 c Qi η = m
m  ab e PH (9)

 c = 0, 785 mcN / s
Pentru ePH (20;300) si η=0,9 rezulta m

Pentru aceasta calitate mai redusa a aburului, cu ajutorul ecuatie (3)


calculam c Qab (20;300) = 2, 00 centi / kg abur
Nota
Costul orar de procurare si intretinere a cazanului se calculeaza cu relatia

Z CI
tot
Z OM
an
Z c = Z CI + Z OM = + [dolari / h] (10)
τ τan
Z CI [dolari / h] -costul orar al investitiei de cazan;
Z OM [dolari / h] -costul orar de exploatare si intretinere a cazanului;

Z CtotI [dolari] -costul total al investitiei de cazan;

τ [h] – durata totala de functionare a cazanului;

Z an
OM [dolari / an] - cheltuielile totale anuale de exploatare si
intretinere a cazanului;

τan [h/an] – durata anuala de functionare a cazanului;


Interdependenta cost/calitate
C
5
H3 E1

CQR line
4
A3
H2
Unprofitable zone

3
L2 A2 H1

2
L1 A1

1
Competing zone

Lower Average Higher Extra Q

Figure 16.2. The close connection between cost and quality of a product or service.
Fig.16.1
Bibliografie la cap.16

Bejan A., Tsatsaronis G., Moran M., “Thermal Design


&Optimization”, John Wiley & Sons, New-York, 1996, -
Thermoeconomic Analysis and Evaluation, pag.405-459.

Ioniţã C.I., “Analizã exergoeconomicã şi optimizare”, Revista


TERMOTEHNICA, anul VI, nr.2/2001, pag.10-17.

Ioniţã C.I., “Optimizarea cost/calitate a producerii de energie, bunuri


materiale şi servicii,” COFRET’02, Bucureşti, 2002, pag.53-60.
• Ioniţã C.I., “Eficienţa analizãrii exergoeconomice a
sistemelor energetice”, Conferinţa Naţionalã de Termotehnicã,
Galaţi, 2001, vol.II, pag.155-168.

Ioniţã C.I., “The close connection between cost and quality of energy
products”, ECOS’01, Istanbul, vol.II, pag.813-820.

Moran M., “Fundamentals of engineering thermodynamics”, 4th


Edition, John Wiley & Sons, New-York, 1999
-Thermoeconomics pag.351-.357
• Lucrǎrile Conferinţei Naţionale de Termotehnicǎ - Ediţia a XIa Galaţi
• 17-19 Mai 2001,vol.2- Editura Evrika Brǎila 2001
• -Ioniţǎ I.-Eficienţa analizǎrii exergo-economice a sistemelor energetice
• pag.155-169
Capitolul 17
Optimizarea termoeconomica a
producerii gazelor de ardere,
aburului sau apei calde
CONFERINTA NATIONALA DE ECHIPAMENT TERMOMECANIC
CLASIC SI NUCLEAR ETCN 2003
UNIVERSITATEA POLITEHNICA BUCURESTI
Pag.67-70
ANALIZA COMPARATĂ COST/CALITATE DE PRODUCERE A
ABURULUI IN TERMOCENTRALE

Dr.ing. Ion Ioniţă


Profesor la Universitatea “Dunărea de Jos” din Galaţi <ion.ionita@ugal.ro>

ABSTRACT
The paper makes a compared cost-to-quality analysis for steam production in
power plants.
The point is that the steam as product has its quality, defined by its presure and
its temperature. Both these parameters define the exergy of steam, that is, its
quality. But like every product quality, the steam quality is strongly connected
with its cost. Using the principle of the compared cost-to-quality analysis, we can
orientate the steam production towards the best economic solutions. The paper
ends with some numerical examples of calculation.
1. PRINCIPIUL ANALIZEI COMPARATE COST/CALITATE
1.1. CALITATEA ABURULUI

Aburul produs în termocentrale este o marfă de calitatea dorită de


utilizator. Această calitate este bine definită doar prin doi parametri:
presiunea p[bar] şi temperatura t[C]. Se subînţelege însă că aburul
provine din apă, deci de fapt toţi parametrii de calitate ai apei de
cazan se referă şi la aburul produs.
Cu ajutorul celor doi parametri termodinamici susmenţionaţi se
poate calcula exergia specifică a aburului, ca parametru unic de
calitate
e = i(p, t) − io (po , t o ) − To [s(p, t) − so (po , t o )] [kJ / kg]
Acest parametru ne va servi ulterior la determinarea raportului
cost/calitate pentru aburul produs în termocentrale
1.2. COSTUL ABURULUI PRODUS
Incercând să exprimăm costul aburului produs în termocentrale, trebuie să
precizăm că orice cost nu este o cifră abstractă, ci el se referă obligatoriu la
calitatea produsului, oricare ar fi acesta.
În cazul aburului, nu putem scrie că aburul are costul C €, suntem obligaţi să
scriem de fapt un cost unitar cab €/kg abur de parametrii p[bar] şi t[oC]. Să
remarcăm că unitatea de măsură pentru costul unitar al aburului este de fapt un
raport cost/calitate.
Mărimea cab reprezintă la numărător costul exprimat în €, iar la numitor
calitatea kilogramului de abur, caracterizată prin parametrii p şi t, sau prin exergia
specifică e, conform rel.(1).
Pentru a produce abur este nevoie de trei categorii de cheltuieli:
a)cheltuieli investiţionale totale Ci (€) de realizare a agregatului de cazan,
clădirilor aferente etc;
b)cheltuieli pentru combustibil, energia electrică şi celelalte consumabile;
c)cheltuieli de exploatare-întreţinere: salariile întregului personal al
termocentralei, cheltuielile de funcţionare a clădirilor, cheltuielile de întreţinere a
tuturor instalaţiilor centralei şi taxele şi amenzile, inclusiv cele pentru
nerespectarea normelor de protejare a mediului ambiant
Pe baza categoriilor mai sus-enumerate, ecuaţia costului total
unitar al aburului produs cab are structura:
cab = ci + cc + cei [€/kg]
ci [€/kg] – costul unitar investiţional al aburului produs.
Cu ajutorul costului investiţional total Ci[€], se poate calcula:
ci = Ci /103 m
 abτ anηan [€/kg]

ce[€/kg] – costul unitar al combustibilului şi energiei electrice


consumate pentru producerea aburului. Dacă avem în vedere consumul
specific mc [m3N comb/kg ab] de căldură de ardere Qi [kJ/m3N ] pentru
producerea cu randamentul termodinamic brut η a aburului de entalpie
io
i − io
mc = [m3N comb/kg ab]
Qiη
şi costul său unitar cc [€/ m3N comb], precum şi consumul specific de
energie electrică ce [kWh/kg ab] pentru producerea aburului, se poate
scrie expresia costului unitar cc:
i − io c e
cc = c + c ce [€/kg ab]
Qiη

cei [€/kg ab] – costul unitar de exploatare-întreţinere. Dacă Cei[€/an]


reprezintă costul anual de exploatare-întreţinere, se poate scrie:

cei = Cei /103 m


 abτ an [€/kg ab]
2. APLICAŢIE

Un cazan de abur foloseşte combustibil gaz natural de căldură de


 c ⎡⎣ m 3N / s ⎤⎦
ardere Qi = 35700 kJ/m3N la debitul m

Aburul părăseşte cazanul la presiunea p [bar] şi temperatura


t[ºC], cu debitul m  ab=25 kg/s. Costul unitar al combustibilului
estec c = 15 ¢/ m3N . Costul orar investiţional şi de exploatare-
întreţinere a cazanului este cih+ ei [€/h]. Apa de alimentare şi aerul
de combustie au la intrare exergii fizice şi costuri neglijabile.
Produsele de ardere sunt evacuate direct în atmosferă cu costuri
neglijabile. Se neglijează de asemenea pierderile de căldură în
mediul exterior, precum şi efectele de energie cinetică şi
potenţială.
Se cere să se facă o analiză comparată cost/calitate pentru aburul
produs în următoarele situaţii:
• Tabel
1

Valori

Impuse Calculate
Situaţii p cab e
t  ab
m
[bar] [ºC]
c
m cih+ ei η [¢/kg(p,t)] [kJ/kg]
⎡⎣ m / s ⎤⎦
3
N [€/h] [kg/s]
1 10 200 2,20 600 25 0,87 1,98 869

2 20 300 2,36 700 25 0,87 2,19 1042

3 30 350 2,46 800 25 0,87 2,36 1141

4 40 400 2,48 900 25 0,87 2,48 1233

5 50 450 2,6 1000 25 0,87 2,66 1289

6 30 350 2,46 600 25 0,87 2,14 1141

7 30 350 2,46 1000 25 0,87 2,58 1141


Pentru volumul de control care cuprinde cazanul (Fig.1) se
poate scrie următoarea ecuaţie de bilanţ termoeconomic:

1
 ab = cc ⋅ m
cab ⋅ m  c + cih+ ei ⋅100 ⋅ [¢/s]
3600
din care obţinem expresia mărimii căutate:
 h
m c
cab = cc c + i + ei [¢/kg(p,t)]
 ab 36 m
m  ab

 ab (tab.1) se obţine
Dacă în ecuaţia (8) înlocuim valorile constante cc şi m
ecuaţia de calcul:
 c + 0, 0011cih+ ei [¢/kg(p,t)]
cab = 0, 6 m

Folosind acum valorile  şic


m cih+din
ei tab.1 se obţin valorile
calculate cab.
De asemenea, cu ajutorul ecuaţiei (1) se calculează exergiile specifice ale
aburului, ca măsură a calităţii sale.
Gaze de ardere
φga  0

Combustibil
cih+ ei [euro / h]
φc = m
 c Qi

cc [cent / m3N ] Abur

φa  0 φab = m
 ab (i − io )
cab [cent / kg(p, t)]
Apă alimentare
φw  0

Fig.1. Modelul termoeconomic al cazanului


În fig.2 este reprezentată analiza comparată cost/calitate a producerii
aburului.

cab 2.7
[cent/kg]
5(50/450)
2.6 7(30/350)
2.5
4(40/400)
2.4
2.3 3(30/350)

2.2
2(20/300) 6(30/350)
2.1
2
1(10/200)
1.9
800 900 1000 1100 1200 1300

e [kJ/kg]

Fig.2. Analiza comparată cost/calitate a


producerii aburului
3. CONCLUZII

3.1. Se poate arăta prin calcul că există o strânsă legătură între calitatea (exergia)
aburului şi costul său de producere.
3.2. Analiza termodinamică a cazanului ţine cont doar de costul combustibilului
consumat, pe când analiza comparată cost/calitate, la fel ca şi analiza
termoeconomică ţine cont şi de cheltuielile investiţionale şi de exploatare
întreţinere.
3.3. Pentru aceiaşi parametri termodinamici de funcţionare a instalaţiei (cazurile
3,6 şi 7 din tab.1), deci pentru aceeaşi calitate a aburului produs, costul aburului
poate fi competitiv (punctul 6) sau necompetitiv (punctul 7), în funcţie de
cheltuielile investiţionale şi de exploatare întreţinere.

Detalii despre metoda utilizată pot fi găsite la adresa <www.tmt.ugal.ro/optimcost>


Bibliografie la cap.17

Bejan A., Tsatsaronis G., Moran M.,” Thermal Design


&Optimization”, John Wiley &Sons, New-York, 1996,
Thermoeconomic Optimization, pag.463-509.

Ioniţã, C.I., ş.a,” Asigurarea calitãţii- Aplicaţii,” Ed. Fundaţiei Universitare


“Dunãrea de Jos” din Galaţi, 1999
- Raportul cost/calitate, criteriu de optimizare, pag.21-31.

Ioniţã C.I., “Optimizarea cost/calitate a producerii de energie, bunuri


materiale şi servicii”, COFRET’02, Bucureşti, 2002, pag.53-60.
• Moran M., “Fundamentals of engineering thermodynamics”, 4th Edition, John
Wiley & Sons, New-York, 1999,
• -Using exergy in design- pag.352-355.
Capitolul 18
Analiza ecologic-economica a unui
cazan. Rentabilitatea protejarii
mediului.
Pentru unele instalatii termoenergetice ni se spune deseori ca nu s-au luat masuri
constructive de protejarea mediului ambiant pentru ca nu au fost bani suficienti.
Mai tarziu insa, la un moment dat datorita poluarii accentuate produse prin
functionarea instalatiilor termoenergetice, aceste masuri de limitare a poluarii
trebuie luate, uneori prin renuntarea completa la instalatiile poluante si montarea cu
cheltuieli mari a unor instalatii noi nepoluante sau mai putin poluante.
Daca de la inceput se montau instalatii nepoluante, oare nu se economiseau
fondurile consumate pentru instalatiile la care mai tarziu se renunta, desi ele mai
pot produce ?
Oare cat a costat, prin asistenta sanitara acordata de stat nerespectarea normelor de
protectia mediului in timpul functionarii acestor instalatii poluante ?
Oare cati turisti au fost indepartati din zona datorita poluarii produse de aceste
instalatii ?
La multe dintre aceste intrebari raspunde in mod clar, matematic, analiza exergo-
economica
In vederea realizarii unui produs, in cazul nostru energie termica sau
electrica, se inregistreaza multe cheltuieli, pentru care se poate formula
urmatorul bilant:

C p ,tot = C F ,tot + Z tot


CI
+ Z tot
OM
[lei / s ]

C [lei/s]- rate de cost asociate cu transferurile de exergie;


C p ,tot [lei/s] - rata de cost a intregului produs;

C F ,tot [lei/s] – rata de cost a materie prime consumate pentru realizar


produsului;

Z [lei/s] – rata nonexergetica de cost asociata unui component,


fara legatura cu materia prima utilizata;
Ztot
CI
[lei/s] – rata nonexergetica de cost corespunzatoare
investitiilor de capital;
 OM
Z tot [lei/s] - rata nonexergetica de cost corespunzatoare exploatarii
si intretinerii investitiilor de capital;

Z = Ztot
CI
+ Ztot
OM

Ztot
CI
= Z KCI + Z MCI
 CI
Z K - rata nonexergetica de costuri privind instalatiile productive

ZMCI
- rata nonexergetica privind costurile echipamentelor de
protectie a mediului;
Ztot
OM
= Z KOM + Z MOM + Z s

Z KOM - rata de costuri de exploatare si intretinere a instalatiilor


productive;
Z MOM- rata de costuri pentru amenzile platite datorita nerespectarii
normelor de protectie a mediului;

Z s - rata de costuri corespunzatoare alocatiilor bugetare pentru


tratarea unor boli de poluare datorita functionarii poluante a
instalatiilor productive.
Rata nonexergetica de costuri are doua componente distincte: prima
ZK- pentru instalatiile productive, iar a doua ZM , pentru
echipamentele de protejare a mediului.
Daca proprietarul instalatiei industriale neglijeaza investitiile de
capital pentru echipamentele de protectie a mediului M Z CI

amenzile pe care le va plati pentru poluare, care sunt incluse in


componenta Z M de obicei depasesc componenta Z M astfel incat:
OM CI

Z MOM ≥ Z MCI

Daca notam:
  
Z M + Z S = Z MS
CI OM

atunci situatia de exploatare a unei instalatii productive puternic


poluante poate fi caracterizata prin inecuatia:

Z MS
OM
 Z MCI
Cheltuieli pentru:
- echipamente de protectia mediului
sau
- taxe şi amenzi pentru nerespectarea normelor de

· OM · OM
MS
protectia mediului

+Z
- alocatii bugetare pentru asistenta sanitara-boli de
poluare

MT
· CI
M
Costul produsului obtinut în conditii poluante

Z
Z
Cheltuieli de intretinere şi exploatare a instalatiei
productive
Costul produsului obtinut în conditii putin poluante

· OM
K
Z

Investitii de capital pentru instalatia productiva


· CI
K
Z
Bibliografie la cap.18

Ion V. Ion, “Protecţia mediului in energeticǎ”-Editura Arionda, Galaţi,2000


Aspecte economice privind protecţia mediului-pag.249-254

G. Andrei, I. Ioniţǎ, S.Muşat, L. Slǎtineanu, R. Teti- “Asigurarea


calitǎţii”-Aplicaţii Editura Fundaţiei Universitare “Dunǎrea de Jos” din
Galaţi 1999
- Termoeconomia generatoarelor de abur-pag.53-58