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Physik III

Vorlesungs-Skript

Prof. Dr. Simon Lilly

Mitschrift
Marc Maetz

HS 2010
Contents

Contents 1
0.1 General Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
0.1.1 Testat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
0.1.2 Exam . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
0.1.3 books . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
0.1.4 webpage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4

1 Electrostatics: Electric charge 5


1.1 empirical fact: charges exist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
1.2 Coulomb’s Law . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
1.3 Potential energy of a system of charges . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
1.4 Concept of electric field . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
1.5 Charge distributions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
1.6 Concept of Flux and Gauss’ Law . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
1.7 Applications of Gauss’ Law . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
1.8 Energy associated with E-field . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
1.9 Concept of electrical Potential . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
1.10 Experiment: charging two spheres equally . . . . . . . . . . . 10
1.11 Other useful operators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
1.12 summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12

2 Conductors 13
2.1 Conductors + insulators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
2.2 Conditions for conductor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
2.3 The general electrostatic problem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
2.4 Uniqueness Theorem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
2.5 Some interesting cases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
2.5.1 Enclosed cavity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
2.5.2 Faraday cage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16

1
Contents

2.6 Some tricks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17


2.6.1 Mirror charges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
2.7 Capacitance and capacitors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
2.8 Energy stored in capacitor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
2.8.1 Parallel plate capacitor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
2.9 General System of conductors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19

3 Elecric Currents 21
3.1 Electric current . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
3.2 Charge conservation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
3.3 Ohm’s Law . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
3.4 Circuits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
3.4.1 Kirchoff’s Rules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
3.5 Energy dissipation in a resistor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
3.6 Sources of energy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
3.7 Circuits with capacitors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26

4 Fields of moving charges 28


4.0 Magnetic Fields or Forces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
4.1 Reminder about special Relativity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
4.2 Invariance of charge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
4.3 Transformation of E-fields . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
4.4 Field of accelerated charge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
4.5 Force on moving charge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
4.6 Interaction of moving charge with other moning charges . . . 33

5 Magnetic Fields 35
5.1 Simplest case . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
5.1.1 Force between two ∞ long wires . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
5.2 Properties of magnetic fields . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
5.2.1 Uniqueness theorem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
5.3 Vector Potential . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
5.4 Fields of coils and solenoids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
5.4.1 Biot-Savart law . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
5.5 summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
5.6 Change in B-field across a current sheet . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
5.7 How do E and B transform . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
5.8 Hall Effect (1879) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44

6 Magnetic Induction 45
6.1 Magnetic Induction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
6.1.1 Wire in circuit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
6.2 Faraday’s Law . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
6.3 Lenz’ Law . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49

2
Contents

6.4 Mutual inductance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50


6.5 Self-inductance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51

7 Alternating current circuits 53


7.1 The RLC circuit as damped oscillator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
7.2 Circuits driven by alternating voltage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
7.2.1 Solenoid pushing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
7.2.2 Some circuits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
7.3 Power Consumption . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60

8 Maxwell’s Equations 61
8.1 Wave equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
8.2 Superposition of two opposite directions . . . . . . . . . . . . 62
8.3 Standing wave . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62
8.4 Energy Transport of E and M waves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
8.5 Lorentz transformation of waves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
8.6 summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64

9 Dielectric materials 65
9.1 Introdiuction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
9.2 Electric dipoles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
9.3 Atomic and molecular dipoles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
9.3.1 Permanent dipoles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
9.3.2 Induced dipoles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
9.4 Electric fields from polarized matter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68
9.4.1 Gauss’ Law in medium and vector field D . . . . . . . 70
9.5 Currents in dielectrics and Maxwell’s equations . . . . . . . . 71
9.6 Eloctromagnetic waves in dielectric . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
9.7 Example: Electric field around dielectric sphere . . . . . . . . 72

10 Magnetic phenomena in matter 76


10.1 Phenomenology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76
10.2 Magnetic dipoles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76
10.3 Force on m in external field . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77
10.4 Current in loop in atom . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78
10.5 Electron spin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79
10.6 Magnetic fields of magnetized matter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79
10.7 Maxwell’s equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80
10.8 Ferromagnetism (Fe,Ni) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82

11 Generation of electromagnetic waves 84


11.1 Potentials and potential wave equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84
11.2 Delayed potentials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
11.2.1 Hertzian Dipole . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86

3
Contents

0.1 General Information


If you find any mistake, feel free to send me an e-mail to ’mmaetz@student.ethz.ch’.

0.1.1 Testat

To receive the Testat, you must make a serious attempt and hand-in at least
3/4 of the questions on at least 3/4 of the Exercise Sheets.

0.1.2 Exam

• 2-hour written

• calculator, ”translation” dictionary English-German and 10 sides of


notes in their original own handwriting

• all questions in German and English and can be answered in German


and English

0.1.3 books

english deutsch
Purcell Electricity and Magnetism Elektrizität and Magnetismus
Jackson Classical Electrodynamics Klassische Elektrodynamik
Tipler & Mosca Physik Physics for Scientists and Enginee
Känzig Elektrizität und Magnetismus (v—d—f)

0.1.4 webpage

http://www.exp-astro.phys.ethz.ch/PhysikIII

4
Chapter 1

Electrostatics: Electric
charge

1.1 empirical fact: charges exist


t0 explain observed forces

a) + and − charges - like repel opposite attract

b) Net charge ∑ q is conserved, and is relativistically invariant

c) Charge is apparently quantized qe = 1.602 · 10−19 C

d) Charges appear ∼ pointlike r < 10−15 m

1.2 Coulomb’s Law


Fig.1
q1 q2
F21 = k 2
r̂21
r21
q1 q2 1 q1 q2
cgs: F = SI: F =
r2 4πε 0 r2
ε 0 = permittivity of free space = 8.854 · 10−12 Fm−1

a)

5
1. Electrostatics: Electric charge

b)
c) effect of charges is additive
1 q x qi
Fx = ∑ 4πε 0 r2xi
r̂ XI → superposition Principle
i6= x

”Force experienced by one charge from another is not affected by the


presence of a third ”

1.3 Potential energy of a system of charges


R
Work done on q2 W2 = F21 · ds. If radial path:
Z r2
1 q1 q2 1 q1 q2
W2 = − 2
dr = = W1
∞ 4πε 0 r 4πε 0 r12
Independent of path
3rd charge brought up
F3 = F31 + F32
W3 = W31 + W32
Total of all charges W31 + W32 + W21
j −1
1 q j qi
Wj =
4πε 0 ∑ rij
i =1
j −1
1 qi q j 1 qi q j 1
Total W = ∑ Wj = 4πε 0 ∑∑ rij
=
4πε 0 ∑∑ r
·
2
j j i =1 i i 6= j ij
e.g. NaCl
e2 −1.748
 
W =
|{z} 8πε 0 a
energy per ion

1.4 Concept of electric field

1 qi
Fq = q ∑ 2 r̂i
4πε 0 ri
Can consider this due to a field
1 qi
Fq = qE( x, y, z) with E( x, y, z) =
4πε 0 ∑ r2 r̂i
i i
key concept: E describes locally the effects of distant charges

6
1.5. Charge distributions

1.5 Charge distributions

Often useful to introduce charge density, ρ( x, y, z)

dq = ρdV per unit volume

x0 − x
 
1 ρ( x 0 , y0 , z0 )
Z
→ E( x, y, z) = r̂ dx 0 dy0 dz0 r =  y0 − y 
 
4πε 0 all r2
space
z0 − z

also:

σ-charge per unit area in 2-d system dq = σda (1.1)


λ-charge per unit system in 1-d system dq = λdb (1.2)

1.6 Concept of Flux and Gauss’ Law

da is ⊥ to surface and oriented outwards. Define Flux Φ

dΦ = E · da.

1 q q
Φ= · 4πr2 =
4πε 0 r2 ε0

∑i qi 1
Z
→Φ= for any closed surface = ρdV
ε0 ε0 V

7
1. Electrostatics: Electric charge

1.7 Applications of Gauss’ Law


a) Uniformly charged spherical surface

σ
+
+ +
Φ=0
+ +
R
S1 + E=0 +

+ +
+ +
+

Q
E= 4πε 0 r2
as if all Q at center!

Q = 4πR2 δ (1.3)
Inside surface E = 0 (1.4)
1 1 Q σ
Outside surface 4πr2 E(r ) = 4πR2 σ = Q → E(r ) = 2
= at the surface R = r
ε0 ε0 4πr ε 0 ε0
(1.5)

b) Infinite line charge, constant λ


missing picture

6 lλ
2πr 6 lE(r ) = (1.6)
ε0
λ
E (r ) = (1.7)
2πε 0 r

c) Infinite sheet charge

πa2 σ
2πa2 E(r ) = (1.8)
ε0
σ
E (r ) = (1.9)
2ε 0

8
1.8. Energy associated with E-field

1.8 Energy associated with E-field

+
+ +
+ +

+ +

+ +
+ +
+

σ R2
E= (1.10)
ε 0 r2
1 Q
→ P.E. of charge at surface dq = d (1.11)
4πε 0 r
1 Q2
Total P.E. W = (1.12)
2 4πε 0 r2
dW 1 Q2
=− (1.13)
dr 2 4πε 0 r2
dW
= −UE dV = −UE 4πr2 dr (1.14)
dr
Q ε0
E= → UE = E 2 (1.15)
4πε 0 r2 2

9
1. Electrostatics: Electric charge

1.9 Concept of electrical Potential


RB
Charge moves H in E-field from A to B. Work by E-field = q A
Eds Indepen-
dent of path C Eds = 0
RB
Define electric Petential ϕ so that ∆ϕ AB = − A E · ds → ∆ϕ( x, y, z) +
fix zero-point
→ ϕ( x, y, z) usually ϕ(∞) = 0
→ P.E of individual charge = qϕ( x, y, z) e.g E-field from single charge

1 1
ϕ=
4πε 0 R

+superposition

1 qi 1 ρ( x 0 , y0 , z0 ) 0
Z
ϕ=
4πε 0 ∑ ri
=
4πε 0 all r
dV
i space

1
P.E of ” last charge” = qϕ P.E. of system of charges = 2 ∑i qi ϕi

dϕ = −E · ds = − Ex dx + Ey dy + Ez dz (1.16)
∂ϕ ∂ϕ ∂ϕ
always dϕ = dx + dy + dz (1.17)
∂x ∂y ∂z
∂ϕ
l.e.Ex = − , . . . (1.18)
∂x
h
E=− ϕ (1.19)
h ∂A ∂A
A= x̂ + ŷ . . . (1.20)
∂x ∂y
→E is always ⊥ to surfaces of constant ϕ (1.21)

1.10 Experiment: charging two spheres equally

r force 1 force 2
10 55 44 charge 1 charge 2

14 31 25
20 14 13
40 7

10
1.11. Other useful operators

Gauss’ Law
Z Z
ρ
E · da = dV = Φs (1.22)
S V ε0

for general F( x, y, z)
Z Z Z
S · da = F·a+ F · da (1.23)
S S1 S2
Fda
Z Z
=∑ Fda = ∑ Vi (1.24)
i Si i S Vi
(1.25)

take limit Vi → 0 ∑i Vi →
R
dV

F · da
Z Z  Z  Z Z
Fda = lim dV F · da = FdV Gauss Theorem
S V V →0 S V S
| {z }
divE
(1.26)
ρ
⇒ = divE Gauss’ Law
ε0
(1.27)
∂Fx ∂Fy ∂Fz
→ divF = + + (1.28)
∂x ∂y ∂z

1.11 Other useful operators



h
E=− ϕ (1.29)
ρ
divE = (1.30)
ε0
h  ρ
→ div ϕ =− (1.31)
ε0
h2 ρ
ϕ = − Poisson’s equation (1.32)
ε0
h2  ∂2 ∂2 ∂2

= + + Laplacian operator (1.33)
∂x2 ∂y2 ∂z2
(1.34)

11
1. Electrostatics: Electric charge

• curl Remember ”circulation”


F · ds
Z Z
Γ=
c
F · ds = ∑ Γi = ∑ ai ci ai
(1.35)
i i
F · ds
Z
curl F = lim (1.36)
Z
a →0 C
Z
a
→ F · ds = curlF · da Stokes’ Theo
C A
(1.37)
     
∂Fz ∂Fy ∂Fz ∂Fz ∂Fy ∂Fx h
curl F = − x̂ + − ŷ + − ẑ = ×F
∂y ∂z ∂z ∂x ∂x ∂y
(1.38)
I
E · ds = 0 in Electrostatics → curl E = 0 + . . . (1.39)

1.12 summary
h
E=− ϕ (1.40)
Z
ϕ=− Eds (1.41)
h2
ρ= −ε 0 ϕ (1.42)
Z
ρ
ϕ= dV (1.43)
4πε 0 r
ρ= ε div E (1.44)
Z
ρ
E= r̂dV (1.45)
4πε 0 r2

12
Chapter 2

Conductors

A conductor can’t have an electric field inside because the charge can move.

2.1 Conductors + insulators

Difference is mobility of charges. ≈ 1020


→ Key point: E ( x, y, z) inside conductor = 0

13
2. Conductors

2.2 Conditions for conductor

a) E = 0 inside conductor

b) π = constant on surface and throughout conductor. ϕ:

σ
c) At surface, E is perpendicular to surface, E = ε0 (Gauss’ Law)

R R
d) Total charge on conductor Q = S
σda = ε 0 S
Eda

2.3 The general electrostatic problem

General set of conductors k in Vacuum. ϕK , Qk


→ Solve 2 ϕ = 0 subject to .b.
`

define ϕK Dirichlet problem (2.1)


Qk Neumann bonday conditions (2.2)
mixture of ϕK + QK but don’t overconstrain (2.3)

14
2.4. Uniqueness Theorem

`2
ϕ≡0

2.4 Uniqueness Theorem

There is at most one unique solution.

Let ϕ1 ( x, y, z) be a solution to 2 ϕ = 0 + ϕK . . .
`
Proof:
ϕ2 ( x, y, z) be another solution to 2 ϕ = 0 + ϕK . . .
`
`2
→ ψ = ϕ1 − ϕ2 is a solution to ϕ = 0 and ϕ = 0 on all surfaces
→ ψ = 0 everywhere ⇒ ϕ1 = ϕ2 

2.5 Some interesting cases

2.5.1 Enclosed cavity

ϕ ≡constant
⇒ ϕ = constant throughout cavity
`2
ϕ=0 →E=0

15
2. Conductors

2.5.2 Faraday cage

Farraday cage

+ +
+Q + E=0 +
− −
+ − − +
−Q
− − +Q + +
+ +
+ +
− − + +

+ − +Q − + + +

− − + +
+ +
− − + +
+ − − +
− − + +
+ + + +
+ + + +

16
2.6. Some tricks

2.6 Some tricks

2.6.1 Mirror charges

ϕ ≡constant

The both following cases match the same conditions. (Mirror trick)
q q

−q

2.7 Capacitance and capacitors

Single conductor carrying a charge Q and some potential ϕ


ϕ

from superposition Q&ϕ Q = Cϕ


C = ”capacitance” = Qϕ units

17
2. Conductors

Coulombs Volt−1 = ”FARAD” Normally, two conductors close together,


+ Q on one (2.4)
− Q on the other (2.5)
V = ∆ϕ between them (2.6)

Area A

+Q ϕ1

s
−Q ϕ2

Uniform E between plates

ϕ1 − ϕ2 V
E= = V = ϕ1 − ϕ2 (2.7)
s S
V
σ = ε0E = ε0 (2.8)
S
Aε 0 V
Q = Aσ = (2.9)
S
A
→ C = ε0 (2.10)
S

2.8 Energy stored in capacitor


+Q E −Q

V= Q C
V = ϕ1 − ϕ2

dW = Vdq (2.11)
Q2
Z Q
q 1 1 1
W= dq = = CV 2 = QV (2.12)
0 c 2 C 2 2
(2.13)

18
2.9. General System of conductors

2.8.1 Parallel plate capacitor

Note:
A
C= ε0 (2.14)
S
Q = Aδ = AEε 0 δ = Eε 0 (2.15)
1 S 1
W = A2 E2 ε20 · = ε 0 E2 (Volume) (2.16)
2 Aε 0 2

2.9 General System of conductors


Q2
ϕ2 ϕ∞ = 0
Q1
ϕ1

`2
ϕ=0

Q3

ϕ3

If we define all ϕi → E ( x, y, z) → σ ( x, y, z) (2.17)


→ Qi (2.18)
or define all Qi → E ( x, y, z) → ϕi (2.19)
(2.20)

19
2. Conductors

Set ϕ = 0 on all except i = 1 (2.21)


Q1 = C11 ϕ1 (2.22)
Q1 = C21 ϕ1 (2.23)
Q1 = C31 ϕ1 (2.24)

Now ϕ2 varies, all other ϕ = 0

Q1 = C12 ϕ2 (2.25)
Q2 = C22 ϕ2 (2.26)
Q3 = C32 ϕ2 (2.27)
... (2.28)

→ By superposition for general ϕi

Q1 = C11 ϕ1 + C12 ϕ2 + C13 ϕ3 + . . . (2.29)


Q2 = C21 ϕ1 + C22 ϕ22 . . . (2.30)
→ Qi = Cij ϕ j with Cij matrix capacitance (2.31)

20
Chapter 3

Elecric Currents

3.1 Electric current

Net non-zero charge in net motion

Charges q

number density n
a
mean velocity u

a
Define current through a, Ia =rate of net motion of charges through a.

Ia = nqu · a (3.1)
For multiple species Ia = ∑ (n q u )
| i{zi i}
·a (3.2)
i
J: current density

J= ∑ Ji J = ρu
| {z } |I =
{zλv} (3.3)
3-d 1-d

21
3. Elecric Currents

3.2 Charge conservation

net flow of charge rate of charge into surface of enclosed charge


d
Z Z
J · da = − ρdV (3.4)
S dt V
applying Gauss’ Theorem


div J = − (3.5)
dt

3.3 Ohm’s Law


Motion of charge due to E-field in non-perfect conductor. Conductors are
not perfect. The charges are not infinitely mobile.
Expect J ( x, y, z) = σE Ohm’s Law
σ is the conductivity. In practice the σ can be a Tensor dependend on its
position. That is just an approximation. It’s not an as fundamental Law as
Coulomb’s law or Gauss’ law.
Consider a simple cylindrical ”component”.

J
A
e−

Z
I= Jda = J A (3.6)
Z
Potential Voltage differenc =
Eds = EL (3.7)
 
V EL 1 1 L
Define Resistance R = = = =ρ= ⇒R= ρ (3.8)
I JA σ δ |{z} A
resistivity

22
3.4. Circuits

Aside: In steady state


div J = − =0 (3.9)
dt
→ div E = 0 (Ohm’s Law) (3.10)
 
ρ
Charge density ρ = 0 div E = (3.11)
ε0

3.4 Circuits
Circuit = discrete ”component” linked together by ideal conducting wires,
may join in ”nodes”
eg
A B ϕD > ϕF

ϕC > ϕ E

C D ϕ A = ϕ B = ϕC = ϕ D

E F

For each component Ii current through it, Vi potential difference acress it.
For any arbitrary circuit, we want to know Ii , Vi for all component:
→ Commonsense rules (≡ )Kirchoff’s Rules

3.4.1 Kirchoff’s Rules


Vi
• For every element i Ii = R (Ohm’s Law)

• ∑ Iin = ∑ Iout or ∑ all Iin = 0 since Iout = − Iin


(charge conservation in steady state)

• Around any ”loop” ∑ V = 0


→ Can usually break down a circuit into simple equivalent elements

23
3. Elecric Currents

eg series connection

R1 R2

I1 = I2 = I (3.12)
V1 + V2 = V (3.13)
V V V2 V V2
R= = 1+ = 1+ = R1 + R2 (3.14)
I I I I1 I2

In parallel

)
V1 = V2 = V 1 1 1
→ = + (3.15)
I = I1 + I2 R R1 R2

R1

R2

3.5 Energy dissipation in a resistor

V = ϕ1 − ϕ2
ϕ1 I ϕ2

P.E. released when Q flows through V = QV.


2
Energy per second = V I = VR = I 2 R appear as heat.

24
3.6. Sources of energy

3.6 Sources of energy

gives energy to charges I R

B ”electro-motive
force” e.m.f -units of Volt
PB

H+
2e− 2e−
H2 SO
+ HSO4− −

eg chemical reactions: PbO2

1. Pb + HSO4− → PbSO4 + H + + 2e− + energy

2. PbO2 + HSO4− + 3H + + 2e− → PbSO4 + 2H2 O + energy

3. combined effect Pb + PbO2 + 2HSO4− − 2H + → 2PbSO4 + 2H2 O +


energy
+2e− used on LHS reapon on RHS, +2H + cross from right to left

Some energy wasted as heat

25
3. Elecric Currents

$+\phi$

$R$

$-\phi$
$R i$ $I$
internal resistanc

I = R+ε Ri useful V = ε − IRi Thevenin’s Theorem any system of emf &


resistors equivalent to a single emf and intend resistance.

3.7 Circuits with capacitors

Q = CV (3.16)
V dQ
I= =− (3.17)
R dt
dQ Q
− = (3.18)
dt CR
dQ dt
=− (3.19)
dQ CR
t
In Q = − + constant (3.20)
RC
t
Q = Q0 e− RC (3.21)
V0 −t t
I= e RC (3.22)
R
6v 6c
RC FΩ · (3.23)
|{z} 6 cs−1 6 v
time

Also charging of C
Pic 3.2

26
3.7. Circuits with capacitors

27
Chapter 4

Fields of moving charges

4.0 Magnetic Fields or Forces

F = q {E + v × B} Lorentz Force

q v

28
4.1. Reminder about special Relativity

4.1 Reminder about special Relativity

F F0

∆x 0 = γ∆x − βγc∆t Lenght/Lorentz contraction (4.1)


v 1
∆y0 = y β = ,γ = p (4.2)
c 1 − β2
∆z0 = ∆z (4.3)
0
c∆t = γc∆t − βγ∆x time dilation (4.4)
(4.5)

ux − v u0x + v
u0 x = ux = (4.6)
1 − ucx2v 1 + ucx2v
uy u0y
u0y = uy = (4.7)
γ 1 − ucx2v ux v
 
γ 1+ c2

cp0x = γcp x − βrE (4.8)


cp0y = cpy (4.9)
cp0z = cpz (4.10)
0
E = γE − βγcp x (4.11)
Forces? If particle at rest in F
f x0 = f x (4.12)
f y0 = γ fy 0
(4.13)
f z0 =γ −1
fz (4.14)

4.2 Invariance of charge

Q
Z Z
E(t)da = E0 da0 = (4.15)
S(t) S0 (t0 ) ε0

29
4. Fields of moving charges

4.3 Transformation of E-fields

σ
E= ε0
+σ −σ
V
At rest in F. In F 0 , moving related to F ⊥
to plates

σ0 = σ (4.16)
σ0 σ
E0 = = =E (4.17)
ε0 ε0

Now v k plates

V
⇒ must be general result:

Ek0 = Ek
E⊥0 = γE

Now consider point charge moving with velocity v


vx
q

In F, rest-frame of particle

q x
Ex = (4.18)
4πε 0 ( x2 + z2 ) 32
q z
Ez = (4.19)
4πε 0 ( x2 + z2 ) 32
sety = 0 xz plane (4.20)

30
4.4. Field of accelerated charge

Now consider F 0 moving −v x (our lab!) swap primes and use

x = γx 0 − γβct0 (4.21)
0
z=z (4.22)
γβx 0
t = γt0 − (4.23)
c2

Set t0 = 0 when x 0 = 0, look at field at t0 = 0

(4.24)

Note:

Ex0 x0
a) Field is radial: Ez0 = z0 , field points at origin

at origin
at t0 = 0
x

radial but not isotropic

q v v

H
→ E · ds 6= 0 ⇒ curl E 6= 0

4.4 Field of accelerated charge


Start at rest, then accelerate

31
4. Fields of moving charges

v0 0
q

1
Look at deceleration 2 v0 t

a = vτ0
Look at this time T later. Assume 12 v0 τ  v0 T  cT

Er
Er

cT Eθ
Er cτ
v0 T sin θ
θ
origin Where it would have been

Eθ v0 T sin θ
→ = (4.25)
Er cτ
q q
Er = = (4.26)
4πε 0 R2 4πε 0 c2 T 2
v0 T sin θ q q v0 sin θ
⇒ Eθ = · 2 2
= · 2 (4.27)
cτ 4πε 0 c T 4πε 0 |{z}
τ Rc
a
qa sin θ
→ Eθ = (4.28)
4πε 0 c2 R

32
4.5. Force on moving charge

4.5 Force on moving charge


q vx
F our lab, F 0 q at rest.
dp0x
Ex0 = Ex = Ex0 q = Ex q
dt0
→ (4.29)
Ey0 = γEy dp0y
= Ey0 q = γEy q
dt0
• Particle is at rest in F 0 , so flip primes in above eqn for F, F 0
dp x dp0
= 0x (4.30)
dt dt
0
dpy 1 dpy
= (4.31)
dt γ dt0
back in F,
dp x dpy
= Ex q and = Ey q = Ey q (4.32)
dt dt
→ i.e. Force on q due to E does not change with vq

4.6 Interaction of moving charge with other moning


charges

λ0+ = −λ0−
I
Infinite wire is uncharged
−ve → v0
+ve 0

q vx
Negative charge moves, positive doesn’t → I = −λ0 v0
Transform to F 0 = rest-frame of q
0
λ+ = γλ0 (4.33)
−0 00
λ = γ λ0 (4.34)
|{z}
γ due to
velocity less
than V
⇒wire looks positively charged in F 0 (4.35)

33
4. Fields of moving charges

Algebra
work out λ− in rest of negative charges
net λ0 = γβ β 0 λ0
|{z} |{z}
F→ F0 v0

λ0 (> 0)

E0
q

λ0 γββ 0 λ0
Er0 = 0
= (4.36)
2πε 0 r 2πε 0 r 0
New force is radial from wire and perpendicular to motion.

qγββ 0 λ0
Fy0 = qEy = − for y = −r (4.37)
4πε 0 r 0
0
Fy qββ 0 λ0
Transform to Fy = =− (4.38)
γ 2πε 0 r
but I = −λ0 v0 = −λ0 β 0 c (4.39)
∝v
I qv
Fy = looklike magnetic force ∝ I in wire (4.40)
2πε 0 c2 r
⊥ to velocity

v0
−+−+−+−+−+−+−+−+−+

34
Chapter 5

Magnetic Fields

Total force on electric charge

F = qE + qv × B Lorentzforce (5.1)

B come from current and act on current


E come from charge and act on charge

dF = dqv × B = (λdl )v × B (5.2)


dF = I × Bdl (5.3)

5.1 Simplest case

µ0 I
B= µ0 = Permeability of Force Space (5.4)
2πr

Units of B held is Tesla. 1 Tesla excerts a force of 1Nm−1 on a current of 1


Amp.
I B
B

v ⊗
F I

35
5. Magnetic Fields

5.1.1 Force between two ∞ long wires

B1

I2
F F
I1

B2

µ0 I1 µ0 I2
B1 = B2 = (5.5)
2πd 2πd
µ0 I2
F1 = I1 = F2 (5.6)
2πd

µ0 = 4π × 10−7 Tm−1 A−1 (5.7)


F = 2 × 10−7 Nm−1 S.I. convention for defining an amp (5.8)

5.2 Properties of magnetic fields

Consider simple case of ∞ wire

µ0 I
B= (5.9)
2πr

36
5.3. Vector Potential

H
B · ds = 0
H µ0 I
B · ds = 2πr · 2πr = µ0 I

General rule: Ampères Law


I Z
B · ds = µ0 I = µ0 J0 da (5.10)
A

5.2.1 Uniqueness theorem

For a given J( x, y, z), there is a unique B( x, y, z).

Proof: Suupose there are two solutions B1 &B2 for J( x, y, z).


→ D = B1 − B2 is a solution

div D = div B1 − div B2 = 0 (5.11)


curl D = curl B1 − curl B2 = µ0 J − µ0 J = 0 (5.12)

5.3 Vector Potential

1
Z
ρ
ϕ= dV (5.13)
4πε 0 r
h
⇒E=− ϕ (5.14)

Imagine
h
B= ×A (5.15)
div B = 0 = div(curl A) = 0 X (5.16)
curl B = µ0 J ⇒ curl(curl A) = µ0 J (5.17)

37
5. Magnetic Fields

Expand
` `
× ( ×A)

5.4 Fields of coils and solenoids


x-component:
   
∂ ∂Ay ∂A x ∂ ∂A x ∂Az
− − − = µJx (5.18)
∂y ∂x ∂y ∂z ∂z ∂x
∂ 2 AY ∂2 A x ∂2 A x ∂2 A z
→ − − + = µJx
∂y∂x ∂y2 ∂z2 ∂x∂z
(5.19)
∂2 A z ∂2 A x ∂2 A y ∂Az
− 2 − 2
+ + = µ 0 Jx (5.20)
∂y ∂z ∂y∂x ∂x∂z
| {z } | {z }
∂2 A x ∂2 A x
− 2 + 2
| {z ∂x } | {z∂x }
`2 ∂ (div A)=µ J
Ax 0 x
∂x

Trick: div A = f ( x, y, z)
Then we can find another F, div F = f and curl F = 0
Can add −F to A ⇒ div F = 0 and the same B

h2  
h ρ
A x = − µ 0 Jx c.f. ϕ=− for y, z − comp.analogous (5.21)
ε0

We had
1
Z
ρ
ϕ= dV (5.22)
4πε 0 r
µ0 J
A= dV Vectorpotential (5.23)
4π r
Apply this to general current carrying loop.
h 
µ2 µ0 h Iµ0 1
dA = JdV = IdldB = ×dA = × dl
4πr 4πr 4π r
(5.24)
 h  1 
Iµ0 Iµ0 r̂
= −dl × = dl × 2 (5.25)
4π r 4π r
(5.26)

38
5.4. Fields of coils and solenoids

5.4.1 Biot-Savart law

µ0 µ0
dB = Idl × r̂ · 2
= JdV × r̂ Biot-Savart law (5.27)
4πr 4πr2
c.f
1
dE = ρr̂ dV (5.28)
4πε 2 r2
µ0
dB = ( J × r̂) dV (5.29)
4πr2
usually Biot-Savart is easier to work with then calculating A and the taking
its curl.
on axis Bx = By = 0


 sin θ
µ0
Bz = · I · 2πb b (5.30)
4π (b2 + z2 ) 
 2 1
2
(b + z ) 2
@z = 0 (θ = 90◦ ).
µ0 I
Bz = (5.31)
2b
µ0 I b2
Bz = (5.32)
2 (b2 + z2 ) 23

Bz
θ
r

x
b
I
Now consider long Solenoid n turns per unit lenght.

rdθ
current = ·n·I (5.33)
sin θ
On the axis
 
µ0 rdϑnI b sin ϑ µ0
dBz = 2
= nI sin ϑ (5.34)
2 sin ϑ r 2

39
5. Magnetic Fields

Integrating over ϑ

Z ϑ2
µ0 µ0
Bz = nI sin ϑ2 dϑ = nI [cos ϑ2 − cos ϑ1 ] (5.35)
2 ϑ1 2

For an infinitely long solenoid

Bz = µ0 nI (5.36)

Applying Ampere’s Law, it is clear that B cannot depend on position within


the solenoid, for an infinite solenoid.

5.5 summary

Gauss0 Law Ampere0 sLaw


Q 1
R R
S
E · da = ε0 = ε0 ρdV
H R
B · ds = µ0 I = µ0 Jda
curl B = µ0 J
ρ
div E = ε 0 div B = 0
1
A = 4π0 rJ dV
R ρ µ R
ϕ = 4πε 0 r dV
`
E=− ϕ B = curl A
1 ρdVr̂ µ0 Idl×r̂ µ0
dE = 4πε 0 r2 dB = 4πr2
= JdV × r̂ 4πr 2

5.6 Change in B-field across a current sheet

40
5.6. Change in B-field across a current sheet

σ
∆E⊥ = Gauss’ Law (5.37)
ε0
I
∆Ek = 0 E · ds = 0 (5.38)
 
E1 + E2
→ Pressure on sheet = σ = σ h E⊥ i (= 0 if no extend E-fields)
2
(5.39)

Now look at the current sheet

J = σv Am−1 (5.40)

z σ

y
J
x

B2 ∆B = ( B1 − B2 ) B1

I
B · ds = µ0 J x l (5.41)
|{z}
Il

∆Bz = µ0 J x (5.42)
∆Bx = 0 (5.43)
∆By = 0 (div B = 0) (5.44)
∆Bk = µ0 J (5.45)
∆Bk = 0 (5.46)
∆B⊥ = 0 (5.47)

∆Bk parallel to sheet perpendicular to current


∆Bk parallel to sheet and parallel to current.
Exactly as in electrostatics

1
B22 − B12

Pressure = (5.48)

 
1 1 2
+energy density in B-field = c f εE (5.49)
2µ0 2

41
5. Magnetic Fields

5.7 How do E and B transform

F σ −σ
z
F0

y
v x

v0 v0

σ
Ey = (5.50)
ε0
Bz = µ0 J = µ0 σv0 (5.51)
v0 − v c ( β 0 − β)
v00 = vv0 =
 (5.52)
1 − c2 (1 − ββ 0 )
 
0 0 σ
σ = ϕ0 (5.53)
|{z} γ0
charge density | {z }
of charges charge density
in F 0 of charges
in rest-frame
!
2
v0
γ00 = 1 − 02 (5.54)
c

42
5.7. How do E and B transform

σ0 = σγ (1 − ββ 0 ) (5.55)
c ( β 0 − β)
and J 0 = σ0 v00 = σγ (1 − ββ 0 ) = σγ (v0 − v) (5.56)
(1 − ββ 0 )
σ0 σγ σγββ 0
Ey0 = = − (σV0 µ0 = B2 ) (5.57)
ε0 ε0 ε0
γβ
= γEy − Bz (5.58)
ε 0 µ0 c
 
εµ0 = 12  
= c γ Ey − β c Bz = γ Ey − vBz

(5.59)
 |{z} 
=v
Bz0 = µ0 J 0
(5.60)
= µ0 σγv0 − µ0 σγv (5.61)
 
 0 β
= γ Bz − εγ0 βEy → Bz = γ Bz − Ey (5.62)
c

Other components

Ex0 = Ex (5.63)
Ey0 = γ Ey − βcBz

(5.64)
Ez0 = γ Ez + βcBy

(5.65)
Bx0= Bx (5.66)
 
0 β
By = γ By + Ez (5.67)
c
 
0 β
Bz = γ Bz − Ey (5.68)
c

If represent k + ⊥ components to v (motion of frames)

Ek0 = Ek Bk0 = Bk (5.69)


 
0 0 1
E⊥ = γ { E⊥ + cfi × B⊥ } B⊥ = γ B⊥ − fi × E⊥ (5.70)
c

43
5. Magnetic Fields

5.8 Hall Effect (1879)


z

y +
x J

F = qE + qv × B (5.71)

If +ve charge carrier

− E

+
If −ve charge carrier Eint = vB
Sign of Ez tells us +ve or −ve charge carriers.
Answer: −ve!

44
Chapter 6

Magnetic Induction

6.1 Magnetic Induction

F = qE + qv × B (6.1)

Charges in moveing conductor in a B-field experience Lorentz force.


Bz

Eint = −v × B

z
F−
x y

E v

F+

45
6. Magnetic Induction

− − − − − − −

F−
Eint = −v × B − B

E +
F+

+ + + + + + +

Aside: Look is rest-frame of conductor

 

 

Ey0 = γ Ey − βcBz (6.2)

|{z} 

=0

z
y

x
0
Eint Ey0

0
Eint,y = γvBz (6.3)
Eint = vBz (6.4)

46
6.1. Magnetic Induction

6.1.1 Wire in circuit

A
F+
R l
F−
B

+ charges moving A → Bgains energy (6.5)


+ charges moving B → Agains energy (6.6)

different Situations
B1 B2 B(t)

Z B
Energy gain = q (v × B) ds = qvlB = qE
A
(6.7)
Φ
i.e.E = vlB = rate of charge of ” enclosed b” = (6.8)
I t
In general:E = (v × B) ds (6.9)

47
6. Magnetic Induction

6.2 Faraday’s Law


Z
Φ(t) = B · da (6.10)
ZS Z
Φ (t + dt) = B · da = Φ(t) + B · da (6.11)
S+dS
| dS {z }

On rim of loop
da = vdt × ds (6.12)
Z I
⇒ dΦ = B · da = B · (vd × ds) (6.13)
dS C


I I
= B · (v × ds) = − (v × B) · ds = −E from before (6.14)
dr C c


i.e.E = − Faraday’s Law (6.15)
dt
Note
Z
Φ= B · da (6.16)
S
div B = 0 (6.17)

What if loop fixed and B is changing


B1 B2

v v fixed
→ look in rest-frame of loop

0
E⊥ = γ { E⊥ + v × B⊥ } (6.18)
0
E = γv × B (6.19)
Ek0 = γv × B1 (6.20)
E20
= γv × B2 (6.21)
energy gain per q = E 0 = γv ( B1 − B2 ) l (6.22)
dΦ dΦ0
= −γ =− (6.23)
dt dt

48
6.3. Lenz’ Law

Consider a static loop Faraday’s Law

d d
Z
E =− Ψ=− B · da (6.24)
I
dt dt S

moving loop E = (v × B) · ds (6.25)

d
I Z
E= Eds = − Bda (6.26)
Z
dt S

curl Eda =? (6.27)


S
(6.28)

∂B
curl E = − (6.29)
∂t

note: this does not uniquely specify E ( x, y, z), - can add any E ( x, y, z) from
static ρ ( x, y, z), which has curl E = 0 as before.

6.3 Lenz’ Law


Binducted

B1 I B2
B
I
F− F1+ F2+
v
E
emf drives current around loop


B1 > B2 , F1 > F2 and is negative → I is in direction to reduce change in Φ
dt
(6.30)

also force on loop ← F resists motion


I
dF = I (ds × B) E= (v × B) · ds (6.31)
E
dW = dF · v I= (6.32)
I R
W= I (ds × B) · v (6.33)

49
6. Magnetic Induction

6.4 Mutual inductance


Change in IU in one circuit may produce a change in Φ in a second circuit
(mutual ind.) or a change in Φ in itself (self ind.)

I1
C1

Let

Φ21 = flux though C2 due to I, in C1 (6.34)


Z
= B1 · da = kI1 (6.35)
S2
E21 = emf in C2 due to change in I1 (6.36)
d
= − Φ21 (6.37)
dt
dI
E21 = −k 1 k = “mutual inductance“ M21
dt
(6.38)
units = VA−1 s = Ωs = “Henry“ (6.39)
Φ
⇒ M21 = 21 (6.40)
I1

Use A

50
6.5. Self-inductance

Z
Φ= B · da (6.41)
ZS
= curl A · da (6.42)
S
Z
Stoke’s
= A · ds (6.43)
C
J ds1
Z I
from Chap 4? µ0 µ0
A1 = dV = I1
all
(6.44)
r 4π 4πspace C r
I  
ds1
I I
µ0
Φ21 = A1 · ds2 = I1 ds2 (6.45)
C2 C2 4π C1 r
ds2
I I
µ0
Φ12 = I2 ds1 (6.46)
C1 4π C2 r

Since

ds2 · ds1 ds1 · ds2


I I I I
= (6.47)
C1 C2 r C2 C1 r
Φ12 Φ21
→ = (6.48)
I2 I1

6.5 Self-inductance

Pic 6.1

Changing I → change in Φ → E to oppose change in I


Clase switch at t = 0

ε0  R

I= 1 − e− C t (6.49)
R

51
6. Magnetic Induction

ε0
R

t Pic 6.3

1
UC = CV 2 (6.50)
2
1
UL = LI02 (6.51)
2

52
Chapter 7

Alternating current circuits

7.1 The RLC circuit as damped oscillator

+Q
C L
−Q
R
Pic 7.1

Q = CV (7.1)
dQ dV
I=− = −C (7.2)
dt dt
dI
V−L − RI = 0 Kirchoffnr.2 ∑ v = 0 (7.3)
dt
d2 V R dV 1
2
+ + V = 0 → damped harmonic oscillator (7.4)
dt L dt LC

Try solution V ∝ eλt

R 1
λ2 + λ+ =0 (7.5)
L LC q
R2 4
− RL ±
r
L2 LC −R R2 1
λ= = ± − (7.6)
2 2L 4L2 LC

53
7. Alternating current circuits

4L
a) R2 < c

R2
 
−R 1
V (t) = Ae 2L t cos ωt ω =2
− 2 (7.7)
LC 4L
pic7.2 (7.8)

4L
b) R2 > C
r
− β1 t − β2 t R R2 1
V (t) = Ae + Be β= ± 2
− (7.9)
2L 4L LC
pic 7.3
4L
c) R2 = C

−R
V (t) = Ae 2L t (1 + Bt) (7.10)

pic 7.4

7.2 Circuits driven by alternating voltage

Easy to generate voltage source that varies sinusordially


Pic 7.5

AC V L
R

Calculate amplitude and phase of I,which must have same ω

I = I0 cos (ωt + α) (7.11)

Apply Kirchoff’s nr 2

dI
ε 0 cos ωt = L + RI (7.12)
dt
Try solution as above

ε 0 cos ωt = − LI0 ω sin (ωt + α) + RI0 cos (ωt + α) (7.13)


= − LI0 ω {sin ωt cos α + cos ωt sin α} + RI0 {cos ωt cos α − sin ωt sin α}
(7.14)

54
7.2. Circuits driven by alternating voltage

Balance sin ωt, cos ωt

−ωL
− I0 Lω cos α − RI0 sin α = 0 → tan α = (7.15)
R
→ I peaks after V, I “lags“ V − LI0 ω sin α + RI0 cos α = ε 0
(7.16)
ε0
→ I0 = (7.17)
R cos α − ωL sin α
ε0
= (7.18)
R (cos α + sin α tan α)
ε0
= cos α (7.19)
R
ωL R ε0
tan α = → cos α = 1 → I0 =
√ I is reduced in amplitude
R ( R2 + ω 2 L2 ) 2 R2 + ω 2 C 2
(7.20)

current in loop lags

I in solenoid

h Is , Il iis negative (7.21)



E =− (7.22)
dt
Φin ring (7.23)

7.2.1 Solenoid pushing

Some description would be nice. . .

55
7. Alternating current circuits

7.2.2 Some circuits

pic 7.7

V = ε 0 cos ωt (7.24)
Q
ε 0 cos ωt = − + IR (7.25)
C
I = I0 cos(ωt + ϕ0 ) (7.26)
dQ
I=− (7.27)
dt
I
Z
Q = − Idt = − sin(ωt + ϕ) (7.28)
ω
I0
ε 0 cos ωt = sin(ωt + ϕ) + RI0 cos(ωt + ϕ) (7.29)
ωC
(7.30)

steady-state

1 ε0
tan ϕ = , I0 = q (7.31)
RωC 1 2

R2 + ωC

I = I0 cos ωt (7.32)
dI
VL = L = − LI0 ω sin (ωt + ϕ) (7.33)
dt
Q 1 I0
Z
VC = − = Idt = sin (ωt + ϕ) (7.34)
C C ωC
 
1
V = VL + VC = − ωL − I0 sin (ωt + ϕ) (7.35)
ωC
1
ωL0 = ωL − (7.36)
ωC

56
7.2. Circuits driven by alternating voltage

pic 7.9
1 1

ωL > ωC ; tan ϕ = − ωL
R − ωRC

ε0
I0 = r   (7.37)
1 2
R2 + ωL − ωC

1 1
ωL = ⇒ ω ≡ ω0 = √ (7.38)
ωC LC
ε0
I = I0 = ; (7.39)
R
ε20 1
P(ω0 ) = 2 ; ω; P(ω ) = P(ω0 ) (7.40)
R 2

R0 > R
ω/ω0

energy stored ωL
Qf = ω = (7.41)
energy power dissipated R
1 1
ω = ω0 + ∆ω, ω02 = ⇒ = ω0 L (7.42)
LC ω0 C
  −1
∆ω
1 1 1 ∆ω
  1+ ω0
ωL − = (ω0 + ∆ω ) L − = ω0 L 1 + −
ωC ω0 + ∆ω C ω0 ω0 C
(7.43)
∆ω ∆ω ∆ω
      
2∆ω
= ω0 L 6 1 + − 6 1− = ω0 L +O
ω0 ω0 ω0 ω0
(7.44)

pic 7.10

I2 = I02 cos (ωt + ϕ2 ) (7.45)


V2 = V02 cos (ωt + ϑ2 ) (7.46)
eiϑ = cos ϑ + i sin ϑ, i2 = −1 (7.47)

1) I = I0 cos (ωt + ϕ) → I0 e (7.48)
 
2) z = x + iy Re zeiωt (7.49)

57
7. Alternating current circuits

I1 = I01 cos (ωtϕ1 ) (7.50)


I2 = I12 cos (ωt + ϕ2 ) (7.51)
iϕ1
I1 = I01 e (7.52)
I2 = I02 eiϕ2 (7.53)
h  i
I1 + I2 = Re I01 eiϕ1 + I02 eiϕ2 eiωt (7.54)

Kirchoff’s rules

a) ∑ Ii n = 0
b) ∑ ∆V = ∑ emt

V = ε0 (7.55)

I = I0 e (7.56)
admittance (7.57)
eiϕ −ωL0
Y= ; tan = (7.58)
( R2 + ω 2 L2 ) R
impendance (7.59)
1
z= (7.60)
y
I = YV, V = ZI (7.61)
(7.62)

R→0 π −i
,ϕ = − ;y = , V = IR (7.63)
C→0 2 ωL

Im
V

π
2
Re

1
L → 0, ϕ = 0; ϕ = ; z = R, C = 0, V = IR (7.64)
R

58
7.2. Circuits driven by alternating voltage

Im

Re

1 π −i
L → 0, R → 0, tan ϕ = , ϕ = ; y = iωC; z = (7.65)
ωRC 2 ωC

Im
V

I
π
2

Re
pic 7.11

I = YV (7.66)
V = ε0 (7.67)
1 1
Y = YC + YR + YL = iωC + − i (7.68)
  R ωL
1 1
I = ε0 + i ωC − = I0 eiϕ (7.69)
R ωL
s
1 2
 
1
I0 = ε 0 + ωC − (7.70)
R2 ωL
 
R
tan ϕ = RωC − (7.71)
ωL

59
7. Alternating current circuits

7.3 Power Consumption

V02
P = V I = I2 R = cos2 ωt (7.72)
R
V = V0 cos ωt (7.73)
v2
1 V02 1
h Pi = 0 cos2 ωt = = I2 R

(7.74)
R 2 R 2
P = V I = V0 cos ωtI0 cos (ωt + ϕ) (7.75)
= V0 I0 cos ωt (cos ωt cos ϕ − sin ωt sin ϕ) (7.76)
2

= V0 I0 cos ωt cos ϕ − /cosωt sin ωt sin ϕ (7.77)
(7.78)

1
h Pi = V0 I0 cos ϕ (7.79)
2
1
cos ωt sin ωt = sin 2ωt (7.80)
2

1
Vrms = √ V0 (7.81)
2
1
Irms = √ I0 (7.82)
2
h Pi = Vrms Irms cos ϕ (7.83)

60
Chapter 8

Maxwell’s Equations

8.1 Wave equation

E&B

h ∂B
×E = (8.1)
∂t
h ∂E
× B = µ0 ε 0 (8.2)
h h ∂t
·E = ·B = 0 (8.3)
h h  h ∂E
× × B = ε 0 µ0 × (8.4)
∂t
h h  h2 ∂2 B
× B − B = − ε 0 µ0 2 (8.5)
| {z } ∂t
0

h2 ∂2 B
⇒ B − ε 0 µ0 =0 (8.6)
∂t2
h2 ∂2 E
E − ε 0 µ0 =0 (8.7)
∂t2

61
8. Maxwell’s Equations

z E

x y
B

Direction of travel = E × B and E · B = 0

Note: Wave doesn’t have to be a sine wave. Any function of (K · r − ωt) will
do so long spatial and temporal derivatives match and E, B, v are perpen-
dicular.

8.2 Superposition of two opposite directions

Maxwell equations linear in E and B → Sum should also be a solution.


evt ein Fehler hier. . .

E = ẑ · E0 (sin (Ky − ωt) + sin (Kyωt)) (8.8)


= ẑ · 2E0 sin (Ky) cos (ωt) (8.9)
B = x̂B0 (sin (Ky − ωt) − sin (Ky − ωt)) (8.10)
= x̂2B0 cos (Ky) sin(ωt) (8.11)

?
( Standing wave)

8.3 Standing wave

E = 0 at certain points at all times.


Satisfies the boundary conditions for conducting surface.
⇒ conductor to reflect light
Bk is changing rapidly at the surface and is zero inside the conductor.
⇒ surface currents

62
8.4. Energy Transport of E and M waves

8.4 Energy Transport of E and M waves


Compute the energy density for aur travelling wave.

ε 0 E2
 
1 2 1
dU = + B dV = ε 0 E2 dV = B2 dV (8.12)
2 2µ0 µ0
1
= EBdv (8.13)
cµ0

B2
from before: ε 0 E2 = (8.14)
µ0
Energy transport per unit area
1
S= h EBi (8.15)
µ0
Pointing Flux
1
S= E×B (8.16)
µ0

8.5 Lorentz transformation of waves

Ex0 = Ex Ey0 = γ Ey − βcBz Ez0 = γ ( Ez + βcBy)



(8.17)
   
β β
Bx0 = Bx By0 = γ By + Ez Bz0 = γ Bz − Ey (8.18)
c c

E·B = 0 (8.19)
B2
ε 0 E2 − =0 (8.20)
µ0
E0 · B0 = Ex0 Bx0 + Ey0 By0 + Ez0 Bz0 (8.21)
   
2 β 2
 β
= Ex Bx + γ ( Ey − βcBz ) By + Ez +γ Ez + βcBy Bz − Ey
c c
(8.22)
= Ex Bx + γ2 1 − β2 Ey By + Ez Bz = E · B
 
(8.23)
| {z }
1

63
8. Maxwell’s Equations

2
2 B0 B2
ε 0 E0 − = ε 0 E2 − (8.24)
µ0 µ0

→ em wave in one Frame appear as an em in all frame including ω


K =c
What about a frame moving at c?
Consider Ey = E0 and Bz = Ec0

 
E0
Ey0 = γ E0 − βc = E0 γ (1 − β) (8.25)
c
 
E0 β E0
Bz0 = γ − E0 = γ (1 − β) (8.26)
c c c

as v → c, β → 1, E0 &B0 → 0

8.6 summary

1
f (k · r − ωt) curl E = − ∂B
∂t I = YV = ZV
ω
=v= √1 =c curl B = µ0 ε 0 ∂E
k ε 0 µ0 ∂t + µ0 J
E0 ρ 1
B0 = c div E = ε0 YR = R ZR = R
−i
E·B = 0 div B = 0 YL = ωL ZL = iωL
∂ρ −i
E × B = direction of travel div J = − ∂t YC = iωC ZC = ωC
(8.27)

⇒ (10)Φ =
R
S
B · da = BS cos θ

64
Chapter 9

Dielectric materials

9.1 Introdiuction
Q
When I have a material in a capacitor, capacitance changes C = V → C0 =
εCVac , ε ≥ 1

For fixed V (= ∆ϕ) Q0 = εQVac (9.1)


VVac
For fixed Q V0 = (9.2)
ε
(9.3)

ε = 1.0 for vacuum (9.4)


≈ 1.0006 for air (9.5)
. 1.01 typical gases (9.6)
≈ 2 − 10 typical solids (9.7)
≈ 20 − 100 typical liquids (9.8)

empirically, related to density or mobility

65
9. Dielectric materials

9.2 Electric dipoles

Recall p = qlr̂ from − to +

Z
p= all
r0 ρdV 0 = “first moment“ of p (9.9)
space

→ p in E

a) Torque N = p × E → align p with E

b) Work to align dipole with E ⊥→k ω = pE dω = −ρE sin θdθ = average


ω for randomly oriented dipole

c) potential energy: E pot = −p · E

d) Net force in inhomogeneous E-field

h
Fx = p · Ex (9.10)
h
Fy = p · Ey (9.11)
h
Fz = p · Ez (9.12)
(9.13)

σ Q

V ≡ ∆ϕ

−σ −Q

Q
V= ε ≤ 1.0 (9.14)
εCVac
EVac
E= (9.15)
ε

66
9.3. Atomic and molecular dipoles

9.3 Atomic and molecular dipoles

9.3.1 Permanent dipoles

H+

O−−
+ −
H+
H Cl
→ external E-field will pref-
erentially align permanent dipoles.

9.3.2 Induced dipoles

− −

+
F− F+ ⇒ +
p

Expect p ∝ E (9.16)
= E4πε 0 α α : dimensions = Volume (9.17)

Compare E-field insied atom to external one

1 e ∆z E pot
Inside E = for Hydrogenexpect ≈ (9.18)
4πε 0 a20 a0 1 e
4πε 0 a20

p = e∆z (9.19)
α∝ a30 (9.20)
q 3
actually α = a for H (9.21)
2 0

67
9. Dielectric materials

9.4 Electric fields from polarized matter

Consider material composed of dipoles number density N.

Total dipole moment


= p · N · dV P = density of polarization (9.22)
in volume dV | {z }
P

da +σ

dz
P
−σ Ep

i.e.σ = P (9.23)
σ P
Ep = =− (9.24)
ε0 ε0

H P is result of external Eext


→ E p is opposite to Eext
→ E f inal = Eext + E p is recuced → look at capacitor
σ
+Q +Q

P Ep

−Q −Q
−σ

p
≡E
E f inalEvac =vacεσ0 − ε0

68
9.4. Electric fields from polarized matter

Evac p
1= − (9.25)
E f inal E f inal ε 0
Evac p
!E = = 1+ (9.26)
E f inal ε 0 E f inal
p
→ E = 1+ (9.27)
E f inal ε 0
| {z }
X =“permittivity“

Note: Final E-field makes sence! Will drop “final“ from now on.

p
E = 1+ (9.28)
ε 0 E f inal
| {z }
X susceptibility

Look again at Capacitor with E (≡ ∆ϕ) constant

+ + + + + + + + +
+ + + + + + +

V E
− − − − − − −
− − − − − − − − −
E from po-
larization P = (E − 1) Eε 0 from →

top surface has σ = − P (9.29)


= (1 − ε ) ε 0 E (9.30)
(9.31)

top plate of capacitor needs extra charge

total charge = ε 0 E (9.32)


ε 0 E = δC + (1 − ε) ε 0 E (9.33)
| {z }
top dielectric

→ σC = εε 0 ∃ = εσ0 σ : capacitance ↑ ×εX (9.34)

69
9. Dielectric materials

9.4.1 Gauss’ Law in medium and vector field D

q dilectric ε

1
E reduced by factor ε

q
E= (9.35)
4πεε 0 r2

Now introduc concept ρ f ree (what we control)


and ρbound what nature controls due to polarization Always true

1 1 
div E = ρ= ρ f ree + ρbound (2) (9.36)
ε0 ε0

ρ f ree ρ
div EVac = = ε div E + bound (9.37)
ε0 ε0
ρbound
→ (ε − 1) div E = − (3) (9.38)
ε0

Aside: we had before


P
= ( ε − 1) ε 0 (9.39)
E
P = ε 0 ( ε − 1) E (9.40)

(3) → ρbound = − div P


Return to (3)

1
div E = ε div E − div P (9.41)
ε0
 
P ρ f ree
div E + = (9.42)
ε0 ε0
| {z }
D/ε 0

div D = ρ f ree (9.43)

70
9.5. Currents in dielectrics and Maxwell’s equations

 
p
D = E 1+ ε0 Electric Displacement (9.44)
Eε 0
| {z }
ε

D = εε 0 E (9.45)

i.e If we deal with D, things are as in vacuum.


→ get E from D

9.5 Currents in dielectrics and Maxwell’s equations

ρbound = − div P (9.46)


∂ρ
div J = − (9.47)
∂t
∂P
→ Jbound = (9.48)
∂t
Maxwell
 
∂E ∂P
curl B = µ0 ε 0 + µ0 J f ree + (9.49)
∂t ∂t
P D
and E + = (9.50)
ε0 ε0

“boxed“
∂D
curl B = µ0 + µ0 J f ree (9.51)
∂t
∂E
= µεε 0 + µ0 J f ree (9.52)
∂t

9.6 Eloctromagnetic waves in dielectric

ρ f ree = 0 J f ree = 0 (9.53)


∂B 1
curl E = − div E = div D =0 (9.54)
∂t εε 0
∂E
curl B = εε 0 µ0 div = 0 (9.55)
∂t

71
9. Dielectric materials

→ Same wave-like solutions but now


ω 1 c
=√ → c0 = 1 (9.56)
k εε 0 µ0 ε2
1
ε 2 = refractive index n
1 E0 E0
B0 = ε 2 = 0 (9.57)
c c

9.7 Example: Electric field around dielectric sphere


Consider a polarized sphere
outside looks like

+
p− r0 ⇔ p

Total dipole is the same

4
p0 = πpr03 (9.58)
3
→ use standard expressions for ϕ ∝ E outside of sphere

1 cos θ 1 r03
ϕ= p0 2 = p cos θ (9.59)
4πε 0 r 3ε 0 r2
On surface sphere, r = r0

1 P
ϕ= r0 |P cos θ} = z (9.60)
3ε 0 {z 3ε 0
z

72
9.7. Example: Electric field around dielectric sphere

`2
Inside ϕ = 0. By inspection and uniqueness
p
Ez = − (9.61)
3ε 0
pz
ϕ= (9.62)
3ε 0

Field at poles:

Pr03 cos θ
 
∂ 2P
outside E = − 2
= (r = r0 , cos θ = 1) (9.63)
∂r 3ε 0 r 3ε 0

2P
D≡ 3

73
9. Dielectric materials

2P
Eout = (9.64)
3ε 0
−P
Ein = (9.65)
3ε 0
P
∆E⊥ = (9.66)
ε0
∆D⊥ = 0 (9.67)

What about Ek ?
→ General bondary conditions for dielectric surface without dfree charges
∆Ek = 0 (9.68)
∆D⊥ = 0 (9.69)
What if polarization produced by extend E-field (E0 )?
E = E0 + E p (9.70)
also P = (ε − 1) ε 0 Eint (9.71)
| {z }
χ

P
Eint = E0 − (9.72)
3ε 0
( ε − 1)
= E0 − Eint (9.73)
3
3
Eint = E0 (9.74)
2+ε
3 ( ε − 1)
P= ε 0 E0 (9.75)
ε+2

74
9.7. Example: Electric field around dielectric sphere

vacuum dielectric
curl E = 0 curl E = 0
ρ
div E = ε 0 div D = ρ f ree
`
E=− ϕ D = εε 0 E
`2
ϕ=0

∆Ek = 0 ∆⊥ = 0 (9.76)

75
Chapter 10

Magnetic phenomena in
matter

10.1 Phenomenology
• Ferromagneticsm (Fe,Ni, permanent magnets)

• Para-magnetism (few, eg Bi )
• Dia-magnetism (almost all meterials)

PARA DIA

Force ∝ B dB
dx

10.2 Magnetic dipoles


B-field from current loop

76
10.3. Force on m in external field

I
is (for from loop) exactly same as E-field from dipole.
E

p = ql

I M

Some response in external fields: eg

N = m×B c.f.N = p × E (10.1)

10.3 Force on m in external field


As with electric dipole

h
Fx = m · Bx (10.2)

Br Br
I

77
10. Magnetic phenomena in matter

F = l×B (10.3)
Fz = − 2πb} IBr
| {z (10.4)
Oa of loop

Using div B = 0

 
dBz
→ πb 2
∆z + 2πb∆zBr = 0 (10.5)
dz
 
b dBz
→ Fz = 2πbI · (10.6)
2 dz
∂Bz
= πb2 I (10.7)
∂z
∂Bz h 
= m· = m· Bz (10.8)
∂z

10.4 Current in loop in atom

v2 Ze2
me = (10.9)
r 4πε 0 r2

Ze +

e− Change B → emf in loop → E-field


I
∂B
E · ds = − = πr2 (10.10)
| {z } dt ∂t
2πrE
r dB
E= (10.11)
2dt 
dv r dB
me =e (10.12)
dt 2 dt
e r
∆v = · ∆B (10.13)
me 2

ev
Change in v → change in I = 2πr

78
10.5. Electron spin

e e2
dI = dv = (10.14)
2πr me 4π
2
e r 2
dm = − dB from Lenz’s Law (10.15)
4me

• not dependent on sense of v.


Applying external B, all electron orbitals aqcuire opposite ∆m. Because ∆m
is anti-parallel to B → diamagnetism X

10.5 Electron spin


“Spin“ of electron → mangetic moment (Quantum mechanical effect)
→ External B can align m of electron spin → paramagnetism X
Not in all atoms because electrons paired with opposite spin, ∑ m = 0 -no
effect

10.6 Magnetic fields of magnetized matter


As before for p

M = Nm (10.16)

da

M dz

MdV = (J dz) da = M (dadz) (10.17)


| {z }
dV
M=J c.f. P = σ (10.18)
curl M = Jbound (10.19)

79
10. Magnetic phenomena in matter

10.7 Maxwell’s equations

 
∂E  
curl B = µ0 ε 0 + µ0 J f ree + Jbound (10.20)
∂t  | {z }
curl M
∂E
curl (B − µM) = µε 0 + µ0 J f ree (10.21)
| {z } ∂t
H
B = µ (H + M) (10.22)

i.e. Ampères Law:

I
H · ds = Ienclosed (10.23)
C f ree
Z
cf D · da = ρ f ree (10.24)
S
Usually M ∝ H (10.25)
B = µµ0 H (10.26)
D = εε 0 E (10.27)

B = µµ0 H (10.28)
D = εε 0 E (10.29)

¡++¿


∆Ek = 0 curl E = 0 always when =0 (10.30)
∂t
∆D⊥ = 0 div D = 0 when ρ f ree =0 (10.31)
∆Hk = 0 curl H = 0 when J f ree = 0 (10.32)
∆B⊥ = 0 div B = 0 always (10.33)

80
10.7. Maxwell’s equations

[surfaces with ρ f ree = J f ree = 0]

I q

filed lines will bend at surfaces

81
10. Magnetic phenomena in matter

Ek

E⊥

θ0
0
E⊥

E
Ek0

0 E⊥
E⊥ = Ek0 = Ek (10.34)
ε q
θ0 > θ E0 = E⊥ 0 2 + E2 < E (10.35)
k

¡++¿
¡++¿

10.8 Ferromagnetism (Fe,Ni)

• magnetic moment m even in absence of Bext

• suggests that M due to stable alignment of atomic m

Iron permanent magnet M ≈ 1.8 · 106 JT −1 m−3


M ≡ every atom with 2 aligned electron spins. QM effect, enerycally favor-
able to align spins

82
10.8. Ferromagnetism (Fe,Ni)

83
Chapter 11

Generation of
electromagnetic waves

11.1 Potentials and potential wave equations

We had before B = curl A


+Maxwell-equation

∂B ∂A
curl E = − = − curl (11.1)
∂t ∂t
∂A
E=− + anything with curl = 0 (11.2)
∂t
∂A h
E=− − ϕ (11.3)
∂t

Remember

ρ ∂B
div E = curl E = − (11.4)
ε0 ∂t
∂E
div B = 0 curl B = µ0 J + ε 0 µ0 (11.5)
∂t

84
11.2. Delayed potentials

ρ
div E = (11.6)
ε0
`  
+E=− ∂A − ϕ ∂A h ρ
−−−−−−−−
∂t
→ div − − ϕ = (11.7)
∂t ε0
h2 ∂ ρ
− ϕ − (div A) = (11.8)
∂t ε0
Earlier, we imposed div A = 0 because we can find a field, F, such that

curl F = 0 div F = anything (11.9)


∂ϕ
Now, generalize this to force div A = −ε 0 µ0 ∂t “Lorentz condition“

h2 ∂2 ϕ ρ
− ϕ + ε 0 µ0 = in vacuum (11.10)
∂t2 ε0

∂E
curl B = µ0 J + ε 0 µ0 (11.11)
∂t
∂A h
+ fact E = − − ϕ (11.12)
∂t
+ fact B = curl A (11.13)
 

 

 
 ∂2 A

h ∂ϕ 

curl (curl A) −ε 0 µ0 − = µ0 J (11.14)
| {z } 
 ∂t2 | {z ∂t} 
`2
{ div A− A}
` 
 
 ` div A 

ε 0 µ0

h2 ∂2 A
− A + ε 0 µ0 = µ0 J = 0 in vacuum (11.15)
∂t2

11.2 Delayed potentials


`2 ρ
Solution to − ϕ= ε0 is from earlier

1 ρ (r 0 )
Z
ϕ= dV (11.16)
4πε 0 V |r − r0 |
Solution to full equation

85
11. Generation of electromagnetic waves

|r −r 0 |
 
1
Z ρ r0 , t − c
ϕ(r, t) = 0
dV (11.17)
4πε 0 V | r − r |

“delayed“ or “retarded“ potentials. Likewise:

|r −r 0 |
 
m0
Z J r0 , t − c
A(r, t) = 0
(11.18)
4π V |r − r |

11.2.1 Hertzian Dipole

+
I l
− Hertzian dipole

q = q0 sin ωt (11.19)
dq
I= = I0 cos ωt I0 = ωq0 (11.20)
dt
I0 l
p = ql = p0 sin ωt p0 = l · q0 = (11.21)
ω

Calculate A

l r

|r − z̃| µ0 I t − l
 
1
Z
µ0 2
c
Az (r, t) = dz̃I z̃, t − · =
4π − 2l c |r − z̃| 4π r
(11.22)
A x = Ay = 0 because I kz
(11.23)

Now use

86
11.2. Delayed potentials

∂ϕ
div A = −ε 0 µ0 Lorentz condition (11.24)
∂t
∂A
= ... (11.25)
∂t ( )
∂ϕ µ0 l ∂ I t − rc
− ε 0 µ0 = (11.26)
∂t 4π ∂z r
( )
I t − rc z ∂I t − rc τ
 
µ0 l
= − − (11.27)
r3 ∂ t − rc cr2


( )
∂ϕ l z  r z ∂I t − rc
= I t− + 2 (11.28)
4πε 0 r3 cr ∂ t − rc

∂t c
 

 


 


 


 

l  z  r  z  r 

→ϕ= q t− + 2I t− (11.29)
4πε 0  r3 {z c }
| |cr {z c } 

 


 Delayed potential ∂B
effect


∂t
from

 ϕ


 
→ ignore at large r

→ E&B from ϕ&A


r

−ωl I0 sin θ sin ω t − c
Er = 0 Eϕ = 0 Eθ = (11.30)
4πε 0 c2 · r
−µ0 ωl I0 sin ω t − rc

Br = 0 Bθ = 0 Bϕ = (11.31)
r

v=c


ϕ

θ Eθ
r

Amplitude of E&B
| E|

θ → maximum in plane of dipole

87
11. Generation of electromagnetic waves

Instanteous power

1 ω 2 l 2 I02 r 
Z  
2
W= (E × B) da = sin ω t − (11.32)
S µ0 6πε 0 c3 c
ω 2 l 2 I02 p20 ω 4
hW i = = not related to r (11.33)
12πε 0 c3 12πε 0 c3

88