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Object(s) of Study

The objects studied were 15 cans of Coke and 15 cans of Coke Zero, totaling 30 c

ans of Coca Cola® product in all. The variable of interest was weight, in grams, of

each type of Coca-Cola® product. Cans were randomly selected from several boxes pr

ovided by company.

Materials

A scale was used to calculate weight in grams. An Ipad was used to record data in

Numbers and later transferred to Excel and Stat Viz for analysis.

Research Design

Procedure

Cans were first randomly selected. In order to ensure duplicate cans were not wei

ghed twice, the cans were cross-referenced and checked by three different resear

chers. The cans number, located at the bottom, along with name was recorded in Nu

mbers prior to weighing.

After the scale was turned on and calibrated to zero, the weight in grams was se

lected as the unit of measurement. The cans were weighed at random. Each can was p

laced in center of scale and given several seconds to arrive at true weight. Once

the weighing process was complete each researcher recorded the information in N

umbers. The identical process was administered by a second researcher to reduce p

otential miscalculation and error. Data recorded was crosschecked and few discrep

ancies were found. Discrepancies, three total, were reweighed with the weight cal

culated on the third weigh recorded.

Results

It was determined that the variable of interest (weight) was rational and contin

uous. Based on this assumption the data was collected and interpreted as such. The

following information is provided as evidence of the results recorded and analy

zed. Coke cans were the first object of study and thus the first reported dataset

in the results portion of this paper. Initial findings are as follows:

In Table 1.1 Coke can(s) weight is recorded and reported.

Table 1.1

Can Number

Weight (g)

17

386.12

16

390.68

12

386.86

11

383.43

9

385.34

10

383.85

21

387.26

19

386.94

14

387.24

22

387.00

4

385.23

1

386.18

7

384.56

3

385.30

2

385.65

In Table 1.2 the summary statistics for Coke are recorded and reported.

Table 1.2

Sample Statistics

Enumeration

Mean

386.1093

Standard Deviation

1.7415

Min

383.43

Q₁

385.23

Median

386.12

Q₃

387

Max

390.68

Range

7.25

IQR

1.77

Dispersion of weight, outliers and other pertinent factors were noted once the d

ata was graphed. Figure 1.1 illustrates the data is heavily skewed right, and con

tains a significant outlier.

Figure 1.1 Coke Weight in Grams

Grams

Figure 1.2 confirms the findings illustrated in Figure 1.1.

Figure 1.2 Normal Plot Coke

Based on the graphs above it was determined the median was a better point estima

te to use, along with the corresponding interval estimates to calculate the popu

lation parameter Theta. Because the assumption of the distribution proved to be

abnormal and did not fit the CLT (Central Limit Theorem), calculations were made

accordingly. Therefore it was determined that the true median (Θ) weight for a can

of Coke was calculated between 384.56 and 387.00 grams with approximately 96.48

% confidence and between 383.85 and 387.00 grams with approximately 99.26% confi

dence. Both confidence levels were reported to give the reader as much informatio

n as possible to assist in answering any further questions arising from data ana

lysis.

Coke Zero cans were the second object of study and thus the second reported data

set in the results portion of this paper. Initial findings are as follows:

In Table 2.1 Coke Zero can(s) weight is recorded and reported.

Table 2.1

Can Number

Weight (g)

14

369.00

7

371.41

6

371.66

4

372.66

23

370.65

32

372.15

19

373.13

20

370.07

8

372.16

5

363.98

11

369.86

25

368.43

16

373.98

12

369.06

22

369.04

In Table 2.2 the summary statistics for Coke Zero are recorded and reported.

Table 2.2

Sample Statistics

Enumeration

Mean

370.4827

Standard Deviation

2.4670

Min

363.98

₁

369.04

Median

370.65

Q₃

372.16

Max

373.98

Range

10

IQR

3.12

Dispersion of weight, outliers and other pertinent factors were noted once the d

ata was graphed. Figure 2.1 illustrates the data is heavily skewed left, and cont

ains a significant outlier.

Figure 2.1 Coke Zero Weight in Grams

Grams

Figure 2.2 confirms the findings illustrated in Figure 2.1.

Figure 2.2 Normal Plot Coke Zero

Based on the graphs above it was determined the median was a better point estima

te to use, along with the corresponding interval estimates to calculate the popu

lation parameter Theta. Because the assumption of the distribution proved to be

abnormal and did not fit the CLT (Central Limit Theorem), calculations were made

accordingly. Therefore it was determined that the true median (Θ) weight for a can

of Coke Zero is between 369.00 and 372.15 grams with approximately 96.48% confi

dence and between 368.43 and 372.15 grams with approximately 99.26% confidence. B

oth confidence levels were reported to give the reader as much information as po

ssible to assist in answering any further questions arising from data analysis.

Each can of Coca Cola® when independently weighed and analyzed proved the hypothes

is incorrect. The researchers hypothesized both types of Coca Cola products and t

heir respective cans would weight approximately the same amount measured in gram

s. It was proven that Coke weighed more than Coke Zero as indicated by the report

ed interval estimate of the median. Furthermore it was concluded that the range o

f weight between Coke and Coke Zero was rather large. Especially considering the

labels claim to contain 8 ounces of liquid. Indicating some other variable effect

s the weight of each can, or more/less than 8 ounces of liquid are filled into t

he cans. Further testing and analysis is needed to draw more accurate conclusions

regarding the discrepency.

It is not the scope of this experiment to confirm or reject the following conclu

sons/hypothesis. However, the following conlcusions/hypothesis would be interesti

ng to prove or reject.

1. Coca Cola® bottling company has a rather large margin of error in amount of liqu

id distributed into their products.

2. Coca Cola® bottling company uses different materials and/or different amounts of

materials to construct its cans for each individual product.

3. Ingredients used in different products increase or decrease the weight of a pa

rticular product at time of bottling.

4. Other elements are introduced into each can prior to sealing for transport, st

ocking and retail sale.

Literally there are a myriad of other conlcusions and/or hypothesis to pursue, h

owever, the four mentioned are points of interest this research team would recom

mend as starting points for further analysis.

The initial question of this study has been answered. It is reasonable to assume

that Coke cans weigh more than Coke Zero cans based on the data collected and an

alyzed.

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