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Method

Object(s) of Study
The objects studied were 15 cans of Coke and 15 cans of Coke Zero, totaling 30 c
ans of Coca Cola® product in all. €The variable of interest was weight, in grams, of
each type of Coca-Cola® product. €Cans were randomly selected from several boxes pr
ovided by company.
Materials
A scale was used to calculate weight in grams. €An Ipad was used to record data in
Numbers and later transferred to Excel and Stat Viz for analysis.
Research Design
Procedure
Cans were first randomly selected. €In order to ensure duplicate cans were not wei
ghed twice, the cans were cross-referenced and checked by three different resear
chers. €The cans number, located at the bottom, along with name was recorded in Nu
mbers prior to weighing.
After the scale was turned on and calibrated to zero, the weight in grams was se
lected as the unit of measurement. €The cans were weighed at random. €Each can was p
laced in center of scale and given several seconds to arrive at true weight. €Once
the weighing process was complete each researcher recorded the information in N
umbers. €The identical process was administered by a second researcher to reduce p
otential miscalculation and error. €Data recorded was crosschecked and few discrep
ancies were found. €Discrepancies, three total, were reweighed with the weight cal
culated on the third weigh recorded.
Results
It was determined that the variable of interest (weight) was rational and contin
uous. €Based on this assumption the data was collected and interpreted as such. €The
following information is provided as evidence of the results recorded and analy
zed. €Coke cans were the first object of study and thus the first reported dataset
in the results portion of this paper. €Initial findings are as follows:
€
In Table 1.1 Coke can(s) weight is recorded and reported.
Table 1.1
Can Number
Weight (g)
17
386.12
16
390.68
12
386.86
11
383.43
9
385.34
10
383.85
21
387.26
19
386.94
14
387.24
22
387.00
4
385.23
1
386.18
7
384.56
3
385.30
2
385.65
€
In Table 1.2 the summary statistics for Coke are recorded and reported.
Table 1.2
Sample Statistics
Enumeration
Mean
386.1093
Standard Deviation
1.7415
Min
383.43
Q₁
385.23
Median
386.12
Q₃
387
Max
390.68
Range
7.25
IQR
1.77
€
Dispersion of weight, outliers and other pertinent factors were noted once the d
ata was graphed. €Figure 1.1 illustrates the data is heavily skewed right, and con
tains a significant outlier.
Figure 1.1 Coke Weight in Grams
Grams
Figure 1.2 confirms the findings illustrated in Figure 1.1.
Figure 1.2 Normal Plot Coke
€
Based on the graphs above it was determined the median was a better point estima
te to use, along with the corresponding interval estimates to calculate the popu
lation parameter Theta. Because the assumption of the distribution proved to be
abnormal and did not fit the CLT (Central Limit Theorem), calculations were made
accordingly. €Therefore it was determined that the true median (Θ) weight for a can
of Coke was calculated between 384.56 and 387.00 grams with approximately 96.48
% confidence and between 383.85 and 387.00 grams with approximately 99.26% confi
dence. €Both confidence levels were reported to give the reader as much informatio
n as possible to assist in answering any further questions arising from data ana
lysis.
€
Coke Zero cans were the second object of study and thus the second reported data
set in the results portion of this paper. €Initial findings are as follows:
€
In Table 2.1 Coke Zero can(s) weight is recorded and reported.
Table 2.1
Can Number
Weight (g)
14
369.00
7
371.41
6
371.66
4
372.66
23
370.65
32
372.15
19
373.13
20
370.07
8
372.16
5
363.98
11
369.86
25
368.43
16
373.98
12
369.06
22
369.04
€
In Table 2.2 the summary statistics for Coke Zero are recorded and reported.
Table 2.2
Sample Statistics
Enumeration
Mean
370.4827
Standard Deviation
2.4670
Min
363.98

369.04
Median
370.65
Q₃
372.16
Max
373.98
Range
10
IQR
3.12
€
Dispersion of weight, outliers and other pertinent factors were noted once the d
ata was graphed. €Figure 2.1 illustrates the data is heavily skewed left, and cont
ains a significant outlier.
Figure 2.1 Coke Zero Weight in Grams
Grams
Figure 2.2 confirms the findings illustrated in Figure 2.1.
Figure 2.2 Normal Plot Coke Zero
€
Based on the graphs above it was determined the median was a better point estima
te to use, along with the corresponding interval estimates to calculate the popu
lation parameter Theta. Because the assumption of the distribution proved to be
abnormal and did not fit the CLT (Central Limit Theorem), calculations were made
accordingly. €Therefore it was determined that the true median (Θ) weight for a can
of Coke Zero is between 369.00 and 372.15 grams with approximately 96.48% confi
dence and between 368.43 and 372.15 grams with approximately 99.26% confidence. €B
oth confidence levels were reported to give the reader as much information as po
ssible to assist in answering any further questions arising from data analysis.
Each can of Coca Cola® when independently weighed and analyzed proved the hypothes
is incorrect. €The researchers hypothesized both types of Coca Cola products and t
heir respective cans would weight approximately the same amount measured in gram
s. €It was proven that Coke weighed more than Coke Zero as indicated by the report
ed interval estimate of the median. €Furthermore it was concluded that the range o
f weight between Coke and Coke Zero was rather large. €Especially considering the
labels claim to contain 8 ounces of liquid. €Indicating some other variable effect
s the weight of each can, or more/less than 8 ounces of liquid are filled into t
he cans. €Further testing and analysis is needed to draw more accurate conclusions
regarding the discrepency.
It is not the scope of this experiment to confirm or reject the following conclu
sons/hypothesis. €However, the following conlcusions/hypothesis would be interesti
ng to prove or reject.
1. €Coca Cola® bottling company has a rather large margin of error in amount of liqu
id distributed into their products.
2. €Coca Cola® bottling company uses different materials and/or different amounts of
materials to construct its cans for each individual product.
3. €Ingredients used in different products increase or decrease the weight of a pa
rticular product at time of bottling.
4. €Other elements are introduced into each can prior to sealing for transport, st
ocking and retail sale.
Literally there are a myriad of other conlcusions and/or hypothesis to pursue, h
owever, the four mentioned are points of interest this research team would recom
mend as starting points for further analysis.
The initial question of this study has been answered. €It is reasonable to assume
that Coke cans weigh more than Coke Zero cans based on the data collected and an
alyzed.