Sunteți pe pagina 1din 47

Page 1 Pagina 1

11
© Berghof Research Center for Constructive Conflict Management - First launch July
2007 © Berghof Centrul de Cercetare pentru Constructive Conflict Management - Prima
lansare iulie 2007
1. 1. Introduction Introducere
22
2. 2. Arab Civil Society Arabe Societăţii Civile
33
3. 3. Traditional Mechanisms of Conflict Resolution and Reconciliation Mecanismele
tradiţionale de soluţionare a conflictelor şi reconciliere
44
4. 4. Current Conflict Resolution and Reconciliation Practice in Lebanon and Morocco
Soluţionarea conflictelor şi practicile curente reconciliere în Liban şi Maroc
55
4.1 Lebanon 4.1 Liban
55
4.1.1 The Lebanon Conflict Resolution Network 4.1.1 Conflictul din Liban Rezoluţia
Network
66
4.1.2 The Permanent Peace Movement 4.1.2 Mişcarea Permanent pentru Pace
88
4.1.3 Islamic Christian Dialogue 4.1.3 islamice Christian Dialog
99
4.1.4 Permanent Civil Peace Observatory, Memory for the Future and 4.1.4 Permanent
Observatorul civil pentru pace, de memorie pentru Viitor şi
Other Initiatives for Dealing with the Past Alte iniţiative pentru Confruntarea cu trecutul
99
4.2 Morocco 4.2 Maroc
10 10
4.2.1 Amicales 4.2.1 Amicales
10 10
4.2.2 Civil Society and Morocco's Equity and Reconciliation Commission 4.2.2
Societatea civilă şi de capitaluri Maroc şi Comisia Reconciliere
12 12
5. 5. Practical Challenges and Recommendations Provocări şi recomandări practice
14 14
6. 6. Concluding Remarks and Next Steps Concluzii şi paşii următori
15 15
7. 7. References Referinte
17 17
Oussama Safa Oussama Safa
Conflict Resolution and Reconciliation Rezolvarea conflictelor şi reconciliere
in the Arab World: în lumea arabă:
The Work of Civil Society Organisations Lucru al organizaţiilor societăţii civile
in Lebanon and Morocco în Liban şi Maroc
http://www.berghof-handbook.net http://www.berghof-handbook.net

Page 2 Page 2
Oussama Safa Oussama Safa
Conflict Resolution and Reconciliation in the Arab World Soluţionarea conflictelor şi
reconciliere în lumea arabă
22
© Berghof Research Center for Constructive Conflict Management © Centrul de
Cercetare pentru Berghof constructivă a conflictelor
Conflict Resolution and Reconciliation in the Arab World: Soluţionarea conflictelor şi
reconciliere din lume arabă:
The Work of Civil Society Organisations in Lebanon and Morocco Lucru al
organizaţiilor societăţii civile în Liban şi Maroc
Oussama Safa Oussama Safa
**
1. 1.
Introduction Introducere
A tense relationship has marked decades of interaction between Arab regimes and their O
relatie tensionata a marcat decenii de interacţiune între regimurile arabe şi lor
civil societies in the areas of human rights, democracy, governance reform, justice and
reconciliation. societăţile civile în domeniul drepturilor omului, a democraţiei, reforma
guvernării, dreptate şi reconciliere.
While the role of civil society in development, humanitarian and environmental issues
has generally În timp ce rolul societăţii civile în dezvoltarea, chestiuni umanitare şi de
mediu a fost în general
been tolerated more easily by Arab governments, the same cannot be said for the areas
just mentioned. fost tolerate mai uşor de către guvernele arabe, nu acelaşi lucru se poate
spune pentru zonele menţionate mai sus.
The decade of the 1980s in particular was marked by open confrontations between
interior ministries Deceniu al anilor 1980, în special, a fost marcat de confruntări
deschise între ministerele de interne
of a number of Arab regimes on one side and civil society associations and activists on
the other. a unui număr de regimuri arabe, pe de o parte şi a societăţii civile şi asociaţiile
de activişti pe de altă parte.
The confrontation eased in the late 1990s largely due to internal changes in regimes, as
for example Confruntarea uşurat la sfârşitul anilor 1990 în mare parte datorită
schimbărilor interne în regimuri, ca de exemplu
in Morocco, which manifested a desire of Arab rulers to open up to and benefit from a
limited wave din Maroc, care a manifestat o dorinţă de conducatori arabi să se deschidă şi
să beneficieze de un val limitat
of globalisation or were due to moderate pressure exerted by the international
community. globalizării sau au fost cauzate de presiune moderată exercitate de
comunitatea internaţională.
In recent years there has been greater awareness of the increasing importance of civil În
ultimii ani nu a fost mai bună conştientizare a importanţei crescânde a civile
society in assisting governments to push forward the wheel of development. societăţii în
asistarea guvernelor să ducă mai departe roata de dezvoltare. A spate of regional Un val
de regionale
reform initiatives succeeded in producing declarations that at least legitimise the
existence of non- iniţiativelor de reformă a reuşit să producă declaraţii că cel puţin
legitima existenţa unor non-
governmental organisations (NGOs) and acknowledge the need for their efforts in
complementing organizaţiile neguvernamentale (ONG-uri) şi recunosc necesitatea pentru
eforturile lor în completarea
the process of reform and ensuring good governance and the rule of law. procesul de
reformă şi asigurarea bunei guvernări şi a statului de drept. The desire for reform in
Dorinţa de reformă în
the Arab world is bolstered by the desire of some Arab governments to introduce gradual
but limited lumea arabă este susţinută şi de dorinţa de unele guverne arabe de a introduce
treptat, dar limitat
liberalisation, which necessitates the engagement of NGOs and civil society associations.
liberalizare, care necesită angajamentul de ONG-urilor şi asociaţiilor societăţii civile.
There Acolo
exists, though, no clear assessment of the role of civil society in reform movements or the
degree există, însă, nici o evaluare clară a rolului societăţii civile în mişcările de reformă
sau gradul
and seriousness of their involvement to date. si seriozitate de implicarea lor până în
prezent.
This article aims to contribute to closing this gap by exploring crucial civil society Acest
articol îşi propune să contribuie să elimine această discrepanţă prin explorarea societăţii
civile crucial
functions – strengthening civic engagement and community-empowerment – in the
specific context funcţii - consolidarea angajament civic şi împuternicirea comunităţii, - în
contextul specific
of the Arab world, and by introducing the work of a number of organisations in this
region. din lumea arabă, şi prin introducerea de muncă a unui număr de organizaţii din
această regiune. The next Următoarea
section briefly discusses the role of Arab civil society organisations (CSOs) and NGOs
and explains pe scurt secţiune discută despre rolul organizaţiilor societăţii civile arabe
(OSC) şi ONG-uri şi explică
some of their functions. Section three reflects on traditional conflict resolution and
reconciliation anumite funcţii ale lor reflecta. Secţiunea trei privind soluţionarea
conflictelor tradiţionale şi reconciliere
methods and their relation to the “Western field” of conflict resolution. Section four
presents metode şi relaţia lor cu "câmpul de Vest" de rezolvare a conflictelor. Secţiunea a
patra se prezintă
cases from Lebanon and Morocco, looking at concrete projects, objectives and
achievements of cazuri din Liban şi Maroc, se uită la proiecte concrete, obiectivele şi
realizările
organisations, while section five discusses common challenges. organizaţiilor, în timp ce
cinci discută comune legate de secţiune. The final section identifies possible Secţiunea de
final identifică posibil
next steps in light of the current political developments in the region. următorii paşi în
lumina evoluţiilor politice actuale din regiune.
* Oussama Safa is senior trainer and founding member of the Lebanon Conflict
Resolution Network (LCRN). * Oussama Safa este senior trainer şi membru fondator al
conflictului din Liban Rezoluţia Network (LCRN). He wishes to thank El doreşte să
mulţumească
LCRN member Zeina Abla, Executive Director Armen Balian and founding member
Muzna Al-Masri for their contributions and LCRN membru Zeina Abla, Director
Executiv Armen Balian şi membru fondator Muzna Al-Masri pentru contribuţiile lor şi
comments on earlier drafts of this article. observaţii cu privire la versiunile anterioare ale
acestui articol.

Page 3 Pagina 3
Oussama Safa Oussama Safa
Conflict Resolution and Reconciliation in the Arab World Soluţionarea conflictelor şi
reconciliere în lumea arabă
33
© Berghof Research Center for Constructive Conflict Management © Centrul de
Cercetare pentru Berghof constructivă a conflictelor
2. 2.
Arab Civil Society Arabe Societăţii Civile
The term civil society does not have the same meaning in every Arab state. Societăţii
civile termen nu are acelaşi înţeles în fiecare stat arab. In Morocco, În Maroc,
for example, it is associated with a wave of liberalisation and openness; in Lebanon and
Palestine it de exemplu, acesta este asociat cu un val de liberalizare şi de deschidere, în
Liban şi Palestina se
rings of a period of rebirth after long bouts of violence or civil war. inele de o perioadă de
renaştere după crize lungi de violenţă sau război civil. The degrees of freedom and the
Grade de libertate şi
range of specialization differ as well. Gama de specializare diferă, de asemenea. In
Lebanon, civil society gained strength and independence În Liban, societatea civilă
câştigat puterea şi independenţa
during the civil war which was characterized by a collapse of the central authority and the
absence în timpul războiului civil, care a fost caracterizat de un colaps al autorităţii
centrale şi absenţa
of state services, thus rendering NGOs indispensable to the survival of communities; the
same can de servicii de stat, făcând astfel ONG-uri indispensabile pentru supravieţuirea
comunităţilor; acelaşi lucru poate
be said of Palestine. fi spus din Palestina. In Morocco, the reforms introduced by the late
King Hassan II and continued În Maroc, reformele introduse de fostul rege Hassan II şi a
continuat
by his successor King Mohammed VI paved the way for gradual liberalisation of the
political system de către succesorul său, Regele Mohammed al VI-a deschis calea pentru
liberalizarea treptată a sistemului politic
which in turn has led to the proliferation of NGOs and associational life. care la rândul
său, a condus la proliferarea de ONG-uri şi viaţa asociativă. Lebanon and Morocco Liban
şi Maroc
are considered to offer most public space to the potential thriving of NGOs. sunt
considerate de a oferi publicului cel mai mult spaţiu la potenţialul înfloritoare de ONG-
uri. They count the highest Ei conta cel mai mare
number of NGOs compared to other Arab countries: Morocco and Lebanon register 103
and 100 Numărul de ONG-uri în comparaţie cu alte ţări arabe: Maroc şi Liban registru
103 şi 100
NGOs per 100,000 inhabitants respectively, compared to 45.8 in Bahrain and 24.5 in
Egypt (Nasr ONG-uri la 100.000 de locuitori, respectiv, în comparaţie cu 45.8 din
Bahrain şi 24,5 în Egipt (Nasr
2005, 9). 2005, 9).
This is not to say that in other Arab countries civil society is nonexistent. Acest lucru nu
este să spun că în alte ţări arabe societatea civilă este inexistentă. The term civil Civile, pe
termen
society, however, remains somewhat elusive. societate, cu toate acestea, rămâne oarecum
evaziv. UNDP defines civil society “as all associations or PNUD defineşte societatea
civilă ", ca toate asociaţiile sau
organizations that are private, voluntary, not-for-profit, at least partly independent or
autonomous of organizaţiile care sunt private, voluntar, nu-pentru-profit, cel puţin parţial,
independente sau autonome de
the state and are pursuing a common interest, protecting a common value or advocating a
common de stat şi urmăresc un interes comun, protejarea o valoare comună sau susţin un
comun
cause” (Nasr 2005, 9). cauza "(Nasr 2005, 9). It is widely accepted that civil society in
the Arab world includes independent, Este unanim acceptat faptul că societatea civilă în
lumea arabă include independente,
non-profit organisations that are distinct from the private and public sectors. -Profit,
organizatii non care sunt distincte de public şi sectorul privat. This includes family-
Aceasta include de familie
based associations, social guilds, syndicates, religious charities, social clubs and service-
oriented asociaţii bazate, bresle sociale, sindicate, organizaţii de caritate religioase,
cluburi sociale şi orientate spre servicii
organisations. organizaţii. Hawthorne (2004, 8) classifies Arab NGOs along five broad
categories: Islamic Hawthorne (2004, 8) clasifică ONG-uri arabe de-a lungul cinci
categorii generale: islamic
organisations dedicated to charity, education and medical care; service-oriented
organisations, organizaţii dedicate în scopuri caritabile, educaţie şi îngrijire medicală;
orientate spre organizaţii de servicii,
including development services; professional syndicates such as unions and organised
member- Servicii de dezvoltare, inclusiv; sindicate profesionale, cum ar fi sindicatele şi
membru organizat-
based associations; solidarity organisations; and pro-democracy associations. asociaţiile
de bază; organizaţiile de solidaritate, precum şi asociaţiile pro-democraţie.
11
While all of the above are active organs of civil life, the last two decades have seen În
timp ce toate cele de mai sus sunt organe active ale vieţii civile, ultimele două decenii au
văzut
the specific growth of democracy-promoting, rights-based NGOs in the region. creşterea
specifice de promovare a democraţiei, ONG-urile bazate pe drepturile în regiune. Pro-
democracy Pro-democraţie
organisations are also the ones most involved in conflict resolution, reconciliation and
peacebuilding organizaţii sunt, de asemenea, cele mai implicate în soluţionarea
conflictelor, reconcilierea şi construirea păcii
in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA). în Orientul Mijlociu şi Africa de Nord
(MENA). A number of labour unions – particularly in Morocco Un număr de sindicate de
muncă - în special în Maroc
– have, for example, introduced an institutional practice of modern negotiation and
mediation. - Au, de exemplu, a introdus o practică instituţională de negociere moderne şi
mediere.
Several leading political parties in Morocco and Yemen have furthermore engaged in
systematic Mai multe partide politice de conducere în Maroc şi Yemen au angajat în plus,
sistematic
conflict resolution training programmes. soluţionarea conflictelor programe de formare.
In addition, there are some religious organisations that have În plus, există unele
organizaţii religioase, care au
shown interest in intercultural and inter-religious dialogue initiatives. manifestat interesul
în dialogul inter-religios iniţiative şi intercultural.
A number of democracy-promoting NGOs in the Arab world consider conflict resolution
Un număr de ONG-uri de promovare a democraţiei în lumea arabă ia în considerare de
soluţionare a conflictelor
and reconciliation as one of the paths towards true and deep-rooted democracy. şi
reconciliere, ca una din căile spre şi adânc înrădăcinată adevărata democraţie. Utilising
such Utilizând astfel de
tools as dialogue sessions, reconciliation processes, training and skill-building workshops
among instrumente ca sesiuni de dialog, procesele de reconciliere, formarea profesională
şi construirea atelierelor de calificare în rândul
others, many of these NGOs have introduced to the Arab world the dynamic of win-win
conflict altele, multe dintre aceste ONG-uri au introdus în lumea arabă dinamica de win-
win conflict
management and, more recently, conflict transformation (for a definition of terms, see
Austin et al. management şi, mai recent, transformarea conflictului (pentru o definiţie a
termenilor, consultaţi Austin et al.
2004, 464-466). 2004, 464-466).
This article looks closely at cases of NGOs practicing conflict resolution in Lebanon and
Acest articol se uită atent la cazurile de ONG-uri practica soluţionare a conflictului din
Liban şi
Morocco. Maroc. It does not include NGOs that indirectly contribute to peace and
conflict resolution such as Aceasta nu include ONG-urile care contribuie indirect la şi de
rezolvare a conflictelor pace, cum ar fi
1 For the purpose of this article, “civil society organisations” is used as the overarching
term, and “non-governmental 1 În sensul prezentului articol, "organizaţiilor societăţii
civile" este folosit ca termen global, şi "non-guvernamentale
organisations” as a more narrowly defined and recent form of civic organisation (Fischer
2006 provides an in-depth discussion of organizaţii ", ca un strict definit şi mai recentă
formă de organizare civică (Fischer 2006 prevede o discuţie aprofundată in de
terminology). terminologia).

Page 4 Pagina 4
Oussama Safa Oussama Safa
Conflict Resolution and Reconciliation in the Arab World Soluţionarea conflictelor şi
reconciliere în lumea arabă
44
© Berghof Research Center for Constructive Conflict Management © Centrul de
Cercetare pentru Berghof constructivă a conflictelor
social justice organisations and charity associations. justiţie organizaţii sociale şi asociaţii
de caritate. The focus is on organisations that take as their Accentul se pune pe
organizaţii care iau în calitate de
aim peacebuilding, conflict resolution, reconciliation and post-war reconstruction.
construire a păcii scop, rezolvarea conflictelor, reconcilierea şi reconstrucţia post-război.
3. 3.
Traditional Mechanisms of Conflict Resolution and Reconciliation Mecanismele
tradiţionale de soluţionare a conflictelor şi reconciliere
Resolving conflict amicably is not an alien concept to the Arab World. Rezolvarea
conflictelor pe cale amiabilă nu este un concept străin pentru lumea arabă. While the
history În timp ce istoria
of the region abounds with tales of battles, conquests and tribal wars dating back to
medieval times, din regiune abundă de poveşti cu bătălii, cuceriri si razboaie tribale
datând din timpuri medievale,
there is also evidence of a long tradition of tribal customs and norms leading to peaceful,
nonviolent există, de asemenea, dovezi ale o lunga traditie de obiceiuri tribale şi norme
care să conducă la paşnice, non-violente
mediation and arbitration. mediere şi arbitraj. Most notably in Yemen, Jordan and, to a
certain extent, Palestine and Mai ales în Yemen, Iordania şi, într-o anumită măsură,
Palestina şi
rural Lebanon, tribal norms and a blend of civil law with tribal codes have prevailed for
decades as rural Liban, norme tribale şi un amestec de drept civil cu codurile tribale au
prevalat de zeci de ani ca
intrinsic parts of the justice system. părţi intrinseci ale sistemului de justiţie. In Yemen,
for example, tribal chiefs are involved in business În Yemen, de exemplu, şefii tribale
sunt implicate în afaceri
conflicts as mediators through the Chamber of Commerce also in such urban settings as
the capital conflictelor, mediatori, prin Camera de Comerţ, de asemenea, în mediul urban
setări, cum ar fi de capital
Sana'a. Sana'a. In Jordan, a number of court judges are trained as tribal reconciliation
judges ( Qadi Al Sulh În Iordania, un număr de judecătorii instanţelor judecătoreşti sunt
instruiţi ca judecători reconciliere tribale (Qadi Al Sulh
Al 'Ashaeri), a function recognized as part of the justice system. Al 'Ashaeri), o funcţie
recunoscute ca parte din sistemul de justiţie.
22
Tribal codes are not formalised as official parts of the justice system in the Arab world,
Codurile tribale nu sunt formalizate ca părţi oficială a sistemului de justiţie din lumea
arabă,
nor are they recognized as a coherent set of legal frameworks and legal provisions. nici
nu sunt recunoscute ca un set coerent de cadre juridice şi de prevederile legale. In fact,
most of De fapt, cele mai multe de
the Arab tribal codes are unwritten rules bequeathed from one generation to another of
tribal chiefs the tribale coduri arabe sunt regulile nescrise lăsat moştenire de la o
generaţie la alta a şefilor de trib
and mediators. şi mediatori. These collections of norms and customs differ from one
Arab country to another, but Aceste colecţii de norme şi vamale diferă de la o ţară arabă
la alta, dar
they do share some common elements and features. ei nu împărtăşesc unele elemente
comune şi caracteristici.
There are only a few recorded successful examples of Arab NGOs trying to utilise tribal
Există doar un succes înregistrate câteva exemple de ONG-uri arabe încearcă să utilizeze
tribale
norms of conflict mediation as a core part of their methodology. normele de mediere
conflict, ca o parte esenţială a metodologiei lor. In Yemen, two NGOs in particular, În
Yemen, două ONG-uri în special,
the House of Peace, based in Dar es Salaam, and the newly founded Yemen Organisation
for Casa de Pace, cu sediul în Dar es Salaam, şi nou-înfiinţată Organizaţia pentru Yemen
Development and Social Peace (YODSP) are attempting to utilise tribal mediators and
arbitrators Dezvoltare şi Pace Social (YODSP) încearcă să utilizeze mediatorilor tribale şi
arbitri
in order to document and implement often esoteric tribal codes as widely acceptable
processes of pentru a documenta şi punerea în aplicare ezoterice tribale coduri de multe
ori ca fiind acceptabil procesele pe scară largă a
conflict transformation. transformarea conflictelor. The YODSP has also engaged in
modern conflict resolution training to The YODSP are, de asemenea, implicat în conflict
de formare rezoluţie moderne
augment its tribal practices. mări tribale practicile sale.
The work of House of Peace and YODSP has shattered myths and stereotypes about
Activitatea Casei de pace şi YODSP a distrus mituri si stereotipuri despre
tribal conflict mediation being a backward practice restricted to rural areas, and has
proven that medierea conflictelor tribale fiind o practică înapoi limitate la zonele rurale,
şi sa dovedit că
the modernisation and urbanisation of such practice is possible and useful. modernizarea
şi urbanizarea astfel de practică este posibil şi util. Disputant parties Diferend părţi
are increasingly relying on tribal processes of conflict resolution as they consider them a
more sunt din ce în ce bazându-se pe procesele tribale de soluţionare a conflictelor în care
acestea le consideră mai
guaranteed conduit of swift justice than what they perceive as a slow and corrupt court
system. garantat canal de justiţie rapidă decât ceea ce ei percep ca un sistem corupt
instanţă şi lent.
33
The efforts of the two Yemeni NGOs are thus increasingly gaining recognition within
civil society Eforturile depuse de două ONG-uri yemenit sunt, aşadar, câştigă tot mai
mult de recunoaştere în cadrul societăţii civile
though many obstacles remain, chief among them the absence of significant support from
the state deşi rămân multe obstacole, printre care seful lipsa de sprijin semnificativ din
partea statului
and donors to broaden this field and formalise its practice. donatorilor şi să extindă acest
domeniu şi să formalizeze practica sa.
Though tribal conflict resolution is not as widely practiced in all Arab countries as it has
Deşi rezolvarea conflictului tribale nu este la fel de larg practicată în toate ţările arabe aşa
cum a
been in Yemen, Jordan, Iraq and, to some extent, Palestine, tribal and sectarian thinking
dominates fost în Yemen, Iordania, Irak şi, într-o oarecare măsură, Palestina, şi sectar
gândire tribale domină
practice and behaviour in larger circles of Arab societies – albeit not always in positive
ways. practică şi comportamentul în cercuri mai mari de societăţile arabe - deşi nu
întotdeauna în mod pozitiv. In In
Lebanon, for example, the political institutionalisation of sectarianism has been
responsible for many Liban, de exemplu, instituţionalizarea politică de sectarism a fost
responsabil pentru multe
2 For more information on tribal sources of legal codes and informal conflict resolution
see the following documents: Al-Qadha' 2 Pentru mai multe informaţii despre sursele
tribale de coduri juridice şi de soluţionare a conflictelor informale vedea următoarele
documente: Al-Qadha "
Wal Solh al- Asha'ri wa Atharahoma ala al Qadha' al- Nizami fi Falastine [The Tribal
Judicial Code and Reconciliation and their Wal Solh al-Asha'ri wa Atharahoma ala al
Qadha "al-Fi Nizami Falastine [Tribal Codul judiciar şi reconciliere ale acestora
Impact on the Regular Judiciary in Palestine] 2003; Informal Justice System: The Rule of
Law and Dispute Settlement in Palestine. Impactul asupra sistemului judiciar regulate în
Palestina] 2003; sistemului de justiţie informală: Statul de drept şi soluţionare a
disputelor în Palestina.
The National Report on the Results of the Field Research (in Arabic) 2006; available at
http://lawcenter.birzeit.edu/iol/ar/index. Raportul Naţional privind rezultatele cercetării
de teren (în arabă), 2006; disponibile la http://lawcenter.birzeit.edu/iol/ar/index.
php?action_id=211. php? action_id = 211.
3 The author learned this from interviews and conversations during training sessions
during four consecutive trips to Yemen 3 Autorul învăţat acest lucru de la interviuri şi
conversaţii în timpul sesiunilor de instruire pe parcursul a patru excursii consecutive
Yemen
between 2004 and 2006. între 2004 şi 2006.

Page 5 Page 5
Oussama Safa Oussama Safa
Conflict Resolution and Reconciliation in the Arab World Soluţionarea conflictelor şi
reconciliere în lumea arabă
55
© Berghof Research Center for Constructive Conflict Management © Centrul de
Cercetare pentru Berghof constructivă a conflictelor
of the country's woes and conflicts. din ţară woes AND conflicte. Additionally, tribal
codes have negatively affected significant În plus, codurile tribale au afectat în mod
negativ semnificativ
parts of the Arab populations, in particular women. părţi ale populaţiilor arabe, în special
femeile. Honour killing and revenge is commonly uciderea Onoare şi de răzbunare este
frecvent
accepted as a way to restore family honour and often tolerated by the legal system.
acceptată ca o modalitate de a restabili onoarea familiei şi adesea tolerate de sistemul
juridic. In most instances, În cele mai multe cazuri,
women are the victims in the retributive killings and perpetrators usually receive light
sentences, if femeile sunt victime în uciderea retributiv şi autorii primesc de obicei
propoziţii lumină, în cazul în care
any. orice.
44
The implications of these precedents for the role of NGOs have not been carefully
scrutinised Implicaţiile acestor precedente pentru rolul ONG-urilor nu au fost examinate
cu atenţie
and remain a subject for further debate and study. şi rămân un subiect de dezbatere în
continuare şi de studiu.
Proponents of tribal conflict resolution nevertheless contend that age-old rituals and
Susţinătorii de soluţionare a conflictelor tribale susţin totuşi vechi ritualuri că şi
traditions of settlement ( Sulh ) and reconciliation ( musalaha ) are very effective ways of
dealing tradiţiile de decontare (Sulh) şi reconciliere (musalaha) sunt foarte eficiente
modalităţi de abordare a
with conflicts, and are worth nurturing (Irani and Funk 2000). cu conflicte, şi sunt în
valoare de hranire (Irani şi Funk, 2000). The existence of dual justice systems Existenţa
unor sisteme de justiţie dual
in Palestine, Jordan, Iraq and Yemen indicates that for now, tribal norms of conflict
resolution are în Palestina, Iordania, Irak şi Yemen indică faptul că de acum, norme
tribale de rezolvare a conflictelor sunt
alive and well. viaţă şi de bine. It also is obvious that tribal codes are present and vibrant
in states where tribal and De asemenea, este evident că aceste coduri tribale sunt prezente
şi vibrante, în statele unde tribale şi
communitarian life is strong, as in Jordan, and in countries where the justice system is
very weak, viaţa comunitară este puternic, ca şi în Iordania, şi în ţările în care sistemul de
justiţie este foarte slab,
in transition or mistrusted, as is the case in Iraq, Palestine and Yemen respectively. sau
aveau încredere în tranziţie, cum este cazul în Irak, Palestina şi, respectiv, Yemen. Yet
further Cu toate acestea, în continuare
study and documentation of tribal practice need to be pursued to come to a more
differentiated de studiu şi documentare de necesitate practică tribale să fie continuate
pentru a ajunge la o mai diferenţiată
understanding. înţelegere.
4. 4.
Current Conflict Resolution and Reconciliation Practice Soluţionarea conflictelor şi
practicile curente Reconciliere
in Lebanon and Morocco în Liban şi Maroc
This section is going to shed light on the concrete experiences in two Arab countries:
Această secţiune se va pune în lumină pe experienţe concrete în două ţări arabe:
Lebanon and Morocco. Liban şi Maroc. Both are going through democratic transition,
either after a severe conflict Ambele trec prin tranziţie democratică, fie după un conflict
sever
(Lebanon) or following a significant leadership change (Morocco). (Liban), sau după o
schimbare semnificativă de conducere (Maroc). The aim is to present a selective Scopul
este de a prezenta o selectiv
overview of initiatives launched or adopted by civil society in response to internal
changes and privire generală asupra iniţiativelor lansate sau adoptate de către societatea
civilă, în răspuns la schimbările interne şi
transformations. transformări. The objectives, projects and achievements of various
organisations are introduced in Obiectivele, proiectele şi realizările de diferite organizaţii
sunt introduse în
some detail before, in section five, common challenges and ways of addressing them are
discussed. unele detalii înainte, în secţiunea a cincea, provocări comune şi modalităţi de
abordare a acestora sunt discutate.
4.1 Lebanon 4.1 Liban
During the War. It is worth mentioning that prior to the end of the civil war in 1990, În
timpul războiului este. Este demn de menţionat că, înainte de sfârşitul războiului civil în
1990,
there have been some disparate civil society efforts in peacebuilding work which
revolved around au existat unele eforturi disparate ale societăţii civile în construirea păcii
de lucru care se învârte în jurul
a popular response aiming to end violence. un răspuns popular cu scopul de a pune capăt
violenţei. Since 1975, demonstrations by Lebanese belonging to Începând cu anul 1975,
demonstraţii de libanez aparţinând
different religions and regions called for an end to the fighting. religii şi regiuni diferite
solicitat să se pună capăt luptelor. These initiatives grew to form an Aceste iniţiative au
crescut pentru a forma un
organisation called the “Non-Violence Movement” that challenged sectarianism, lobbied
for an organizaţie numită "non-violenţei Mişcarea", care a contestat sectarismul, a făcut
lobby pentru o
end to the killing and argued for a mending of the religious divide in the country. capăt la
uciderea şi a pledat pentru o repararea a decalajului religioase în ţară. The Movement
Mişcarea
organised demonstrations and petitions to illustrate that the people were against the war
that was demonstraţii organizate şi petiţii pentru a ilustra faptul că oamenii au fost
împotriva războiului care a fost
being fought by militias and political leaders. fiind luptat de către miliţiile şi liderii
politici.
On a different level, towards the end of the 1980s, a number of NGOs joined UNICEF in
Pe un alt nivel, spre sfârşitul anilor 1980, un număr de ONG-uri s-au alăturat UNICEF în
a project called “Education for Peace”. un proiect numit "Educaţie pentru pace". The aim
was to develop a team of youth leaders with skills Scopul a fost de a dezvolta o echipa de
lideri de tineret cu competenţe
based on principles of conflict resolution that could be taught to younger children, and at
the same bazate pe principiile de soluţionare a conflictelor care ar putea fi predate la
copiii mai mici, şi, în acelaşi
time to organise recreational camps for children from different regions in order to
challenge the stark timp pentru a organiza tabere de recreere pentru copii din diferite
regiuni, în scopul de a contesta puternic
divisions of communal and religious segregation. diviziunile şi religioase segregare
comunale.
4 See the International Campaign Against Honor Killing at
www.stophonourkillings.com/index.php?name=News&file=article&sid 4 A se vedea
campania internaţională împotriva Onoare Killing la
www.stophonourkillings.com/index.php?name=News&file=article&sid
=1289. = 1289.

Page 6 Page 6
Oussama Safa Oussama Safa
Conflict Resolution and Reconciliation in the Arab World Soluţionarea conflictelor şi
reconciliere în lumea arabă
66
© Berghof Research Center for Constructive Conflict Management © Centrul de
Cercetare pentru Berghof constructivă a conflictelor
While the Education for Peace project officially ceased to exist, several similar initiatives
În timp ce pentru Educaţie proiect de pace oficial încetat să mai existe, mai multe
iniţiative similare
continue, such as the yearly youth summer camps organised by Secours Populaire, the
Lebanese continua, cum ar fi taberele de vară pentru tineret organizat anual de către
Secours Populaire, libanezii
American University Summer Peace Building Institute and the Lebanese Centre for
Policy Studies' American Building Universitatea de Vara Institutul pentru Pace şi Centrul
pentru Studii Politice libanez "
Summer Academy for Leadership and Conflict Transformation. Academia de Vara de
Leadership şi transformarea conflictelor. Following the incidents of youth În urma
incidentelor de tineret
violence in Beirut in January 2007, talks of reviving summer peace camps between
diverse Lebanese violenţei în Beirut în ianuarie 2007, de a relansa negocierile de pace
între diverse tabere de vară libaneze
youths have intensified. tineri s-au intensificat.
Post-war Initiatives. The Lebanese civil war ended in 1990 with a negotiated pact
between Iniţiative post-război. Războiul Civil libanez sa încheiat în 1990 cu un pact
negociat între
the various Lebanese communities under the mediation of the Arab League in the Saudi
resort city diferitele comunităţi libaneze sub medierea a Ligii Arabe în staţiunea saudit
of Taif (thus the National Peace Accord acquired the name Taif Accord). din Taif (astfel
Naţional de Pace a dobândit numele de Taif Accord). This brought with it a Acest lucru a
adus cu sine o
comprehensive amnesty, officially pardoning all war crimes, and opted to forget the
repercussions of amnistia cuprinzătoare, iertarea oficial toate crimele de război, şi au
optat pentru a uita de repercusiunile
war that had splintered the very thin social fabric that was holding together 18 officially
recognized război care a avut impartite subţire tesatura foarte sociale, care deţin împreună
18 a fost recunoscut oficial
religious sects. secte religioase.
The 15-year chapter of bloodshed was ended with a system of power-sharing between
The-capitolul 15 ani de vărsări de sânge a fost încheiat cu un sistem de împărţire a puterii
între
most of the former warlords. cele mai multe dintre lideri militari fostului. Civil society
inherited a heavy socio-economic burden that was only Societatea civilă a moştenit o
socio-economic povară grea, care a fost doar
compounded by the passing of the general amnesty law. agravate de adoptarea legii
amnistiei generale. The authorities, along with the main political Autorităţile, împreună
cu politic principal
parties who had participated in the civil war, embarked on a process of collective
amnesia. părţile care au participat la războiul civil, angajat într-un proces de amnezie
colectiva. The
Lebanese hoped that this would be a transition phase to ensure the end of hostilities and
precede a Libanez sperat că acest lucru ar fi o fază de tranziţie pentru a asigura sfârşitul
ostilităţilor şi precedată de o
more sustainable, long-term national peacebuilding process. mai mult, naţionale pe
termen lung proces de consolidare a păcii durabile. But that hope has not yet materialised.
Dar sper că nu sa materializat încă.
Following the cessation of hostilities and given the painful job of trying to put the
country După încetarea ostilităţilor şi având în vedere dureros de locuri de muncă de a
încerca să pună ţara
on track towards sustainable peace, civil society was faced with the monumental task of
exploring pe calea spre o pace durabilă, societatea civilă a fost confruntat cu sarcina
monumentală de a explora
and utilising alternative dispute resolution mechanisms with which to face the increasing
demands şi utilizarea de soluţionare a diferendelor cu mecanisme alternative care să facă
faţă cerinţelor în creştere
for rebuilding cross-communal relations, particularly in areas hit hardest by violence.
pentru refacerea relaţiilor cruce-comunale, în special în zonele cel mai grav afectate de
violenţă. With the Cu
collapse of the central authorities during the war, civil society found itself at the helm of
trying to colaps al autorităţilor centrale în timpul războiului, societatea civilă sa aflat la
cârma de a încerca să
cater to people's basic demands and provide for the needs of the population, replacing
interrupted pentru a satisface cererile de bază ale oamenilor şi să furnizeze pentru nevoile
populaţiei, înlocuindu-a întrerupt
government services. Servicii de guvern.
In the aftermath of the war, the preliminary challenge for civil society in Lebanon În
urma războiului, provocarea preliminare pentru societatea civilă în Liban
was to undertake conflict resolution and foster reconciliation between the various
communities a fost de a întreprinde soluţionarea conflictelor şi reconcilierea între
favorizeze diferitele comunităţi
before embarking on the conflict transformation journey. înainte de a începe pe traseul
transformarea conflictelor. The need to ensure a solid resolution Necesitatea de a asigura
o rezoluţie solid
of longstanding complex issues was evident: Suddenly, following Arab mediation and a
top-level de probleme complexe de lungă durată a fost evident: Dintr-o dată, în urma
medierii arabe şi un top-level
intervention by senior politicians, an unexplained but immediate cessation of hostilities
was agreed. intervenţie de către înalţi politicieni, ci o încetare imediată a ostilităţilor
inexplicabile a fost de acord.
The Taif Accord concluded by Lebanese leaders did not trickle down to the public and
the peace Acordul de la Taif încheiate de către liderii libanezi nu au prelinge în jos pentru
a publicului şi a păcii
process was not the result of popular participation. Procesul nu a fost rezultatul
participării populare.
Reliance on civil society hence became necessary to undertake grassroots conflict
Bazarea pe societatea civilă, prin urmare, a devenit necesar să se efectueze la nivel local
conflict
resolution projects. rezoluţie de proiecte. In the following sections, four organisations and
their work are introduced: the În următoarele secţiuni, patru organizaţii şi munca lor sunt
introduse: The
Lebanon Conflict Resolution Network, the Permanent Peace Movement, as well as
initiatives for Liban Rezolvarea conflictelor Network, Permanent al Mişcării pentru Pace,
precum şi iniţiativele pentru
Christian-Muslim Dialogue and Dealing with the Past. Creştini şi musulmani Dialogul şi
Confruntarea cu trecutul.
4.1.1 The Lebanon Conflict Resolution Network 4.1.1 Conflictul din Liban Rezoluţia
Network
Amidst the plethora of civil society groups emerging in the mid-1990s was the Lebanon
Printre multitudinea de grupurile societăţii civile în curs de dezvoltare la mijlocul anilor
1990 a fost Liban
Conflict Resolution Network (LCRN), which began as a loose network of civil society
activists and Rezolvarea conflictelor Network (LCRN), care a început ca o reţea liber de
activişti ai societăţii civile şi
volunteers from Lebanon interested in acquiring the necessary conflict resolution skills to
implement voluntari din Liban interesaţi în achiziţionarea conflict abilităţile rezoluţia
necesară pentru punerea în aplicare a
them in their NGO milieux. ONG-le în mediile lor. LCRN began to undertake modest
and small training initiatives in LCRN a început să întreprindă mici şi iniţiativele de
formare modeste în
Lebanon which later on grew to encompass several Arab countries. Libanul, care mai
târziu a crescut pentru a cuprinde mai multe ţări arabe.
Over the years, LCRN trainers developed and tested a distinct training methodology De-a
lungul anilor, formatori LCRN dezvoltat şi testat o metodologie de formare distinct
consisting of an integrated, three-phased approach. compus dintr-un integrat, cu trei
etape. The introductory phase serves to gain Faza introductivă serveşte pentru a câştiga

Page 7 Page 7
Oussama Safa Oussama Safa
Conflict Resolution and Reconciliation in the Arab World Soluţionarea conflictelor şi
reconciliere în lumea arabă
77
© Berghof Research Center for Constructive Conflict Management © Centrul de
Cercetare pentru Berghof constructivă a conflictelor
understanding of the recipients and their needs, and to make them familiar with the basic
concepts înţelegere a beneficiarilor şi a nevoilor acestora, precum şi pentru a le face
familiar cu conceptele de bază
of conflict resolution and transformation. de soluţionare a conflictelor şi de transformare.
The second phase consists of the actual training which A doua fază constă din reale de
formare care
uses entirely interactive and elicitive methodology. foloseste interactive si elicitive
metodologie în întregime. In the third phase, trainers meet the trainees and In faza a treia,
formatorilor îndeplinesc stagiari şi
provide them with follow-up questionnaires and discuss how they have applied their
newly acquired să le ofere cu follow-up chestionarelor şi a discuta modul în care au
aplicat noile cunoştinţe
skills and what are the lessons learned. abilităţile şi care sunt lecţiile învăţate.
This approach was a response to criticism against the field of conflict resolution training
Această abordare a fost un răspuns la criticile împotriva domeniul formării rezolvarea
conflictelor
in general that stand-alone, one-off training events were ineffective and had very slim
chances of în general, că stand-alone, training-off evenimente o au fost ineficiente şi au
şanse foarte subţire de
being translated into practice (see, for example, Sprenger 2005). fiind traduse în practică
(a se vedea, de exemplu, Sprenger 2005). By following the three-phased De urma celor
trei etape-
methodology described above, LCRN provides a continuous cycle of feedback and
communication metodologia descrisă mai sus, LCRN oferă un ciclu continuu de feedback
şi comunicare
with trainees to ensure that the skills acquired during the workshops are relevant and the
usual cu stagiari pentru a se asigura că competenţelor dobândite pe parcursul atelierelor
de lucru sunt relevante şi de obicei
difficulties in applying them can be surmounted. dificultăţi în aplicarea lor pot fi depăşite.
LCRN launched two landmark projects in Lebanon in the late 1990s: one with a network
LCRN a lansat două proiecte de punct de reper în Liban la sfârşitul anilor 1990: unul cu o
reţea
of school youth clubs across the country originally set up by Save the Children; and
another with two de cluburi de tineret şcolare din întreaga ţară instituit iniţial de "Salvaţi
Copiii", şi un altul cu două
confessional groups in Mount Lebanon villages that had suffered from low intensity
violence. grupuri confesionale în Mount Liban sate care au suferit de pe urma violenţei
intensitate scăzută. The
Youth Project included a pilot training phase in four Lebanese regions through a series of
carefully Tineri Proiectul a inclus o fază pilot de formare în patru regiuni libanez printr-o
serie de atent
crafted workshops to respond to the expectations of the young members. ateliere
artizanale pentru a răspunde aşteptărilor membrilor tineri. An important achievement O
importantă realizare
was the development of a youth training manual in Arabic for basic conflict resolution
skill a fost dezvoltarea unui manual de instruire pentru tineri în limba arabă pentru
soluţionarea conflictelor de competenţe de bază
s. s.
55
In the Mount Lebanon Project, the LCRN intervention constituted one of the first
attempts În Liban Mount Proiectului, intervenţia LCRN a constituit una dintre primele
încercări de
in Lebanon at direct intervention by a local group in local conflict, which succeeded in
overcoming în Liban, la intervenţie directă de către un grup local în conflict local, care a
reuşit în depăşirea
suspicions and doubts about its objectivity. suspiciuni şi îndoieli cu privire la
obiectivitatea sa. The project consisted of months of preparatory meetings Proiectul a
constat de luni de reuniuni pregătitoare
with representatives of both communities which culminated in two training interventions,
with cu reprezentanţi ai ambelor comunităţi, care a culminat în cadrul intervenţiilor de
formare de două, cu
special sessions devoted to facilitating joint projects between both groups and
subsequently both sesiuni speciale dedicate facilitarea unor proiecte comune între cele
două grupuri şi, ulterior, atât
villages. sate. The workshops were implemented discreetly, with no coverage by the
media. Atelierele de lucru au fost implementate discret, cu nici o acoperire de mass-
media. Only after Numai după
implementation of the joint projects, which had been agreed upon in the workshops, did
the initiative punerea în aplicare a proiectelor comune, care fusese convenit în cadrul
atelierelor, a făcut iniţiativa
benefit from media coverage. beneficia de acoperire media. By then the local authorities
– the heads of municipalities from the two Până atunci, autorităţile locale - şefii de
municipii din cele două
villages – had opened up and taken ownership of the project. sate - au deschis şi a luat
dreptul de proprietate asupra proiectului.
The goal of this intervention was to re-build the damaged relationships between Scopul
acestei intervenţii a fost de a re-construi relaţiile deteriorate dintre
residents of both villages. locuitorii din ambele sate. After peaceful coexistence prior to
the war, communication and regular După coexistenţă paşnică înainte de război, de
comunicare şi regulate
relationships were now totally disrupted. relaţiile acum au fost complet perturbate. The
intervention was geared to what Lederach (1997) Intervenţia a fost concepută pentru ceea
ce Lederach (1997)
calls the “grassroots actors”. numeşte "actorii grassroots". Participants were activists in
youth clubs, environmental NGOs and Participanţii au fost activişti în cluburi de tineret,
ONG-urilor de mediu şi
scouts, and enjoyed the support and trust of their peers. cercetaşi, şi sa bucurat de
sprijinul şi încrederea de colegii lor. These actors, who form the next generation Aceşti
actori, care formează generaţia următoare
and who are genuinely interested in re-building peace, had the most promising potential
to become şi care sunt cu adevărat interesaţi de re-construirea păcii, a avut promiţătoare
cel mai mare potenţial de a deveni
constructive agents of change in their own environment. agenţi constructiv de schimbare
în mediul lor propriu. The LCRN intervention generated a set of Interventia LCRN a
generat un set de
working relationships characterized by collaboration in several areas between both
villages. relaţii de lucru caracterizat prin colaborarea în mai multe domenii între cele
două sate. In many În multe
ways, it filled the vacant space left by government. moduri, a umplut spaţiul liber lăsat de
către guvern.
In an effort to strengthen the field of conflict resolution in the Arab world in general, Într-
un efort de a consolida domeniul de rezolvare a conflictelor în lumea arabă, în general,
LCRN, with support of the Mennonite Central Committee (MCC), developed an Arabic
conflict LCRN, cu sprijinul Comitetului Central Menonite (MCC), a dezvoltat un conflict
arabă
resolution manual along with an accompanying reader (Balian 1998). manualul de
rezoluţie, împreună cu un cititor de însoţire (Balian 1998). The manual is the first in
Manualul este primul din
the Arab world and includes original sections on negotiation, conflict analysis, mediation
and lumea arabă şi include secţiuni originale de pe negociere, analiza conflictului,
medierea şi
facilitation, along with a section adapted from MCC's English conflict resolution manual.
facilitarea, împreună cu o secţiune adaptat de la MCC conflict manualul rezoluţie limba
engleză. Around În jurul
one thousand copies were subsequently distributed all over the Arab world mie de
exemplare au fost distribuite, ulterior, peste tot în lumea arabă
..
66
Since its inception, LCRN's target groups have grown from civil society activists and
Încă de la începuturile sale, a grupurilor ţintă LCRN au crescut de la activişti ai societăţii
civile şi
youth associations to journalists, political parties and rights groups. asociaţiile de tineret
la jurnalişti, partidele politice şi grupurile drepturi. LCRN has also taken its training,
LCRN a luat, de asemenea sale de formare,
capacity-building and intervention capability across the region to Morocco, Yemen,
Jordan and Syria, De construire şi capacitatea de intervenţie capacitatea întreaga regiune
în Maroc, Yemen, Iordania şi Siria,
5 The manual (Save the Children/LCRN 1999) is available through LCRN or Save the
Children's office in Beirut. 5 manual (Salvaţi Copiii / LCRN 1999) este disponibil prin
intermediul LCRN sau Salvaţi Copiii lui biroul din Beirut.
6 The manual and reader are disseminated free of charge through LCRN. 6 manuale şi
Reader sunt diseminate gratuit prin intermediul LCRN.

Page 8 Page 8
Oussama Safa Oussama Safa
Conflict Resolution and Reconciliation in the Arab World Soluţionarea conflictelor şi
reconciliere în lumea arabă
88
© Berghof Research Center for Constructive Conflict Management © Centrul de
Cercetare pentru Berghof constructivă a conflictelor
Iraq, Bahrain, Qatar, and beyond the Arab World to Montenegro and Armenia. Irak,
Bahrain, Qatar, şi dincolo de lumea arabă pentru Muntenegru şi Armenia. Most notable is
its Cele mai notabile este sa
work in Yemen and Jordan. de muncă în Yemen şi Iordania. In Yemen, after several
training interventions with parliamentarians and În Yemen, după mai multe intervenţii de
formare cu parlamentari şi
political parties, organised by the National Democratic Institute (NDI), LCRN managed
to conduct partidelor politice, organizat de National Democratic Institute (NDI), LCRN a
reuşit să efectueze
conflict resolution and negotiation training with tribal arbitrators and conciliators.
soluţionarea conflictelor şi de formare negociere cu arbitri tribale şi conciliatori. The
training was De formare a fost
considered so relevant that recipients kept requesting follow-up and more advanced
skills. considerate relevante, astfel încât destinatarii ţinut solicitant-up şi mai avansate
aptitudini urmeze. This blend Acest amestec
of modern techniques with centuries-old traditions promises to give the field of conflict
resolution a tehnicilor moderne de cu-vechi tradiţii de secole promite să dea domeniul de
rezolvare a conflictelor un
new dimension in the region. nouă dimensiune în regiune. In Jordan, following years of
interventions and training with a variety În Iordania, după ani de intervenţii şi de formare
cu o varietate
of stakeholders including mainly civil society actors, a Jordan Conflict Resolution
Program (JCRP) a părţilor interesate, inclusiv actorii societăţii civile, în principal, un
Iordania Conflict Resolution Program (JCRP)
was established in partnership between LCRN and the Friedrich Naumann Foundation,
similar in a fost stabilit în parteneriat între LCRN şi Fundaţia Friedrich Naumann,
similare în
structure and function to LCRN. structura şi funcţia de LCRN.
These examples of LCRN's work in Yemen and Jordan illustrate an inter-Arab
collaboration Aceste exemple de lucru LCRN în Yemen şi Iordania ilustra o colaborare
inter-arabe
where the capacity of one local civil society organisation is able to support and assist the
creation în cazul în care capacitatea de o organizaţie a societăţii civile locale este în
măsură să sprijine şi să asiste la crearea
of similar organisations in neighbouring countries. de organizaţii similare din ţările
vecine. In tension-ridden, semi-tribal societies in the În tensiune-culpabilitate, semi-
tribale societăţile în
Arab world, it is not to be taken for granted that such a sensitive topic as conflict
resolution can be lumea arabă, este nu să fie luate pentru a acordat ca un astfel de subiect
sensibil ca rezolvare a conflictelor pot fi
introduced without extensive trust-building. a introdus fără extinse de consolidare a
încrederii.
4.1.2 The Permanent Peace Movement 4.1.2 Mişcarea Permanent pentru Pace
Formed in 1986 as a university peace group, the Permanent Peace Movement (PPM)
grew Formata in 1986 ca un grup de pace universitate, Mişcarea pentru Pace Permanentă
(PPM) a crescut
to become an officially registered NGO following the war in 1991. pentru a deveni un
ONG înregistrate oficial în urma războiului din 1991. PPM's work is described by its
lucru PPM este descrisă de ei
founder as having gone through three stages: fondator ca au trecut prin trei etape:
77
1) 1)
reactive , when members reacted to violent events during the war by protesting and
reactive, atunci când membrii a reacţionat la evenimentele violente în timpul războiului
de protesteze şi
demanding peace, without appreciating the full value and requirements of peace; exigent
pace, fără apreciind valoarea totală şi cerinţele de pace;
2) 2)
mobilising , when PPM gave public lectures and organised meetings on the issue
mobilizarea, atunci când PPM dadea lecturi publice şi întâlniri organizate pe această temă
of peace and war denunciation, such as public rallies to foster rapprochement and de pace
şi denunţarea război, cum ar fi mitinguri publice pentru a încuraja apropierii şi
peacebuilding; and construire a păcii şi
3) 3)
skill-building , when PPM developed its methodology of training in conflict resolution
calificare-building, atunci când PPM a dezvoltat o metodologie de formare în rezolvarea
conflictelor
and peacebuilding and moved to implementing practical, skill-oriented sessions with şi
construirea păcii şi sa mutat la punerea în aplicare, orientată spre calificare sesiuni
practice cu
specific target groups. grupurile ţintă specifice.
From 1997 to 2000, PPM initiated a wide and intensive training initiative in Mount
Lebanon, Din 1997 până în 2000, PPM a iniţiat un training intensiv de iniţiativă şi largă
în Mount Lebanon,
targeting a total of 90 villages and including hundreds of trainees. vizând un total de 90
de sate, inclusiv sute de stagiari. The aim of this large undertaking Scopul acestei
întreprinderi mari
was not only to impart to trainees – local civil society – necessary conflict transformation
skills, nu a fost doar pentru a da la stagiarilor - societăţii civile locale - conflict
competenţe de transformare necesar,
but also to work indirectly with repatriated internally displaced persons (IDPs), create a
new public dar, de asemenea, să lucreze în mod indirect cu strămutate intern persoane
repatriate (PSI), a crea un public nou
space of constructive interaction between them, and assist the process of reconciliation.
spaţiu de interacţiune constructivă între ele, şi pentru sprijinirea procesului de
reconciliere. PPM's PPM lui
strategy consisted of grouping villages in clusters of 4-5 adjacent, confessionally-mixed
localities. Strategia a constat în gruparea sate în grupuri de 4-5, confessionally-amestecat
localităţile adiacente.
Each cluster participated at the outset in a one-day meeting to define what villagers
perceived as Fiecare grup a participat la început într-o-o zi de şedinţă pentru a defini ceea
ce satenii perceput ca
conflict and to fill out a questionnaire on their vision for the future of coexistence.
conflict şi să completeze un chestionar privind viziunea lor pentru viitorul de coexistenţă.
At a later stage, Într-o etapă ulterioară,
PPM grouped three village clusters each, drafted criteria for participants and selected a
representative PPM grupate în trei grupuri fiecare sat, criteriile elaborate de participanţi şi
a selectat un reprezentant
group of the entire geographic area in which they had engaged early on. grup de zona
geografică în care întreaga au angajat devreme. This newly selected group Acest nou
grup selectat
participated in 4-day training workshops over two separate weekends focusing on basic
conflict au participat la ateliere de lucru zi de formare-4 de peste două weekend-uri
separate, concentrându-se asupra conflictului de bază
resolution skills. rezoluţie aptitudini.
PPM's overarching goal was to move beyond training to develop joint projects between
Obiectivul global a PPM a fost de a trece dincolo de instruire pentru dezvoltarea de
proiecte comune între
the various target groups and to begin developing relationships which would form in the
future ţinta diferitelor grupuri şi pentru a începe relaţii în curs de dezvoltare, care ar
forma în viitor
the necessary basis for coexistence. baza necesară pentru coexistenţă. The work in the
villages is continuing to this day. Lucrarea în satele continuă la această zi. Interest in
Interes în
conflict resolution grew so strong among participants that people started joining PPM.
soluţionare a conflictelor a crescut atât de puternică în rândul participanţilor că oamenii
au început aderarea PPM. Today, the Astăzi,
organisation includes four former trainees as members of its administrative board.
organizaţie cuprinde patru foşti cursanţi ca membri ai Consiliului de Administraţie sale.
Another indicator Un alt indicator
7 Interview with the founder and director of PPM, Fadi Abi-Allam, 21 December 2005. 7
Interviu cu fondatorul şi directorul PPM, Fadi Abi-Allam, 21 decembrie 2005.

Page 9 Page 9
Oussama Safa Oussama Safa
Conflict Resolution and Reconciliation in the Arab World Soluţionarea conflictelor şi
reconciliere în lumea arabă
99
© Berghof Research Center for Constructive Conflict Management © Centrul de
Cercetare pentru Berghof constructivă a conflictelor
of success for PPM is that initiatives are coming directly from participants and no longer
have to de succes pentru PPM este faptul că iniţiativele se venind direct de la participanţi
şi nu mai trebuie să
wait for the implementation of PPM projects on the ground. aşteptaţi pentru punerea în
aplicare a proiectelor PPM pe teren. PPM credits itself with having effected PPM în sine
credite cu care au efectuate
a rapprochement between two major political forces that were erstwhile enemies. o
apropiere între două forţe politice majore care au fost duşmani odinioară. PPM's work has
de lucru a PPM
reached out to political parties, municipalities and other entities in the villages. ajuns la
partide politice, municipalităţi şi alte entităţi din sate.
In 2002, PPM adopted a project on small arms control and became the only Lebanese În
2002, PPM a adoptat un proiect privind armele mici şi de control a devenit doar libanez
NGO working and active on this issue. ONG-urilor de lucru şi active pe această temă.
More than once, PPM has broken a taboo by tackling the Mai mult de o dată, PPM a rupt
un tabu de către combaterea
issue of small arms in Lebanon directly, even in rural areas where bearing arms is looked
upon problema de arme de calibru mic în Liban direct, chiar şi în zonele rurale, unde
purta arme este privit
favourably. favorabil. On this issue, PPM engages in awareness raising and lobbying –
particularly against În acest sens, se angajează în PPM de sensibilizare şi de lobby - în
special împotriva
shooting for celebration, an age-old custom in Lebanon – with politicians and legislators.
fotografiere pentru celebrare, un vechi obicei de vârstă în Liban - cu politicieni şi
legislatori. PPM also PPM, de asemenea,
works on proposing legal amendments and modifications for existing laws and legal texts
on the lucrări pe propune modificări juridice şi pentru modificări legislaţiei existente şi
texte juridice cu privire la
issue of small arms. problema de arme de calibru mic.
PPM's approach displays sensitivity to the political dynamics and, similar to LCRN, PPM
abordarea sensibilitate afişează la dinamica politică şi, similar cu LCRN,
focuses on trust-building and incrementally strengthening the skills of the target groups.
se concentrează pe de consolidare a încrederii şi consolidarea progresiv competenţele
grupurilor ţintă. PPM PPM
invested heavily in building capacities of community-based organisations (CBOs) and
NGOs in the investit masiv în dezvoltarea capacităţilor de bază de organizaţii comunitare
(CBO) şi ONG-uri în
belief that these form the best conduit to build sustainable peace and effect true
transformation of convingerea că aceste forma cea mai bună pentru a construi conducta
pace durabilă şi adevărat efect de transformare
realities and relationships on the ground. realităţile şi relaţiile pe teren.
4.1.3 Islamic Christian Dialogue 4.1.3 islamice Christian Dialog
The Institute for Islamic-Christian Studies at Saint Joseph University in Beirut focuses
Institutul de-Christian studii islamice la Universitatea Saint Joseph din Beirut se
concentrează
on an area often neglected by NGOs: encouraging openness and pluralism among
religious men. pe o suprafaţă deseori neglijate de ONG-uri: deschiderea încurajarea în
rândul bărbaţilor şi pluralismul religios.
Through an integrated approach of training and lectures, the Institute targets teachers of
religious Printr-o abordare integrată de formare şi conferinţe, Institutul obiectivele
profesorii de religioşi
studies and works with them on developing their skills and knowledge in religious
pluralism, studii şi lucrări cu ei pe dezvoltarea abilităţilor lor şi cunoştinţe în pluralismul
religios,
diversity and tolerance. diversitate şi toleranţă. Academics, civil society activists and
religious people make up the teams Mediului academic, societăţii civile, activiştii şi
oamenii religioşi alcătuiesc echipe
of lecturers and trainers. de profesori şi formatori. The training and lecturing include such
topics as conflict resolution and Cursuri de formare şi include subiecte cum ar fi
soluţionarea conflictelor şi
communication as well as understanding the important features of a multi-religious
society and the comunicare, precum şi înţelegerea caracteristicile importante ale unei
societăţi multi-religioase şi
richness it brings. bogăţie-l aduce.
88
The project encourages joint work and cooperation between teachers from various
Proiectul încurajează munca în comun şi cooperarea între cadrele didactice de la diferite
backgrounds and serves to break down stereotypes and prejudices. medii şi serveşte sa
sparga stereotipurile şi prejudecăţile. It also helps participants discover De asemenea,
ajută participanţii descopere
each others' values and what they hold in common. fiecare alţii "valori şi ceea ce le deţin
în comun. The project developed an interactive website Proiectul a dezvoltat un site
interactiv
through which people can chat and discuss issues of common concern as a continuation
of the work prin care oamenii pot chat şi discuta probleme de interes comun ca o
continuare a muncii
started in the workshops. a început în ateliere de lucru.
The work of the Institute is an example of what a multi-confessional society like Lebanon
Activitatea Institutului este un exemplu de ceea ce o societate multi-confesional ca Liban
can and should do to recognize the differences that characterize it and celebrate the
richness they pot şi ar trebui să facă să recunoască diferenţele care le caracterizează şi
celebra bogăţia ei
provide. oferi. The Institute's training is a microcosm of what could be done on a global
scale to foster Institutului Instruirea este un microcosmos a ceea ce ar putea fi făcut la o
scară mondială pentru a încuraja
intercultural and inter-religious understanding. intercultural şi inter-religios înţelegere.
4.1.4 Permanent Civil Peace Observatory, Memory for the Future and Other Initiatives
for 4.1.4 Permanent Observatorul civil pentru pace, pentru memorie şi alte iniţiative
pentru viitor
Dealing with the Past Confruntarea cu trecutul
An important post-war initiative in Lebanon is the establishment of the Permanent Civil
Un important post-război din Liban iniţiativă este stabilirea civile Permanent
Peace Observatory, which is a group of intellectuals and civil society activists engaged in
monitoring Observatorul de pace, care este un grup de intelectuali şi activişti societăţii
civile implicate în monitorizarea
the evolving situation of civil peace in Lebanon. evoluţia situaţiei de pace civile în Liban.
The Observatory monitors and documents events
that directly or indirectly affect the situation of peace in the country, and puts out a yearly
report
on the index of civil peace.
99
While the index is not fully developed and is hardly a scientific tool, it
helps provide a platform for future recommendations for a permanent peace in the
country.
8 Interview with the programme coordinator, Rita Ayoub, 19 November 2005. For more
information, see www.hiwar.net.
9 Fondation Libanaise pour la Paix Permanente publishes Arabic summaries of its
reports which can be ordered online
(see www.lfpcp.org).

Page 10 Pagina 10
Oussama Safa
Conflict Resolution and Reconciliation in the Arab World
10 10
© Berghof Research Center for Constructive Conflict Management
Moreover, in 2001 a group of activists, intellectuals and journalists tackled the issue of
post-war memory and memorial culture in Lebanon by holding an international
conference in Beirut
entitled “Memory for the Future”. Following this event a core group of proponents of
post-war
memory was formed. Work continued and culminated in the founding of a new NGO
bearing the
same name as the conference. This NGO has as part of its mission the commemoration of
the war
and the process of drawing out the necessary lessons and documenting them so that new
generations
are offered a useful memory. It has already published a book on this issue (Mémoire pour
l'Avenir
2002). 2002). Similar initiatives have appeared in the country in the late 1990s, most
notably the NGO
Association of the Disappeared, seeking to find out the truth about what happened to
17,000
Lebanese who disappeared during the war and whose fate remains unknown.
Another notable event was a public apology announced by one former militia leader,
in which he sought forgiveness from the “mothers whose sons he killed in the war”. The
letter of
apology was published in the Lebanese Daily Annahar.
10 10
Soon after, other militiamen from other
confessional denominations followed suit and the group is now working the lecture
circuits in
Lebanon and abroad, denouncing violence and admonishing youth to focus on
peacebuilding. Their Lor
initiative, however, was not taken seriously enough by the state and other civil society
associations
and is practically unheard of in Lebanon.
The Memory for the Future as well as the Association of the Disappeared carry with
them a painful reminder that the recent past of Lebanon has not yet been dealt with in a
healthy and
acceptable way. The fact remains that a long and arduous road needs to be taken to arrive
at the truth
and establish a narrative that would become a learning reference for future generations.
Lebanon, it
appears, can no longer delay this.
4.2 Morocco
Morocco presents a different and distinct case. As its rapid drive towards openness and
democratisation went into top gear with the ascension to the throne of King Mohammed
VI, civil
society, media and political life in general began to enjoy larger degrees of freedom and
more
substantive interaction with international actors, chief among them international NGOs.
Below, two
initiatives aiming at capacity-building for conflict resolution and national reconciliation
are introduced.
While these initiatives cooperated closely with state authorities and/or international
NGOs, the main
interest here is how local civil society organisations became involved in the process.
4.2.1 Amicales
Morocco's civil society structure includes many layers. There exist NGOs and local
associations or CBOs, more commonly known as amicales . The latter came into
existence as loosely
formed associations in urban slums to act as bridge-builders between the state and local
residents of
shanty towns. The amicales ' role quickly became essential for the organisation of local
community
empowerment projects and other civic activities. Their closeness to the people and the
issues
rendered them an effective and preferred medium.
A major project, launched in 2002 by Holding d'Aménagement Al Omrane and Search
for
Common Ground with support from USAID
11 11
, was aimed at strengthening the amicales of a poor
shanty town called Sidi Yahia Al-Gharb (SYG), 70 kilometres northeast of the capital
Rabat.
10 “ A'tazhir 'an Af'ali Bismi Lubnan ” [“I Apologize for my Deeds in the Name of
Lebanon”], Annahar Daily, No. 20574, p.5, Column
7, 10 February 2000.
11 More information can be found at
www.sfcg.org/programmes/morocco/morocco_shanty.html and www.tanmia.ma/article.
php3?id_article=626.

Page 11 Pagina 11
Oussama Safa
Conflict Resolution and Reconciliation in the Arab World
11 11
© Berghof Research Center for Constructive Conflict Management
SYG, similar to other impoverished townships in Morocco, witnessed increasing numbers
of disaffected youth engaging in school truancy and prone to violent behaviour. SYG was
also no
stranger to the typical land ownership conflicts that have characterized most of the semi-
urban
communities across Morocco. Several forms of conflict existed over the scarcity of
natural resources
such as forests which provided a lucrative logging business for wood companies. Added
to this is
the fact that previous development projects have parachuted in and out of SYG with no
significant
effort toward sustainability. All of these factors have created an entrenched culture of
cynicism
that became deep-rooted as a result of years of unmet promises of infrastructure
development.
Confidence building with residents and local stakeholders became a must.
SYG includes seven amicales that became highly active throughout the implementation
of a housing rehabilitation project sponsored by the government. Working with a
federation of the
seven amicales , the goal of the two-year project was to build the capacity of SYG youth
and women
in conflict resolution, collaborative planning, team-building, leadership and consensus-
building.
It included a series of facilitated town hall meetings, followed by collaborative,
community-wide
action, and a series of skill-building workshops. To ensure sustainability, a community
resource
centre was built in the heart of SYG.
The project's first challenge in addition to building confidence and overcoming cynicism,
was to begin securing local ownership of community activities. The only way to do this
was to adopt
a collaborative approach that included mediation and structured facilitation as its main
principles.
The second challenge was in the use of the methodology itself and had to address the
dilemma of
carefully blending modern techniques with traditional local approaches to problem-
solving that
respect hierarchy and rely on the Islamic religion as a source of legitimacy and
inspiration. The third
challenge was to establish a project presence significant enough to make a difference in
people's
lives and also trigger an irreversible snowballing effect that would continue after project
activities
were officially over. At the heart of the project grew therefore the conviction that
blending conflict
prevention approaches with development activities was key to the success of any plan for
the
community. comunitate.
At the outset, a stakeholder analysis was conducted to ensure that all major parties that
had played and continued to play an active role in community life were represented in the
project
and had a chance to provide input into its activities. Previously ignored entities such as
school
principals were brought in and later contributed important ideas and efforts to help the
project reach
its intended objectives. The latter were constantly modified as the project progressed,
remaining
faithful to the collaborative, participatory methodology of community development.
This facilitated process of collaborative planning quickly produced consensus on
community-wide activities, such as creating a public garden and launching a drawing
competition
between schools. The short-term aims of these activities were to involve as many
community
residents as possible in collaborative activities and to earn the confidence of disgruntled
families
and youth. Including the municipality, local governor, amicales , school principals,
government
representatives and local private sector – all working together – proved later to be highly
productive
to the amicales as they adopted it as their modus operandi for future community
activities. The
success of the creation of a green zone and the student competition increased residents'
confidence
in the project and removed the cynicism that had threatened its start.
Next, a series of interactive trainings in basic dispute resolution skills took place,
followed
by targeted workshops to equip participants with necessary skills to design, organise and
deliver
training to women and youth within the community and to other neighbouring
communities in the
future. viitor. The focus of their effort was to create teams of specialists and trainers in
communication and

Page 12 Pagina 12
Oussama Safa
Conflict Resolution and Reconciliation in the Arab World
12 12
© Berghof Research Center for Constructive Conflict Management
conflict resolution so as to trigger a transformation within the SYG community of 10,000
people. It Ea
was also designed to create a wider base for democratisation by engaging youth –
particularly the
disaffected among them – in meaningful activities for the benefit of the community. In
the aftermath
of the initial trainings, a series of workshops in mediation followed. Here, too, the focus
was on
mediation and interventions to resolve community disputes. The conflicts subjected to
mediation
ranged from small, mundane disputes to issues relating to wider community interests.
In general, the project succeeded in building new relationships between community
leaders in SYG and in creating new groups of constructive social actors. In an
independent project
evaluation conducted at the end of the activities, the results – based on interviews with
stakeholders
and other research – indicated that project objectives have been met.
12 12
In a conservative, semi-
illiterate community, conflict resolution skills were a very welcome addition to people's
lives. “The "The
amicale members noted a substantial change in their ability to communicate with other
community
leaders and the members particularly valued the contacts established with local
authorities … With
a few exceptions, the amicale leaders demonstrated consensus decision-making and
collaborative
planning, working together even on small projects such as the design of [their new]
centre's
garden.”
13 13
The SYG project proved its usefulness following the suicide bombings of 16 May
2003 when 14 young suicide bombers came from a shanty town with conditions similar
to SYG.
Following the bombings, the project received increased attention as the new government
policy
focused on investing in youth and in building their capacity for nonviolent conflict
resolution.
The project also proved that no contradictions existed between local, Islamic values and
modern
approaches to conflict resolution.
Conflict prevention is now officially a recognized and legitimate tool for planning,
designing and implementing community-development projects. The community resource
centre
at SYG offers mediation and facilitation services in addition to training in these skills –
the first
among semi-urbanised townships in Morocco. Similar initiatives have multiplied in
Morocco since
2004, mostly led by local civil society associations. While no official statistics are
available on this
issue, there have been a number of externally funded local initiatives in Casablanca. Two
of these
initiatives are taking place in the shanty towns of Sidi Moumen and Bouchkou and are
led by the
International Republican Institute (IRI) and Search for Common Ground (SFCG)
respectively. The
projects aim to train young leaders in communications skills, conflict resolution and
mediation and
prepare them for positive leadership roles in their communities.
Finally, the interest that Moroccan civil society organisations like labour unions, NGOs
and political parties have shown in acquiring conflict resolution skills is also notable;
some have
even developed their own internal training capacities and are disseminating these skills to
their cadres
nationally. For example, the Confédération Démocratique des Travailleurs (CDT) has
established
a training unit focusing on communication skills, negotiation and mediation whose
trainers have
participated in training workshops with the author and other professional mediators.
4.2.2 Civil Society and Morocco's Equity and Reconciliation Commission
In January 2004, King Mohammed VI established a National Commission for Equity
and Reconciliation (ERC) to look into the Kingdom's past abuses – including arbitrary
detention,
abduction and killing of regime opponents and opposition activists – and to determine
material
compensation for families of the victims. Tasked with documenting the truth and
determining
institutional responsibility for four decades (1956-1998) of human rights abuses by the
ancien régime
12 Unpublished evaluation conducted by Fulbright Scholar Nicole Bennett, Rabat, 2003-
2004, 8.
13 Ibid, 11.

Page 13 Pagina 13
Oussama Safa
Conflict Resolution and Reconciliation in the Arab World
13 13
© Berghof Research Center for Constructive Conflict Management
of King Hassan II, providing compensation to victims, promoting reconciliation and
recommending
reforms, the Commission was headed by a human rights activist and a former political
prisoner who
had spent 17 years in secret detention. The ERC completed, and submitted to the King, its
final
report in November 2005 and then released its findings to the public shortly thereafter.
14 14
The establishment of the ERC marked a turning point in the history of the Kingdom
and established a precedent in the MENA region. It is arguably the only known
commission of its
kind to have been established by a state that decided to document its own abuses and, as a
result
of internal political dynamics, to deal with its past in a healthy and sustainable way. The
ERC was
the culmination of a process that started in 1990 with the establishment by the late King
Hassan II
of the Advisory Council on Human Rights (ACHR) which was followed in 1999 by an
Indemnity
Commission (Slyomovics 2005). The latter, along with the ACHR, was seen as an
attempt to
embellish the regime's image following severe criticism of the Kingdom's human rights
record. In In
the interim period between 1999 and the establishment of the ERC in 2004, Moroccan
civil society,
notably the human rights movement led by the Moroccan Organisation for Human
Rights, played an
important role in ensuring that the ERC be established and that victims be given a chance
to voice
their grievances.
The ERC's mandate lacked any judicial or legal powers of subpoena or prosecution but
benefited from the backing of the Royal Court.
15 15
The moral backing that the King's support accorded
to it allowed the Commission to undertake a monumental effort to hold televised public
hearings
across the Kingdom and to entertain over 20,000 requests for compensation. The process
took nearly
two years to be completed, with payments recommended to 9,280 victims.
16 16
Though backing the process in most instances, Moroccan civil society played a critical
role in reminding the public of the need for transparency in the proceedings of the ERC,
and for clear
criteria and mechanisms to determine what kind of, and how much, compensation victims
would
receive, and according to which facts or historical interpretations. According to the
Human Rights
Association, the work of the ERC provided an unfinished process of justice since it did
not provide
for prosecutions and legal proceedings against the aggressors. Additionally, the figures of
victims
of abuse published by the ERC were severely criticised by civil society which was quick
to counter
them by different and opposing numbers.
17 17
Moroccan civil society went even further by organising
parallel hearings with a number of victims and their family members who felt the
Commission's
version of the truth without punishment for the perpetrators fell short. As a direct result of
these
hearings, a number of victims are seeking compensation through the courts (Slyomovics
2005).
The relationship between the ERC and some NGOs – the Moroccan Human Rights
Association, the Moroccan Human Rights Organisation and the Forum for Truth and
Equity – was
confrontational at the outset of the ERC's work. Criticism exchanged between the ERC's
president
and the NGOs managed to distance the two entities from each other and reduce their
chances of
collaboration to a bare minimum. The NGOs, along with others who joined later, formed
a monitoring
committee for the Commission's work and published their own detailed reports and
accounts of the
hearings they held with families of the victims. By the last months of the Commission's
work, the
relationship between the civil society grouping and the ERC improved considerably and
cooperation
14 The final report of the ERC was published on its official website www.ier.ma.
15 See the International Center for Transitional Justice Website for related press releases;
eg “Morocco's Truth Commission
Experience: One More Step toward Truth and Justice”, 10 November 2005; “Moroccan
King Orders Public Release of Truth
Commission Final Report”, 16 December 2005. All are available at
www.ictj.org/en/where/region5/591.html.
16 See “Morocco Abuse Report Criticized”, BBC News Online, 19 December 2005.
17 The final report of the ERC cited that 592 people were killed by the state between
1956 and 1999; the Moroccan Human Rights
Association puts the number at 1,500 killed in its report on the preliminary evaluation of
the work of the ERC in June 2005 (see
Moroccan Human Rights Association 2005).

Page 14 Pagina 14
Oussama Safa
Conflict Resolution and Reconciliation in the Arab World
14 14
© Berghof Research Center for Constructive Conflict Management
took place in workshops and conferences. Moroccan civil society apparently realized the
seriousness
of the Commission's work and acknowledges the fact that, though imperfect, the report of
the
ERC has become a historical landmark in transitional justice in the Arab world. While it
is not the
intention of this article to evaluate the work of the ERC here, its establishment process,
interface
with society and the role of the NGOs is a noteworthy development for reconciliation
efforts in the
MENA region. Other troubled societies in the region that are trying to deal with their past
will have
an Arab precedent to learn from.
To its credit, Moroccan civil society has brought the work of the ERC into the open and
into public debate, thus obliging it to increase transparency in its proceedings. While it
would have
been preferable to undergo a dialogue with the ERC, the work of civil society raised
awareness about
glaring loopholes in the work of the Commission by pointing out, for example, that some
of those
who committed abuses still occupy senior positions in the state apparatus.
The Arabic title of the ERC is literally the National Commission for Truth, Equity and
Reconciliation ( Al Hay'a Al Wataniyya lilhaqiqa walinsaf walmusalaha ). So far, the
Commission
has managed to document and archive the truth about what happened over four decades
of regime
suppression and has managed to be generally equitable in compensating victims. There
remains the
“reconciliation” part of its mandate which will necessitate the cooperation of civil society
as well
as those in power in order to finally turn the page on that dark era and guarantee that it
will never
happen again.
No doubt the Moroccan experience of truth seeking and giving reparations to victims
is the right entry point to deal with a past of human rights abuses. The challenge remains
for civil
society and the state to move forward with genuine reconciliation efforts which will mean
that
approaches of conflict transformation, notably facilitated dialogue and consensus-
building, will
have to be adopted and utilised in this direction.
5. 5.
Practical Challenges and Recommendations
The success of conflict resolution training and interventions – examples of which have
been presented in the previous sections – has not been unchallenged. Challenges to the
practice
of conflict resolution and reconciliation arise specifically in three areas: ideology, the
systemic
environment and finances.
Certain sectors in the Arab World and even some conflict resolution activists consider the
field of conflict resolution to be a Western invention and thus alien to the local culture.
This draping
of the field of conflict resolution with foreign flags produces two practical challenges for
conflict
resolution organisations in the Arab World. First, externally these organisations face
political,
cultural and sometimes even philosophical challenges and obstacles from various
authorities, who
at best dismiss the efforts of these organisations as culturally irrelevant or inapplicable in
the Arab
World, and in the worst case accuse them of being cultural or even political lackeys of
the West. The
second challenge is related to the first one but more internal in nature: it is created by the
buy-in of
some local conflict resolution activists into the above arguments and thus the creation of
internal
conflicts among activists, who experience a strong tension between their desire to be true
to their
culture and environment and the urge to enhance their practices with conflict resolution
skills and
techniques that can be learned abroad.
On the systemic level some sectors are unwilling or unable to translate the conflict
resolution attitude and skills into new relational patterns encompassing the environment
and context

Page 15 Pagina 15
Oussama Safa
Conflict Resolution and Reconciliation in the Arab World
15 15
© Berghof Research Center for Constructive Conflict Management
in which they operate – this remains an obstacle despite the successful projects discussed
in section
four. Thus empowerment and relational changes are predominantly registered on the
interpersonal
levels. niveluri. The task of sustaining these changes is left to individual effort and
resolve with very little or
no systemic support.
Financially, almost all conflict resolution organisations who engage in community
outreach activities are constantly scrutinised by their partners or beneficiaries regarding
the sources
of their funding with some outside sources deemed politically sensitive and controversial
to some
target groups. In this context, Scandinavian and German donors in general have been
found the least
problematic for conflict resolution projects.
18 18
In regard to these three main challenges, and based on regional training and intervention
experiences, it would seem recommendable that Arab conflict resolution organisations
should not
join in the draping of the field of conflict resolution by any flag, be it Western or other.
Pedagogically
and politically, it is our view that conflict resolution is a field working systematically on
issues of
peace, harmony, collaboration and nonviolence. These are human endeavours which have
been with
us from the dawn of civilisation. The latest attempt to encapsulate them and systematise
them into
a science may be led by Western institutions and thinkers but the practice of these basic
human
endeavours continues to be present internationally with people who have not even heard
the term
“conflict resolution” as such. Conflict resolution and its underlying philosophy are not
about flags
or cultures; they are about people.
Moreover, Arab conflict resolution organisations must strive to go beyond personal
empowerment efforts and bring forth systemic relational changes with their training and
intervention
efforts. This needs a closer and more in-depth study of the systems with which they
operate, and
the establishment of closer collaboration with the leadership of these systems to reduce
their
apprehension and secure their partnership in bringing about any systemic relational
changes. This Acest
would also require a better targeting of the most strategic sectors within these systems for
any
planned training, intervention or capacity-building efforts, to secure the involvement of
those
individuals and layers with the highest multiplier effects.
6. 6.
Concluding Remarks and Next Steps
The Arab region, unlike other continents such as Africa, is a latecomer to the field of
conflict resolution. Nonetheless, the successes that certain civil society associations have
achieved
in less than a decade are very encouraging. As evidenced by the continued high demand
for training
and interventions, the field is growing and enlisting an ever-increasing number of
supporters.
Groups such as LCRN, PPM and others have managed to carve out a local identity for the
field of
conflict resolution and have succeeded in “Arabizing” the approaches, thus winning
stakeholders'
hearts and minds.
In Lebanon, following the assassination in 2005 of Prime Minister Rafik Hariri and the
political polarisation that it created, debate had re-surfaced about the need for genuine
reconciliation
and for dealing seriously with the past. Many Lebanese believe that in order to move
forward, they
must commemorate the war and learn from their not-so-distant past. Civil society groups
are leading
the efforts in the direction of genuine reconciliation; they will, however, need the
assistance of
other powerful actors, namely the state. Lebanon will have the recent Moroccan
experience of truth
seeking to learn from. If they want to effect social change the Lebanese cannot pretend to
move
forward without exploring a past that is still very present in people's lives.
18 This assessment has been made specifically with respect to the work of LCRN by its
founding director.

Page 16 Pagina 16
Oussama Safa
Conflict Resolution and Reconciliation in the Arab World
16 16
© Berghof Research Center for Constructive Conflict Management
Despite brief moments of joy in 2005, though, the Israeli attack on Lebanon in the
summer
of 2006 and the subsequent split between major political groups in the country have
confirmed
the fragility of the social peace that has prevailed following the end of the civil war in
1990.
While during the civil war the conflict was largely fought along inter-religious (Christian-
Muslim)
lines, the current tensions in Lebanon are highest along inter-sectarian (Sunni-Shiite)
divides. The
Iranian-backed Shiites of Lebanon are aiming to topple the US-backed, Sunni-led
government and
hence have mobilized their supporters based on alarmingly high sectarian sensitivities.
This led, in
January 2007, to the first violent confrontations since the end of the civil war when Sunni
and Shiite
youth from opposed political camps clashed in the streets of Beirut and the northern city
of Tripoli,
resulting in three deaths and 21 injuries. The street clashes conjured up images of the
civil war and
re-awakened sectarian sensitivities by heightening calls for revenge and retributions – a
serious
setback for the seemingly reversible peacebuilding efforts in Lebanon.
What the January 2007 events have shown is that in Lebanon reconciliation is shelved
for now. More importantly, no lessons seem to have been learned from the not-so-distant
violent
past that had gripped the country. Lebanese youth, who have displayed a knack for
inheriting old
hatreds and stereotypes, remain the prime engine for today's violence. The violent events
have also
underscored the sore absence of a genuine memorialisation and reconciliation process
through which
the Lebanese remember their past but reconcile for the future.
While there has not been a comprehensive, systematic evaluation of the peacebuilding
and
conflict resolution work of Arab civil society, a few lessons are beginning to emerge. It is
clear that
working with the grassroots actors and organisations has yielded encouraging and
promising results
that allow the conclusion that these actors remain worthy of further investment in terms
of training
and interventions. Arab civil society seems comfortable with its role as a third-party
conveyor of
skills and processes; it is not yet clear how it would fare if it were a party to a conflict.
In 2005, the Arab Partnership for Conflict Prevention and Human Security (APCPHS)
was founded. The APCPHS
19 19
is a regional group of civil society associations and activists engaged
in conflict resolution and interested in sharing experiences and developing this field in
the region.
The Partnership has managed to put the Arab dispute resolution scene on the global radar
screen and
has laid the groundwork for a far-reaching network that promotes conflict resolution,
reconciliation
and peacebuilding in the region.
The future of Arab civil society's engagement with conflict resolution seems promising
as regards the development of technical capacities and specializations. Gone are the days
where
this type of work was vulnerable to destructive attacks and accused of foreign conspiracy.
Other Alte
challenges remain, however, particularly if the region is to move up to the next level of
blending
modern approaches with local traditions of mediation and dispute resolution. Still more
serious
challenges linger on the political and institutional level. Politically, the situation of Iraq,
Palestine,
Lebanon and other violent hotspots in the region overshadows the modest efforts of
conflict
resolution professionals and peacebuilders in the region and exposes their credibility to
serious
detractions and attacks. The absence of an Arabic body of literature that would foster the
growth of
the field and provide locally anchored approaches is also a hindrance to the
“normalization” of the
field of conflict resolution in the Arab World.
20 20
Finally, conflict resolution and peace studies cannot
remain within the training and civil society domains if they are to thrive. Just like human
rights,
conflict resolution and peace studies must be integrated into civic education curricula in
schools in
the region to assure the growth of this field across generations and the formation of new
minds well-
versed in and convinced of these concepts.
19 More information and the regional action agenda can be found at www.gppac.net,
Region “Middle East and North Africa”.
20 Save the Children/LCRN 1999 and Balian 1998 are first steps in this area (see section
4.1.1 ).

Page 17 Pagina 17
Oussama Safa
Conflict Resolution and Reconciliation in the Arab World
17 17
© Berghof Research Center for Constructive Conflict Management
7. 7.
References Referinte
Austin, Alex, Martina Fischer and Norbert Ropers (eds.) 2004. Transforming
Ethnopolitical Conflict. The
Berghof Handbook. Wiesbaden: VS Verlag.
Balian, Armen (ed.) 1998. Hal Alniza'at: Tamarin Tatbiqiyah wa Maqalat Mukhtara
[Conflict Resolution
Manual and Accompanying Reader]. Beirut: LCRN.
Boege, Volker 2006. Traditional Approaches to Conflict Transformation. Potentials and
Limits. Berlin:
Berghof Research Center for Constructive Conflict Management / Online Berghof
Handbook for
Conflict Transformation (Version: July 2006). Available online at www.berghof-
handbook.net/
uploads/download/boege_handbook.pdf.
Equity and Reconciliation Commission (ERC) 2005. Attaqrir Al Khetami [Final Report
/Rapport Final ]. Rabat:
ERC. Available online at www.ier.ma.
Fischer, Martina 2006. Civil Society in Conflict Transformation: Ambivalence, Potentials
and Challenges.
Berlin: Berghof Research Center for Constructive Conflict Management / Online Berghof
Handbook for Conflict Transformation (Version: Oct. 2006). Available online at
www.berghof-
handbook.net/uploads/download/fischer_cso_handbook.pdf.
Hawthorne, Amy 2004. Middle Eastern Democracy: Is Civil Society the Answer?
(Carnegie Papers Middle
East Series, Paper No. 44.) Washington, DC: Carnegie Endowment for International
Peace.
Available online at http://www.carnegieendowment.org/files/CarnegiePaper44.pdf.
Human Rights Watch 2005. Morocco's Truth Commission Honoring Past Victims during
an Uncertain Present.
New York: Human Rights Watch. Available online at
www.hrw.org/reports/2005/morocco1105/.
Irani, George and Nathan Funk 2000. Rituals of Reconciliation: Arab-Islamic
Perspectives. (Occasional Paper
No. 19.) University of Notre Dame, IN: Joan B. Kroc Institute for International Peace
Studies.
Available online at www.nd.edu/krocinst/ocpapers/op_19_2.pdf.
Lederach, John Paul 1997. Building Peace: Sustainable Reconciliation in Divided
Societies. Washington, DC:
United States Institute of Peace Press.
Mémoire pour l'Avenir 2002. Mémoire pour l'Avenir. Actes du colloque tenu à Beyrouth
les 30 et 31 mars
2001. Beirut: Editions An'nahar.
Mennonite Central Committee (MCC) 1998. Mediation and Facilitation Training
Manual. Foundations and
Skills for Constructive Conflict Transformation. Third Edition. Akron, Ohio: MCC.
Moroccan Human Rights Association 2005. Muthakkarat Taqyym Amali Awwali Lihay'at
Al insaf Walmusalaha
[Preliminary Assessment Memo for the Work of the ERC]. Rabat: Moroccan Human
Rights
Association.
Nasr, Salim 2005. Arab Civil Societies and Public Governance Reform: An Analytical
Framework and
Overview. Report for the Programme on Governance in the Arab Region (POGAR).
Beirut:
United Nations Development Program/POGAR. Available online at www.arabgov-
initiative.org/
publications/civilsociety/arab-civilsociety.pdf.
Permanent Civil Peace Observatory 2004. Marsad Alsil Alahli Walthakira fi Lubnan
[Monitoring Civil Peace
and Memory in Lebanon]. Beirut: Librairie Orientale.
Save the Children/LCRN 1999. Tourouq Atta'amoul Ma' Annizah: Dalil Anchita
Shababiya [Approaches to
Dealing with Conflicts: A Guide for Youth Activities]. Beirut: Save the Children.
Slyomovics, Susan 2005. Morocco's Justice and Reconciliation Commission, in: Middle
East Report Online,
4 April 2005. Available online at www.merip.org/mero/mero040405.html.
Sprenger, Dirk 2005. The Training Process: Achieving Social Impact by Training
Individuals? Berlin: Berghof
Research Center for Constructive Conflict Management / Online Berghof Handbook for
Conflict
Transformation at www.berghof-
handbook.net/uploads/download/sprenger_handbook.pdf.

Page 18 Pagina 18
Oussama Safa
Conflict Resolution and Reconciliation in the Arab World
18 18
© Berghof Research Center for Constructive Conflict Management
Cited Internet Resources
Association Collaboration pour le Développement:
www.tanmia.ma
Fondation Libanaise pour la Paix Permanente:
www.lfpcp.org
Global Partnership for the Prevention of Armed Conflict, Regional Process Middle East
and North Africa:
www.gppac.net
Human Rights Watch:
www.hrw.org
Institute for Islamic-Christian Studies:
www.ieic.usj.edu.lb/
Institute of Law, Birzeit University:
http://lawcenter.birzeit.edu/iol/ar/index.php?action_id=211
International Campaign Against Honour Killing:
www.stophonourkillings.com/index.php?name=News&file=article&sid=1289
International Centre for Transitional Justice:
www.ictj.org
Islamic Christian Dialogue in Lebanon:
www.hiwar.net
Lebanese Foundation for Permanent Civil Peace:
www.kleudge.com/flpcp/default.htm
Moroccan Human Rights Association:
www.amdh.org.ma/index.htm
National Commission for Equity and Reconciliation, Morocco (ERC):
www.ier.ma
Search for Common Ground, Morocco Programme:
www.sfcg.org/programmes/morocco/morocco_shanty.html
The Author Autorul
Oussama Safa is General Director of the Lebanese Center for Policy Studies, a public
policy think tank based in Beirut, Lebanon. Prior to this, he worked in senior positions
with the
World Economic Forum's Council of 100 Leaders, Search for Common Ground and the
Lebanon
Conflict Resolution Network (LCRN). Oussama Safa has extensive experience working
with civil
society in the MENA region; in 1998 he was founding president of Lebanon's Anti-
Corruption
Association, La Fassad. He is a specialist in conflict resolution and has lead and co-lead
several
workshops on mediation, negotiation and collaborative problem-solving in the Middle
East, Africa,
the Caucasus, Southeast Asia, the US and Europe. He is a regular faculty member of
Summer
Institutes on Mediation and Conflict Transformation in the US and Europe and has
authored and
co-authored several publications and book reviews in Arabic and English on dispute
resolution.
He holds graduate degrees in conflict resolution and international development from the
American
University, Washington, DC.