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EC2259 Electrical Engineering And Control System Lab Manual

LAB MANUAL
VEL TECH MULTI TECH
( ISO 9001: 2000 Certified Institution & NBA Accredited )
(Owned by VEL Sree R.Rangarajan Dr. Sagunthala Rangarajan Educational Academy)
Approved by AICTE, New Delhi & Affiliated to Anna University

DEPARTMENT OE ELECTRONICS
AND COMMUNICATION
ENGINEERING

EC 2259 - ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING AND

CONTROL SYSTEM LAB

II YEAR IV SEM ECE

Prepared By HOD/ECE
EC2259 Electrical Engineering And Control System Lab Manual

EC 2259 ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING AND CONTROL SYSTEM LAB 0 0 3 2

AIM
To expose the students to the basic operations of electrical machines and help them to
develop experimental skills.
1. To study the concepts, performance characteristics, time and frequency response of
linear systems.
2. To study the effects of controllers.

1. Open circuit and load characteristics of separately excited and self excited D.C.
generator.
2. Load test on D.C. shunt motor.
3. Swinburne’s test and speed control of D.C. shunt motor.
4. Load test on single phase transformer and open circuit and short circuit test on single
phase transformer
5. Regulation of three phase alternator by EMF and MMF methods.
6. Load test on three phase induction motor.
7. No load and blocked rotor tests on three phase induction motor (Determination of
equivalent circuit parameters)
8. Study of D.C. motor and induction motor starters.
9. Digital simulation of linear systems.
10. Stability Analysis of Linear system using Mat lab.
11. Study the effect of P, PI, PID controllers using Mat lab.
12. Design of Lead and Lag compensator.
13. Transfer Function of separately excited D.C.Generator.
14. Transfer Function of armature and Field Controller D.C.Motor.

P = 45 Total = 45

1. Open circuit and load characteristics of separately excited and self excited D.C.
generator.
Sl. No. Apparatus Range Quantity
1 Motor Generator set - 1
2 Rheostat 200Ω, 5A 1
175Ω, 1.5A 2
3 Voltmeter DC 300V 1
30V 1
4 Ammeter DC 30A 1
2A 2
5 DPST switch 2
6 Three point starter 1
7 Tachometer 1
EC2259 Electrical Engineering And Control System Lab Manual
2. Load test on D.C. shunt motor.

Sl. No. Apparatus Range Quantity

1 DC Motor - 1
2 Rheostat 175Ω, 1.5A 1
3 Voltmeter DC 300V 1
4 Ammeter DC 30A 1
5 DPST switch 1
6 Three point starter 1
7 Tachometer 1

Sl. No. Apparatus Range Quantity

1 DC Motor - 1
2 Rheostat 100Ω, 5A & 175Ω, 1.5A 1
1
3 Voltmeter DC 300V 1
4 Ammeter DC 5A 1
2A 1
5 DPST switch 1
6 Tachometer 1

4. Load test on single-phase transformer and open circuit and short circuit test on
single-phase transformer.
Sl. No. Apparatus Range Quantity
1 Single phase Transformer - 1
2 Wattmeter 300V, 5A,UPF & 300V, 1
5A,LPF 1
3 Voltmeter AC 300V 2
4 Ammeter AC 5A 1
30A 1
5 Single phase auto-transformer 1

5. Regulation of three-phase alternator by EMF and MMF method.

Sl. No. Apparatus Range Quantity
1 Motor Alternator set - 1
2 Rheostat 200Ω, 5A &175Ω, 1.5A 1
1
3 Voltmeter DC 300V 1
Voltmeter AC 600V 1
4 Ammeter DC 2A 1
Ammeter AC 30A 1
5 DPST switch 1
TPST switch 1
6 Tachometer 1
EC2259 Electrical Engineering And Control System Lab Manual

Sl. No. Apparatus Range Quantity

1 Three Phase Induction Motor - 1
2 Wattmeter 600V, 10A,UPF 2
3 Voltmeter AC 600V 1
4 Ammeter AC 10A 1
5 Brake drum arrangement
6 Star delta starter 1
7 Tachometer 1

7. No load and blocked rotor test on three-phase induction motor (Determination of

equivalent circuit parameters)

Sl. No. Apparatus Range Quantity

1 Three Phase Induction Motor - 1
2 Wattmeter 600V, 10A,UPF 2
600V, 5A,LPF 2
3 Voltmeter AC 600V 1
150V 1
4 Ammeter AC 10A 1
5A 1
5 Brake drum arrangement
6 Three phase auto-transformer 1

8. Study of D.C. motor and Induction motor starters.

Sl. No. Apparatus Quantity
1 Three point starter 1
2 Four point starter 1
3 Star-delta starter 1
4 DOL starter 1
5 Three phase auto-transformer 1

Matlab software for minimum 3 users license

EC2259 Electrical Engineering And Control System Lab Manual

12. Design of lead and lag compensator.

Sl. No. Apparatus
1 Resistor
2 Capacitor
3 Function generator

13. Transfer function of separately excited D.C. generator.

Sl. No. Apparatus Range Quantity
1 Motor Generator set - 1
2 Rheostat 200Ω, 5A 1
175Ω, 1.5A 2
3 Voltmeter DC 300V 1
30V 1
4 Ammeter DC 30A 1
2A 2
5 DPST switch 2
6 Three point starter 1
7 Tachometer 1

Sl. No. Apparatus Range Quantity

1 DC Motor - 1
2 Rheostat 175Ω, 1.5A 1
3 Voltmeter DC 300V 1
4 Ammeter DC 30A 1
5 DPST switch 1
6 Three point starter 1
7 Tachometer 1
EC2259 Electrical Engineering And Control System Lab Manual

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EC2259 Electrical Engineering And Control System Lab Manual
LOAD TEST ON DC SHUNT MOTOR
AIM
To conduct the load test on a given dc shunt motor and draw its performance curves.

NAME PLATE DETAILS

FUSE RATING
125% of rated current (full load current)

APPRATUS REQUIRED
NAME OF THE
S. NO TYPE RANGE QUANTITY
APPARATUS
1 Ammeter MC (0-20A) 1
2 Voltmeter MC (0-300V) 1
3 Rheostat Wire wound 250 , 2A 1
4 Tachometer Digital 1

FORMULAE
1. Torque T = (S1~S2) × (R+t/2) × 9.81 in N-m.
Where R- Radius of the Break drum in m.
t- Thickness of the Belt in m.
S1,S2- Spring balance reading in Kg.
2. Input power = VL × IL in Watts.
Where VL – Load Voltage in Volts.
3. Output power = 2 NT/60 in Watts.
Where N- Speed of the armature in rpm.
T- Torque in N-m.
4. Percentage of Efficiency = (Output power/Input power) × 100
EC2259 Electrical Engineering And Control System Lab Manual

3 POINT STARTER (0-20A)

MC
L F A
A
Fuse

250 , 2A A S1 S2
D F
P
220V S (0-300V) M
DC SUPPLY T V MC
S
BRAKE DRUM
FF AA

Fuse

Model Graph
(A) Electrical characteristics (B) Mechanical characteristics

N T Torque Vs Speed
IL %
Speed in rpm

T in N-m

N in rpm

Torque in N-m
IL in Amps
(C) Torque, Speed Vs Load Current

Speed
Output power in watts Torque
Torque in N-m
Speed in rpm

EC2259 Electrical Engineering And Control System Lab Manual

PRECAUTION
• The motor field rheostat should be kept at minimum resistance position.
• At the time of starting, the motor should be in no load condition.
• The motor should be run in anticlockwise direction.

PROCEDURE
• Connections are given as per the circuit diagram.
• Using the three-point starter the motor is started to run at the rated speed by adjusting the
field rheostat if necessary.
• By using the Break drum with spring balance arrangement the motor is loaded and the
corresponding readings are noted up to the rated current.
• The motor is switched off by using the DPIC switch.

GRAPH
The graphs are drawn as
• Output power Vs Efficiency
• Output power Vs Armature current
• Output power Vs Torque
• Output power Vs Speed
• Torque Vs Speed
• Torque Vs Armature current
• Speed Vs Armature current
EC2259 Electrical Engineering And Control System Lab Manual

Tabulation for load test on DC shunt motor

Radius of the brake dram = Thickness of the belt =

Current Voltage the motor (S1~S2)(R+t/2)(9.81) power power O/p / I/p
S.No (IL) (VL) (N) 2 NT/60 (VLIL) x100
S1 S1~S2
S2
Amps Volts Rpm Kg Kg Kg N-m Watts Watts %
EC2259 Electrical Engineering And Control System Lab Manual

MODEL CALCULATION

RESULT
Thus the load test on DC shunt motor and its performance curves are drawn.
EC2259 Electrical Engineering And Control System Lab Manual

SPEED CONTROL OF DC SHUNT MOTOR

AIM
To conduct an experiment to control the speed of the given dc shunt motor by field and
armature control method also to draw its characteristic curves.

NAME PLATE DETAILS

FUSE RATING
10% of rated current (full load current)

APPRATUS REQUIRED
NAME OF THE
S.NO TYPE RANGE QUANTITY
APPARATUS
1 Ammeter MC (0-2A) 1
2 Ammeter MC (0-10A) 1
3 Voltmeter MC (0-300V) 1
4 Rheostat Wire wound 250 , 2A 1
5 Rheostat Wire wound 50 , 5A 1
6 Tachometer Digital 1

PRECAUTION
• The motor field rheostat should be kept at minimum resistance position.
• The motor armature rheostat should be kept at maximum resistance position.
• The motor should be in no load condition throughout the experiment.
• The motor should be run in anticlockwise direction.
EC2259 Electrical Engineering And Control System Lab Manual

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM FOR SPEED CONTROL OF DC SHUNT MOTOR

(0-10A)
MC
3 POINT STARTER
A
L F A
Fuse 50 , 5A

A A
D 250 , 2A F
P (0-2A)
220V S MC
DC SUPPLY T M V (0-300V)
MC
S

FF AA

Fuse

Tabulation for Speed control of DC Shunt motor

Armature Control Method Field Control Method

S.No. Armature Speed Field Current Speed

Voltage (Va) (N) (If) (N)
Volts RPM Amps RPM

Prepared by G.Panneerselvam, Vel Tech Multi Tech

EC2259 Electrical Engineering And Control System Lab Manual

Model Graph
(A) Armature Control Method: (B) Field Control Method:

Armature Voltage Vs Speed

Field Current Vs Speed

Speed in rpm
Speed in rpm

Armature Voltage in Volts Field Current in Amps

PROCEDURE
Field Control Method (Flux Control Method)
• Connections are given as per the circuit diagram.
• Using the three point starter the motor is started to run.
• The armature rheostat is adjusted to run the motor at rated speed by means of
applying the rated voltage.
• The field rheostat is varied gradually and the corresponding field current and speed
are noted up to 120% of the rated speed by keeping the Armature current as
constant.
• The motor is switched off using the DPIC switch after bringing all the rheostats to
their initial position.
Armature Control Method (Voltage Control Method)
• Connections are given as per the circuit diagram.
• Using the three point starter the motor is started to run.
• The armature rheostat is adjusted to run the motor at rated speed by means of
applying the rated voltage.
• The armature rheostat is varied gradually and the corresponding armature voltage
armature current and speed are noted up to the rated voltage.
• The motor is switched off using the DPIC switch after bringing all the rheostats to
their initial position
GRAPH
The graph are drawn as
• Field current Vs Speed
• Armature current Vs Speed
RESULT
Thus the speed control of the given DC shunt motor using field control and armature
control method and its characteristic curves are drawn.

Prepared by G.Panneerselvam, Vel Tech Multi Tech

EC2259 Electrical Engineering And Control System Lab Manual

SWINBURNE’S TEST

AIM
To predetermine the efficiency of a given dc shunt machine when working as a motor as well
as generator by Swinburne’s test and also draw the characteristic curves.

FUSE RATING

10% of rated current (full load current)

APPRATUS REQUIRED

NAME OF THE
S.NO TYPE RANGE QUANTITY
APPARATUS
1 Ammeter MC (0-2A) 1
2 Ammeter MC (0-10A) 1
3 Voltmeter MC 0-300V 1
4 Rheostat Wire wound 250 ,2A 1
5 Tachometer Digital 1
EC2259 Electrical Engineering And Control System Lab Manual

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM FOR SWINEBURN’S TEST

(0-10A)
3 POINT STARTER
MC
L F A
A
Fuse
A
250 , 2A (0-2A) A
D F
MC
P
220V S (0-300V)
DC SUPPLY T V MC
M
S

FF AA

Fuse

Tabulation to find out the Constant loss (Wco)

Voltage (V) Current (I0) Armature 2
(If) WCO = VI0-Ia0 Ra
Current (Ia0)
S.No. Volts Amps Amps Amps Watts

Resultant tabulation to find out the Efficiency (Running as motor)

Armature Resistance (Ra)= Rated Current (Ir)=
Constant loss (WC)= Field Current (If) =
Load Armature Armature Total Input Output Power Efficiency
Fraction Current IL= Current Cu Loss Loss Power Wo =Wi- WTotal = Wo/ Wi
S.No. of X×Ir Ia= IL- If WCu=Ia2Ra WTotal Wi=VLIL
(X) Amps Amps Watts Watts Watts Watts %
1 1/4

2 1/2

3 3/4

4 1
EC2259 Electrical Engineering And Control System Lab Manual

FORMULAE
1. Armature resistance (Ra) = 1.6 × RDC in Ohms.
Where,
RDC – Resistance of the Armature coil, when it is energized by DC supply.
2. Constant loss (WCO ) = (V Io-Iao2Ra) in Watts..
Where V = Terminal Voltage in Volts
Io = No Load Current in Amps
Iao = No Load Armature Current. in Amps
3. Armature Current (Ia) = (IL ± If ) in Amps.
Where, + is used for Generator,
- is used for Motor.
4. Copper loss (WCU ) = Ia2Ra in Watts.
5. Total loss = Constant loss + Copper loss in Watts
6. Input power for motor / Output power for generator = V IL in Watts
Where, IL is Load current in Amps
7. Output power for motor = Input power + losses
Input power for Generator = Output power - losses
8. Percentage of Efficiency = (Output power/Input power) × 100

PRECAUTION
• The motor field rheostat should be kept at minimum resistance position.
• The motor should be at no load condition through out the experiment.
• The motor should be run in anticlockwise direction.

PROCEDURE
• Connections are given as per the circuit diagram.
• By using the three point starter the motor is started to run at the rated speed.
• The motor is switched off using the DPIC switch.
• After that the Armature resistive test is conducted as per the circuit diagram and the voltage
and current are noted for various resistive loads.
EC2259 Electrical Engineering And Control System Lab Manual

Running as generator
Armature Resistance (Ra)= Rated Current (Ir)=
Constant loss (WC)= Field Current (If)=

Fraction Current Current Cu Loss Loss Power Input Power Efficiency
S.No. of IL= X×Ir Ia= IL+ If WCu=Ia2Ra WTotal Wo=VLIL Wi = Wo/
=Wo+WTotal Wi
(X)
Amps Amps Watts Watts Watts Watts %

1 1/4

2 1/2

3 3/4

4 1
EC2259 Electrical Engineering And Control System Lab Manual

Model Graph

Generator

Motor
Efficiency

Output Power (Wo) in Watts

GRAPH
The graph drawn between Load current Vs Efficiency

RESULT
Thus the efficiency of the given DC shunt machine by Swinburne’s test when working as a
motor as well as generator and also draw the characteristic curves are drawn.
EC2259 Electrical Engineering And Control System Lab Manual

OPEN CIRCUIT TEST AND LOAD TEST ON SELF EXCITED DC

SHUNT GENERATOR

AIM
To conduct the open circuit test and the load test on a given self excited dc shunt generator and
draw the characteristic curves.

NAME PLATE DETAILS

FUSE RATING
125% of rated current (full load current)

APPRATUS REQUIRED
NAME OF THE
S.NO TYPE RANGE QUANTITY
APPARATUS
1 Ammeter MC (0-2A) 1
2 Ammeter MC (0-20A) 2
3 Voltmeter MC (0-300V) 1
4 Rheostat Wire wound 250 , 2A 1
5 Rheostat Wire wound 350 , 1.5A 1
6 Tachometer Digital - 1
7 Resistive Load Variable - 1

PRECAUTION
• The motor field rheostat should be kept at minimum resistance position.
• The generator field rheostat should be kept at maximum resistance position.
• At the time of starting, the generator should be in no load condition.
EC2259 Electrical Engineering And Control System Lab Manual

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM FOR OPEN CIRCUIT AND LOAD TEST ON SELF EXCITED
DC SHUNT GENERATOR

3 POINT STARTER
L F A
A A

1050 , 1.5A
Fuse (0-2A) Fuse
(0-20A) MC (0-20A)
250 , 2A MC MC
F A A A
D D
F L
P P
220V S S O
DC SUPPLY T M G (0-300V) V T A
MC
S S D
17

FF AA AA FF

Fuse Fuse

Prepared by G.Panneerselvam, Vel Tech Multi Tech

EC2259 Electrical Engineering And Control System Lab Manual

PROCEDURE

Open circuit test

• Connections are given as per the circuit diagram.
• The Prime Mover is started with the help of the three point starter and it is made to
run at rated speed when the Generator is disconnected from the load by DPST
switch.
• By varying the Generator field rheostat gradually, the Open Circuit Voltage (Eo)
and corresponding Field Current (If) are tabulated upto 150 % of Rated Voltage of
Generator.
• The motor is switched off by using the DPIC switch after bringing all the rheostats
to their initial position.

• Connections are given as per the circuit diagram.
• The Prime Mover is started with the help of the three point starter and it is made to
run at rated speed when the Generator is disconnected from the load by DPST
switch.
• By varying the Generator field rheostat gradually, the Rated Voltage (Eg) is
obtained.
• The Ammeter and Voltmeter readings are observed at no load condition.
• The Ammeter and Voltmeter readings are observed for different loads up to the
rated current by closing the DPST switch.
• The Prime Mover is switched off using the DPIC switch after bringing all the
rheostats to their initial position.

GRAPH
The graph are drawn as
• Open Circuit Voltage Vs Field Current

Prepared by G.Panneerselvam, Vel Tech Multi Tech

EC2259 Electrical Engineering And Control System Lab Manual

Tabulation for OC and Load test on self excited DC Shunt Generator

Generator Armature Resistance (Ra):

Voltage Current Voltage Current Current Drop Eg=VL+ Ia Ra
S.No. (E0) (If) (VL) (IL) (Ia) Ia Ra
Volts Amps Volts Amps Amps Volts Volts

Model Graph

(A) Open Circuit Characteristics (B) Internal (EgVs Ia) and External (VLVs IL) Characteristics
Generated EMF (Eg) in Volts

Open Circuit Voltage (E0)

(EgVs Ia)
(E0) Vs (If)
(VLVs IL)
in Volts

Field Current (If) in Armature Current (Ia) Load Current (IL) in Amps
Amps in Amps

RESULT
Thus the open circuit test and load test on a given self excited DC generator and the
characteristic curves are drawn.

Prepared by G.Panneerselvam, Vel Tech Multi Tech

EC2259 Electrical Engineering And Control System Lab Manual

OPEN CIRCUIT TEST AND LOAD TEST ON SEPARATELY EXCITED

DC GENERATOR

AIM
To conduct the open circuit test and the load test on a given separately excited dc generator and
draw the characteristic curves.

NAME PLATE DETAILS

FUSE RATING
125% of rated current (full load current)

APPRATUS REQUIRED

NAME OF THE
S.NO TYPE RANGE QUANTITY
APPARATUS
1 Ammeter MC (0-2A) 1
2 Ammeter MC (0-20A) 2
3 Voltmeter MC (0-300V) 1
4 Rheostat Wire wound 250 , 2A 1
5 Rheostat Wire wound 350 , 1.5A 1
6 Tachometer Digital - 1
7 Resistive Load Variable - 1

PRECAUTION
• The motor field rheostat should be kept at minimum resistance position.
• The generator field rheostat should be kept at maximum resistance position.
• At the time of starting, the generator should be in no load condition.

Prepared by G.Panneerselvam, Vel Tech Multi Tech

EC2259 Electrical Engineering And Control System Lab Manual

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM FOR OPEN CIRCUIT AND LOAD TEST ON SEPERATELY EXCITED
DC GENERATOR
(0-20A)
3 POINT STARTER MC
L F A
A A
Fuse Fuse
(0-20A)
250 , 2A A A MC
D F D
P FF
(0-300V) P
L
220V S MC S O
DC SUPPLY T M G V T A
S S
F D
(0-2A)
FF AA AA A MC
23

Fuse Fuse

D Fuse
P 350 , 1.5A
220V S
DC SUPPLY T
S

Fuse

Prepared by G.Panneerselvam, Vel Tech Multi Tech

EC2259 Electrical Engineering And Control System Lab Manual

PROCEDURE

Open circuit test

• Connections are given as per the circuit diagram.
• The Prime Mover is started with the help of the three point starter and it is made to run at rated
speed when the Generator is disconnected from the load by DPST switch.
• By varying the Generator field rheostat gradually, the Open Circuit Voltage (Eo) and
corresponding Field Current (If) are tabulated upto 150 % of Rated Voltage of Generator.
• The motor is switched off by using the DPIC switch after bringing all the rheostats to initial
position.

• Connections are given as per the circuit diagram.
• The Prime Mover is started with the help of the three point starter and it is made to run at rated
speed when the Generator is disconnected from the load by DPST switch..
• By varying the Generator field rheostat gradually, the Rated Voltage (Eg) is obtained.
• The Ammeter and Voltmeter readings are observed at no load condition.
• The Ammeter and Voltmeter readings are observed for different loads up to the rated current by
closing the DPST switch..
• After tabulating all the readings the load is brought to initial position.
• The motor is switched off using the DPIC switch after bringing all the rheostats to initial position.

GRAPH
The graph drawn as
• Open Circuit Voltage Vs Field Current

Prepared by G.Panneerselvam, Vel Tech Multi Tech

EC2259 Electrical Engineering And Control System Lab Manual

Tabulation for OC and Load test on separately excited DC Generator

Generator Armature Resistance (Ra):

Voltage Current Voltage Current Current Drop Eg=VL+ Ia Ra
S.No. (E0) (If) (VL) (IL) (Ia) Ia Ra
Volts Amps Volts Amps Amps Volts Volts

Model Graph

(A) Open Circuit Characteristics (B) Internal (EgVs Ia) and External (VLVs IL) Characteristics
Generated EMF (Eg) in Volts

Open Circuit Voltage (E0)

(EgVs Ia)
(E0) Vs (If)
(VLVs IL)
in Volts

Field Current (If) in Armature Current (Ia) Load Current (IL) in Amps
Amps in Amps

RESULT
Thus the open circuit test and load test on a given separately excited DC generator and the
characteristic curves are drawn.

Prepared by G.Panneerselvam, Vel Tech Multi Tech

EC2259 Electrical Engineering And Control System Lab Manual

LOAD TEST ON SINGLE PHASE TRANSFORMER

AIM
To conduct the load test on a given single phase transformer and draw its performance curves.

NAME PLATE DETAILS

FUSE RATING
Primary Current = KVA Rating of the Transformer / Primary Voltage.

125% of Secondary current (fuse rating for secondary side)

APPRATUS REQUIRED

NAME OF THE
S.NO TYPE RANGE QUANTITY
APPARATUS

1 Ammeter MI (0-5A) 1
2 Ammeter MI (0-20A) 1
3 Voltmeter MI (0-150V) 1
4 Voltmeter MI (0-300V) 1
5 Watt meter UPF 300V, 5A 1
6
Auto Transformer 1φ 230/(0-270V 1

Prepared by G.Panneerselvam, Vel Tech Multi Tech

EC2259 Electrical Engineering And Control System Lab Manual

A (0-5A) 300V, 5A UPF (0-10A)

MI MI
P A M L
A
Fuse Fuse
SPSTS
C 150V
P1
B S1 D
(0-150V) P L
1Ø, 230V, 50Hz (0-300V) MI S O
AC SUPPLY V V
MI T A
S D
S2
P2
33

C
NL
N Fuse
230/(0-270V) 1Ø 230/110V, 1KVA
1Ø AUTO STEP DOWN
TRANSFORMER TRANSFORMER
EC2259 Electrical Engineering And Control System Lab Manual

FORMULAE
1. Input Power =Wattmeter reading × Multiplication factor in Watts
Where, (Rating of pressure coil × Rating of current coil × pf )
Multiplication factor =

2.Output power = VSY × ISY × cosφ in Watts.

Where VSY - Secondary Voltage in Volts.
ISY- Secondary current in Amps.
3.Percentage of Efficiency = × 100 %
Output Power
Input Power
4.Percentage of Regulation = × 100 %
VO – VL
VO
Where, VO – No Load Voltage in Volts
VL – Load Voltage in Volts

PRECAUTION
• No Load Condition should be observed at the time of starting
• Meters are checked for proper Type and rating.

PROCEDURE
• Connections are given as per the circuit diagram.
• The SPST Switch on the Primary side is closed and the DPST Switch on the Secondary side is
opened.
• The Autotransformer is adjusted to Energize the transformer with rated Primary Voltage
• The Volt meters and Ammeters Readings are noted and tabulated at No load condition
• The DPST switch on the secondary side is closed.
• The transformer is loaded upto 130% of the Rated Load, corresponding Ammeters, Voltmeters
and Wattmeters readings are noted and tabulated.
• After the observation of all the readings the load is released gradually to its initial position.
• The Autotransformer is brought to its initial position
• The Supply is switched off.

GRAPH
The graph drawn as
• Output power Vs Efficiency
• Output power Vs Regulation

Prepared by G.Panneerselvam, Vel Tech Multi Tech

EC2259 Electrical Engineering And Control System Lab Manual

Tabulation for Load test on single phase transformer

Multiplication Factor =

Wattmeter Efficiency % Of
Primary Primary Secondary Secondary readings Input Output power η)
(η Regulation
S.No Voltage Current Voltage Current (W) power φ
VSy ISy cosφ O/p / I/p VNL-VLOAD
(VPy) (IPy) (VSy) (ISy) (W) ×100 VLOAD
Obs. Act.
Volts Amps Volts Amps Watts Watts Watts %

Prepared by G.Panneerselvam, Vel Tech Multi Tech

EC2259 Electrical Engineering And Control System Lab Manual

Model Graph

Regulation
% Of Regulation

% Of Effeciency Effeciency

Output power in watts

RESULT
Thus the load test on a given single phase transformer is done and the characteristic curves are
drawn.

Prepared by G.Panneerselvam, Vel Tech Multi Tech

EC2259 Electrical Engineering And Control System Lab Manual

OPEN CIRCUIT TEST AND SHORT CIRCUIT TEST

ON SINGLE PHASE TRANSFORMER

AIM
To Predetermine the Efficiency and Regulation on a given single phase transformer by
conducting the Open Circuit test and Short Circuit test and also draw its Equivalent circuit.

NAME PLATE DETAILS

FUSE RATING
Primary Current = KVA Rating of the Transformer / Primary Voltage.

125% of Secondary current (fuse rating for Short circuit test)

APPARATUS REQUIRED

S.No Name of the apparatus Type Range Quantity

1 Ammeter MI (0-1A) 1
2 Ammeter MI (0-10A) 1
3 Voltmeter MI (0-150V) 1
4 Voltmeter MI (0-300V) 1
5 Watt meter UPF 300V, 1A 1
6
Watt meter UPF 75V, 5A 1
7 Auto Transformer 1φ 230/(0-270V) 1

Prepared by G.Panneerselvam, Vel Tech Multi Tech

EC2259 Electrical Engineering And Control System Lab Manual

(0-5A) 150V, 5A LPF

A
MI
P A M L
Fuse
SPSTS
C 150V
B S1
P1
1Ø, 230V, 50Hz (0-150V) (0-300V)
AC SUPPLY V V
MI MI

P2
S2
39

C
NL
N
230/(0-270V) 1Ø 110/230V, 1KVA
1Ø AUTO STEP UP
TRANSFORMER TRANSFORMER

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EC2259 Electrical Engineering And Control System Lab Manual

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM FOR SHORT CIRCUIT TEST ON SINGLE PHASE TRANSFORMER

(0-5A)
A 300V, 10A UPF
MI
P A M L A
Fuse
SPSTS (0-10A)
C 75V
P1 MI
B
S1
1Ø, 230V, 50Hz (0-75V) SC
AC SUPPLY V
MI

S2
41

P2
C
NL
N
230/(0-270V) 1Ø 230/110V, 1KVA
1Ø AUTO STEP DOWN
TRANSFORMER TRANSFORMER

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EC2259 Electrical Engineering And Control System Lab Manual

Tabulation for OC and SC test on Single phase transformer

Open Circuit test Multiplication Factor =

Open Circuit Open circuit Open Circuit power (WOC) Open Circuit
S.No. Primary Primary secondary
Current (IOC) Voltage (VOC) Obs. Act. Voltage (V2O)
Amps Volts Watts Watts Volts

Sh
ort
Circuit test
Multiplication Factor =

Short Circuit Short circuit Short Circuit power (WSC) Short Circuit
S.No. Primary Primary secondary
Obs. Act.
Current (ISC) Voltage (VSC) Current (I2S)
Amps Volts Watts Watts Volts

Core (Or) Iron Loss = A Rating of Transformer =

Rated Short Circuit Current (ISC) = Short Circuit Power (WSC) =

Short Output power Copper Total Loss Efficiency

Fraction of circuit Loss WT = O/p
Load (X) Current (X2 WSC) η= O/p+TL
0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 Wi+WSC
(ISC×X)
Amps Watts Watts Watts %

1/4

1/2

3/4

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EC2259 Electrical Engineering And Control System Lab Manual

FORMULAE

EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT

Open Circuit Test

Woc
φo) = Voc × Ioc
1. No Load Power Factor (Cosφ
Where, Woc – Open Circuit Power in Watts
Voc – Open Circuit Voltage in Volts
Ioc – Open Circuit Current in Amps
Voc
2.No Load Working Component Resistance (Ro) = Ioc × Cosφo in Ohms
Where Voc – Open Circuit Voltage in Volts.
Ioc – Open Circuit current in Amps.
Voc
3. No Load Magnetizing Component Reactance( Xo) = Ioc × Sinφ in Ohms
o
Where Voc – Open Circuit Voltage in Volts.
Ioc – Open Circuit current in Amps.

Short Circuit Test

Vsc
4. Equivalent impedance referred to HV side ( Z02 ) = Isc
in Ohms
Where, Vsc – Short circuit Voltage in Volts
Isc – Short circuit current in Amps
5. Equivalent resistance referred to HV side (R02 ) = Wsc2 in Ohms
Isc
Where, Wsc – Short circuit Power in Watts

6. Equivalent reactance referred to HV side (X02) = Z022 - R022 in Ohms

V
7. Transformation ratio (K) = V2
1
Where, V1 – Primary voltage in Volts
V2 – Secondary Voltage in Volts
R02
K2
8. Equivalent resistance referred to LV side (R01) = in Ohms

9. Equivalent reactance referred to LV side (X01) = X02 in Ohms

K2
Efficiency and Regulation
10. Output Power = X ×KVA × cosφ in Watts.
KVA - power rating of Transformer and Cosφ - Power factor

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EC2259 Electrical Engineering And Control System Lab Manual

11. Copper loss = X2 × Wsc in Watts

Where, Wsc- Copper Loss in Short Circuit condition
12. Total Loss = (Cu Loss + Iron Loss) in Watts

Output power
13. Efficiency = x 100 in %
(Output power +Total Losses)

V2o

Where, V2o – Open Circuit Voltage on HV side.

PRECAUTION
• No Load Condition should be observed at the time of starting
• Meters are checked for proper Type and rating.

PROCEDURE

OPEN CIRCUIT TEST

• Connections are given as per the circuit diagram.
• The SPST Switch on the Primary side is closed.
• The Autotransformer is adjusted to Energize the transformer with rated Primary Voltage
on the LV side
• The Volt meter, Watt meter and Ammeter Readings are noted at No load condition
• The Autotransformer is brought to its initial position
• The Supply is switched off.

SHORT CIRCUIT TEST

• Connections are given as per the circuit diagram.
• The SPST Switch on the Primary side is closed
• The Autotransformer is adjusted to energize the transformer with rated Primary Current on
the HV side.
• The Voltmeter, Wattmeter and Ammeter Readings are noted down at short circuit
condition.
• The Autotransformer is brought to its initial position
• The Supply is switched off.

GRAPH
The graph are drawn as
• Output power Vs Efficiency
• Output power Vs Regulation

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EC2259 Electrical Engineering And Control System Lab Manual

ISC = RO2 = XO2 = V2(OC) =

Fraction % Of Regulation
of Load Value of Cosø Value of Sinø 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2

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EC2259 Electrical Engineering And Control System Lab Manual

Equivalent circuit for Single phase Transformer

R01 X01
P I1

I0

Iw I

V1 R0 X0 ZL

Model Graph

1.0 pf X=1
Regulation
X =3/4
0.8 pf
X =1/2
0.6 pf
Effeciency

X =1/4
0.4 pf
0.2 pf
Leading pf Unity pf Lagging pf

Short Circuit Current (ISC) in Amps

RESULT
Thus the efficiency and regulation of a given single phase transformer by conducing the open
circuit test and short circuit test is determined and the equivalent circuit is drawn.

Prepared by G.Panneerselvam, Vel Tech Multi Tech

EC2259 Electrical Engineering And Control System Lab Manual

LOAD TEST ON THREE PHASE SQUIRREL CAGE

INDUCTION MOTOR

AIM
To conduct a load test on a three phase squirrel cage induction motor and to draw the
performance characteristic curves.

NAME PLATE DETAILS

! " "# \$% "&'"

FUSE RATING
125% of rated current (Full load current)

APPARATUS REQUIRED
NAME OF THE
S.NO TYPE RANGE QUANTITY
APPARATUS
1. Ammeter MI (0-10 A) 1
2. Voltmeter MI (0-600 V) 1
3. Wattmeter UPF (500V, 10A) 1
4. Tachometer - - 1

FORMULAE USED
1.Torque = (S1-S2) (R+t/2) x 9.81 N-m
Where, S1, S2 – spring balance readings in Kg.
R - Radius of brake drum in m.
t - Thickness of belt in m.
2. Output Power = 2 πNT/60 watts.
N- Rotor speed in rpm.
T- Torque in N-m.
3. Input Power = (W1+W2) Watts.
W1, W2 – Wattmeter readings in Watts.

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EC2259 Electrical Engineering And Control System Lab Manual

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM FOR LOAD TEST ON THREE PHASE SQUIRRAL CAGE INDUCTION MOTOR

STAR-DELTA
STARTER
600V, 10A UPF

M L
R L1
Fuse A1 C2
600V S1 S2
C
A1
V (0-600) V
MI
415V, 50Hz, 3Ø A2 R
T
AC SUPPLY P A2 C1
Y S A BRAKE DRUM
L2
T Fuse B1 B2
S (0-10) A B1
STATOR
MI
B2
51

C 600V
C1
B L3
Fuse M L
600V, 10A UPF
C2

NL
N N

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EC2259 Electrical Engineering And Control System Lab Manual

4. Percentage of Efficiency = (Output Power/ Input Power) x 100%.

5. Percentage of Slip = (NS-Nr)/Ns x 100%
Ns-Synchronous speed in rpm.
Nr-Rotor speed in rpm.
6.Power factor = (W1+W2)/√3 VLIL.

PRECAUTION

PROCEDURE:

• Connections are given as per the circuit diagram.

• The TPSTS is closed and the motor is started using On Line starter to run at rated speed.
• At no load the speed, current, voltage and power are noted down.
• By applying the load for various values of current the above-mentioned readings are noted.
• The load is later released and the motor is switched off and the graph is drawn. .

GRAPH
The graph are drawn as

• Output Power Vs Speed

• Output Power Vs Line current
• Output Power Vs Torque
• Output Power Vs Power factor
• Output Power Vs % Efficiency
• Output Power Vs % Slip.

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EC2259 Electrical Engineering And Control System Lab Manual

Tabulation for load test on three phase squirrel cage induction motor
Multiplication Factor:

Curren Voltage power of the reading (S1~S2) (R+t/2)
(9.81)
power η)
(η Factor
S.No t (VL) W1 W2 motor 2 NT/60 O/p / I/p (cosφφ)
(IL) (N) X100 I/p /
Obs. Act. Obs. Act. W1+W2
S1 S2 S1~S2
√3 VLIL
Amps Volts Watts Watts rpm Kg Kg Kg N-m Watts %

Prepared by G.Panneerselvam, Vel Tech Multi Tech

EC2259 Electrical Engineering And Control System Lab Manual

Model Graphs:

Torque Vs Speed

Speed in RPM

Torque in N-m

N T
Cos φ IL % %

T in N-m

N in rpm Cos φ

IL in Amps

O/P power in watts

RESULT
Thus the load test on a given three phase squirrel cage induction motor is done and the
characteristic curves are drawn.

Prepared by G.Panneerselvam, Vel Tech Multi Tech

EC2259 Electrical Engineering And Control System Lab Manual

EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT OF THREE PHASE SQUIRREL CAGE

INDUCTION MOTOR

AIM
To conduct a No Load test and Blocked Rotor test on three phase squirrel cage induction motor
and to draw the equivalent circuit.

NAME PLATE DETAILS

! " "# \$% "&'"

FUSE RATING

APPARATUS REQUIRED
S.NO. NAME OF THE TYPE RANGE QUANTITY
APPARATUS
1. Ammeter MC (0-10 A) 1
2. Ammeter MI (0-10 A) 2
3. Voltmeter MI (0-150 V) 1
4. Voltmeter MI (0-600 V) 1
5. Voltmeter MC (0-50 V) 1
6. Wattmeter LPF (600V, 10A) (150V, 2
7. Wattmeter UPF 10A) 2
Tachometer - - 1

FORMULAE USED

OC Test
1. No load power factor (Cos φ0) = P0/V0I0
V0 - No load voltage per phase in volts.
I0 - No load current per phase in amps.
P0 - No load power per phase in watts.
2. Working component current (Iw) = I0 (ph) X Cos φ0
3. Magnetizing current (Im) = I0 (ph) X Sin φ0
4. No load resistance (R0) =V0/I0 (ph) Cos φ0 in Ω.

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EC2259 Electrical Engineering And Control System Lab Manual

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM FOR NO LOAD TEST ON THREE PHASE SQUIRREL CAGE

INDUCTION MOTOR
(Equivalent circuit)
415 / (0-470) V
3Ø AUTO TRANSFORMER

A1 600V, 10A LPF

B1 M L
R
Fuse A1 C2
C 600V
C1 (0-600) V
V
MI
415V, 50Hz, 3Ø R
T
AC SUPPLY A2
P A2 C1
S B2
Y A
T B1 B2
Fuse
S (0-10) A STATOR
57

MI
C2

A3 C
600V
B B3
Fuse M L
600V, 10A LPF

C3

NL
N

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EC2259 Electrical Engineering And Control System Lab Manual

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM FOR BLOCKED ROTOR TEST ON THREE PHASE SQUIRREL CAGE
INDUCTION MOTOR
(Equivalent circuit)

415 / (0-470) V
3Ø AUTO TRANSFORMER

A1 150V, 10A UPF

B1 M L
R
Fuse A1 C2
150V S1 S2
C
C1 (0-150) V
V
MI
415V, 50Hz, 3Ø T R
AC SUPPLY P A2
A2 C1
S B2 BRAKE DRUM
Y
T
A
Fuse B1 B2
59

S (0-10) A
MI
C2
STATOR

A3 C 150V
B3
B
Fuse M L
150V, 10A UPF

C3
NL
N

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EC2259 Electrical Engineering And Control System Lab Manual

Tabulation for No Load test on three phase Squirrel cage Induction motor
Speed of the Induction motor:
Type of the Stator connection:
Multiplication Factor:
Current Voltage P0=(W1+W2) P0 (Ph)=(P0/3) Voltage/Phase
W1 I0 (Ph)
S.No (I0) (V0) V0 (Ph)
W2
Observed Actual Observed Actual
Amps Volts Watts Watts Watts Watts Watts Watts Amps Volts

Tabulation for Blocked rotor test on three phase Squirrel cage Induction motor
Type of the Stator connection:
Multiplication Factor:

Short Short Short Circuit Power Total Short Short Circuit Short Circuit Short Circuit
Circuit Circuit Circuit Power Power/Phase Current/Phase Voltage/Phase
S.No Current Voltage W1 PSC=(W1+W PSC ISC (Ph) VSC (Ph)
(ISC) (VSC) W2 2) (Ph)=(P0/3)
Observed Actual Observed Actual
Amps Volts Watts Watts Watts Watts Watts Watts Amps Volts

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EC2259 Electrical Engineering And Control System Lab Manual

5. No load reactance (X0) = V0/I0 (ph) Sin φ0 in Ω.

SC Test
6. Motor equivalent Impedance referred to stator (Zsc(ph)) = Vsc(ph) / Isc(ph) in Ω.
7. Motor equivalent Resistance referred to stator (Rsc(ph)) = Psc(ph) / I2sc(ph) in Ω.
8. Motor equivalent Reactance referred to stator (Xsc(ph)) = √(Z sc(ph)2- R sc(ph)2) in Ω.
9. Rotor Resistance referred to stator (R2’(ph)) = Rsc(ph) – R1 in Ω.
10. Rotor Reactance referred to stator (X2’(ph)) = Xsc(ph) / 2 = X1 in Ω.
Where R1 - stator resistance per phase
X1 – stator reactance per chapter
R1 = R(ac) =1.6 x R(dc)
11. Equivalent load resistance (RL’) = R2’ (1/s – 1) in Ω.
Where Slip (S) = (Ns-Nr) / Ns
Ns – Synchronous speed in rpm.
Nr – Rotor speed in rpm.

PRECAUTION
• The autotransformer should be kept at minimum voltage position

PROCEDURE
• Connections are given as per the circuit diagram.
• For No-Load or open circuit test by adjusting autotransformer, apply rated voltage and
• Note down the ammeter and wattmeter readings. In this test rotor is free to rotate.
• For short circuit or blocked rotor test by adjusting autotransformer, apply rated current
and note down the voltmeter and wattmeter readings. In this test rotor is blocked.
• After that make the connection to measure the stator resistance as per the circuit diagram.

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EC2259 Electrical Engineering And Control System Lab Manual

Equivalent circuit for three phase squirrel cage induction motor

P R1 X1 R2' X2'

I0

Iw I
1Ø, 230V, 50Hz AC
Supply R0 X0 RL' =R2' (1/s-1)

RESULT
Thus the no load and blocked rotor test on a given three phase squirrel cage induction motor and
the equivalent circuit is drawn.

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EC2259 Electrical Engineering And Control System Lab Manual

REGULATION OF THREE PHASE ALTERNATOR BY EMF AND MMF

METHODS.

AIM
To predetermine the regulation of a given three phase Alternator by EMF and MMF method and also draw the
vector diagrams.

NAME PLATE DETAILS

( '" # " ) "

FUSE RATING
125% of rated current (Full load current)

For DC shunt motor:

For Alternator:

APPARATUS REQUIRED

NAME OF THE
S.NO. TYPE RANGE QUANTITY
APPARATUS
1. Ammeter MC (0-2 A) 1
2. Ammeter MC (0-10 A) 1
3. Ammeter MI (0-10 A) 1
4. Voltmeter MI (0-600V) 1
5. Voltmeter MC (0-50V) 1
6. Rheostat Wire Wound (500Ω, 1.2A) 2
7. Rheostat Wire Wound (300Ω, 1.7A) 1
8. Tachometer - - 1

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EC2259 Electrical Engineering And Control System Lab Manual

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM FOR REGULATION OF THREE PHASE ALTERNATOR

BY EMF & MMF METHOD
(Open circuit and Short circuit tests)
3 POINT STARTER
L F A A
Fuse A R Fuse
F (0-10) A
250 , 2A MI
D V (0-600) V
MI
P M T
B N Y P
220V DC S
X S
SUPPLY T XX
T Fuse
S FF AA S
(0-2) A
A MC
79

Fuse Fuse

D Fuse
P 350 , 1.5A
220V S
DC SUPPLY T
S

Fuse

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EC2259 Electrical Engineering And Control System Lab Manual

FORMULAE USED

EMF Method
1. Armature Resistance Ra = 1.6 Rdc in ohms.
Here, Rdc is the resistance in DC supply.

Open circuit voltage (E1 (ph))

2. Synchronous impedance Zs = (from the graph)
Short circuit current (Isc)

3. Synchronous impedance Xs = (Zs² - Ra²) in ohms.

4. Open circuit voltage Eo= (V cosø + Isc Ra) ² + (V sinø - Isc Xs) ² in Volts.
(For lagging power factor)
5. Open circuit voltage Eo= (V cosø + Isc Ra) ² + (V sinø - Isc Xs) ² in Volts
7. Open circuit voltage Eo= (V + Isc Ra) ² + (Isc Xs) ² in Volts
(For Unity power factor)

Eo –Vrated
6. Percentage regulation = Vrated X 100 (both for EMF & MMF method)

PRECAUTION
• The motor field rheostat should be kept in the minimum resistance position.
• The Alternator field Potential divider should be in the maximum voltage position.
• Initially all Switches are in open position.

PROCEDURE FOR BOTH EMF AND MMF METHOD

• Connections are made as per the circuit diagram.
• Give the supply by closing the DPST Switch.
• Using the Three Point starter, start the motor to run at the synchronous speed by varying the
motor field rheostat.
• Conduct an Open Circuit Test by varying the Potential Divider for various values of Field
Current and tabulate the corresponding Open Circuit Voltage readings.
• Conduct a Short Circuit Test by closing the TPST switch and adjust the potential divider to
set the rated Armature Current, tabulate the corresponding Field Current.
• Conduct a Stator Resistance Test by giving connection as per the circuit diagram and

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EC2259 Electrical Engineering And Control System Lab Manual

PROCEDURE TO DRAW THE GRAPH FOR EMF METHOD

• Draw the Open Circuit Characteristics curve (Generated Voltage per phase Vs Field Current).
• Draw the Short Circuit Characteristics curve (Short Circuit Current Vs Field Current).
• From the graph find the open circuit voltage per phase (E1 (Ph)) for the rated Short Circuit Current
(Isc).
• By using respective formulae find the Zs, Xs, Eo and percentage Regulation.
PROCEDURE TO DRAW THE GRAPH FOR MMF METHOD
• Draw the Open Circuit Characteristics curve (Generated Voltage per phase Vs Field Current).
• Draw the Short Circuit Characteristics curve (Short Circuit Current Vs Field Current).
• Draw the line OL to represent If' which gives the rated generated voltage (V).
• Draw the line LA at an angle (90 ± ) to represent If'' which gives the rated full load current (Isc)
on short circuit ((90 + ) for lagging power factor and (90- ) for leading power factor).
• Join the points O and A and find the field current (If) by measuring the distance OA that gives the
Open Circuit Voltage (Eo) from the Open Circuit Characteristics.
• Find the percentage Regulation by using suitable formula.

Tabulation for Regulation of three phase Alternator by EMF and MMF methods
Open circuit test

Field Current Open Circuit Line Open Circuit Phase

S.No. (If) Voltage (V0L) Voltage (V0 (Ph))

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EC2259 Electrical Engineering And Control System Lab Manual

Field Current Short Circuit Current

S.No. (If) (120 to 150 % of rated current)
(ISC)
Amps Amps

Model Graph for EMF Method

OCC

E1 (ph)
Open Circuit Voltage (V0 (Ph)) in Volts
Short Circuit Current (ISC) in Amps

SCC

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EC2259 Electrical Engineering And Control System Lab Manual

Model Graph for MMF Method

E0 (ph)
Lag.
E0 (ph)
Unity
OCC
E0 (ph) SCC
Open Circuit Voltage (V0 (Ph)) in Volts
Short Circuit Current (ISC) in Amps

Unity
A

Lag. A

90- 90+
O L
Field Current (If ) in Amps

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EC2259 Electrical Engineering And Control System Lab Manual

Resultant Tabulation for Regulation of three phase Alternator by EMF and MMF
methods

Percentage of Regulation
S.No. Power EMF Method MMF Method

1. 0.2 - -

2. 0.4 - -

3. 0.6 - -

4. 0.8 - -

5. 1.0

+ % Regulation

From EMF method

From MMF method

Lagging pf
- % Regulation

RESULT
Thus the regulation of three phase alternator by EMF and MMF methods and the regulation curves are
drawn.

Prepared by G.Panneerselvam, Vel Tech Multi Tech

EC2259 Electrical Engineering And Control System Lab Manual

STABILITY ANALYSIS OF LINEAR SYSTEM

AIM
To analysis the stability of the given linear system using Bode Plot, Nyquist Plot and Root Locus.

APPRATUS REQUIRED

S.No Name of the apparatus Type Range Quantity

1 Computer - - 1
2 MATLAB Software - - 1

THEORY
POLAR PLOT
The polar plot of a sinusoidal transfer function G ( jω ) on polar coordinates as ω is varied from zero to
infinity. Thus the polar plot is the locus of vectors G ( jw) and G ( jw) as ω is varied from zero to infinity. The

polar plot is also called Nyquist plot.

NYQUIST STABILITY CRITERION
If G ( s ) H ( s ) contour in the G ( s ) H ( s ) plane corresponding to Nyquist contour in s-plane encircles the
point −1 + j 0 in the anti – clockwise direction as many times as the number of right half s-plane of G ( s ) H ( s ) .
Then the closed loop system is stable.
ROOT LOCUS
The root locus technique is a powerful tool for adjusting the location of closed loop poles to achieve
the desired system performance by varying one or more system parameters.
The path taken by the roots of the characteristics equation when open loop gain K is varied from 0 to
∞ are called root loci (or the path taken by a root of characteristic equation when open loop gain K is varied
from 0 to ∞ is called root locus.)
FREQUENCY DOMAIN SPECIFICATIONS
The performance and characteristics of a system in frequency domain are measured in term of frequency
domain specifications. The requirements of a system to be designed are usually specified in terms of these
specifications.

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EC2259 Electrical Engineering And Control System Lab Manual

The frequency domain specifications are

1. Resonant peak M r .
2. Resonant Frequency ωr .
3. Bandwidth.
4. Cut – off rate
5. Gain margin
6. Phase margin
RESONANT PEAK M r

The maximum value of the magnitude of closed loop transfer function is called the resonant peak M r . A large

resonant peak corresponds to a large over shoot in transient response.

RESONANT FREQUENCY ωr

The bandwidth is the range of frequency for which the system gain is more than −3 dB . The frequency at
which the gain is −3 dB , called cut off frequency. Bandwidth is usually defined for closed loop system and it
transmits the signals whose frequencies are less than cut-off frequency. The bandwidth is a measured of the
ability of a feedback system to produce the input signal, noise rejection characteristics and rise time. A large
bandwidth corresponds to a small rise time or fast response.
CUT-OFF RATE
The slope of the log-magnitude curve near the cut off frequency is called cut-off rate. The cut-off rate
indicates the ability of the system to distinguish the signal from noise.
GAIN MARGIN K g
The gain margin K g is defined as the reciprocal of the magnitude of open loop transfer function at phase cross

over frequency. The frequency at witch the phase of open loop transfer function is 180 is called the phase
cross over frequency ω pc .

PHASE MARGIN γ
The phase margin γ is that amount of additional phase lag at the gain cross over frequency required to bring
the system to the verge of instability, the gain cross over frequency ω gc is the frequency at which the

magnitude of open loop transfer function is unity (or it is the frequency at which the db magnitude is zero).

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EC2259 Electrical Engineering And Control System Lab Manual

PROCEDURE
• Enter the command window of the MATLAB.
• Create a new M – file by selecting File – New – M – File.
• Type and save the program.
• Execute the program by either pressing F5 or Debug – Run.
• View the results.
• Analysis the stability of the system for various values of gain.

PROBLEM

2
Obtain the Bode Plot, Nyquist Plot and Root Locus of the given open loop T.F is H ( s ) = 2
s + 3s + 2
Using Bode Plot
num = [0 0 2]
den = [1 3 2]
bode (num,den)
grid
title (‘BODE DIAGRAM’)
% To Find out Gain Margin
sys = tf (num, den)
bode (sys)
Margin (sys)
[ gm, ph, wpc, wgc ] = margin (sys).

Using Nyquist Plot

num = [0 0 2]
den = [1 3 2]
nyquist (num,den)
grid
title (‘Nyquist Plot’)

Using Nyquist Plot

num = [0 0 2]
den = [1 3 2]
rlocus (num,den)
grid
title (‘Root Locus Plot’)

RESULT
Thus the stability of the given linear system using Bode Plot, Nyquist Plot and Root Locus was
analyzed.

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EC2259 Electrical Engineering And Control System Lab Manual

DIGITAL SIMULATION OF LINEAR SYSTEM

AIM
To simulate the time response characteristics of second order linear system using
MATLAB.

APPRATUS REQUIRED

S.No Name of the apparatus Type Range Quantity

1 Personal Computer - - 1
2 MATLAB Software - - 1

THEORY
The desired performance characteristics of control system are specified in terms of time
domain specification. Systems with energy storage elements cannot respond instantaneously and
will exhibit transient responses, whenever they are subjected to inputs or disturbances.
The desired performance characteristics of a system pf any order may be specified in
terms of the transient response to a unit step input signal.
The transient response of a system to unit step input depends on the initial conditions.
Therefore to compare the time response of various systems it is necessary to start with standard
initial conditions. The most practical standard is to start with the system at rest and output and
all time derivatives there of zero. The transient response of a practical control system often
exhibits damped oscillations before reaching steady state.
The transient response characteristics of a control system to a unit step input are
specified in terms of the following time domain specifications.
1. Delay time td

2. Rise time tr

3. Peak time t p

4. Maximum overshoot M p

5. Settling time t s

1. Delay Time
It is the taken for response to reach 50% of the final value, for the very first time.

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EC2259 Electrical Engineering And Control System Lab Manual

2. Rise Time
It is the time taken for response to raise from 0 to 100% for the very first time. For under
damped system, the rise time is calculated from 0 to 100%. But for over damped system it is the
time taken by the response to raise from 10% to 90%. For critically damped system, it is the
time taken for response to raise from 5% to 95%.
π −θ
Rise time tr =
ωd

−1 1−ξ 2
Where, θ = tan and
ξ

Damped frequency of oscillation ωd = ωn 1−ξ 2

3. Peak Time
It is the time taken for the response to reach the peak value for the very first time. (or) It is the
taken for the response to reach the peak overshoot t p .

π
Rise time t p =
ωd

4. Peak Overshoot (Mp)

It is defined as the ration of the maximum peak value measured from final value to the final
value.
Let final value = c (e)
Maximum vale = c (t p )

c (t p ) − c ( e )
Peak Overshoot, M p =
c (e)

−πξ
1−ξ 2
%M p = e × 100

5. Settling Time
It is defined as the time taken by the response to reach and stay within a specified error. It is
usually expressed as % of final value. The usual tolerable error is 2% or 5% of the final value.
4
Settling Time t s = (For 2% error).
ξωn

3
Settling Time t s = (For 5% error).
ξωn

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EC2259 Electrical Engineering And Control System Lab Manual

PROCEDURE
• Enter the command window of the MATLAB.
• Create a new M – file by selecting File – New – M – File.
• Type and save the program.
• Execute the program by either pressing F5 or Debug – Run.
• View the results.
• Analysis the time domain specifications of the system.

PROBLEM
100
Obtain the time domain specifications of the given open loop T.F is H ( s ) = 2
s + 2 s + 100

MATLAB PROGRAM FOR UNIT IMPULSE PRSPONSE

num = [ 0 0 100 ]
den = [ 1 2 100 ]
impulse (num, den)
grid
title (‘ unit impulse response plot’)

MATLAB PROGRAM FOR UNIT STEP PRSPONSE

num = [ 0 0 100 ]
den = [ 1 2 100 ]
step (num, den)
grid on
title (‘unit step response plot’)

RESULT
Thus the time response characteristic of second order linear system was verified using
MATLAB.

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EC2259 Electrical Engineering And Control System Lab Manual

DESIGN OF P, PI, PID CONTROLLER

AIM
To design P, PI, and PID controllers for first order systems using MATLAB.
APPARATUS REQUIRED
1. Controller and system kit.
2. Patch chords.
3. Computer and Interference chord.
THEORY
Proportional Controller
1. The Proportional Controller is a device that produces the control signal, u (t) which is
Proportional to the input error signal e (t).
In P – controller, u (t) e (t).
Therefore u (t) = Kp c (t).
Where Kp – Proportional gain or constant.
2. The Proportional plus Integral Controller (PI – Controller) produces an output signal
consisting of two terms one on proportional to error signal and the other proportional to
the integral of error signal
In PI – Controller, u (t) [e (t) + | e (t) dt]
Therefore, u (t) = e (t) + Kp / Ti | e (t) dt
Where Kp – Proportional gain or constant,
Ti – Integral Time.
3. The PID Controller produces an output signal consisting of three terms one on
proportional to error signal and the another one proportional to the integral of error
signal and the third one is proportional to derivative of error signal.
In PID Controller, u (t) [e (t) + | e (t) + d /dt ((e (t))]
Therefore, u (t) = e (t) + Kp / Ti | e (t) dt + Kp Td d /dt ((e(t))]
Where Kp – Proportional gain or constant,
Ti – Integral Time.
Td – Derivative Time.

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EC2259 Electrical Engineering And Control System Lab Manual

Type 0 First Order System with P – Controller

Step Input P Controller
(FG)

Level Shifter Level Shifter

Computer CH 0 Computer CH 1
EC2259 Electrical Engineering And Control System Lab Manual

(FG)

Level Shifter Level Shifter

Computer CH 0 Computer CH 1
EC2259 Electrical Engineering And Control System Lab Manual

(FG)

Level Shifter Level Shifter

Computer CH 0 Computer CH 1
EC2259 Electrical Engineering And Control System Lab Manual

Procedure
Type – 0 First Order System with P – Controller
1. Connections are given as per the circuit diagram.
2. Set Proportional Band = 80, Integral Time = 64000 and Derivative Time = 0.
3. Measure the performance specifications.
Type – 0 First Order System with PI – Controller
1. Connections are given as per the circuit diagram.
2. Set Proportional Band = 80, Integral Time = 30 and Derivative Time = 0.
3. Measure the performance specifications.
Type – 0 First Order System with PI – Controller
1. Connections are given as per the circuit diagram.
2. Set Proportional Band = 80, Integral Time = 30 and Derivative Time = 0.1.
3. Measure the performance specifications.
Transfer Function for P, PI, and PID Controller:
P – Controller: Transfer Function = Kp
PI – Controller: Transfer Function = Kp [1 + 1 / Ti S]
PID Controller: Transfer Function = Kp [1 + 1 / Ti S + Td S]

TABULAR COLUMN
S. No Time Domain Specification P controller PI controller PID controller

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EC2259 Electrical Engineering And Control System Lab Manual

Model Graph

RESULT
Thus the design of P, PI and PID controller was done.

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EC2259 Electrical Engineering And Control System Lab Manual

DESIGN OF LAG AND LEAD COMPENSATOR

AIM
To design and implement the suitable lag and lead compensator for a given linear system
to improve the performance.
APPARATUS REQUIRED
1. Transfer function and compensator
2. Computer interface chord
3. Patch chords
THEORY
LAG COMPENSATOR
A compensator having the characteristics of a Lag network is called a lag
compensator. If a sinusoidal signal is applied to a lag network, then in steady state the output
will have a phase lag with respect to input.
Lag compensation results in a large improvement in steady state performance but
results in slower response due to reduced bandwidth. The attenuation due to the lag compensator
will shift the gain cross over frequency to a lower frequency point where the phase margin is
acceptable.
The general form of lag compensator transfer function is given by:
G(S) = (S+T) / (S+P) = (S + 1/T) / S + 1/BT Where, T > 0 and B >1
A compensator having the characteristics of a Lead network is called a Lead
compensator. If a sinusoidal signal is applied to the lead network, then in steady state the output
will have a phase lead with respect to input.
Lead compensation increases the bandwidth, which improves the speed of
response and also reduces, whereas there is a small change in steady state accuracy. Generally,
Lead compensation is provided to make an unstable system as a stable system.
A Lead compensator is basically a high pass filter so it attenuates high frequency
noise effects. If the pole introduced by the compensator is not cancelled by a zero in the system,
then lead compensation increases the order of the system by one.
The general form of Lead compensator transfer function is given by:
G(S) = (S+T) / (S+P) = (S + 1/T) / S + 1/aT Where, T > 0 and a<1

PROCEDURE

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EC2259 Electrical Engineering And Control System Lab Manual

Type II Order System Performance

Without Lag Compensator
1. Connections are given as per the circuit diagram.
2. Switch on the power supply.
3. Apply step input.
4. Set Pb = 100%
5. Measure the time domain specification of the II order system from the waveform.
With Lag Compensator
1. Connections are given as per the circuit diagram.
2. Switch on the power supply.
3. Apply step input.
4. Set Pb = 100%
5. Measure the time domain specification of the II order system from the waveform.
6. Compare the performance with and without lag compensator.
TABULAR COLUMN
S. No Time Domain Specification Without Lag With Lag

PROCEDURE

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EC2259 Electrical Engineering And Control System Lab Manual

Type II Order System Performance

1. Connections are given as per the circuit diagram.
2. Switch on the power supply.
3. Apply step input.
4. Set Pb = 100%.
5. Measure the time domain specification of the I order system from the waveform.
1. Connections are given as per the circuit diagram.
2. Switch on the power supply.
3. Apply step input.
4. Set Pb = 100%
5. Measure the time domain specification of the I order system from the waveform.
6. Compare the performance with and without Lead compensator.
TABULAR COLUMN

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EC2259 Electrical Engineering And Control System Lab Manual

RESULT: Thus the lag and lead compensator of the given system is implemented and the
performance was compared.

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EC2259 Electrical Engineering And Control System Lab Manual

TRANSFER FUNCTION OF SEPARATELY EXCITED

DC SHUNT GENERATOR
AIM
To determine the transfer function of the given Separately Excited DC Shunt generator.

NAME PLATE DETAILS

FUSE RATING
Motor: 125% of full load current (rated current)

Generator: 125% of full load current (rated current)

APPARATUS REQUIRED

S.No Name of the apparatus Type Range Quantity

1 Ammeter MC (0-10A) 1
2 Ammeter MC (0-2A) 1
3 Ammeter MI (0-300mA) 1
4 Voltmeter MC (0-300V) 1
5 Voltmeter MI (0-300V) 1
6 Rheostat Wire wound 250 , 2A 1
7 Rheostat Wire wound 350 , 1.5A 1
8 Single Phase Variac - 230V/ (0-270V) 1

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EC2259 Electrical Engineering And Control System Lab Manual

FORMULAE

1.Generated EMF Constant (Kg) = Eg / If in Volts / Amps (From the Graphs)

2. Field Resistance (Rf) = Vf / If

4. Load Resistance (RL) = PL / IL 2

Where, RL = Load Resistance in Ohms
PL = Power of Load in Watts
IL = Total Load current in Amps
5. Field Inductance Lf
2 2
Where, Xf= (Zf –Rf )

Xf= 2 f Lf

Lf= Xf / 2 f
f = frequency of applied source in hertz

6.Transfer function
(Kg / Rf )
(1+ (Lf/Rf) S)

(Kg / Rf )
Vt (s) / Ef(s) = (Load)
(1+ (Lf / Rf) S) (1+ (Reff / RL))

PRECAUTION
1. The motor field rheostat should be kept at minimum resistance position.
2. The motor armature rheostat should be kept at maximum resistance position.
3. At the time of starting, the motor should be in no load condition.

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EC2259 Electrical Engineering And Control System Lab Manual

PROCEDURE

To find out Generated EMF Constant (Kg)

1. Connections are given as per the circuit diagram.
2. The motor is made to run at the rated speed.
3. The generated emf is noted for various values of field current.
4. The voltage across the field winding is also measured
5. From the OCC curve Back Emf constant is calculated.

To find out Field Impedance (Zf)

1. Connections are given as per the circuit diagram.
2. Using single phase variac the supply voltage is varied.
3. The corresponding reading of field current is noted for different values of applied voltage.
4. From the noted readings the field Impedance is calculated.

RESULT

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EC2259 Electrical Engineering And Control System Lab Manual

TRANSFER FUNCTION OF ARMATURE AND FIELD

CONTROLLED DC SHUNT MOTOR

AIM
To determine the transfer function of the given armature and field controlled DC shunt
motor.

NAME PLATE DETAILS

FUSE RATING:
125% of rated current (full load current)

APPRATUS REQUIRED

S.No Name of the apparatus Type Range Quantity

1 Ammeter MC (0-15A) 1
2 Ammeter MC (0-2A) 1
3 Ammeter MI (0-10A) 1
4 Voltmeter MC (0-300V) 1
5 Voltmeter MC (0-50V) 1
6 Voltmeter MI (0-300V) 1
7 Rheostat Wire wound 250 , 2A
8 Rheostat Wire wound 50 , 5A 1
10 Tachometer Digital - 1
11 Single Phase Variac - 230V / (0-270V) 1

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EC2259 Electrical Engineering And Control System Lab Manual

FORMULAE
1. Inertia Constant (J) ={{(Vav * Iav) / (Nav * N)}×(60/2 ) 2 ×((t1* t2) /(t1-t2))} Kg-m2

Iav (I1+I2) / 2

Nav (N1+N2) / 2

N Small Change in Speed (i.e) N1~N2

t1 Time for fall of speed from 1500 rpm to 750 rpm in no load condition
in seconds.

t2 Time for fall of speed from 1500rpm to 750rpm in load condition in

Seconds

2. Viscous Friction Co-Efficient (f) =(2 /60) 2 ×(J / 2) ×(N12~N22) in N-m / rad /Sec
Where, J Inertia Constant in Kg-m2
Angular displacement in rad / Sec

= (2 Nav /60)

4. Torque T = (S1~S2) × (R+ t/2) × 9.81 in N-m.

Where, R- Radius of the Break drum in m.
t- Thickness of the Belt in m.

5. Motor Gain Constant (Km) = KT / (Ra × f )

Where KT = KT' × (Current through the Armature / Rated Current of the Motor)

6. Motor Time Constant ( a) = La / Ra.

2 2
Where, Xa= (Za -Ra )

Xa= 2 f La

La= Xa / 2 f
[KT / (Ra × f )]
7. Transfer function Q(s) / E(s) =
S{ [1+ (La/Ra) S] [1+ (J/f) S]+ [KT Kb /(Ra × f)]}

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EC2259 Electrical Engineering And Control System Lab Manual

THEORY
Ra = Armature resistance in ohms.

E= Applied voltage in Volts.

Eb=Backemf in Volts.

=Angular displacement of motor shaft in radian.

J= Equivalent of moment of inertia of motor and load referred to motor shaft in kg-m2

f=Equivalent viscous friction coefficient of motor and load referred to motor shaft in

Air gap flux is proportional to the field current because the DC motor should operate
in linear magnetization curve for servo application.

(i.e) If Kf If Where, Kf is the Proportionality constant

The torque developed by the motor is proportional to the product of armature current
and air gap flux.

(i.e) Tm Ia

Ia Kf If

= K1 Ia Kf If

We know that If is constant for armature controlled motor.

(i.e) Tm = (K1 Kf If ) Ia

Back emf of the emf of motor is proportional to the speed.

(i.e) Eb d ( )/ dt

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EC2259 Electrical Engineering And Control System Lab Manual

Eb = Kb d ( )/ dt ------------------------- 1
Where, Kb is the back emf constant in volt / rad /sec

Va = La d (Ia)/dt +RaIa+Eb ------------------ 2

Torque equation is

J d2 /dt2 +f d /dt = Tm

= KT Ia --------------3

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EC2259 Electrical Engineering And Control System Lab Manual

(s) = KT

(s) = KT

(s) = KT

(s) = KT / f Ra

E(s) S {(1+(J/f) S) (1+(La/ Ra) S) + KT Kb/ f Ra}

PRECAUTION
1. The motor field rheostat should be kept at minimum resistance position.
2. The motor armature rheostat should be kept at maximum resistance position.
3. At the time of starting, the motor should be in no load condition.

PROCEDURE

To find out Inertia Constant (J)

1. Connections are given as per the circuit diagram.
2. The DC supply is given by closing the DPST switch.
3. The DPDT switch is thrown into position 1,2.
4. The motor is made to run at the rated speed by adjusting the field rheostat.
5. The DPDT switch is brought to the original position 0,0’. The time taken for falling of
speed from 1500 to 750 rpm is noted.
6. Once again the DPDT switch is thrown into position 1,2. Then the motor is made to run at
the rated speed
7. Then the DPDT switch is changed into position 1’, 2’.
8. Then J and f is calculated by using the formula.

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EC2259 Electrical Engineering And Control System Lab Manual

To find out Torque Constant (KT)

1. Connections are given as per the circuit diagram.
2. The DC supply is given by closing the DPST switch.
3. The field current is kept constant.
4. The motor is made to run at the rated speed.

5. The various values of Ia spring balance readings are noted

6. Torque is calculated and plotted from the graph by adjusting the slope, torque constant KT is determined.

To find out Back Emf Constant (Kb)

1.Connections are given as per the circuit diagram.
2. The motor is made to run at the rated speed.
3. At rated speed the supply voltage and armature value readings are noted.
4. The Back Emf constant is calculated.

To find out Armature resistance (Ra)

1. Connections are given as per the circuit diagram.
2. The DC supply is given by closing the DPST switch.
4. The armature resistance is calculated by the application of formula.

To find out Armature inductance (La)

1. Connections are given as per the circuit diagram.
2. Using single phase variac the supply voltage is varied.
3. The corresponding reading of Ia are noted for different values of applied voltage
4. Then Za and La are calculated by using the formula.

RESULT
Thus the transfer function of the given armature and field controlled DC shunt motor is determined.