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LAB MANUAL

VEL TECH MULTI TECH

( ISO 9001: 2000 Certified Institution & NBA Accredited )

(Owned by VEL Sree R.Rangarajan Dr. Sagunthala Rangarajan Educational Academy)

Approved by AICTE, New Delhi & Affiliated to Anna University

No 42, Alamathi Road, Near Avadi Chennai – 600 062

DEPARTMENT OE ELECTRONICS

AND COMMUNICATION

ENGINEERING

CONTROL SYSTEM LAB

Prepared By HOD/ECE

EC2259 Electrical Engineering And Control System Lab Manual

AIM

To expose the students to the basic operations of electrical machines and help them to

develop experimental skills.

1. To study the concepts, performance characteristics, time and frequency response of

linear systems.

2. To study the effects of controllers.

1. Open circuit and load characteristics of separately excited and self excited D.C.

generator.

2. Load test on D.C. shunt motor.

3. Swinburne’s test and speed control of D.C. shunt motor.

4. Load test on single phase transformer and open circuit and short circuit test on single

phase transformer

5. Regulation of three phase alternator by EMF and MMF methods.

6. Load test on three phase induction motor.

7. No load and blocked rotor tests on three phase induction motor (Determination of

equivalent circuit parameters)

8. Study of D.C. motor and induction motor starters.

9. Digital simulation of linear systems.

10. Stability Analysis of Linear system using Mat lab.

11. Study the effect of P, PI, PID controllers using Mat lab.

12. Design of Lead and Lag compensator.

13. Transfer Function of separately excited D.C.Generator.

14. Transfer Function of armature and Field Controller D.C.Motor.

P = 45 Total = 45

1. Open circuit and load characteristics of separately excited and self excited D.C.

generator.

Sl. No. Apparatus Range Quantity

1 Motor Generator set - 1

2 Rheostat 200Ω, 5A 1

175Ω, 1.5A 2

3 Voltmeter DC 300V 1

30V 1

4 Ammeter DC 30A 1

2A 2

5 DPST switch 2

6 Three point starter 1

7 Tachometer 1

EC2259 Electrical Engineering And Control System Lab Manual

2. Load test on D.C. shunt motor.

1 DC Motor - 1

2 Rheostat 175Ω, 1.5A 1

3 Voltmeter DC 300V 1

4 Ammeter DC 30A 1

5 DPST switch 1

6 Three point starter 1

7 Tachometer 1

1 DC Motor - 1

2 Rheostat 100Ω, 5A & 175Ω, 1.5A 1

1

3 Voltmeter DC 300V 1

4 Ammeter DC 5A 1

2A 1

5 DPST switch 1

6 Tachometer 1

4. Load test on single-phase transformer and open circuit and short circuit test on

single-phase transformer.

Sl. No. Apparatus Range Quantity

1 Single phase Transformer - 1

2 Wattmeter 300V, 5A,UPF & 300V, 1

5A,LPF 1

3 Voltmeter AC 300V 2

4 Ammeter AC 5A 1

30A 1

5 Single phase auto-transformer 1

6 Resistive load 1

Sl. No. Apparatus Range Quantity

1 Motor Alternator set - 1

2 Rheostat 200Ω, 5A &175Ω, 1.5A 1

1

3 Voltmeter DC 300V 1

Voltmeter AC 600V 1

4 Ammeter DC 2A 1

Ammeter AC 30A 1

5 DPST switch 1

TPST switch 1

6 Tachometer 1

EC2259 Electrical Engineering And Control System Lab Manual

1 Three Phase Induction Motor - 1

2 Wattmeter 600V, 10A,UPF 2

3 Voltmeter AC 600V 1

4 Ammeter AC 10A 1

5 Brake drum arrangement

6 Star delta starter 1

7 Tachometer 1

equivalent circuit parameters)

1 Three Phase Induction Motor - 1

2 Wattmeter 600V, 10A,UPF 2

600V, 5A,LPF 2

3 Voltmeter AC 600V 1

150V 1

4 Ammeter AC 10A 1

5A 1

5 Brake drum arrangement

6 Three phase auto-transformer 1

Sl. No. Apparatus Quantity

1 Three point starter 1

2 Four point starter 1

3 Star-delta starter 1

4 DOL starter 1

5 Three phase auto-transformer 1

EC2259 Electrical Engineering And Control System Lab Manual

Sl. No. Apparatus

1 Resistor

2 Capacitor

3 Function generator

4 Bread Board

Sl. No. Apparatus Range Quantity

1 Motor Generator set - 1

2 Rheostat 200Ω, 5A 1

175Ω, 1.5A 2

3 Voltmeter DC 300V 1

30V 1

4 Ammeter DC 30A 1

2A 2

5 DPST switch 2

6 Three point starter 1

7 Tachometer 1

1 DC Motor - 1

2 Rheostat 175Ω, 1.5A 1

3 Voltmeter DC 300V 1

4 Ammeter DC 30A 1

5 DPST switch 1

6 Three point starter 1

7 Tachometer 1

EC2259 Electrical Engineering And Control System Lab Manual

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EC2259 Electrical Engineering And Control System Lab Manual

LOAD TEST ON DC SHUNT MOTOR

AIM

To conduct the load test on a given dc shunt motor and draw its performance curves.

FUSE RATING

125% of rated current (full load current)

APPRATUS REQUIRED

NAME OF THE

S. NO TYPE RANGE QUANTITY

APPARATUS

1 Ammeter MC (0-20A) 1

2 Voltmeter MC (0-300V) 1

3 Rheostat Wire wound 250 , 2A 1

4 Tachometer Digital 1

FORMULAE

1. Torque T = (S1~S2) × (R+t/2) × 9.81 in N-m.

Where R- Radius of the Break drum in m.

t- Thickness of the Belt in m.

S1,S2- Spring balance reading in Kg.

2. Input power = VL × IL in Watts.

Where VL – Load Voltage in Volts.

IL- Load current in Amps.

3. Output power = 2 NT/60 in Watts.

Where N- Speed of the armature in rpm.

T- Torque in N-m.

4. Percentage of Efficiency = (Output power/Input power) × 100

EC2259 Electrical Engineering And Control System Lab Manual

MC

L F A

A

Fuse

250 , 2A A S1 S2

D F

P

220V S (0-300V) M

DC SUPPLY T V MC

S

BRAKE DRUM

FF AA

Fuse

Model Graph

(A) Electrical characteristics (B) Mechanical characteristics

N T Torque Vs Speed

IL %

Speed in rpm

T in N-m

N in rpm

Torque in N-m

IL in Amps

(C) Torque, Speed Vs Load Current

Speed

Output power in watts Torque

Torque in N-m

Speed in rpm

EC2259 Electrical Engineering And Control System Lab Manual

PRECAUTION

• The motor field rheostat should be kept at minimum resistance position.

• At the time of starting, the motor should be in no load condition.

• The motor should be run in anticlockwise direction.

PROCEDURE

• Connections are given as per the circuit diagram.

• Using the three-point starter the motor is started to run at the rated speed by adjusting the

field rheostat if necessary.

• The meter readings are noted at no load condition.

• By using the Break drum with spring balance arrangement the motor is loaded and the

corresponding readings are noted up to the rated current.

• After the observation of all the readings the load is released gradually.

• The motor is switched off by using the DPIC switch.

GRAPH

The graphs are drawn as

• Output power Vs Efficiency

• Output power Vs Armature current

• Output power Vs Torque

• Output power Vs Speed

• Torque Vs Speed

• Torque Vs Armature current

• Speed Vs Armature current

EC2259 Electrical Engineering And Control System Lab Manual

Radius of the brake dram = Thickness of the belt =

Load Load Speed of Spring balance reading Torque (T) Output Input Efficiency (ηη)

Current Voltage the motor (S1~S2)(R+t/2)(9.81) power power O/p / I/p

S.No (IL) (VL) (N) 2 NT/60 (VLIL) x100

S1 S1~S2

S2

Amps Volts Rpm Kg Kg Kg N-m Watts Watts %

EC2259 Electrical Engineering And Control System Lab Manual

MODEL CALCULATION

RESULT

Thus the load test on DC shunt motor and its performance curves are drawn.

EC2259 Electrical Engineering And Control System Lab Manual

AIM

To conduct an experiment to control the speed of the given dc shunt motor by field and

armature control method also to draw its characteristic curves.

FUSE RATING

10% of rated current (full load current)

APPRATUS REQUIRED

NAME OF THE

S.NO TYPE RANGE QUANTITY

APPARATUS

1 Ammeter MC (0-2A) 1

2 Ammeter MC (0-10A) 1

3 Voltmeter MC (0-300V) 1

4 Rheostat Wire wound 250 , 2A 1

5 Rheostat Wire wound 50 , 5A 1

6 Tachometer Digital 1

PRECAUTION

• The motor field rheostat should be kept at minimum resistance position.

• The motor armature rheostat should be kept at maximum resistance position.

• The motor should be in no load condition throughout the experiment.

• The motor should be run in anticlockwise direction.

EC2259 Electrical Engineering And Control System Lab Manual

(0-10A)

MC

3 POINT STARTER

A

L F A

Fuse 50 , 5A

A A

D 250 , 2A F

P (0-2A)

220V S MC

DC SUPPLY T M V (0-300V)

MC

S

FF AA

Fuse

Armature Control Method Field Control Method

Voltage (Va) (N) (If) (N)

Volts RPM Amps RPM

EC2259 Electrical Engineering And Control System Lab Manual

Model Graph

(A) Armature Control Method: (B) Field Control Method:

Field Current Vs Speed

Speed in rpm

Speed in rpm

PROCEDURE

Field Control Method (Flux Control Method)

• Connections are given as per the circuit diagram.

• Using the three point starter the motor is started to run.

• The armature rheostat is adjusted to run the motor at rated speed by means of

applying the rated voltage.

• The field rheostat is varied gradually and the corresponding field current and speed

are noted up to 120% of the rated speed by keeping the Armature current as

constant.

• The motor is switched off using the DPIC switch after bringing all the rheostats to

their initial position.

Armature Control Method (Voltage Control Method)

• Connections are given as per the circuit diagram.

• Using the three point starter the motor is started to run.

• The armature rheostat is adjusted to run the motor at rated speed by means of

applying the rated voltage.

• The armature rheostat is varied gradually and the corresponding armature voltage

armature current and speed are noted up to the rated voltage.

• The motor is switched off using the DPIC switch after bringing all the rheostats to

their initial position

GRAPH

The graph are drawn as

• Field current Vs Speed

• Armature current Vs Speed

RESULT

Thus the speed control of the given DC shunt motor using field control and armature

control method and its characteristic curves are drawn.

EC2259 Electrical Engineering And Control System Lab Manual

SWINBURNE’S TEST

AIM

To predetermine the efficiency of a given dc shunt machine when working as a motor as well

as generator by Swinburne’s test and also draw the characteristic curves.

FUSE RATING

APPRATUS REQUIRED

NAME OF THE

S.NO TYPE RANGE QUANTITY

APPARATUS

1 Ammeter MC (0-2A) 1

2 Ammeter MC (0-10A) 1

3 Voltmeter MC 0-300V 1

4 Rheostat Wire wound 250 ,2A 1

5 Tachometer Digital 1

EC2259 Electrical Engineering And Control System Lab Manual

(0-10A)

3 POINT STARTER

MC

L F A

A

Fuse

A

250 , 2A (0-2A) A

D F

MC

P

220V S (0-300V)

DC SUPPLY T V MC

M

S

FF AA

Fuse

Terminal No load Field Current No load Constant Loss

Voltage (V) Current (I0) Armature 2

(If) WCO = VI0-Ia0 Ra

Current (Ia0)

S.No. Volts Amps Amps Amps Watts

Armature Resistance (Ra)= Rated Current (Ir)=

Constant loss (WC)= Field Current (If) =

Load Armature Armature Total Input Output Power Efficiency

Fraction Current IL= Current Cu Loss Loss Power Wo =Wi- WTotal = Wo/ Wi

S.No. of X×Ir Ia= IL- If WCu=Ia2Ra WTotal Wi=VLIL

Load

(X) Amps Amps Watts Watts Watts Watts %

1 1/4

2 1/2

3 3/4

4 1

EC2259 Electrical Engineering And Control System Lab Manual

FORMULAE

1. Armature resistance (Ra) = 1.6 × RDC in Ohms.

Where,

RDC – Resistance of the Armature coil, when it is energized by DC supply.

2. Constant loss (WCO ) = (V Io-Iao2Ra) in Watts..

Where V = Terminal Voltage in Volts

Io = No Load Current in Amps

Iao = No Load Armature Current. in Amps

3. Armature Current (Ia) = (IL ± If ) in Amps.

Where, + is used for Generator,

- is used for Motor.

4. Copper loss (WCU ) = Ia2Ra in Watts.

5. Total loss = Constant loss + Copper loss in Watts

6. Input power for motor / Output power for generator = V IL in Watts

Where, IL is Load current in Amps

7. Output power for motor = Input power + losses

Input power for Generator = Output power - losses

8. Percentage of Efficiency = (Output power/Input power) × 100

PRECAUTION

• The motor field rheostat should be kept at minimum resistance position.

• The motor should be at no load condition through out the experiment.

• The motor should be run in anticlockwise direction.

PROCEDURE

• Connections are given as per the circuit diagram.

• By using the three point starter the motor is started to run at the rated speed.

• The meter readings are noted at no load condition.

• The motor is switched off using the DPIC switch.

• After that the Armature resistive test is conducted as per the circuit diagram and the voltage

and current are noted for various resistive loads.

• After the observation of readings the load is released gradually.

EC2259 Electrical Engineering And Control System Lab Manual

Running as generator

Armature Resistance (Ra)= Rated Current (Ir)=

Constant loss (WC)= Field Current (If)=

Fraction Current Current Cu Loss Loss Power Input Power Efficiency

S.No. of IL= X×Ir Ia= IL+ If WCu=Ia2Ra WTotal Wo=VLIL Wi = Wo/

Load

=Wo+WTotal Wi

(X)

Amps Amps Watts Watts Watts Watts %

1 1/4

2 1/2

3 3/4

4 1

EC2259 Electrical Engineering And Control System Lab Manual

Model Graph

Generator

Motor

Efficiency

GRAPH

The graph drawn between Load current Vs Efficiency

RESULT

Thus the efficiency of the given DC shunt machine by Swinburne’s test when working as a

motor as well as generator and also draw the characteristic curves are drawn.

EC2259 Electrical Engineering And Control System Lab Manual

SHUNT GENERATOR

AIM

To conduct the open circuit test and the load test on a given self excited dc shunt generator and

draw the characteristic curves.

FUSE RATING

125% of rated current (full load current)

APPRATUS REQUIRED

NAME OF THE

S.NO TYPE RANGE QUANTITY

APPARATUS

1 Ammeter MC (0-2A) 1

2 Ammeter MC (0-20A) 2

3 Voltmeter MC (0-300V) 1

4 Rheostat Wire wound 250 , 2A 1

5 Rheostat Wire wound 350 , 1.5A 1

6 Tachometer Digital - 1

7 Resistive Load Variable - 1

PRECAUTION

• The motor field rheostat should be kept at minimum resistance position.

• The generator field rheostat should be kept at maximum resistance position.

• At the time of starting, the generator should be in no load condition.

EC2259 Electrical Engineering And Control System Lab Manual

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM FOR OPEN CIRCUIT AND LOAD TEST ON SELF EXCITED

DC SHUNT GENERATOR

3 POINT STARTER

L F A

A A

1050 , 1.5A

Fuse (0-2A) Fuse

(0-20A) MC (0-20A)

250 , 2A MC MC

F A A A

D D

F L

P P

220V S S O

DC SUPPLY T M G (0-300V) V T A

MC

S S D

17

FF AA AA FF

Fuse Fuse

EC2259 Electrical Engineering And Control System Lab Manual

PROCEDURE

• Connections are given as per the circuit diagram.

• The Prime Mover is started with the help of the three point starter and it is made to

run at rated speed when the Generator is disconnected from the load by DPST

switch.

• By varying the Generator field rheostat gradually, the Open Circuit Voltage (Eo)

and corresponding Field Current (If) are tabulated upto 150 % of Rated Voltage of

Generator.

• The motor is switched off by using the DPIC switch after bringing all the rheostats

to their initial position.

Load test

• Connections are given as per the circuit diagram.

• The Prime Mover is started with the help of the three point starter and it is made to

run at rated speed when the Generator is disconnected from the load by DPST

switch.

• By varying the Generator field rheostat gradually, the Rated Voltage (Eg) is

obtained.

• The Ammeter and Voltmeter readings are observed at no load condition.

• The Ammeter and Voltmeter readings are observed for different loads up to the

rated current by closing the DPST switch.

• After tabulating all the readings the load is brought to its initial position gradually.

• The Prime Mover is switched off using the DPIC switch after bringing all the

rheostats to their initial position.

GRAPH

The graph are drawn as

• Open Circuit Voltage Vs Field Current

• Load Voltage Vs Load Current

EC2259 Electrical Engineering And Control System Lab Manual

Generator Armature Resistance (Ra):

Open circuit Field Load Load Armature Armature Generated emf

Voltage Current Voltage Current Current Drop Eg=VL+ Ia Ra

S.No. (E0) (If) (VL) (IL) (Ia) Ia Ra

Volts Amps Volts Amps Amps Volts Volts

Model Graph

(A) Open Circuit Characteristics (B) Internal (EgVs Ia) and External (VLVs IL) Characteristics

Generated EMF (Eg) in Volts

Open Circuit Voltage (E0)

(EgVs Ia)

(E0) Vs (If)

(VLVs IL)

in Volts

Field Current (If) in Armature Current (Ia) Load Current (IL) in Amps

Amps in Amps

RESULT

Thus the open circuit test and load test on a given self excited DC generator and the

characteristic curves are drawn.

EC2259 Electrical Engineering And Control System Lab Manual

DC GENERATOR

AIM

To conduct the open circuit test and the load test on a given separately excited dc generator and

draw the characteristic curves.

FUSE RATING

125% of rated current (full load current)

APPRATUS REQUIRED

NAME OF THE

S.NO TYPE RANGE QUANTITY

APPARATUS

1 Ammeter MC (0-2A) 1

2 Ammeter MC (0-20A) 2

3 Voltmeter MC (0-300V) 1

4 Rheostat Wire wound 250 , 2A 1

5 Rheostat Wire wound 350 , 1.5A 1

6 Tachometer Digital - 1

7 Resistive Load Variable - 1

PRECAUTION

• The motor field rheostat should be kept at minimum resistance position.

• The generator field rheostat should be kept at maximum resistance position.

• At the time of starting, the generator should be in no load condition.

EC2259 Electrical Engineering And Control System Lab Manual

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM FOR OPEN CIRCUIT AND LOAD TEST ON SEPERATELY EXCITED

DC GENERATOR

(0-20A)

3 POINT STARTER MC

L F A

A A

Fuse Fuse

(0-20A)

250 , 2A A A MC

D F D

P FF

(0-300V) P

L

220V S MC S O

DC SUPPLY T M G V T A

S S

F D

(0-2A)

FF AA AA A MC

23

Fuse Fuse

D Fuse

P 350 , 1.5A

220V S

DC SUPPLY T

S

Fuse

EC2259 Electrical Engineering And Control System Lab Manual

PROCEDURE

• Connections are given as per the circuit diagram.

• The Prime Mover is started with the help of the three point starter and it is made to run at rated

speed when the Generator is disconnected from the load by DPST switch.

• By varying the Generator field rheostat gradually, the Open Circuit Voltage (Eo) and

corresponding Field Current (If) are tabulated upto 150 % of Rated Voltage of Generator.

• The motor is switched off by using the DPIC switch after bringing all the rheostats to initial

position.

Load test

• Connections are given as per the circuit diagram.

• The Prime Mover is started with the help of the three point starter and it is made to run at rated

speed when the Generator is disconnected from the load by DPST switch..

• By varying the Generator field rheostat gradually, the Rated Voltage (Eg) is obtained.

• The Ammeter and Voltmeter readings are observed at no load condition.

• The Ammeter and Voltmeter readings are observed for different loads up to the rated current by

closing the DPST switch..

• After tabulating all the readings the load is brought to initial position.

• The motor is switched off using the DPIC switch after bringing all the rheostats to initial position.

GRAPH

The graph drawn as

• Open Circuit Voltage Vs Field Current

• Load Voltage Vs Load Current

EC2259 Electrical Engineering And Control System Lab Manual

Generator Armature Resistance (Ra):

Open circuit Field Load Load Armature Armature Generated emf

Voltage Current Voltage Current Current Drop Eg=VL+ Ia Ra

S.No. (E0) (If) (VL) (IL) (Ia) Ia Ra

Volts Amps Volts Amps Amps Volts Volts

Model Graph

(A) Open Circuit Characteristics (B) Internal (EgVs Ia) and External (VLVs IL) Characteristics

Generated EMF (Eg) in Volts

Open Circuit Voltage (E0)

(EgVs Ia)

(E0) Vs (If)

(VLVs IL)

in Volts

Field Current (If) in Armature Current (Ia) Load Current (IL) in Amps

Amps in Amps

RESULT

Thus the open circuit test and load test on a given separately excited DC generator and the

characteristic curves are drawn.

EC2259 Electrical Engineering And Control System Lab Manual

AIM

To conduct the load test on a given single phase transformer and draw its performance curves.

FUSE RATING

Primary Current = KVA Rating of the Transformer / Primary Voltage.

APPRATUS REQUIRED

NAME OF THE

S.NO TYPE RANGE QUANTITY

APPARATUS

1 Ammeter MI (0-5A) 1

2 Ammeter MI (0-20A) 1

3 Voltmeter MI (0-150V) 1

4 Voltmeter MI (0-300V) 1

5 Watt meter UPF 300V, 5A 1

6

Auto Transformer 1φ 230/(0-270V 1

EC2259 Electrical Engineering And Control System Lab Manual

MI MI

P A M L

A

Fuse Fuse

SPSTS

C 150V

P1

B S1 D

(0-150V) P L

1Ø, 230V, 50Hz (0-300V) MI S O

AC SUPPLY V V

MI T A

S D

S2

P2

33

C

NL

N Fuse

230/(0-270V) 1Ø 230/110V, 1KVA

1Ø AUTO STEP DOWN

TRANSFORMER TRANSFORMER

EC2259 Electrical Engineering And Control System Lab Manual

FORMULAE

1. Input Power =Wattmeter reading × Multiplication factor in Watts

Where, (Rating of pressure coil × Rating of current coil × pf )

Multiplication factor =

Full Scale Reading

Where VSY - Secondary Voltage in Volts.

ISY- Secondary current in Amps.

3.Percentage of Efficiency = × 100 %

Output Power

Input Power

4.Percentage of Regulation = × 100 %

VO – VL

VO

Where, VO – No Load Voltage in Volts

VL – Load Voltage in Volts

PRECAUTION

• No Load Condition should be observed at the time of starting

• Meters are checked for proper Type and rating.

PROCEDURE

• Connections are given as per the circuit diagram.

• The SPST Switch on the Primary side is closed and the DPST Switch on the Secondary side is

opened.

• The Autotransformer is adjusted to Energize the transformer with rated Primary Voltage

• The Volt meters and Ammeters Readings are noted and tabulated at No load condition

• The DPST switch on the secondary side is closed.

• The transformer is loaded upto 130% of the Rated Load, corresponding Ammeters, Voltmeters

and Wattmeters readings are noted and tabulated.

• After the observation of all the readings the load is released gradually to its initial position.

• The Autotransformer is brought to its initial position

• The Supply is switched off.

GRAPH

The graph drawn as

• Output power Vs Efficiency

• Output power Vs Regulation

EC2259 Electrical Engineering And Control System Lab Manual

Multiplication Factor =

Wattmeter Efficiency % Of

Primary Primary Secondary Secondary readings Input Output power η)

(η Regulation

S.No Voltage Current Voltage Current (W) power φ

VSy ISy cosφ O/p / I/p VNL-VLOAD

(VPy) (IPy) (VSy) (ISy) (W) ×100 VLOAD

Obs. Act.

Volts Amps Volts Amps Watts Watts Watts %

EC2259 Electrical Engineering And Control System Lab Manual

Model Graph

Regulation

% Of Regulation

% Of Effeciency Effeciency

RESULT

Thus the load test on a given single phase transformer is done and the characteristic curves are

drawn.

EC2259 Electrical Engineering And Control System Lab Manual

ON SINGLE PHASE TRANSFORMER

AIM

To Predetermine the Efficiency and Regulation on a given single phase transformer by

conducting the Open Circuit test and Short Circuit test and also draw its Equivalent circuit.

FUSE RATING

Primary Current = KVA Rating of the Transformer / Primary Voltage.

APPARATUS REQUIRED

1 Ammeter MI (0-1A) 1

2 Ammeter MI (0-10A) 1

3 Voltmeter MI (0-150V) 1

4 Voltmeter MI (0-300V) 1

5 Watt meter UPF 300V, 1A 1

6

Watt meter UPF 75V, 5A 1

7 Auto Transformer 1φ 230/(0-270V) 1

EC2259 Electrical Engineering And Control System Lab Manual

A

MI

P A M L

Fuse

SPSTS

C 150V

B S1

P1

1Ø, 230V, 50Hz (0-150V) (0-300V)

AC SUPPLY V V

MI MI

P2

S2

39

C

NL

N

230/(0-270V) 1Ø 110/230V, 1KVA

1Ø AUTO STEP UP

TRANSFORMER TRANSFORMER

EC2259 Electrical Engineering And Control System Lab Manual

(0-5A)

A 300V, 10A UPF

MI

P A M L A

Fuse

SPSTS (0-10A)

C 75V

P1 MI

B

S1

1Ø, 230V, 50Hz (0-75V) SC

AC SUPPLY V

MI

S2

41

P2

C

NL

N

230/(0-270V) 1Ø 230/110V, 1KVA

1Ø AUTO STEP DOWN

TRANSFORMER TRANSFORMER

EC2259 Electrical Engineering And Control System Lab Manual

Open Circuit test Multiplication Factor =

Open Circuit Open circuit Open Circuit power (WOC) Open Circuit

S.No. Primary Primary secondary

Current (IOC) Voltage (VOC) Obs. Act. Voltage (V2O)

Amps Volts Watts Watts Volts

Sh

ort

Circuit test

Multiplication Factor =

Short Circuit Short circuit Short Circuit power (WSC) Short Circuit

S.No. Primary Primary secondary

Obs. Act.

Current (ISC) Voltage (VSC) Current (I2S)

Amps Volts Watts Watts Volts

Rated Short Circuit Current (ISC) = Short Circuit Power (WSC) =

Fraction of circuit Loss WT = O/p

Load (X) Current (X2 WSC) η= O/p+TL

0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 Wi+WSC

(ISC×X)

Amps Watts Watts Watts %

1/4

1/2

3/4

EC2259 Electrical Engineering And Control System Lab Manual

FORMULAE

EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT

Woc

φo) = Voc × Ioc

1. No Load Power Factor (Cosφ

Where, Woc – Open Circuit Power in Watts

Voc – Open Circuit Voltage in Volts

Ioc – Open Circuit Current in Amps

Voc

2.No Load Working Component Resistance (Ro) = Ioc × Cosφo in Ohms

Where Voc – Open Circuit Voltage in Volts.

Ioc – Open Circuit current in Amps.

Voc

3. No Load Magnetizing Component Reactance( Xo) = Ioc × Sinφ in Ohms

o

Where Voc – Open Circuit Voltage in Volts.

Ioc – Open Circuit current in Amps.

Vsc

4. Equivalent impedance referred to HV side ( Z02 ) = Isc

in Ohms

Where, Vsc – Short circuit Voltage in Volts

Isc – Short circuit current in Amps

5. Equivalent resistance referred to HV side (R02 ) = Wsc2 in Ohms

Isc

Where, Wsc – Short circuit Power in Watts

V

7. Transformation ratio (K) = V2

1

Where, V1 – Primary voltage in Volts

V2 – Secondary Voltage in Volts

R02

K2

8. Equivalent resistance referred to LV side (R01) = in Ohms

K2

Efficiency and Regulation

10. Output Power = X ×KVA × cosφ in Watts.

Where, X-Fraction of load

KVA - power rating of Transformer and Cosφ - Power factor

EC2259 Electrical Engineering And Control System Lab Manual

Where, Wsc- Copper Loss in Short Circuit condition

12. Total Loss = (Cu Loss + Iron Loss) in Watts

Output power

13. Efficiency = x 100 in %

(Output power +Total Losses)

V2o

PRECAUTION

• No Load Condition should be observed at the time of starting

• Meters are checked for proper Type and rating.

PROCEDURE

• Connections are given as per the circuit diagram.

• The SPST Switch on the Primary side is closed.

• The Autotransformer is adjusted to Energize the transformer with rated Primary Voltage

on the LV side

• The Volt meter, Watt meter and Ammeter Readings are noted at No load condition

• The Autotransformer is brought to its initial position

• The Supply is switched off.

• Connections are given as per the circuit diagram.

• The SPST Switch on the Primary side is closed

• The Autotransformer is adjusted to energize the transformer with rated Primary Current on

the HV side.

• The Voltmeter, Wattmeter and Ammeter Readings are noted down at short circuit

condition.

• The Autotransformer is brought to its initial position

• The Supply is switched off.

GRAPH

The graph are drawn as

• Output power Vs Efficiency

• Output power Vs Regulation

EC2259 Electrical Engineering And Control System Lab Manual

Fraction % Of Regulation

of Load Value of Cosø Value of Sinø 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2

(X) 1 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 1 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 1 Lag. Lead. Lag. Lead. Lag. Lead. Lag. Lead.

EC2259 Electrical Engineering And Control System Lab Manual

R01 X01

P I1

I0

Iw I

V1 R0 X0 ZL

Model Graph

1.0 pf X=1

Regulation

X =3/4

0.8 pf

X =1/2

0.6 pf

Effeciency

X =1/4

0.4 pf

0.2 pf

Leading pf Unity pf Lagging pf

RESULT

Thus the efficiency and regulation of a given single phase transformer by conducing the open

circuit test and short circuit test is determined and the equivalent circuit is drawn.

EC2259 Electrical Engineering And Control System Lab Manual

INDUCTION MOTOR

AIM

To conduct a load test on a three phase squirrel cage induction motor and to draw the

performance characteristic curves.

! " "# $% "&'"

FUSE RATING

125% of rated current (Full load current)

APPARATUS REQUIRED

NAME OF THE

S.NO TYPE RANGE QUANTITY

APPARATUS

1. Ammeter MI (0-10 A) 1

2. Voltmeter MI (0-600 V) 1

3. Wattmeter UPF (500V, 10A) 1

4. Tachometer - - 1

FORMULAE USED

1.Torque = (S1-S2) (R+t/2) x 9.81 N-m

Where, S1, S2 – spring balance readings in Kg.

R - Radius of brake drum in m.

t - Thickness of belt in m.

2. Output Power = 2 πNT/60 watts.

N- Rotor speed in rpm.

T- Torque in N-m.

3. Input Power = (W1+W2) Watts.

W1, W2 – Wattmeter readings in Watts.

EC2259 Electrical Engineering And Control System Lab Manual

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM FOR LOAD TEST ON THREE PHASE SQUIRRAL CAGE INDUCTION MOTOR

STAR-DELTA

STARTER

600V, 10A UPF

M L

R L1

Fuse A1 C2

600V S1 S2

C

A1

V (0-600) V

MI

415V, 50Hz, 3Ø A2 R

T

AC SUPPLY P A2 C1

Y S A BRAKE DRUM

L2

T Fuse B1 B2

S (0-10) A B1

STATOR

MI

B2

51

C 600V

C1

B L3

Fuse M L

600V, 10A UPF

C2

NL

N N

EC2259 Electrical Engineering And Control System Lab Manual

5. Percentage of Slip = (NS-Nr)/Ns x 100%

Ns-Synchronous speed in rpm.

Nr-Rotor speed in rpm.

6.Power factor = (W1+W2)/√3 VLIL.

PRECAUTION

PROCEDURE:

• The TPSTS is closed and the motor is started using On Line starter to run at rated speed.

• At no load the speed, current, voltage and power are noted down.

• By applying the load for various values of current the above-mentioned readings are noted.

• The load is later released and the motor is switched off and the graph is drawn. .

GRAPH

The graph are drawn as

• Output Power Vs Line current

• Output Power Vs Torque

• Output Power Vs Power factor

• Output Power Vs % Efficiency

• Output Power Vs % Slip.

EC2259 Electrical Engineering And Control System Lab Manual

Tabulation for load test on three phase squirrel cage induction motor

Multiplication Factor:

Load Load Wattmeter readings Input Speed Spring balance Torque (T) Output Efficiency Power

Curren Voltage power of the reading (S1~S2) (R+t/2)

(9.81)

power η)

(η Factor

S.No t (VL) W1 W2 motor 2 NT/60 O/p / I/p (cosφφ)

(IL) (N) X100 I/p /

Obs. Act. Obs. Act. W1+W2

S1 S2 S1~S2

√3 VLIL

Amps Volts Watts Watts rpm Kg Kg Kg N-m Watts %

EC2259 Electrical Engineering And Control System Lab Manual

Model Graphs:

Torque Vs Speed

Speed in RPM

Torque in N-m

N T

Cos φ IL % %

T in N-m

N in rpm Cos φ

IL in Amps

RESULT

Thus the load test on a given three phase squirrel cage induction motor is done and the

characteristic curves are drawn.

EC2259 Electrical Engineering And Control System Lab Manual

INDUCTION MOTOR

AIM

To conduct a No Load test and Blocked Rotor test on three phase squirrel cage induction motor

and to draw the equivalent circuit.

! " "# $% "&'"

FUSE RATING

APPARATUS REQUIRED

S.NO. NAME OF THE TYPE RANGE QUANTITY

APPARATUS

1. Ammeter MC (0-10 A) 1

2. Ammeter MI (0-10 A) 2

3. Voltmeter MI (0-150 V) 1

4. Voltmeter MI (0-600 V) 1

5. Voltmeter MC (0-50 V) 1

6. Wattmeter LPF (600V, 10A) (150V, 2

7. Wattmeter UPF 10A) 2

Tachometer - - 1

FORMULAE USED

OC Test

1. No load power factor (Cos φ0) = P0/V0I0

V0 - No load voltage per phase in volts.

I0 - No load current per phase in amps.

P0 - No load power per phase in watts.

2. Working component current (Iw) = I0 (ph) X Cos φ0

3. Magnetizing current (Im) = I0 (ph) X Sin φ0

4. No load resistance (R0) =V0/I0 (ph) Cos φ0 in Ω.

EC2259 Electrical Engineering And Control System Lab Manual

INDUCTION MOTOR

(Equivalent circuit)

415 / (0-470) V

3Ø AUTO TRANSFORMER

B1 M L

R

Fuse A1 C2

C 600V

C1 (0-600) V

V

MI

415V, 50Hz, 3Ø R

T

AC SUPPLY A2

P A2 C1

S B2

Y A

T B1 B2

Fuse

S (0-10) A STATOR

57

MI

C2

A3 C

600V

B B3

Fuse M L

600V, 10A LPF

C3

NL

N

EC2259 Electrical Engineering And Control System Lab Manual

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM FOR BLOCKED ROTOR TEST ON THREE PHASE SQUIRREL CAGE

INDUCTION MOTOR

(Equivalent circuit)

415 / (0-470) V

3Ø AUTO TRANSFORMER

B1 M L

R

Fuse A1 C2

150V S1 S2

C

C1 (0-150) V

V

MI

415V, 50Hz, 3Ø T R

AC SUPPLY P A2

A2 C1

S B2 BRAKE DRUM

Y

T

A

Fuse B1 B2

59

S (0-10) A

MI

C2

STATOR

A3 C 150V

B3

B

Fuse M L

150V, 10A UPF

C3

NL

N

EC2259 Electrical Engineering And Control System Lab Manual

Tabulation for No Load test on three phase Squirrel cage Induction motor

Speed of the Induction motor:

Type of the Stator connection:

Multiplication Factor:

Total No Load Power No Load Power/Phase No Load

No Load No Load No Load Power Current/Phase

No Load

Current Voltage P0=(W1+W2) P0 (Ph)=(P0/3) Voltage/Phase

W1 I0 (Ph)

S.No (I0) (V0) V0 (Ph)

W2

Observed Actual Observed Actual

Amps Volts Watts Watts Watts Watts Watts Watts Amps Volts

Tabulation for Blocked rotor test on three phase Squirrel cage Induction motor

Type of the Stator connection:

Multiplication Factor:

Short Short Short Circuit Power Total Short Short Circuit Short Circuit Short Circuit

Circuit Circuit Circuit Power Power/Phase Current/Phase Voltage/Phase

S.No Current Voltage W1 PSC=(W1+W PSC ISC (Ph) VSC (Ph)

(ISC) (VSC) W2 2) (Ph)=(P0/3)

Observed Actual Observed Actual

Amps Volts Watts Watts Watts Watts Watts Watts Amps Volts

EC2259 Electrical Engineering And Control System Lab Manual

SC Test

6. Motor equivalent Impedance referred to stator (Zsc(ph)) = Vsc(ph) / Isc(ph) in Ω.

7. Motor equivalent Resistance referred to stator (Rsc(ph)) = Psc(ph) / I2sc(ph) in Ω.

8. Motor equivalent Reactance referred to stator (Xsc(ph)) = √(Z sc(ph)2- R sc(ph)2) in Ω.

9. Rotor Resistance referred to stator (R2’(ph)) = Rsc(ph) – R1 in Ω.

10. Rotor Reactance referred to stator (X2’(ph)) = Xsc(ph) / 2 = X1 in Ω.

Where R1 - stator resistance per phase

X1 – stator reactance per chapter

R1 = R(ac) =1.6 x R(dc)

11. Equivalent load resistance (RL’) = R2’ (1/s – 1) in Ω.

Where Slip (S) = (Ns-Nr) / Ns

Ns – Synchronous speed in rpm.

Nr – Rotor speed in rpm.

PRECAUTION

• The autotransformer should be kept at minimum voltage position

PROCEDURE

• Connections are given as per the circuit diagram.

• For No-Load or open circuit test by adjusting autotransformer, apply rated voltage and

• Note down the ammeter and wattmeter readings. In this test rotor is free to rotate.

• For short circuit or blocked rotor test by adjusting autotransformer, apply rated current

and note down the voltmeter and wattmeter readings. In this test rotor is blocked.

• After that make the connection to measure the stator resistance as per the circuit diagram.

• By adding the load through the loading rheostat note down the ammeter, voltmeter

reading for various values of load.

EC2259 Electrical Engineering And Control System Lab Manual

P R1 X1 R2' X2'

I0

Iw I

1Ø, 230V, 50Hz AC

Supply R0 X0 RL' =R2' (1/s-1)

RESULT

Thus the no load and blocked rotor test on a given three phase squirrel cage induction motor and

the equivalent circuit is drawn.

EC2259 Electrical Engineering And Control System Lab Manual

METHODS.

AIM

To predetermine the regulation of a given three phase Alternator by EMF and MMF method and also draw the

vector diagrams.

( '" # " ) "

FUSE RATING

125% of rated current (Full load current)

For Alternator:

APPARATUS REQUIRED

NAME OF THE

S.NO. TYPE RANGE QUANTITY

APPARATUS

1. Ammeter MC (0-2 A) 1

2. Ammeter MC (0-10 A) 1

3. Ammeter MI (0-10 A) 1

4. Voltmeter MI (0-600V) 1

5. Voltmeter MC (0-50V) 1

6. Rheostat Wire Wound (500Ω, 1.2A) 2

7. Rheostat Wire Wound (300Ω, 1.7A) 1

8. Tachometer - - 1

EC2259 Electrical Engineering And Control System Lab Manual

BY EMF & MMF METHOD

(Open circuit and Short circuit tests)

3 POINT STARTER

L F A A

Fuse A R Fuse

F (0-10) A

250 , 2A MI

D V (0-600) V

MI

P M T

B N Y P

220V DC S

X S

SUPPLY T XX

T Fuse

S FF AA S

(0-2) A

A MC

79

Fuse Fuse

D Fuse

P 350 , 1.5A

220V S

DC SUPPLY T

S

Fuse

EC2259 Electrical Engineering And Control System Lab Manual

FORMULAE USED

EMF Method

1. Armature Resistance Ra = 1.6 Rdc in ohms.

Here, Rdc is the resistance in DC supply.

2. Synchronous impedance Zs = (from the graph)

Short circuit current (Isc)

4. Open circuit voltage Eo= (V cosø + Isc Ra) ² + (V sinø - Isc Xs) ² in Volts.

(For lagging power factor)

5. Open circuit voltage Eo= (V cosø + Isc Ra) ² + (V sinø - Isc Xs) ² in Volts

(For leading power factor)

7. Open circuit voltage Eo= (V + Isc Ra) ² + (Isc Xs) ² in Volts

(For Unity power factor)

Eo –Vrated

6. Percentage regulation = Vrated X 100 (both for EMF & MMF method)

PRECAUTION

• The motor field rheostat should be kept in the minimum resistance position.

• The Alternator field Potential divider should be in the maximum voltage position.

• Initially all Switches are in open position.

• Connections are made as per the circuit diagram.

• Give the supply by closing the DPST Switch.

• Using the Three Point starter, start the motor to run at the synchronous speed by varying the

motor field rheostat.

• Conduct an Open Circuit Test by varying the Potential Divider for various values of Field

Current and tabulate the corresponding Open Circuit Voltage readings.

• Conduct a Short Circuit Test by closing the TPST switch and adjust the potential divider to

set the rated Armature Current, tabulate the corresponding Field Current.

• Conduct a Stator Resistance Test by giving connection as per the circuit diagram and

tabulate the Voltage and Current readings for various resistive loads.

EC2259 Electrical Engineering And Control System Lab Manual

• Draw the Open Circuit Characteristics curve (Generated Voltage per phase Vs Field Current).

• Draw the Short Circuit Characteristics curve (Short Circuit Current Vs Field Current).

• From the graph find the open circuit voltage per phase (E1 (Ph)) for the rated Short Circuit Current

(Isc).

• By using respective formulae find the Zs, Xs, Eo and percentage Regulation.

PROCEDURE TO DRAW THE GRAPH FOR MMF METHOD

• Draw the Open Circuit Characteristics curve (Generated Voltage per phase Vs Field Current).

• Draw the Short Circuit Characteristics curve (Short Circuit Current Vs Field Current).

• Draw the line OL to represent If' which gives the rated generated voltage (V).

• Draw the line LA at an angle (90 ± ) to represent If'' which gives the rated full load current (Isc)

on short circuit ((90 + ) for lagging power factor and (90- ) for leading power factor).

• Join the points O and A and find the field current (If) by measuring the distance OA that gives the

Open Circuit Voltage (Eo) from the Open Circuit Characteristics.

• Find the percentage Regulation by using suitable formula.

Tabulation for Regulation of three phase Alternator by EMF and MMF methods

Open circuit test

S.No. (If) Voltage (V0L) Voltage (V0 (Ph))

EC2259 Electrical Engineering And Control System Lab Manual

S.No. (If) (120 to 150 % of rated current)

(ISC)

Amps Amps

OCC

E1 (ph)

Open Circuit Voltage (V0 (Ph)) in Volts

Short Circuit Current (ISC) in Amps

SCC

EC2259 Electrical Engineering And Control System Lab Manual

E0 (ph)

Lag.

E0 (ph)

Unity

OCC

E0 (ph) SCC

Lead.

Open Circuit Voltage (V0 (Ph)) in Volts

Short Circuit Current (ISC) in Amps

Unity

A

A Lead.

Lag. A

90- 90+

O L

Field Current (If ) in Amps

EC2259 Electrical Engineering And Control System Lab Manual

Resultant Tabulation for Regulation of three phase Alternator by EMF and MMF

methods

Percentage of Regulation

S.No. Power EMF Method MMF Method

Factor Lagging Leading Unity Lagging Leading Unity

1. 0.2 - -

2. 0.4 - -

3. 0.6 - -

4. 0.8 - -

5. 1.0

+ % Regulation

From MMF method

Lagging pf

Unity pf Leading pf

- % Regulation

RESULT

Thus the regulation of three phase alternator by EMF and MMF methods and the regulation curves are

drawn.

EC2259 Electrical Engineering And Control System Lab Manual

AIM

To analysis the stability of the given linear system using Bode Plot, Nyquist Plot and Root Locus.

APPRATUS REQUIRED

1 Computer - - 1

2 MATLAB Software - - 1

THEORY

POLAR PLOT

The polar plot of a sinusoidal transfer function G ( jω ) on polar coordinates as ω is varied from zero to

infinity. Thus the polar plot is the locus of vectors G ( jw) and G ( jw) as ω is varied from zero to infinity. The

NYQUIST STABILITY CRITERION

If G ( s ) H ( s ) contour in the G ( s ) H ( s ) plane corresponding to Nyquist contour in s-plane encircles the

point −1 + j 0 in the anti – clockwise direction as many times as the number of right half s-plane of G ( s ) H ( s ) .

Then the closed loop system is stable.

ROOT LOCUS

The root locus technique is a powerful tool for adjusting the location of closed loop poles to achieve

the desired system performance by varying one or more system parameters.

The path taken by the roots of the characteristics equation when open loop gain K is varied from 0 to

∞ are called root loci (or the path taken by a root of characteristic equation when open loop gain K is varied

from 0 to ∞ is called root locus.)

FREQUENCY DOMAIN SPECIFICATIONS

The performance and characteristics of a system in frequency domain are measured in term of frequency

domain specifications. The requirements of a system to be designed are usually specified in terms of these

specifications.

EC2259 Electrical Engineering And Control System Lab Manual

1. Resonant peak M r .

2. Resonant Frequency ωr .

3. Bandwidth.

4. Cut – off rate

5. Gain margin

6. Phase margin

RESONANT PEAK M r

The maximum value of the magnitude of closed loop transfer function is called the resonant peak M r . A large

RESONANT FREQUENCY ωr

The bandwidth is the range of frequency for which the system gain is more than −3 dB . The frequency at

which the gain is −3 dB , called cut off frequency. Bandwidth is usually defined for closed loop system and it

transmits the signals whose frequencies are less than cut-off frequency. The bandwidth is a measured of the

ability of a feedback system to produce the input signal, noise rejection characteristics and rise time. A large

bandwidth corresponds to a small rise time or fast response.

CUT-OFF RATE

The slope of the log-magnitude curve near the cut off frequency is called cut-off rate. The cut-off rate

indicates the ability of the system to distinguish the signal from noise.

GAIN MARGIN K g

The gain margin K g is defined as the reciprocal of the magnitude of open loop transfer function at phase cross

over frequency. The frequency at witch the phase of open loop transfer function is 180 is called the phase

cross over frequency ω pc .

PHASE MARGIN γ

The phase margin γ is that amount of additional phase lag at the gain cross over frequency required to bring

the system to the verge of instability, the gain cross over frequency ω gc is the frequency at which the

magnitude of open loop transfer function is unity (or it is the frequency at which the db magnitude is zero).

EC2259 Electrical Engineering And Control System Lab Manual

PROCEDURE

• Enter the command window of the MATLAB.

• Create a new M – file by selecting File – New – M – File.

• Type and save the program.

• Execute the program by either pressing F5 or Debug – Run.

• View the results.

• Analysis the stability of the system for various values of gain.

PROBLEM

2

Obtain the Bode Plot, Nyquist Plot and Root Locus of the given open loop T.F is H ( s ) = 2

s + 3s + 2

Using Bode Plot

num = [0 0 2]

den = [1 3 2]

bode (num,den)

grid

title (‘BODE DIAGRAM’)

% To Find out Gain Margin

sys = tf (num, den)

bode (sys)

Margin (sys)

[ gm, ph, wpc, wgc ] = margin (sys).

num = [0 0 2]

den = [1 3 2]

nyquist (num,den)

grid

title (‘Nyquist Plot’)

num = [0 0 2]

den = [1 3 2]

rlocus (num,den)

grid

title (‘Root Locus Plot’)

RESULT

Thus the stability of the given linear system using Bode Plot, Nyquist Plot and Root Locus was

analyzed.

EC2259 Electrical Engineering And Control System Lab Manual

AIM

To simulate the time response characteristics of second order linear system using

MATLAB.

APPRATUS REQUIRED

1 Personal Computer - - 1

2 MATLAB Software - - 1

THEORY

The desired performance characteristics of control system are specified in terms of time

domain specification. Systems with energy storage elements cannot respond instantaneously and

will exhibit transient responses, whenever they are subjected to inputs or disturbances.

The desired performance characteristics of a system pf any order may be specified in

terms of the transient response to a unit step input signal.

The transient response of a system to unit step input depends on the initial conditions.

Therefore to compare the time response of various systems it is necessary to start with standard

initial conditions. The most practical standard is to start with the system at rest and output and

all time derivatives there of zero. The transient response of a practical control system often

exhibits damped oscillations before reaching steady state.

The transient response characteristics of a control system to a unit step input are

specified in terms of the following time domain specifications.

1. Delay time td

2. Rise time tr

3. Peak time t p

4. Maximum overshoot M p

5. Settling time t s

1. Delay Time

It is the taken for response to reach 50% of the final value, for the very first time.

EC2259 Electrical Engineering And Control System Lab Manual

2. Rise Time

It is the time taken for response to raise from 0 to 100% for the very first time. For under

damped system, the rise time is calculated from 0 to 100%. But for over damped system it is the

time taken by the response to raise from 10% to 90%. For critically damped system, it is the

time taken for response to raise from 5% to 95%.

π −θ

Rise time tr =

ωd

−1 1−ξ 2

Where, θ = tan and

ξ

3. Peak Time

It is the time taken for the response to reach the peak value for the very first time. (or) It is the

taken for the response to reach the peak overshoot t p .

π

Rise time t p =

ωd

It is defined as the ration of the maximum peak value measured from final value to the final

value.

Let final value = c (e)

Maximum vale = c (t p )

c (t p ) − c ( e )

Peak Overshoot, M p =

c (e)

−πξ

1−ξ 2

%M p = e × 100

5. Settling Time

It is defined as the time taken by the response to reach and stay within a specified error. It is

usually expressed as % of final value. The usual tolerable error is 2% or 5% of the final value.

4

Settling Time t s = (For 2% error).

ξωn

3

Settling Time t s = (For 5% error).

ξωn

EC2259 Electrical Engineering And Control System Lab Manual

PROCEDURE

• Enter the command window of the MATLAB.

• Create a new M – file by selecting File – New – M – File.

• Type and save the program.

• Execute the program by either pressing F5 or Debug – Run.

• View the results.

• Analysis the time domain specifications of the system.

PROBLEM

100

Obtain the time domain specifications of the given open loop T.F is H ( s ) = 2

s + 2 s + 100

num = [ 0 0 100 ]

den = [ 1 2 100 ]

impulse (num, den)

grid

title (‘ unit impulse response plot’)

num = [ 0 0 100 ]

den = [ 1 2 100 ]

step (num, den)

grid on

title (‘unit step response plot’)

RESULT

Thus the time response characteristic of second order linear system was verified using

MATLAB.

EC2259 Electrical Engineering And Control System Lab Manual

AIM

To design P, PI, and PID controllers for first order systems using MATLAB.

APPARATUS REQUIRED

1. Controller and system kit.

2. Patch chords.

3. Computer and Interference chord.

THEORY

Proportional Controller

1. The Proportional Controller is a device that produces the control signal, u (t) which is

Proportional to the input error signal e (t).

In P – controller, u (t) e (t).

Therefore u (t) = Kp c (t).

Where Kp – Proportional gain or constant.

2. The Proportional plus Integral Controller (PI – Controller) produces an output signal

consisting of two terms one on proportional to error signal and the other proportional to

the integral of error signal

In PI – Controller, u (t) [e (t) + | e (t) dt]

Therefore, u (t) = e (t) + Kp / Ti | e (t) dt

Where Kp – Proportional gain or constant,

Ti – Integral Time.

3. The PID Controller produces an output signal consisting of three terms one on

proportional to error signal and the another one proportional to the integral of error

signal and the third one is proportional to derivative of error signal.

In PID Controller, u (t) [e (t) + | e (t) + d /dt ((e (t))]

Therefore, u (t) = e (t) + Kp / Ti | e (t) dt + Kp Td d /dt ((e(t))]

Where Kp – Proportional gain or constant,

Ti – Integral Time.

Td – Derivative Time.

EC2259 Electrical Engineering And Control System Lab Manual

Step Input P Controller

(FG)

Computer CH 0 Computer CH 1

EC2259 Electrical Engineering And Control System Lab Manual

(FG)

Computer CH 0 Computer CH 1

EC2259 Electrical Engineering And Control System Lab Manual

(FG)

Computer CH 0 Computer CH 1

EC2259 Electrical Engineering And Control System Lab Manual

Procedure

Type – 0 First Order System with P – Controller

1. Connections are given as per the circuit diagram.

2. Set Proportional Band = 80, Integral Time = 64000 and Derivative Time = 0.

3. Measure the performance specifications.

Type – 0 First Order System with PI – Controller

1. Connections are given as per the circuit diagram.

2. Set Proportional Band = 80, Integral Time = 30 and Derivative Time = 0.

3. Measure the performance specifications.

Type – 0 First Order System with PI – Controller

1. Connections are given as per the circuit diagram.

2. Set Proportional Band = 80, Integral Time = 30 and Derivative Time = 0.1.

3. Measure the performance specifications.

Transfer Function for P, PI, and PID Controller:

P – Controller: Transfer Function = Kp

PI – Controller: Transfer Function = Kp [1 + 1 / Ti S]

PID Controller: Transfer Function = Kp [1 + 1 / Ti S + Td S]

TABULAR COLUMN

S. No Time Domain Specification P controller PI controller PID controller

EC2259 Electrical Engineering And Control System Lab Manual

Model Graph

RESULT

Thus the design of P, PI and PID controller was done.

EC2259 Electrical Engineering And Control System Lab Manual

AIM

To design and implement the suitable lag and lead compensator for a given linear system

to improve the performance.

APPARATUS REQUIRED

1. Transfer function and compensator

2. Computer interface chord

3. Patch chords

THEORY

LAG COMPENSATOR

A compensator having the characteristics of a Lag network is called a lag

compensator. If a sinusoidal signal is applied to a lag network, then in steady state the output

will have a phase lag with respect to input.

Lag compensation results in a large improvement in steady state performance but

results in slower response due to reduced bandwidth. The attenuation due to the lag compensator

will shift the gain cross over frequency to a lower frequency point where the phase margin is

acceptable.

The general form of lag compensator transfer function is given by:

G(S) = (S+T) / (S+P) = (S + 1/T) / S + 1/BT Where, T > 0 and B >1

LEAD COMPENSATOR

A compensator having the characteristics of a Lead network is called a Lead

compensator. If a sinusoidal signal is applied to the lead network, then in steady state the output

will have a phase lead with respect to input.

Lead compensation increases the bandwidth, which improves the speed of

response and also reduces, whereas there is a small change in steady state accuracy. Generally,

Lead compensation is provided to make an unstable system as a stable system.

A Lead compensator is basically a high pass filter so it attenuates high frequency

noise effects. If the pole introduced by the compensator is not cancelled by a zero in the system,

then lead compensation increases the order of the system by one.

The general form of Lead compensator transfer function is given by:

G(S) = (S+T) / (S+P) = (S + 1/T) / S + 1/aT Where, T > 0 and a<1

PROCEDURE

EC2259 Electrical Engineering And Control System Lab Manual

Without Lag Compensator

1. Connections are given as per the circuit diagram.

2. Switch on the power supply.

3. Apply step input.

4. Set Pb = 100%

5. Measure the time domain specification of the II order system from the waveform.

With Lag Compensator

1. Connections are given as per the circuit diagram.

2. Switch on the power supply.

3. Apply step input.

4. Set Pb = 100%

5. Measure the time domain specification of the II order system from the waveform.

6. Compare the performance with and without lag compensator.

TABULAR COLUMN

S. No Time Domain Specification Without Lag With Lag

PROCEDURE

EC2259 Electrical Engineering And Control System Lab Manual

Without Lead Compensator

1. Connections are given as per the circuit diagram.

2. Switch on the power supply.

3. Apply step input.

4. Set Pb = 100%.

5. Measure the time domain specification of the I order system from the waveform.

With Lead Compensator

1. Connections are given as per the circuit diagram.

2. Switch on the power supply.

3. Apply step input.

4. Set Pb = 100%

5. Measure the time domain specification of the I order system from the waveform.

6. Compare the performance with and without Lead compensator.

TABULAR COLUMN

S. No Time Domain Specification Without Lead With Lead

EC2259 Electrical Engineering And Control System Lab Manual

RESULT: Thus the lag and lead compensator of the given system is implemented and the

performance was compared.

EC2259 Electrical Engineering And Control System Lab Manual

DC SHUNT GENERATOR

AIM

To determine the transfer function of the given Separately Excited DC Shunt generator.

FUSE RATING

Motor: 125% of full load current (rated current)

APPARATUS REQUIRED

1 Ammeter MC (0-10A) 1

2 Ammeter MC (0-2A) 1

3 Ammeter MI (0-300mA) 1

4 Voltmeter MC (0-300V) 1

5 Voltmeter MI (0-300V) 1

6 Rheostat Wire wound 250 , 2A 1

7 Rheostat Wire wound 350 , 1.5A 1

8 Single Phase Variac - 230V/ (0-270V) 1

EC2259 Electrical Engineering And Control System Lab Manual

FORMULAE

2. Field Resistance (Rf) = Vf / If

Where, RL = Load Resistance in Ohms

PL = Power of Load in Watts

IL = Total Load current in Amps

5. Field Inductance Lf

2 2

Where, Xf= (Zf –Rf )

Xf= 2 f Lf

Lf= Xf / 2 f

f = frequency of applied source in hertz

6.Transfer function

(Kg / Rf )

Eg(s) Ef(s) = (No Load)

(1+ (Lf/Rf) S)

(Kg / Rf )

Vt (s) / Ef(s) = (Load)

(1+ (Lf / Rf) S) (1+ (Reff / RL))

PRECAUTION

1. The motor field rheostat should be kept at minimum resistance position.

2. The motor armature rheostat should be kept at maximum resistance position.

3. At the time of starting, the motor should be in no load condition.

EC2259 Electrical Engineering And Control System Lab Manual

PROCEDURE

1. Connections are given as per the circuit diagram.

2. The motor is made to run at the rated speed.

3. The generated emf is noted for various values of field current.

4. The voltage across the field winding is also measured

5. From the OCC curve Back Emf constant is calculated.

1. Connections are given as per the circuit diagram.

2. Using single phase variac the supply voltage is varied.

3. The corresponding reading of field current is noted for different values of applied voltage.

4. From the noted readings the field Impedance is calculated.

RESULT

EC2259 Electrical Engineering And Control System Lab Manual

CONTROLLED DC SHUNT MOTOR

AIM

To determine the transfer function of the given armature and field controlled DC shunt

motor.

FUSE RATING:

125% of rated current (full load current)

APPRATUS REQUIRED

1 Ammeter MC (0-15A) 1

2 Ammeter MC (0-2A) 1

3 Ammeter MI (0-10A) 1

4 Voltmeter MC (0-300V) 1

5 Voltmeter MC (0-50V) 1

6 Voltmeter MI (0-300V) 1

7 Rheostat Wire wound 250 , 2A

8 Rheostat Wire wound 50 , 5A 1

9 Rheostat Loading 10A, 230V 1

10 Tachometer Digital - 1

11 Single Phase Variac - 230V / (0-270V) 1

EC2259 Electrical Engineering And Control System Lab Manual

FORMULAE

1. Inertia Constant (J) ={{(Vav * Iav) / (Nav * N)}×(60/2 ) 2 ×((t1* t2) /(t1-t2))} Kg-m2

Iav (I1+I2) / 2

Nav (N1+N2) / 2

t1 Time for fall of speed from 1500 rpm to 750 rpm in no load condition

in seconds.

Seconds

2. Viscous Friction Co-Efficient (f) =(2 /60) 2 ×(J / 2) ×(N12~N22) in N-m / rad /Sec

Where, J Inertia Constant in Kg-m2

Angular displacement in rad / Sec

= (2 Nav /60)

Where, R- Radius of the Break drum in m.

t- Thickness of the Belt in m.

Where KT = KT' × (Current through the Armature / Rated Current of the Motor)

2 2

Where, Xa= (Za -Ra )

Xa= 2 f La

La= Xa / 2 f

[KT / (Ra × f )]

7. Transfer function Q(s) / E(s) =

S{ [1+ (La/Ra) S] [1+ (J/f) S]+ [KT Kb /(Ra × f)]}

EC2259 Electrical Engineering And Control System Lab Manual

THEORY

Ra = Armature resistance in ohms.

Eb=Backemf in Volts.

J= Equivalent of moment of inertia of motor and load referred to motor shaft in kg-m2

f=Equivalent viscous friction coefficient of motor and load referred to motor shaft in

N-m / rad / Sec.

Air gap flux is proportional to the field current because the DC motor should operate

in linear magnetization curve for servo application.

The torque developed by the motor is proportional to the product of armature current

and air gap flux.

(i.e) Tm Ia

Ia Kf If

= K1 Ia Kf If

(i.e) Tm = (K1 Kf If ) Ia

(i.e) Eb d ( )/ dt

EC2259 Electrical Engineering And Control System Lab Manual

Eb = Kb d ( )/ dt ------------------------- 1

Where, Kb is the back emf constant in volt / rad /sec

Torque equation is

J d2 /dt2 +f d /dt = Tm

= KT Ia --------------3

EC2259 Electrical Engineering And Control System Lab Manual

(s) = KT

(s) = KT

(s) = KT

(s) = KT / f Ra

PRECAUTION

1. The motor field rheostat should be kept at minimum resistance position.

2. The motor armature rheostat should be kept at maximum resistance position.

3. At the time of starting, the motor should be in no load condition.

PROCEDURE

1. Connections are given as per the circuit diagram.

2. The DC supply is given by closing the DPST switch.

3. The DPDT switch is thrown into position 1,2.

4. The motor is made to run at the rated speed by adjusting the field rheostat.

5. The DPDT switch is brought to the original position 0,0’. The time taken for falling of

speed from 1500 to 750 rpm is noted.

6. Once again the DPDT switch is thrown into position 1,2. Then the motor is made to run at

the rated speed

7. Then the DPDT switch is changed into position 1’, 2’.

8. Then J and f is calculated by using the formula.

EC2259 Electrical Engineering And Control System Lab Manual

1. Connections are given as per the circuit diagram.

2. The DC supply is given by closing the DPST switch.

3. The field current is kept constant.

4. The motor is made to run at the rated speed.

6. Torque is calculated and plotted from the graph by adjusting the slope, torque constant KT is determined.

1.Connections are given as per the circuit diagram.

2. The motor is made to run at the rated speed.

3. At rated speed the supply voltage and armature value readings are noted.

4. The Back Emf constant is calculated.

1. Connections are given as per the circuit diagram.

2. The DC supply is given by closing the DPST switch.

3. By adjusting the loading rheostat the various values of Ia and Va are noted.

4. The armature resistance is calculated by the application of formula.

1. Connections are given as per the circuit diagram.

2. Using single phase variac the supply voltage is varied.

3. The corresponding reading of Ia are noted for different values of applied voltage

4. Then Za and La are calculated by using the formula.

RESULT

Thus the transfer function of the given armature and field controlled DC shunt motor is determined.

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