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Disaster is a manmade or natural hazard or a tragic event causing significant

physical damage. A disaster management system is a set of organized and
disciplined events in order to decrease the loss or damage caused. We think that
disaster management is a cycle which includes preparedness for disaster, response
given to the disaster according to the plan, evaluation of the plan on the basis of the
errors caused, reconstruction and development of a new plan to respond to the
disaster and prevention of it.

Knowing the importance of disaster management in today¶s world of increasing

manmade disaster this year I studied a system playing very crucial role in disaster
management system. I chose the topic role of blood bank in disaster management.
Blood saves a person¶s life. Blood components also play very essential role in
casualty¶s body after the loss of blood. And loss of blood is quite obvious after
occurrence of a disaster. Blood cannot be prepared in laboratory; it has to be taken
from a person or donor and is given to another person or receiver. Hence blood
bank is a necessary system.
Yuturology is an analytical, reasoned out prediction of future. Initially, it was a tool
to study the trends in oil prices, fashion designs etc. Though many different
versions of the future abound, the study in much more difficult to master and its
general principles must be learnt through study.

Yuturology or future studies are the discipline of exploring possible ends that the
beginnings of today and yesterday will transform into. It is rapidly increasing area
of research due to the fact that society is so rapidly changing. Predictions by many
futurists have turned into reality now.

Predicting the future is by no means an easy tasks and requires considerable

erudition, creativity, wisdom insight and detailed study of trend of past. This is
because the future will certainly not be the same as it is today if we use what we
see around us; today to predict the future we will not add into play components
from both the past and future. The amount by which the world can change in just a
few decades is beyond comprehension and clearly beyond prediction.

However, a detailed study of past and present trends, gives us a probable prediction
of future, for which we are prepared. By the means of futurology, the µundesirable¶
can be transformed to µdesirable¶. Most of all the predictions of future, exploring
the possibilities, searching for future truths provide a µpure joy¶!
Alvin Toffler is an American writer, futurist or speculative socialist born on 3rd
October 1928. He is known for his works discussing digital revolution,
communication revolution, corporate revolution and technological singularity. He
is a former associate editor of Yortune magazine and his early work is focused on
technology and its impact.

Then he moved to examining the reaction of changes in the society. His later focus
has been on the increasing power of 21st century military hardware, weapons,
technology proliferation and capitalism. He is married to Heidi Toffler.

Toffler invented the term ³Yuture Shock´ to describe ³the dizzying disorientation
brought on by premature arrival of the future. His 1970 book, ³Yuture Shock´ was
on the bestseller list in hardcover edition and later a Bantam paperback for a total
of 78 weeks. He also wrote books like ³Third wave´, ³The adaptive corporation´,
³Revolutionary Wealth´, ³Power shift´ and ³War and anti-war´.

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p ‘p A place where blood is collected from donors, typed, separated

into components, stored and prepared for transfusion to recipients.‘‘

p ‘ ‘A Blood donation is a process in which blood is collected

from a healthy person, tested, separated and then transfused to the body of a
healthy person.


-‘ The donor should be in good health conditions. He or she should not be
under any medication. The donor should have an average hemoglobin level.
-‘ There should always be a gap of 56 days before the next donation.
-‘ The donors should always fill the complete questionnaire regarding
-‘ The age of donor should be at least 18 years.


-‘ A questionnaire is filled out by the donor. The questions are designed to
identify the health problems of the donors or infections that may be present.
-‘ A finger sticks yields a drop testing determines if the donor has high enough
hematocrit to safely donate blood.
-‘ The blood is drawn into a capillary tube which is the spun in the small
centrifuge [seen in the background] to determine the hematocrit.
-‘ An inflatable cuff on the arm is used to check blood pressure and to
maintain venous filing.
-‘ The site for drawing blood is selected and disinfected. A prominent vein is
chosen for the venipuncture site.
-‘ The disinfectant is applied to the area around the vein to be used.
-‘ Blood fills the collection bag by gravity in a few minutes. The seated plastic
collection bag contains a blood preservative.

i‘ Routine blood storage limits (short term):
i‘ 1.5 weeks for WBC
i‘ 2.6 weeks for RBC
i‘ -This storage involves refrigeration but not freezing
i‘ -There is a controversy about age of blood and its efficiency i.e. older the
blood lesser is the efficiency which increases the risk.

i‘ Cryopreservation: It is a process which stores rare units of RBC for 3 years.
Very rare units can be stored even longer.
i‘ Cells incubated in glycerol solution acts as cryoprotectant (antifreeze) within
the cells, and then these units are placed in special sterile containers in a
freezer at very cold temperature. (Exact temperature depends on glycerol

i‘ Blood donation saves one¶s life. This is why the need for blood will be
always there irrespective of the season, month etc. The constant need of
blood will never cause the system of blood bank to die and it makes the
system more sustainable.
i‘ A recent research says that blood donation consistently after 3 or 4 months
makes a person healthy. Thus, if proper awareness is created in the donors
there wouldn¶t be shortage of blood to the system.
i‘ mowadays there has been a great technological development in the system
Glycerisation and crystallization of blood components gives them a longer
life. Machines are reducing the time needed for testing of blood. Increase in
capacity of refrigeration allows more storage of blood.
i‘ Due to use of machines in most blood testing, transfusion and collection
processes the required manpower is reducing and thus it leads to the
decreasing manual errors.


1.‘ mowadays as awareness is being created about blood donation, a lot of blood is
collected during special occasions like Independence Day, republic day or
Gandhi jayanti. It may not always be needed at that times and thus sometimes a
lot of blood is wasted.
2.‘ Diseases like diabetes, AIDS are spreading rapidly. So, the blood donated is
needed to be checked. Errors can be caused due to rush where the testing is not
automated and this can cause death of a person.
3.‘ Lack of trained technicians or carelessness of staff can cause fatal to the
casualty. Most economically unstable blood banks do not have the blood
transfusion, blood donation, blood testing are not automated by machine where
these manual errors are very common.
4.‘ There are many misunderstandings regarding blood donation which have still
kept many healthy donors away from blood donation which in future can cause
a major threat to the system.

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Besides, primary data collected with the help of questionnaire, I have also
collected the relevant secondary data from various sources like magazine, books
and internet.
Based on relevant primary and secondary data, a comparative analysis has been
done so as to find out the areas of excellence and areas of improvement of all these
organizations. The project was conducted in Pune so the information is relative to
this city only.

In this compiled work, a description of the place of study is given. A graphical

representation on the data obtained is also given as annexure. A verification of my
hypothesis, stated below and some policy recommendations are mentioned too.


 ‘ p ‘ p‘ ‘ ‘ 
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As a student of Economics, to study about the reliability and functioning of any

firm or institution due to various contributing factors like quality, skills of services
etc. is a part of my course. I chose the above hypothesis so that I could combine
my knowledge with the practical experience to know more about how the factors
like skills of services, facilities, reliability etc. contribute to the preference of one
blood bank over others.

V  !   V 
" Maharashtra




V  -Pune city

    - Deenanath Mangeshkar Blood Bank, Deenanath Mangeshkar
Hospital, Sasoon Blood Bank,Armed Yorces Medical College Blood Bank, Janakalyan Blood
Bank, Sahyadri Blood Bank, Aacharya Aanand Hrishiji Blood Bank


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The graphs below show the distribution of these blood banks in Pune City and the
overall rating of different blood banks in different categories like facilities, rates,
modern machinery, ambulance, doctors etc.






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As evident from the graph-2, I have rated every blood bank out of 20 in each category mentioned
above and conclusion is drawn after combining ratings of different categories together,
Janakalyan and A.Y.M.C. are almost at par with each other. But looking individually every blood
bank is good and bad depending on the category.

1. Deenanath Mangeshkar Blood Bank-Dr. Sanjeev Ketkar:-

I visited the blood bank of Deenanath Mangeshkar Hospital. It is a self sufficient, well equipped
and modern blood bank. Dr. Sanjeev Ketkar, Head, Blood bank, guided and explained about the
mechanism of the blood bank, blood donation ,component separation, storage in a special way
and distribution in case of need (to their hospital and also the other hospitals). I also got the
information about the basic principles and theory. Also, he told me about their efficient disaster
management system .I asked him some questions regarding my survey.

2. Sahyadri Blood Bank:-

I made a survey in this blood bank and got the information about their Blood Bank and their
disaster management system.

3. Sasoon Blood Bank:-

It is a municipal hospital. The rates are very cheap and so affordable to every person. I did a
survey in sasoon and got the information about their disaster management system and the role of
a common man in it.
4. Janakalyan Blood Bank:-
I collected statistical data regarding need of blood, distribution according to blood groups. This
blood bank provides blood to many hospitals and free service is provided for poor patients.

5. Armed Yorces Medical College (A.Y.M.C.) Blood Bank:-

The experience was not so good but I was guided about the further work I should do in the


I prepared a questionnaire and surveyed some blood banks regarding their blood bank disaster
management systems. Yrom the answers, I concluded that according to these blood banks, a
disaster is any case of acute emergency caused by the man or the nature. These blood banks face
disasters very frequently. meed of 40-45 bags in a few minutes can also be a disaster. When a
disaster occurs, blood banks generally prefer to save a severe casualty who can be saved but
these priorities may differ according to the situations. Most of the blood banks have 4-6
ambulances for the transport of blood. In case of any disaster, the blood banks generally don¶t
suffer through blood shortage as they conduct blood donation camps very often. But in case of
blood shortage in a disaster, they have some volunteer donors or, the relatives of the casualties
also donate blood. The blood banks provide all emergency facilities to the patients. Yree services
are also provided. The patients are not neglected. In case of a disaster, the beds of private wards
are shifted to general wards and in that space, the casualty patients are accommodated. They can
also be accommodated in the ICU. All the blood banks are ready with an efficient blood bank
system for disaster management. They have the latest technology machines. If the blood banks
conduct a blood donation camp in which plenty of blood is collected but if the need of blood is
not in the same ratio, then after 35 days, they need to dispose it off and blood is wasted. But
generally 2-5% blood is wasted. Most of the blood banks face no profit and no loss. But in case
of government aided hospitals, the financial loss is barred by the government itself.
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The 3 µM¶s should be present in every blood bank. The 3 µm¶s are: - Money, Man power,

These 3 things make a blood bank an efficient one. When a disaster occurs man power is the
most essential thing. But only having man power is not useful, managing it is more necessary.
Blood bank should own proper and developed technology which would help in rapid testing of
blood. Trained pathologists and lab-technicians are also very important for a blood bank.

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