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eTHINKING 9

Coordinates
and graphs

11
You can predict a person’s height
(h) if you are given the length of
the person’s radius (r). The
radius is the bone in your
forearm that is on the same side
as your thumb. For a male, the
rule is h = 3.6r + 81.
For a female, the rule is different,
but is known to also follow a linear
pattern. Some results are shown in
the table below. Can you work out
the rule?
Length of Height of
radius (cm) female (cm)
14.5 122.9
Radius (r) 16 129.2
18 137.6
20 146.0
In this chapter, you will be
working with Cartesian
coordinates and investigating
linear patterns.
areyou 488 Maths Quest 8 for Victoria

Are you ready? READY?


Try the questions below. If you have difficulty with any of them, extra help can be
obtained by completing the matching SkillSHEET. Either click on the SkillSHEET icon
next to the question on the Maths Quest 8 CD-ROM or ask your teacher for a copy.

Use the table at right for questions 1 and 2.


A B C D E
Grid coordinates I
11.1 1 ✄ ☎ ✆ ❙ ❖
1 Give the coordinates for the following symbols.
a ◆ b ✪ c ✄
d ✱ e ● 2 ● ❆ ❄ ❁ ❏
3 ❚ ❘ ◆ ✶ ❉
11.2 Grid coordinates II
2 Draw the symbol that is found: 4 ❍ ✱ ✥ ✲ ✴
a 2 squares above B5
b 3 squares to the left of ❉. 5 ✹ ✦ ✪ ✸ ■

Plotting coordinate points


11.3
3 a Plot the following points on a Cartesian plane (number plane).
i A(1, 4) ii B(−2, 3) iii C(3, −5)
iv D(−4, 0) v E(0, 0) vi F(0, −2)
b For each of the following, draw a number plane that extends from −5 to 5 on the horizontal
axis and −5 to 5 on the vertical axis. Mark the points on the number plane and name the shape
that is formed in each case.
i (0, 0) (1, 2) (4, 2) (3, 0) ii (−2, 1) (3, 1) (3, −2) (−2, −2)
iii (−3, 0) ( 1--- , 0) ( 1--- , 3 1--- ) (−3, 3 1--- ) iv (−5, −2) (−3, 3) (1, 3) (3, −2)
2 2 2 2

11.4 Substitution into rules


4 Substitute 5 for x in each of the following rules and then find the value of y.
a y=x+2 b y=x−4 c y = 2x + 1

Completing a table of values for a given rule


11.5 5 Complete the table of values for each of the following.
a y=x+4 b y = 3x − 2
x −2 −1 0 1 2 x −2 −1 0 1 2
y 2 3 y

11.6 Plotting a line using a table of values


6 Draw up a table of values and plot the graph for each of the following rules.
a y=x+3 b y=x−2 c y = 2x
Chapter 11 Coordinates and graphs 489
Interpreting graphs
Graphs are found in many areas of everyday life. We often see graphs on television
tracking the changing value of money and other trends. Learning to interpret the
information shown on graphs is very useful.
Daily exchange rates of the Australian dollar
80c

75c

70c
US 65c

60c
55c

50c

45c
1 001 002
2 3 3 004 004 005 005
00 00 00 00
1/2 /07/2 /01/2 /07/2 /01/2 /07/2 /01/2 /07/2 /01/2 /07/2
Source:Reserve
2/0 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 Bank of Australia

When interpreting graphs we should consider the following points.


1. Look at the overall picture. Where are the points situated? Does the line
increase or decrease?
2. Look at what the horizontal and vertical axes represent, the values included (if
any) and their units of measurement.
3. The values are increasing as you move up the vertical axis and to the right
along the horizontal axis.

Point graphs
For example, look at the graph at right.
Height

As you move up the vertical axis, height is increasing. C


As C is above D, C must be taller than D.
D
As you move to the right, age is increasing. As C is to
the right of D, C must be older than D.
Age

WORKED Example 1
Use the graph shown to answer the following questions
about Brendan and Kelly.
a Who is taller, Brendan or Kelly?
Height

b Who is younger? Kelly

Brendan

Age
THINK WRITE
a Height is on the vertical axis. Kelly is a Kelly is taller.
above Brendan, so Kelly is taller.
b The horizontal axis shows age. Brendan b Brendan is younger.
is to the left of Kelly, so Brendan is
younger.
490 Maths Quest 8 for Victoria

Line graphs
A point graph shows pieces of information only. A line graph can show how the infor-
mation changes. Time is often used on the horizontal axis.
A
A
B

Height

Height
B

Age Time
Point graph Line graph

WORKED Example 2 Distance Conchita is from home


This graph shows the
distance Conchita is from

Distance
home when she is out hiking.
Describe what each straight B
C
line section of the graph is A
showing.
Time

THINK WRITE

1 As you move along section A, the distance is Section A: Conchita is walking


increasing and time is increasing, so Conchita is away from home.
moving further away from home.
2 As you move along section B, the distance is Section B: Conchita could be
staying the same but time is still increasing. resting.
3 As you move along section C, the distance from Section C: Conchita is walking
home is decreasing and time is increasing. towards home.

remember
When interpreting graphs consider the following points.
1. Look at the overall picture. Where are the points situated? Does the line
increase or decrease?
2. Look at what the horizontal and vertical axes represent, the values included
(if any) and their units of measurement.
3. The values are increasing as you move up the vertical axis and to the right
along the horizontal axis.
Chapter 11 Coordinates and graphs 491
Math

11A

cad
Interpreting graphs Interpreting
graphs

WORKED 1 Use the graph shown to answer the


Example
1
following questions about Lucas and
Selina.
a Who is taller?
b Who is younger?

Selina Lucas
Height

Age

2 Use the graph at right to answer the following questions.


a Does Yelena have a larger shoe size?
Yelena
b Is Yelena older than Andrea?
Shoe size

Andrea

Age
3 Use the graph at right to answer the following questions.
a Who is the youngest?
Amy
b Who weighs the most?
Weight

c Is the oldest person the heaviest? Cathlin


Talia

Age
Pocket money

Karl
4 Use the given graph to answer the following questions. Janica
a Who is given the most pocket money?
b Is the youngest person given the least amount of
pocket money? Morgan
c Is the oldest person given the most pocket money? Age
492 Maths Quest 8 for Victoria

5 a Use the graph at right to answer the following questions. Linh


i Who weighs the most? Hannah
ii Who is the tallest?

Weight
iii Does the shortest person weigh the least? James
b Copy this graph and plot the height and weight of Georgia, David
who is taller than Linh and weighs less than Hannah
but more than James.
Height

6 multiple choice
Which of the following is shown by this graph? Tania

Weight
A Myfanwy is the lightest and youngest. Myfanwy
B Tania is the oldest.
C Myfanwy is older than Louise and younger Louise
than Tania.
D Tania and Louise are the same age. Age
E Louise weighs the least.

7 multiple choice
Which of the following is shown by this graph? Chris Tim

Height
A Jack is the tallest.
B Chris is the oldest. Jack
C Darren and Chris are the same age. Darren
D Tim is the tallest.
E Darren is the same height as Chris. Age

WORKED 8 The graph at right shows the distance Claire is from D


Example
home when she is out rockclimbing. Describe what C E
B
Distance
2 A
each straight line section of the graph is showing.

Time
9 The graph at right shows Thomas’s head circumference
Head circumference

for the first 12 weeks after birth.


a Why doesn’t the graph start at zero?
b What has happened to his head circumference
during the first 12 weeks?
c What would you expect the graph to look like
beyond the first 12 weeks?
0 6 12
Age (weeks)
Chapter 11 Coordinates and graphs 493
10 The graph at right shows Monique’s journey as she walks to

Distance from school


school.
A
a In which section of the graph is Monique not moving?
B
b The line in section C is steeper than the line in section A.
What is this telling us about section C? C
c Where is Monique at the end of section C?
Time
11 Yupa owns an ice-cream shop. The graph below shows his profit for the first 4 months
of the year.
a In which month did Yupa make the most profit?
b In which month did Yupa make the least profit?

Profit
c Describe what has happened to Yupa’s profit over
the 4 months.

Jan Feb Mar Apr


Time (months)

12 Copy the axis shown below and draw a line graph that you think would show rainfall
over one year.
Rainfall

J FMAMJ J ASOND
Time (months)
13 Cathy has been training hard for the 100 m. She has kept a record of the fastest time
she has run each week. Draw a graph that shows the following sections:
Section A: Cathy increased her speed for the 100 m each week for the first 4 weeks.
Section B: After 4 weeks Cathy’s speed stayed the same for the next 2 weeks.
Section C: Cathy had a cold and her speed decreased for 2 weeks.
Section D: Having recovered from her cold, Cathy trained hard and increased her
speed again.

QU EST
S
M AT H

E
NG

1 There is the same number of desks in each row in my classroom and the
E

CH LL rows are straight. My desk is fourth from the front and fourth from the
A
back. It has one desk to its left and two to its right. How many desks
are there in the classroom?
2 Explain how you can obtain exactly 6 litres of water using a source of
water and only two containers. One container will hold 4 litres and the
other 9 litres. The containers do not have any scale marked on them.
494 Maths Quest 8 for Victoria

The Cartesian plane


Numbers can be used to accurately describe the y
position of any point or coordinate. You may
recall from last year that a system for naming
and locating points involved the Cartesian
plane. This method was invented in the 17th 0 x

century by René Descartes (1596–1650). A


Cartesian plane consists of two axes, as shown
at right. The horizontal axis is called the x-axis.
The vertical axis is called the y-axis.
Note: The axes are drawn so they cross over, instead of being drawn along two edges of
the page.

The centre of a Cartesian plane is called the origin. Both axes have numbers along
them, which start from the origin. This places the origin at 0 (zero) on both the x-axis
and the y-axis.
Arrows are placed on the end of each axis to show that
y
they actually keep going, even though we have stopped 6
drawing at these points. 5
4
As you move to the right along the x-axis, the numbers 3 Origin
increase. As you move to the left along the x-axis, the 2
numbers decrease. As you move up the y-axis, the numbers 1
x
increase. As you move down the y-axis the numbers –2 –1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6
–1
decrease. The numbers on each axis are marked the same –2
distance apart to give an even scale.

Coordinates
To describe a position on the Cartesian plane, coordinates are used. A coordinate is
made up of a set of brackets, containing two numbers. For example, consider the point
(1, 2). The first number, 1, refers to the position on the x-axis. The second number, 2,
refers to the position on the y-axis.
y
6
5
4
3
2 (1, 2)
1
x
–2 –1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6
–1
–2

A Cartesian coordinate is written as (x, y). To locate a point on the Cartesian


plane, go across on the x-axis to the first number and then up or down on the
omet y-axis to the second number.
i Ge ry
Cabr

So (1, 2) refers to the point with a position, across 1, up 2.


Coordinates
Open the Cabri Geometry file ‘Coordinates’ on the Maths Quest 8 CD-ROM to
check your understanding of x- and y-coordinates.
Chapter 11 Coordinates and graphs 495
WORKED Example 3
Draw a Cartesian plane that goes from −3 to 5 on the x-axis and −3 to 5 on the y-axis and
plot the following points.
a A(1, 2) b B(3, −2) c C(−2, −2 1--- ) d D(0, −1) e E(−2, 0)
2

THINK DRAW

1 Draw a Cartesian plane that extends from −3 to 5 y


5
on both the x- and y-axes. 4
2 Find and plot the position of each point, and then 3
2 A
label.
1
E
a Across to 1 on the x-axis and then up to 2 on the x
–3 –2 –1 0 1 2 3 4 5
y-axis. –1 D
B
C –2
b Across to 3 on the x-axis and then down to −2 –3
on the y-axis.
c Across to −2 on the x-axis and then down to
−2 1--2- on the y-axis.
d Stay at the origin (0 on the x-axis) and then
down to −1 on the y-axis.
e Across to −2 on the x-axis and then stay at 0 on
the y-axis.

WORKED Example 4
Write the Cartesian coordinates of the points y
B 4
A to E marked on the Cartesian plane at right. 3
2
1 A
x
–3 –2 –1 0 1 2 3 4 5
C –1
–2
–3
E D
–4

THINK WRITE

1 Trace along the x-axis to find the first number, and


then along the y-axis to find the second number.
Point A is at 1 on the x-axis and 1 on the y-axis.
Point B is at −1 on the x-axis and 4 on the y-axis.
Point C is at −3 on the x-axis and −1 on the y-axis.
Point D is at 2 on the x-axis and −4 on the y-axis.
Point E is at 0 on the x-axis and −3 1--- on the y-axis.
2
2 Write each point as a pair of coordinates. A(1, 1) B(−1, 4) C(−3, −1)
D(2, −4) E(0, −3 1--- )
2
496 Maths Quest 8 for Victoria

remember
1. The Cartesian plane has a horizontal axis called the x-axis and a vertical axis
called the y-axis.
2. The two axes cross at the origin, which has the coordinates (0, 0).
3. A Cartesian coordinate is written as (x, y).
4. The first number gives the position on the x-axis, and the second number gives
the position on the y-axis.
5. To locate a point on the Cartesian plane, go across on the x-axis to the first
number, and then up or down on the y-axis to the second number.

11B The Cartesian plane


reads
L Sp he
et

1 Draw a Cartesian plane that extends from − 6 to 6 on the x-axis and − 6 to 6 on the
EXCE

WORKED
Plotting Example
3
y-axis and plot and label the following points.
points
a A(3, 3) b B(2, 5) c C(5, 1)
d D(−1, 4) e E(−4, 2) f F(−2, 0)
HEET
11.1 g G(−2, −3) h H(−4, −5) i I(0, −3)
SkillS

j J(1, −2) k K(3, −1 --- )


1
l L(4 1--- , 0)
Grid 2 2
coordinates I
y
WORKED 2 Write the Cartesian coordinates of the points A to M 6 B
Example 5 E
11.2 marked on the Cartesian plane at right.
HEET 4 K D4 J
3
SkillS

2 A
Grid 1 H F
coordinates II
G I C
–6–5–4–3–2–1 0 x
–1 1 2 3 4 5 6
L –2
–3
–4
3 multiple choice M –5
–6
Note: There may be more than one correct answer.
a The point (3, 4) gives a position on the Cartesian plane of:
A 3 on the y-axis, 4 on the x-axis
B 3 left, 4 up
C 4 right, 3 up
D 3 on the x-axis, 4 on the y-axis
me E 3 right, 4 up
E ti
b The point (−2, 0) gives a position on the Cartesian plane of:
GAM

Coordinates A left 2, up 0
and graphs
— 001 B left 0, down 2
C −2 on the x-axis, 0 on the y-axis
reads D −2 on the y-axis, 0 on the x-axis.
L Sp he
et
EXCE

E 2 on the x-axis, 0 on the y-axis


Cartesian
plane 4 Open the Excel file ‘Cartesian plane game’ on the Maths Quest 8 CD-ROM. Play the
game game to test your skills.
Chapter 11 Coordinates and graphs 497
DESIGN Drawing by numbers
For questions 1 to 5 the words START and STOP indicate instructions for groups of
points that must be joined in order. The answer to each question should form a picture.
1 On 1-cm graph paper, draw a Cartesian plane with an x-axis from −5 to 5 and a
y-axis from −3 to 5. Connect these three groups of points.
START (0, 5) (−3, −3) (5, 2) (−5, 2) (3, −3) (0, 5) STOP
START (5, 2) (0, 0) (−5, 2) STOP
START (3, −3) (0, 0) (−3, −3) STOP
2 On 1-cm graph paper draw a Cartesian plane with an x-axis from −6 to 6 and a
y-axis from −6 to 6. Connect these groups of points.
START (4, 6) (−4, 6) (−6, 0) (−4, −6) (4, −6) (6, 0) (4, 6) (−6, 0) (4, −6) (4, 6) STOP
START (−4, 6) (−4, −6) (6, 0) (−4, 6) STOP
START (4, 0) (2, 2.5) (−2, 2.5) (−4, 0) (−2, −2.5) (2, −2.5) (4, 0) STOP
Colour the 6 triangles between the star and the hexagon. For example the tri-
angle (6, 0) (4, 6) (4, 1) could be coloured red. Colour the 6 triangles inside the
star. For example (4, 0) (4, 1) (2, 2.5) could be coloured green.
3 Draw a Cartesian plane using the following points. First check the coordinates
to find the lowest and highest x- and y-values needed on each axis. Connect
these groups of points.
START (4, 1) (3, 1) (4, 3) (5, 3) (5.5, 4) (5.5, 5) (6, 6) (6, 7) (5, 7.5) (4, 7.5) (3, 7.5)
(2, 8) (1.5, 9) (1.5, 10) (2, 11) (3, 12) (4, 12.5) (5, 13) (6, 14) (7, 15) (8, 15) (10, 14)
(11, 11) (11, 10) (10.5, 8.5) (10, 7.5) (9, 10.5) (8.5, 8) (7.5, 7) (8, 6.5) (8, 5) (9, 4)
(10, 3) (10, 1) (4, 1) STOP
START (2, 8) (1.5, 7.5) (1, 8) (1.5, 9) STOP
START (4, 1) (4, 2) (5, 2.5) (6.5, 2.5) (5.5, 4) STOP
START (6, 6.5) (8, 6.5) (8, 6) (6, 6) STOP
EYE AT (5.5, 11)
4 Draw a Cartesian plane. Check the following coordinates to find the lowest and
highest x- and y-value needed on the axes. Then draw a cartoon character.
START (6, 7) (7.5, 9) (5, 9) (4.5, 12) (2, 11) (0, 13) (−1.5, 10) (−5, 11) (−5, 8) (−8, 6)
(−6, 4) (−8, 2) (−6, 1) (−7, −2) (−4, −1.5) (−4, −3.5) (−1.5, −3) (−2, −4) (−4, −7)
(−5, −8) STOP
START (−2, −9) (−1, −7) (1, −8) (3, −8) (4, −7.5) (5, −10) STOP
START (4, −7.5) (3.5, −6) (3.5, −4) (4, −3) (5, −2.5) (5, −2) (4, −1.5) (4, −1) (5, 0.5)
(7, 1) (8, 2) (8, 2.5) (6.5, 3) STOP
START (4, −2.5) (2, −3) (0.5, −3) (0, −2) (1, −1) (2, −0.5) (3, 0) (7, 1) STOP
START (6, 2.5) (6.5, 3) (6.5, 4) (6, 4) (4, 3) STOP
START (6, 7) (5, 7.5) (4, 7) (3, 6) (1, 6) (0, 5) (−1, 4) (0, 2) (1.5, 1.5) (3, 2) (4, 4)
(6.5, 4) (7, 5) (7, 6) (6, 7) STOP
START (4, 4) (4, 5) (3, 6) STOP
START (1, −1) (5, 0) STOP
EYES AT (1, 3) AND (5, 5)
EYE LASHES (−1, 4) TO (−2, 4.5), (0, 5) TO (−0.5, 6), (1, 6) TO (0.5, 7), (2, 6) TO
(2, 7), (4, 7) TO (3.5, 8), (5, 7.5) TO (5, 8.5), (6, 7) TO (6.5, 8), (6.5, 6.5) TO (7, 7)
5 On a piece of graph paper draw a Cartesian plane that covers the entire page.
Draw a simple picture on your graph paper. List the coordinates and instructions
showing when to start and stop joining the points. The coordinates should be
chosen carefully so that someone else can draw your picture, following your
instructions.
498 Maths Quest 8 for Victoria

Linear patterns
y
When a set of points is plotted and a pattern is formed, the 6
coordinates of each point may have the same relationship 5
4
between the x- and y-values. When this is so, the x-values 3
and y-values are connected by the same rule. 2
For example, each of the points (1, 2) (2, 3) (3, 4) (4, 5) 1
x
have the same relationship (rule) between their x- and –2 –1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6
–1
y-values. If you look closely, you will see that in each case –2
the y-value is one more than the x-value.
If these points are plotted on a Cartesian plane, they will make a pattern.
The pattern formed by these points is a straight line. We call this a linear pattern.

WORKED Example 5
Plot the following points on a Cartesian plane and comment on any pattern formed. Check
the lowest and highest values to help you decide the numbers to mark on the axes.
(−2, 1) (−1, 2) (0, 3) (1, 4) (2, 5)

THINK DRAW

1 Look at the x- and y-values of the y


points and draw a Cartesian plane. 6
5
The lowest value for the x-axis is −2, 4
the highest is 2. 3
The lowest value for the y-axis is 1, the 2
1
highest is 5.
x
Extend each axis slightly beyond these –2 –1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6
–1
values. –2

2 Plot each point.


3 Comment on any pattern formed. A linear pattern is obtained as the points form a
straight line.

When the plotted points forms a pattern, we have a graph. So the Cartesian plane in
worked example 5 shows a linear graph (a straight-line graph).
Coordinates that form a pattern are often written in a table. For example, the points
(−2, 4) (−1, 2) (0, 0) (1, −2) (2, −4) could be written in a table like the one shown
below.

x −2 −1 0 1 2

y 4 2 0 −2 −4

The linear relationship is that as x is increasing by 1, y is decreasing by 2.


Chapter 11 Coordinates and graphs 499

Graphics Calculator tip! Plotting points


We can check whether a set of coordinate points form a linear pattern by using the
graphics calculator to show them plotted on a Cartesian plane. O

CASI
1. Press Y= and clear any entries. Plotting
points
2. Press 2nd [STAT PLOT], select 4: PlotsOff and press ENTER to turn off any
existing plots.
3. Press STAT and select 1: Edit . . .
4. Enter the x-values in the first column headed L1 (that is, List 1) and the y-values in
the second column headed L2 (for List 2). Remember to press ENTER after each
value is typed in.

5. Press 2nd [STAT PLOT] and select 1: Plot 1. . . With the cursor flashing on ON,
press ENTER and then scroll and press ENTER on the type of plot required.

6. Press ZOOM and select 9: ZoomStat to automatically select window variables that
include all the x- and y-values entered. The screen will show the plotted points.
500 Maths Quest 8 for Victoria

7. You can press TRACE and use the cursor key


to check the values of each point.

WORKED Example 6
a Plot the points in the table at right on a
Cartesian plane. x −4 −3 −2 −1 0 1

y −2 −1 0 1 2 3

b Do the points form a linear graph? If so, what would the next point in the pattern be?

THINK WRITE/DRAW

a 1 Look at the x- and y-values of the a y


points and draw a Cartesian plane. 4
3
2
2 Plot each point. 1
x
–5 –4 –3 –2 –1–10 1 2 3
–2
–3
–4

b 1 Look at the position of the points b Yes, the points do form a linear graph.
and answer the question.
Note: The points form a straight line,
so we have a linear graph.

2 Study the pattern and answer the The next point in the pattern is (2, 4).
question.
Note: The pattern shows that the
x-values increase by 1, and the
y-values increase by 1. The next
x-value will be 2 and the next
y-value will be 4.
Chapter 11 Coordinates and graphs 501
remember
1. Linear means ‘in a straight line’.
2. When coordinates form a straight line on a Cartesian plane, we have a linear
graph.

11.3 SkillS
11C

HEET
Linear patterns Plotting
coordinate
points

WORKED 1 Plot the points on a Cartesian plane and comment on any pattern formed. (Check the Cabri Geo

met
Example

ry
5
lowest and highest values to help you decide which numbers to mark on the axes.)
Plotting
a (−2, −3) (−1, −2) (0, −1) (1, 0) (2, 1) b (−2, 0) (−1, 1) (0, 2) (1, 3) (2, 4) a linear
graph
c (−2, −4) (−1, −2) (0, 0) (1, 2) (2, 4) d (−2, −5) (−1, −2) (0, 1) (1, 4) (2, 7)
e (−2, 2) (−1, 1) (0, 0) (1, −1) (2, −2) f (−2, 0) (−1, −1) (0, −2) (1, −3) (2, −4) Math

cad
WORKED 2 Plot the following points on a Cartesian plane. Linear
Example patterns
6a a x −2 −1 0 1 2 b x −2 −1 0 1 2
L Spre
XCE ad
1 2 4 −2 −1

sheet
E
y 3 5 y 0 1 2
Plotting
points

c x −2 −1 0 1 2 d x −2 −1 0 1 2

y −7 −4 −1 2 5 y 3 2 1 0 −1

e x −2 −1 0 1.5 2 f x −2 −1 0 1 2

y −1 −0.5 0 0.5 1 y 4 2 0 −2 −4

WORKED 3 Plot the following points on a Cartesian plane. Do the points form a linear graph? If so,
Example
6b
state the next point in the pattern.
a (−3, −3) (−2, −1) (−1, 1) (0, 3) (1, 5) (2, 7) (3, 9)
b (−3, −5) (−2, −3) (−1, 0) (0, 1) (1, 4) (2, 5) (3, 7)

c x −2 −1 0 1 2 d x −2 −1 0 1 2

y 3 −1 −2 −3 −4 y −6 −3 0 3 6
502 Maths Quest 8 for Victoria

4 multiple choice
(Note: There may be more than one correct answer.)
a The next point in the linear pattern made by (−2, 0) (−1, 1) (0, 2) (1, 3) (2, 4) is:
A (5, 3) B (−3, −5) C (3, −5) D (3, 5) E (4, 6)
b The next point in the linear pattern made by (−2, 9) (−1, 8) (0, 7) (1, 6) (2, 5) is:
A (−3, 8) B (3, 4) C (3, 6) D (4, 3) E (6, 3)
c The next point in the linear pattern made by (−2, −18) (−1, −14) (0, −10) (1, −6)
(2, −2) is:
A (−1, 3) B (−3, −20) C (3, 2) D (4, 6) E (6, 16)
d Which of the following set of points would make a linear pattern?
A (−2, −1) (−1, −2) (0, −3) (1, −4) (2, −5)
B (−2, 12) (−1, 10) (0, 8) (1, 6) (2, 4)
C (−2, −1) (−1, 0) (0, 1) (1, −1) (2, 0)
D (−2, −5) (−1, 0) (0, 4) (1, 5) (2, 8)
E (−2, 0) (−1, 3) (0, 6) (1, 9) (2, 12)
5 Plot the following points on a Cartesian plane and join the points with a straight line.
a (−3, −2) (0, 1) (1, 2) (4, 5) b (−2, 4) (0, 2) (1, 1) (3, −1)
SHEE
T 11.1 c (−1, −1) (0, −3) (1 1--- , −6) (2, −7) d (− 3--- , −2) (− 1--- , 0) (1, 3) (3, 7)
Work

2 2 2
6 By extending each of the lines in question 5, give three examples of points that also fit
the same pattern and lie on the line.

1 3

Use the grid shown at right for questions 1 and 2. 2

1 What is located at B3? 1


A B C
2 What is the grid reference for the house?
3 Place the following points on a Cartesian plane: A(2, 5), B(0, −5), C(−1, −3), D(4, 0),
E(−6, 5).
4 Write the coordinates of the points A to I marked on y
the Cartesian plane at right. 6
I B
5 Plot the following points on a Cartesian plane. H 4 A
2
x −3 −2 −1 0 1 2 3 C
y −4 −3 −2 −1 0 1 2 –6 –4 –2 2 4 6 x
–2 F
D
6 True or false? The following coordinates form a linear G –4
pattern: (−3, 5) (−2, 6) (−1, 7) (0, 8) (1, 9). E
–6
7 Write the next point in the linear pattern made by (−2, 1) (−1, 3) (0, 5) (1, 7) (2, 9).
8 Give the coordinates of the origin.
9 True or false? The following coordinates form a linear pattern:
(0, 0) (1, 1) (2, 4) (3, 9) (4, 16).
10 Plot (0, 0), (3, 0), (0, 3). Give the coordinates of a point so that these four points form
a square.
Chapter 11 Coordinates and graphs 503
Finding the rule for linear relationships
y
To show that a linear graph is formed when coordinates are 4
plotted, the points may be joined to form a straight line. 3
2
1
x
–5 –4 –3 –2 –1–10 1 2 3
–2
–3
–4

If coordinates form a linear graph, then more points can y


4
be added to the pattern and the graph can be continued in 3
both directions by extending the line past the last points. 2
1
x
–5 –4 –3 –2 –1–10 1 2 3
–2
–3
–4

When coordinates form a linear pattern, a rule can be found for that pattern. The
rule will work for every coordinate in the pattern.

Let us discover how to find the rule for a linear pattern using the steps outlined in the
activity below. Rules are usually written as equations starting with y =.

COMMUNICATION Finding the rule for linear


patterns
1 Use the rule and the table of values to copy and complete the following
sentences.
a Rule: y = x
The difference in the y-values is x −2 −1 0 1 2
. y −2 −1 0 1 2
The rule shows x is multiplied by
.
b Rule: y = 2x
The difference in the y-values is x −2 −1 0 1 2
. y −4 −2 0 2 4
The rule shows x is multiplied by
.
c Rule: y = 3x
The difference in the y-values is x −2 −1 0 1 2
. y −6 −3 0 3 6
The rule shows x is multiplied by
.
504 Maths Quest 8 for Victoria

d Rule: y = 4x
The difference in the y-values is x −2 −1 0 1 2
. y −8 −4 0 4 8
The rule shows x is multiplied by
.

When finding the rule for a linear pattern, if the x-values increase by one,
then the difference in the y-values gives the number that x will be
multiplied by.

For example:

x −2 −1 0 1 2 ← x-value increases by one

y −10 −5 0 5 10 ← y-value increases by 5, so the rule will


be y = 5 × x or y = 5x

2 Find the rule for each of these tables of values.

a x −2 −1 0 1 2 b x −2 −1 0 1 2
y −6 −3 0 3 6 y −14 −7 0 7 14
The rule for this table will be The rule for this table will be
y= × x. y= × x.

c x −2 −1 0 1 2 d x −2 −1 0 1 2
y −8 −4 0 4 8 y −20 −10 0 10 20
The rule for this table will be The rule for this table will be
y= × x. y= × x.

Once you have worked out what the x is multiplied by, you can find the
number added or subtracted at the end of the rule.
For example:
From the table we can see that the
rule will begin with y = 2 × x. x −2 −1 0 1 2
However, 2 × x does not give the
y-value, so a number must be added or y −3 −1 1 3 5
subtracted on the end of the rule.
Choose a positive x-value and multiply by 2.
So, 1 × 2 = 2 but the y-value is 3; so 1 must be added.
This makes the rule y = 2 × x + 1.
Check with another x-value. When x = 2, y = 2 × 2 + 1 = 5. This is correct
so the rule is y = 2 × x + 1 or y = 2x + 1.

Find the number that x is multiplied by and use this part of the rule to find
the number added or subtracted on the end of the rule.
Chapter 11 Coordinates and graphs 505
3 Find the rule for each of these.
a x −2 −1 0 1 2 b x −2 −1 0 1 2
y −5 −2 1 4 7 y 0 2 4 6 8
Rule: y = ×x+ Rule: y = ×x+

c x −2 −1 0 1 2 d x −2 −1 0 1 2
y −4 −3 −2 −1 0 y −7 −5 −3 −1 1
Rule: y = ×x− Rule: y = ×x−

4 Look at your answers to question 3. Compare the number added or subtracted


on the end of the rule with the y-value when x = 0.
Copy and complete the following sentence.
When x = 0, the gives the number added or subtracted on the end
of the rule.
5 Find the rule for the following.
a x −2 −1 0 1 2 b x −2 −1 0 1 2
y 3 4 5 6 7 y 6 8 10 12 14

c x −2 −1 0 1 2 d x −2 −1 0 1 2
y −9 −7 −5 −3 −1 y −9 −5 −1 3 7

e x −2 −1 0 1 2 f x −2 −1 0 1 2
y −11 −5 1 7 13 y −19 −11 −3 5 13

g x −2 −1 0 1 2 h x −2 −1 0 1 2
y 7 8 9 10 11 y −20 −11 −2 7 16

WORKED Example 7
Find the rule for this set of points. x −1 0 1 2 3
y −2 1 4 7 10

THINK WRITE
1 Look for two positive consecutive x-values, 7−4=3
for example, x = 1 and x = 2, and compare
the difference between their corresponding
y-values.
Continued over page
506 Maths Quest 8 for Victoria

THINK WRITE
2 Repeat step 1 for a different pair of positive 10 − 7 = 3
consecutive x-values, for example, x = 2 and
x = 3.
Note: The y-value increases by 3 for every
increase of 1 in the x-value. This means the
rule will begin with y = 3 × x.

3 Choose a positive x-value and multiply by 3. y = 3 × x Does not give the y-value, so
Determine whether a number must be added in this case a number must be
or subtracted to match the corresponding added to the end of the rule.
y-value from the table. When x = 1, y = 3 × 1 + 1
=4
y = 3x + 1

4 Check that the rule works for the other pairs When x = −1, y = 3 × −1 + 1
in the table. = −2
Note: If the rule does not work for all pairs of When x = 0, y = 3 × 0 + 1
values in the table, further attempts must be =1
used. When x = 2, y = 3 × 2 + 1
=7
When x = 3, y = 3 × 3 + 1
= 10

5 State the rule. The rule is y = 3x + 1.

From worked example 7 and the investigation titled ‘Finding the rule for linear
patterns’, it can be seen that when x = 0 the corresponding y-value gives the number to
be added or subtracted on the end of the rule.

remember
1. To show that a linear graph is formed when coordinates are plotted, the points
may be joined to form a straight line.
2. When coordinates form a linear pattern, a rule can be found for that pattern.
The rule will work for every coordinate in the pattern.
3. When finding the rule for a linear pattern, if the x-values increase by one, then
the difference in the y-values gives the number that x will be multiplied by.
4. Once the number that x is multiplied by is obtained, use this part of the rule to
determine the number to be added or subtracted on the end of the rule.
5. When x = 0, the corresponding y-value gives the number to be added or
subtracted on the end of the rule.
6. Rules are usually written as equations, for example, y = x + 1.
Chapter 11 Coordinates and graphs 507
Finding the rule for linear
11D relationships
1 Write these rules as equations. Math
a Add 4 to the x-value. b Add 10 to the x-value.

cad
c Subtract 1 from the x-value. d Subtract 6 from the x-value. Finding
e Multiply the x-value by 7. f Multiply the x-value by 2. the rule
g Multiply the x-value by 4; then add 3. h Multiply the x-value by 3; then subtract 4.
i Multiply the x-value by −2; then add 1. j Multiply the x-value by −1; then subtract 3. progra
GC m

–TI
WORKED 2 Find the rule for each of the following sets of points. Finding
Example
the
7
a x −2 −1 0 1 2 b x −2 −1 0 1 2 rule

y 9 10 11 12 13 y −6 −3 0 3 6
am
progr –C
c −2 −1 d −2 −1

GC

asio
x 0 1 2 x 0 1 2
Finding
y −10 −5 0 5 10 y −9 −5 −1 3 7 the
rule

e x −2 −1 0 1 2 f x −2 −1 0 1 2
y −20 −12 −4 4 12 y −11 −9 −7 −5 −3

g x −2 −1 0 1 2
y 7 4 1 −2 −5

3 multiple choice
Which of the following sets of points forms a linear graph?
A (−2, −2) (−1, −1) (0, 0) (1, −1) (2, −2)
B (−2, 4) (−1, 8) (0, 2) (1, 3) (2, −6)
C (−2, −6) (−1, −2) (0, 1) (1, 10) (2, 3)
D (−2, −3) (−1, −2) (0, −1) (1, 0) (2, 1)
E (−2, −4) (−1, 3) (0, 2) (1, 1) (2, 9)
4 multiple choice
a The rule for the set of points at right is:
x −1 0 1 2 3

y −3 −2 −1 0 1

A y = 2x B y=x+2 C y=x−2
D y = 2x − 2 E y = 4x − 4
b The rule for the set of points at right is: (−2, −2), (−1, 1), (0, 4), (1, 7), (2, 10)
A y=x+4 B y = 5x C y = 4x + 1
D y = 3x + 4 E y=x
508 Maths Quest 8 for Victoria

QUEST
S
M AT H

E
NG
E
CH LL
A 1 The figure on the right consists of triangles.
How many triangles are in this figure?
(Hint: The answer is not 16.)

2 Consider the arrangement of 20 matches on


the left. Move 3 matches to new positions to
make exactly 5 squares, all the same size.

Plotting linear graphs


Plotting points to form a linear graph can be done even if you are given only the rule.
For example, let us plot the graph of y = 3x + 1. We know from the last section that this
equation is the rule for coordinates that form this linear graph. To plot the graph we
must find coordinates that fit this rule.
To find coordinates, start with a table and choose simple x-values.
Rule: y = 3x + 1 ← Rule is written at the top of the table.

x −1 0 1 2 3 ← Choose x-values.

There are an infinite number of x-values that you could choose, but it is easier to plot
the graph if you keep the values small, with some positive and some negative numbers.
Now use the rule to find the y-value for each coordinate.
When x = −1, When x = 0, When x = 1, When x = 2, When x = 3,
y = −3 + 1 y=0+1 y=3+1 y=6+1 y=9+1
= −2 =1 =4 =7 = 10

The table now looks like this. y = 3x + 1

x −1 0 1 2 3

y −2 1 4 7 10
Chapter 11 Coordinates and graphs 509
WORKED Example 8
Draw a table of values and plot the graph of y = 2x + 1 and label the line.
THINK WRITE/DRAW
1 Write the rule. y = 2x + 1
2 Draw a table and choose simple
x-values.
3 Use the rule to find each y-value and
x −2 −1 0 1 2
enter them in the table.
When x = −2, y = 2 × −2 + 1 = −3. y −3 −1 1 3 5
When x = −1, y = 2 × −1 + 1 = −1.
When x = 0, y = 2 × 0 + 1 = 1.
When x = 1, y = 2 × 1 + 1 = 3. y
5
When x = 2, y = 2 × 2 + 1 = 5. 4
Draw a Cartesian plane and plot the 3
4 2 y = 2x + 1
points. 1
0 x
–5 –4 –3 –2 –1
–1 1 2 3 4 5
5 Join the points to form a straight line –2
–3
and label the graph. –4
–5

You can check whether a given point lies on the line by substituting the x- and y-coordinates Cabri Geo

met
of the point into the rule for the line. The screen shows the Cabri Geometry file ‘Linear pat-

ry
terns and equations’ on the Maths Quest 8 CD-ROM. Linear
patterns
and
equations

Graphics Calculator tip! Drawing graphs given the rule


The main purpose of a graphics calculator is to draw graphs. If we are given the rule or
equation, we can easily produce a graph to check our results.
O
1. To clear any existing plots, press 2nd [STAT PLOT], select 4: PlotsOff and press CASI

ENTER . Drawing
2. Press the Y= key and enter the rule. For example, graphs
given the
to enter y = 2x + 1, press 2 ¥ ALPHA [X] then + and rule
1.

3. Press GRAPH to display the graph of the rule


entered. You may need to adjust the WINDOW set-
tings to show the graph clearly on the screen.
510 Maths Quest 8 for Victoria

Alternatively, you can press ZOOM and select


6: ZStandard, which shows the graph on a Cartesian
plane with x- and y-values ranging from −10 to 10.

4. Experiment with different ZOOM settings.


ZDecimal has x-axis values extending from −4.7 to
4.7 and y-axis values extending from −3.1 to 3.1.
ZInteger has x-axis values extending from −47 to 47
and y-axis values extending from −31 to 31.
ZSquare keeps the scale on the x-axis the same as
the y-axis.

5. Experiment further with the ZOOM settings by


pressing TRACE and moving the cursor keys.

remember
To plot a linear graph, follow these steps.
1. Draw a table and choose some x-values.
2. Substitute each x-value into the rule to obtain the corresponding y-value.
3. Plot these coordinates as points on a Cartesian plane.
4. Rule a straight line through the plotted points.
5. Label the line with a rule.

11E Plotting linear graphs


HEET
11.4 WORKED 1 Complete the following tables of values, plot the points on a Cartesian plane, and join
SkillS

Example
8
them to make a linear graph. Label the graphs with the rules.
Sub-
stitution a Rule: y = x + 3 b Rule: y = x − 5
into rules
x −2 −1 0 1 2 x −2 −1 0 1 2
HEET
11.5 y 1 2 3 y −6 −3
SkillS

Completing a
c Rule: y = 5x d Rule: y = 2x + 4
table of values
for a given rule
x −2 −1 0 1 2 x −2 −1 0 1 2
y −10 0 y 0 6
HEET
11.6
e Rule: y = 3x + 2 f Rule: y = 2x − 2
SkillS

Plotting a line x −2 −1 0 1 2 x −2 −1 0 1 2
using a table
of values y y −4
Chapter 11 Coordinates and graphs 511
g Rule: y = 4x − 3 h Rule: y = −3x + 2 Cabri Geo

met
−2 −1 −2 −1

ry
x 0 1 2 x 0 1 2
Coordinates
y y 5 −4 and graphs

L Spre
2 multiple choice XCE ad

sheet
E
a y = 3x + 4 means: Plotting
graphs
A The y-value equals the x-value, add 3 and then times 4. (tables)
B The y-value equals the x-value times 3 and then add 4.
L Spre
C The x-value equals the y-value times 3 and then add 4. XCE ad

sheet
E
D The y-value equals 4 times the x-value divided by 3. Plotting
E The x-value equals 4 times the y-value and then add 3. graphs
(tables)
b A table of values shows: (DIY)
A a rule B coordinates C a linear graph
D an axis E that a rule continues forever

3 Draw a table of values and plot the graph for each of the following rules. Label each L Spre
XCE ad

sheet
E
graph.
a y=x+2 b y=x−4 Plotting
graphs
c y=x−1 d y=x+5 (rule)
e y = 3x f y = 7x
g y = 4x + 1 h y = 2x − 3 Math
i y = 3x − 5 j y = −2x

cad
k y = −6x + 2 l y = −5x + 4 Plotting
linear
graphs
4 Plot a graph of the following rules from the tables of values provided. Label the
graphs. Then copy and complete the sentences.
a y=4 b y=1

x −2 −1 0 1 2 x −2 −1 0 1 2
y 4 4 4 4 4 y 1 1 1 1 1

For the rule y = 4, the y-value For the rule y = 1, the y-value
of all coordinates is . of all coordinates is .
c y = −2 d y = −5

x −2 −1 0 1 2 x −2 −1 0 1 2
y −2 −2 −2 −2 −2 y −5 −5 −5 −5 −5

For the rule y = −2, the y-value For the rule y = −5, the y-value
of all coordinates is . of all coordinates is .

5 Make a table of values and plot the graph for each of the following rules.
a y=3 b y=2
c y = −2 d y = −4
512 Maths Quest 8 for Victoria

6 Plot the graph of each of the following rules from the table of values provided. Label
the graph. Then copy and complete the sentence.
a x=1 b x=3
x 1 1 1 1 1 x 3 3 3 3 3
y −2 −1 0 1 2 y −2 −1 0 1 2

For the rule x = 1, the x-value For the rule x = 3, the x-value
of all coordinates is . of all coordinates is .
c x = −2 d x = −7
x −2 −2 −2 −2 −2 x −7 −7 −7 −7 −7
y −2 −1 0 1 2 y −2 −1 0 1 2
For the rule x = −2, the x-value For the rule x = −7, the x-value
of all coordinates is . of all coordinates is .
7 Make a table of values; then plot and label the graph for each of the following.
a x=2 b x=5 c x = −5 d x=0
8 Draw a table of values and then graph each of these rules on the same Cartesian plane.
a y = 2x b y = 2x − 1 c y = 2x + 1
Describe the relationship between these lines.
9 Draw a table of values and graph each of these rules on the same Cartesian plane.
a y = 3x + 1 b y = −2x + 1
What do you notice?
10 Draw a table of values and graph each of these rules on the same Cartesian plane.
a y = −x b y=x+2
What do you notice?

Gradient and y-intercept


Gradient gives a measure of how steep something is. Hill
For example, the gradient of a road might tell you how
steep the slope of a hill is. Gradient is measured in the Rise
following way.
To find the gradient of a hill, we need to measure the Run
vertical rise of the hill and the horizontal run of the hill,
as shown in the diagram at right.
rise
Gradient = ---------
run
For example, if the rise of the hill is 3 metres and the
run is 1.5, metres then the gradient can be calculated as
follows:
3
Gradient = -------
1.5
= 2
Note: The gradient in this case does not have any units.
The symbol for gradient is m.
Chapter 11 Coordinates and graphs 513
rise
The gradient of a straight line is given by: m = --------- . y
run 5
4
3
The gradient of a linear graph is found in the same way. 2
1
We measure the rise and run using any two points on the 0 x
–5 –4 –3 –2 –1
–1 1 2 3 4 5
graph. –2
–3
–4
–5

y
5
4
3
To find the gradient of this linear graph, draw a right- 2
1
angled triangle anywhere along the line as shown at right
x
and use it to measure the rise and the run. –5 –4 –3 –2 –1–10 1 2 3 4 5
–2
In the graph at right, rise = 2 and run = 2. –3
–4
2 –5
So, the gradient m = --- = 1 .
2
The gradient of a straight line is constant; that is, it does not change.
Linear graphs usually slope in one of two directions: / or \. A graph that rises from Cabri Geo

met
left to right, /, has a positive gradient. A graph that drops from left to right, \ , has a

ry
negative gradient. A linear graph that is horizontal has a zero gradient as shown below. Gradient
A vertical line has an infinite or undefined gradient.

m is positive m is negative
m is zero m is undefined
Rise Rise

Run Run

WORKED Example 9
State whether these lines have a positive, negative, zero or undefined gradient.
a y b y c y d y

0 x 0 x 0 x 0 x

THINK WRITE
a A line that rises from left to right, /, has a Positive gradient
a positive gradient.
b A line that drops from left to right, \, has b Negative gradient
a negative gradient.
c A line that is horizontal has a zero c Zero gradient
gradient.
d A line that is vertical has an undefined d Undefined gradient
gradient.
514 Maths Quest 8 for Victoria

WORKED Example 10 y
5
Find the gradient of the linear graph at right. 4
3
2
1
0 x
–5 –4 –3 –2 –1
–1 1 2 3 4 5
–2
–3
–4
–5
THINK WRITE/DRAW
1 Choose two convenient points on the line and y
5
draw a triangle to find the rise and the run. 4
Note: It does not matter which two points are 3
2
chosen because the gradient of a straight line 1
is constant. –5 –4 –3 –2 –1 0 1 2 3 4 5
x
–1
–2
–3
–4
–5

2 Read the rise and the run from the graph. rise = 2, run = 1
rise
3 Calculate the gradient. Gradient: m = --------
run
2
= ---
1
=2

Another important part of a linear graph is the y-intercept. This is the point where the
graph crosses the y-axis. The symbol for the y-intercept is c.

WORKED Example 11 y
5
Find: a the gradient, m 4
3
b the y-intercept, c, of the linear graph at right. 2
1
0 x
–5 –4 –3 –2 –1
–1 1 2 3 4 5
–2
–3
–4
–5
THINK WRITE/DRAW
a 1 Choose two convenient points on the line a y
5
and draw a triangle to find the rise and the 4
run. 3
2
1
0 x
–5 –4 –3 –2 –1
–1 1 2 3 4 5
–2
–3
–4
–5

rise = −2, run = 2


Chapter 11 Coordinates and graphs 515
THINK WRITE/DRAW
rise – 2
2 Calculate the gradient. In this case the rise Gradient: m = -------- = ------
run 2
is negative since the line slopes down from
left to right. = −1

b The y-intercept is where the graph crosses the b c = −2


y-axis, and c is the y-value at this point.

remember
1. Gradient is a measure of steepness and is denoted by the symbol m.
rise
2. Gradient: m = -------- .
run
3. The gradient of a straight line is constant.
4. A linear graph can have a positive gradient ( / ), a negative gradient ( \ ), zero
gradient (——) or an undefined gradient ().
5. The y-intercept is where the graph crosses the y-axis. The symbol c stands for
the y-value at this point.

11F Gradient and y-intercept


WORKED 1 State whether each of the following lines has a positive, negative, zero or undefined gradient. Cabri Geo
Example

met
a b c

ry
9 y y y
Gradient

0 x 0 x 0 x L Spre
XCE ad

sheet
E
Gradient
and
d y e y f y intercepts
L Spre
XCE ad sheet
E

0 x 0 x 0 x Gradient
and
intercepts
(DIY)
2 Find the gradient of each of the linear graphs below by measuring the rise and the run.
a y b y c y 11.7 SkillS
5 5 5
HEET

4 4 4
3 3 3 Measuring
2 2 2 the rise
1 1 1 and
0 x x x the run
–5 –4 –3 –2 –1
–1 1 2 3 4 5 –5 –4 –3 –2 –1
–1
0 1 2 3 4 5 –5 –4 –3 –2 –1–10 1 2 3 4 5
–2 –2 –2
–3 –3 –3
–4 –4 –4
–5 –5 –5
516 Maths Quest 8 for Victoria

WORKED 3 Find the gradient of the following linear graphs.


Example
10 a 5
y
b 5
y
c 4
y

4 4 3
3 3 2
2 2 1
1 1 x
–5 –4 –3 –2 –1 0 1 2 3 4 5
0 x 0 x –1
–5 –4 –3 –2 –1
–1 1 2 3 4 5 –5 –4 –3 –2 –1
–1 1 2 3 4 5 –2
–2 –2 –3
–3 –3 –4
–4 –4 –5
–5 –5 –6

d y e y f y
5 10 5
4 8 4
3 6 3
2 4 2
1 2 1
0 x 0 x 0 x
–4 –3 –2 –1
–1 1 2 3 4 5 6 –5 –4 –3 –2–1
–2 1 2 3 4 5 –5 –4 –3 –2 –1
–1 1 2 3 4 5
–2 –4 –2
–3 –6 –3
–4 –8 –4
–5 –10 –5

WORKED 4 For each of the following linear graphs find:


Example
11
i the gradient, m
ii the y-intercept, c.
a y b y c y
5 5 5
4 4 4
3 3 3
2 2 2
1 1 1
x x x
–5 –4 –3 –2 –1
–1
0 1 2 3 4 5 –5 –4 –3 –2 –1–10 1 2 3 4 5 –5 –4 –3 –2 –1
–1
0 1 2 3 4 5
–2 –2 –2
–3 –3 –3
–4 –4 –4
–5 –5 –5

d y e y f y
5 7 5
4 6 4
3 5 3
2 4 2
1 3 1
x 2 x
–5 –4 –3 –2 –1
–1
0 1 2 3 4 5 1 –5 –4 –3 –2 –1–10 1 2 3 4 5
–2 x –2
–3 –5 –4 –3 –2 –1–10 1 2 3 4 5 –3
–4 –2 –4
–5 –3 –5
–4
–5

5 multiple choice
For each of these graphs, choose the correct alternative.
a The gradient of this graph is: y
A 1--- B −4 C 4 D − 1--- E 0 5
4
4 4
3
2
1
0 x
–5 –4 –3 –2 –1
–1 1 2 3 4 5
–2
–3
–4
–5
Chapter 11 Coordinates and graphs 517
b The gradient and y-intercept of this graph are, y
5
respectively: 4
A 2, 4 B −2, 2 C −2, 4 D 2, 2 E −4, −2 3
2
1
0 x
–5 –4 –3 –2 –1
–1 1 2 3 4 5
–2
–3
–4
–5

6 multiple choice
Hugo has developed greater skills with his skateboard. Earlier he mastered a ramp that
has a run of 2 m and a rise of 1.5 m. The ramp has a gradient of:
A 0.75 B 3 C 1.5 D − 3--- E 2
2

2
Use the graph at right to answer questions 1, 2 and 3.
1 In which section(s) did the rainfall increase? B D
A

Rainfall
2 In which section(s) did the rainfall stay the same? C

3 In which section(s) did the rainfall decrease?

Time
Use the Cartesian plane at right for questions 4 and 5.
y
4 State the coordinates for the letter Y. 4 X
5 State the letter for the coordinates (0, −2). Y 2
6 True or false? The next point in the linear pattern made by
(−2, −1) (−1, 0) (0, 1) (1, 2) (2, 3) is (3, 4). –4 –2 2 4 x
C –2 D
7 Write the rule ‘multiply the x value by 6 then add 3’ as an –4
equation.
8 Complete the table of values below and then plot the points on a Cartesian plane.
y = −3x + 4
x −2 −1 0 1 2
y
y
10
9 Find the rule for the following set of coordinates. 8
6
x −2 −1 0 1 2 4
2
y −5 −2 1 4 7 –10 –5 –2 5 10 x
–4
10 State the gradient and the y-intercept for –6
–8
the graph of the line shown at right. –10
518 Maths Quest 8 for Victoria

COMMUNICATION Gradient and y-intercept


1 For each of the following rules:
i draw a table of values
ii plot the coordinates on the same set of axes
iii label each graph clearly.
a y=x−2
b y=x−1
c y=x
d y=x+1
e y=x+2
2 What is the y-intercept of each of the following?
a y=x−2
b y=x−1
c y=x
d y=x+1
e y=x+2
omet
i Ge ry 3 In question 2, what did you notice about the equation of each linear graph and
Cabr

its y-intercept?
Linear
graphs and 4 For each of the following rules:
y-intercepts i draw a table of values
ii plot the coordinates on the same set of axes
iii label each graph clearly.
a y = −2x
b y = −1x (or y = −x)
c y=x
d y = 2x
5 What difference does the negative sign make to a linear graph?
6 Draw a table of values for each of the following rules by choosing x-values
from −1 to 3. Using a whole sheet of graph paper (or a whole page in your
workbook), plot the graphs for each rule on the same set of axes. (Use x-axis:
−4 to 6 and y-axis: −4 to 15.) Label each graph clearly.
a y=x+1
b y = 2x + 1
c y = 3x + 1
d y = 4x + 1
7 What did you notice about the graphs in question 6?
omet
i Ge ry 8 Find the gradient of each graph in question 6.
Cabr

9 Copy and complete the following table.


Linear
equations
and Rule y=x+1 y = 2x + 1 y = 3x + 1 y = 4x + 1
gradients
Gradient

10 Copy and complete the following sentence:


The gradient for a linear graph is given by in the rule.
Chapter 11 Coordinates and graphs 519
Finding the rule for linear graphs
We know the rule for linear graphs shows us the relationship between the y-value and
the x-value of the coordinates on the line. The rule also gives us information about the
gradient, m, and where the graph crosses the y-axis, the y-intercept, c.

The general rule for all linear graphs is given by the equation: y = mx + c. To find
the rule for any particular linear graph, we need to find the values of m and c.

WORKED Example 12
y y
For each of the linear graphs at a 5 b 5
4 4
right: 3 3
Find the gradient, m, the 2 2
1 1
y-intercept, c, and, using m and c, x
–5 –4 –3 –2 –1 0 1 2 3 4 5 0 x
work out the rule. –1 –5 –4 –3 –2 –1
–1 1 2 3 4 5
–2 –2
–3 –3
–4 –4
–5 –5

THINK WRITE/DRAW

a 1 Choose 2 convenient points on the a y


5
line and draw a triangle to find the 4
rise and run. Use the triangle formed 3
2
by the axes. 1
0 x
–5 –4 –3 –2 –1
–1 1 2 3 4 5
–2
–3
–4
–5

rise = 2
run = 2
rise
2 Calculate the gradient. Gradient: m = --------
run
2
= ---
2
=1

3 State the value of c. The y-intercept c=2


is where the graph crosses the y-axis.
4 Substitute the values of m and c into y = mx + c
the general rule. =1×x+2
=x+2
5 State the rule. The rule is y = x + 2.
Continued over page
520 Maths Quest 8 for Victoria

THINK WRITE/DRAW
b 1 Choose 2 convenient points on the b y
5
line and draw a triangle to find the 4
rise and run. The rise is negative as 3
2
the line slopes downwards from left 1
to right. –5 –4 –3 –2 –1 0 1 2 3 4 5
x
–1
–2
–3
–4
–5

rise = −2
run = 1
rise
2 Calculate the gradient. Gradient: m = --------
run
–2
= ------
1
= −2
3 State the value of c. The y-intercept c=0
is where the graph crosses the y-axis.
Note: The graph passes through the
origin.
4 Substitute the values of m and c into y = mx + c
the general rule. = −2 × x + 0
= −2x
5 State the rule. The rule is y = −2x.

WORKED Example 13
State the gradient and y-intercept for each of the following linear rules.
a y = 2x − 3 b y = −x + 1

THINK WRITE
a 1 Write the rule. a y = 2x − 3
2 Compare with the general rule. y = mx + c
3 The gradient is given by m. Gradient: m = 2
4 The y-intercept is given by c. y-intercept: c = −3

b 1 Write the rule. b y = −x + 1


2 Compare with the general rule. y = mx + c
3 The gradient is given by m. Gradient: m = −1
4 The y-intercept is given by c. y-intercept: c = 1
Chapter 11 Coordinates and graphs 521
remember
1. The rule for any linear graph is given by:
y = mx + c
↑ ↑
Gradient y-intercept
2. When the rule for a linear graph is in the form y = mx + c
(a) the number before the x in the rule tells us the gradient, m
(b) the number on the end of the rule tells us the y-intercept, c.

Finding the rule for linear


11G graphs Cabri Geo

met
ry
WORKED 1 For each of the following linear graphs, find i the gradient, m, ii the y-intercept, c, and, Linear
Example
12
iii using m and c, work out the rule. graphs and
y-intercept
a y b y c y
5 5 5
4 4 4
3 3 3
2 2 2 Cabri Geo

met
1 1 1

ry
0 x 0 x 0 x
–5 –4 –3 –2 –1
–1 1 2 3 4 5 –5 –4 –3 –2 –1
–1 1 2 3 4 5 –5–4 –3 –2 –1
–1 1 2 3 4 5 Linear
–2 –2 –2 equations
–3 –3 –3 and
–4 –4 –4 gradient
–5 –5 –5

d y e y f
5 5 y
4 4 5
3 3 4
2 2 3
1 1 2
0 x 0 x 1
–5 –4 –3 –2 –1
–1 1 2 3 4 5 –5 –4 –3 –2 –1
–1 1 2 3 4 5
x
–2 –2 –5 –4 –3 –2 –1–10 1 2 3 4 5
–3 –3 –2
–4 –4 –3
–5 –5

WORKED 2 State the gradient and y-intercept for each of the following linear rules. Math
Example
13 a y=x+3 b y=x−4 c y = 3x + 1 cad
d y = 5x − 2 e y = 6x + 10 f y = 8x − 7 Gradient
and
g y = 5x + 3 h y = 9x − 4 i y = −3x + 4 y-intercept
j y = −6x + 2 k y = −4x l y=x
3 multiple choice
For each of the following graphs choose the correct response.
a The rule for this linear graph is: y
A y = −3x B y=x+3 C y = 3x − 3 3
2
D y=x−3 E y=x 1
0 x
–5 –4 –3 –2 –1
–1 1 2 3 4 5
–2
–3
–4
–5
522 Maths Quest 8 for Victoria

me
b The rule for this linear graph is: y
E ti A y = −2x + 1 B y = −x + 1 C y=x+1 5
GAM

4
Coordinates D y = 2x + 1 E y = − 1--- x + 1 3
2 2
and graphs
1
— 002
0 x
–5 –4 –3 –2 –1
–1 1 2 3 4 5
–2
–3
–4
–5

4 multiple choice
a A linear graph with the rule y = 2x + 6 would have:
A m = 6, c = 2 B m = 2, c = 6 C m = −2, c = 6
T 11.2 D m = 1, c = 6 E m = 2, c = 2
SHEE
b A linear graph with the rule y = 4x − 7 would have:
Work

A m = −7, c = 4 B m = 7, c = 4 C m = 4, c = 4
D m = 4, c = 7 E m = 4, c = −7

Sketching linear graphs


To sketch a straight-line graph you need only two points. Here are two methods you
can use to sketch linear graphs.
1. Gradient and y-intercept method
The equation of a linear graph is of the general form y = mx + c, where m is the
gradient of the line and c is the y-intercept. If we know the y-intercept, we can use this
as one of our points. The gradient can be used to find a second point.
To sketch a graph using the gradient and y-intercept, follow these steps:
Step 1. Plot a point at the y-intercept.
rise
Step 2. Write the gradient in the form m = -------- .
run
Step 3. From the y-intercept move up the number of units suggested by the rise (move
down if the gradient is negative).
Step 4. Move across (right) the number of units suggested by the run and plot the
second point.
Step 5. Join the two points together to form a straight line.

WORKED Example 14
Sketch the graph of y = 2x + 1 using the gradient and y-intercept method.

THINK WRITE/DRAW

1 Write the equation and compare with y = 2x + 1 m = 2, c = 1


the general equation y = mx + c.
2 Plot a point at the y-intercept.
2
3 Write the gradient as a fraction to m = ---
1
identify the rise and the run.
So, rise = 2 and run = 1.
Chapter 11 Coordinates and graphs 523

THINK WRITE/DRAW

4 From the y-intercept at 1, move up 2 units y


5
and across 1 to plot the second point. 4
Join the 2 points to form a straight line. 3
5 2 y = 2x + 1
Extend and label the line. 1
0 x
–5 –4 –3 –2 –1
–1 1 2 3 4 5
–2
–3
–4

2. Intercept method y
Another method of obtaining two points to sketch a linear x-intercept 5
4
graph is to find the x-intercept and y-intercept. These two 3
points are important features of a linear graph. 2 y-intercept
1
At the y-intercept, x = 0, so to find the y-intercept we either: –5 –4 –3 –2 –1 0 1 2 3 4 5
x
–1
1. substitute x = 0 into the equation (rule) or –2
–3
2. look at the value of c in the equation. –4

At the x-intercept, y = 0. So to find the x-intercept, substitute y = 0 into the equation.

WORKED Example 15
Sketch the graph of y = x + 2 using the intercept method.
THINK WRITE/DRAW

1 Write the equation. y=x+2


2 At the y-intercept, x = 0. At y-intercept, x = 0
To find it, substitute x = 0 into the equation. y=0+2
=2
y-intercept (0, 2)
3 At the x-intercept, y = 0. At x-intercept, y = 0
To find it, substitute y = 0 into the equation. 0=x+2
4 Rearrange the equation so that x is on the x+2=0
left-hand side.
5 Subtract 2 from both sides of the equation. x+2−2=0−2
x = −2
x-intercept (−2, 0)
6 Plot the 2 intercepts and join them to form a y
5
straight line. Label the line. 4
3 y=x+2
2
1
0 x
–5 –4 –3 –2 –1
–1 1 2 3 4 5
–2
–3
–4
524 Maths Quest 8 for Victoria

remember
1. To sketch a straight-line graph you need only two points.
2. To obtain two points you can use the gradient and y-intercept or the x- and
y-intercepts.
3. Two methods can be used to sketch linear graphs.
(a) Gradient and y-intercept method: plot a point at the y-intercept and then
use the gradient to plot the second point.
(b) Intercept method: find the x-intercept (substitute y = 0 into the equation),
find the y-intercept (substitute x = 0 into the equation),
or find c by comparing the equation with y = mx + c.

11H Sketching linear graphs

hca
d WORKED 1 Sketch and label the following graphs using the gradient and y-intercept method.
Example
a y=x+1 b y=x+3 c y=x−3
Mat

14
Gradient d y=x−2 e y = 2x + 2 f y = 2x − 1
and
y-intercept g y = 4x − 2 h y = 6x − 4 i y = −x + 4
j y = −x + 2 k y = −x − 5 l y = −2x + 3

11.8 WORKED 2 Sketch and label the following graphs using the intercept method.
HEET Example
a y=x+3 b y=x+6
SkillS

15
Substituting c y=x−4 d y=x−5
0 for x and y e y = x + 10 f y=x−7
into a rule g y=x+1 h y=x−8
d i y=x+8 j y=x+9
hca
k y = −x + 1 l y = −x − 4
Mat

Sketching
linear graphs 3 multiple choice
x-, y-intercepts
a The gradient and y-intercept of the graph given by y = 3x − 5 is:
A m = 3, c = 5 B m = 5, c = 3 C m = −3, c = 5
D m = 3, c = −5 E m = −5, c = 3
b If m = −6 and c = 4, the rule for the linear graph would be:
A y = 4x − 6 B y = −6x + 4 C y = 6x − 4
D y = −4x + 6 E y = −6x − 4

4 multiple choice
a The x- and y-intercepts for the linear graph whose rule is y = x + 9 are:
A 9 and 9 B 9 and −9 C −9 and 9
D 0 and 9 E 0 and −9
b The x- and y-intercepts for the linear graph whose rule is y = x − 15 are:
A 15 and −15 B −15 and −15 C 15 and 0
D 15 and 15 E 0 and 15
Chapter 11 Coordinates and graphs 525
What happens from the age of 35?
Sketch the graphs of the straight lines after
determining the gradient (m) and y-intercept (c)
of each. Each line number and the letter that the
line passes through gives the puzzle code.
y
7
E B
6 U
L 5
R
4

I 3

2 Y
H 1

–8 –7 –6 –5 –4 –3 –2 –1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 x
–1 N D
S –2
V –3 T
O –4

–5 C
A
–6

1 y=2 2 y = –4 3 x=8 4 x = –3
m= m= m= m=
c= c= c= c=
5 y=x 6 y = –x 7 y=x+1 8 y = 2x – 5
m= m= m= m=
c= c= c= c=
9 y = –2x + 6 10 y = —
1
x+4 11 y = 1
– x–6 12 y = —
1
x–3
2 3 4
m= m= m= m=
c= c= c= c=
13 y = 6x – 6 x
14 y = – — 15 y = 3 16 y = –x + 4
5 +6
m= m= m= m=
c= c= c= c=
1 2 3 4 2 5 6 5 6 7 6 8 9 10 2 3 5 11 8 12

13 14 11 15 8 16 6 4 4 5 11 12 11 1
526 Maths Quest 8 for Victoria

COMMUNICATION Predicting a person’s height


At the start of the chapter, you were given some results to use to work out
the relationship between the length of the radius (r) of a female and her height (h).

Length of radius (cm) 14.5 16 18 20

Height of female (cm) 122.9 129.2 137.6 146.0

Let’s look at this problem again.


1 Plot the given points onto a Cartesian plane and join them with a straight line.
Label the horizontal axis r for ‘length of radius’ and the vertical axis h for the
‘height’. (Choose the scale on your axes carefully.)
2 Find the gradient and axis intercepts of the line.
3 Find the rule for this graph.
4 Sketch the linear graph of the rule for a male, h = 3.6r + 81.
5 Find the approximate length of your radius.
6 Use the appropriate graph or rule to predict your height.
How does it compare?

Applications of linear graphs


When information or data is displayed as a graph, we can often get a much clearer
picture of any patterns or possible relationships that may exist between the variables.
This allows us to find the rule or equation that describes the data.

Dependent and independent variables


Data from a table is named according to the axis on which it is graphed. The x-axis (or
horizontal) variable is called the independent variable, and the y-axis (or vertical)
variable is called the dependent variable.
The table below displays the number of hours worked and money received by a
waiter. The independent variable is the number of hours worked, and the dependent
variable is the waiter’s pay.

Hours worked 0 5 10 20 30 40 50
Pay ($) 0 50 100 200 300 400 500

We can usually determine the dependent and independent variables by applying


common sense. As is the case in most employment, the amount paid depends on the
number of hours worked.
Chapter 11 Coordinates and graphs 527
Domain and range
From the table on the previous page we can determine the hourly rate at which the
waiter is paid. We can also determine the minimum and maximum amount the waiter
can expect to be paid per week. For this example, let’s assume the maximum number of
hours the waiter can work in one week is 50 hours.
The minimum amount would be $0 (corresponding to no hours worked). The
maximum would be $10 × 50 = $500 (corresponding to 50 hours worked).
The domain includes the minimum and maximum hours worked and all the values
between them (that is, the x- or independent variables).
The range includes the minimum and maximum pay and all the values between them
(that is, the y- or dependent variables).
For this example, the domain is written as 0 ≤ x ≤ 50 and the range is written as
0 ≤ y ≤ 500.
The following section shows you how to graph data that have been recorded and then
find an equation for those data (if a linear pattern exists).

WORKED Example 16
For each of the following, state the:
ii independent and dependent variables ii domain and range.
a b
90
Time (h) 1 2 4 10 15 100 80
70
Cost ($)

60
Distance 15 30 60 150 225 1500 50
travelled (km) 40
30
20
10
0 1 2 3 4 5 6
Length of material (m)
THINK WRITE

a ii Determine which of the two variables a ii Time is the independent variable and
is the dependent one and answer the distance travelled is the dependent
question. variable.
Note: The distance travelled will
depend on the number of hours.
ii 1 Find the minimum and maximum ii From the table the minimum and
values for the independent maximum values are 1 and 100
variable. respectively. Therefore, the domain is
1 ≤ Time ≤ 100 hours.
2 Find the minimum and maximum From the table the minimum and
values for the dependent variable. maximum values are 15 and 1500
respectively. Therefore, the range is
15 ≤ Distance ≤ 1500 km.
Continued over page
528 Maths Quest 8 for Victoria

THINK WRITE
b ii Determine which of the two variables b ii The length of material is the independent
is the dependent one and answer the variable and cost is the dependent
question. variable.
Note: The cost will depend on the
length of the material.
ii 1 Find the minimum and maximum ii From the graph the minimum and
values for the independent maximum values are 0 and 6
variable. respectively. Therefore, the domain is
0 ≤ Length ≤ 6 m.
2 Find the minimum and maximum From the graph the minimum and
values for the dependent variable. maximum values are 0 and 90
respectively. Therefore, the range is
$0 ≤ Cost ≤ $90.

WORKED Example 17
Cindy saved $20 per month for 6 months.
The table below shows her savings at the
end of each month.
a Draw a set of axes showing time on the
x-axis and savings on the y-axis.
(Check the values you need to show on
each axis.)

Time Savings
(months) ($)
1 80
2 100
3 120
4 140
5 160
6 180

b State the independent and dependent variables.


c Plot the points from the table onto your axis. Do they form a linear pattern?
d Join the points to form a linear graph.
e Find the gradient, m, and y-intercept, c, for your graph.
f Write an equation for this graph using y = mx + c.
g Replace y with savings (in $) and x with time (in months), so that your equation
looks like:
Savings = ___ × time + ___.
Chapter 11 Coordinates and graphs 529

THINK WRITE/DRAW
a 1 Draw a set of axes. Label the a–d
horizontal axis ‘Time (months)’ and
the vertical axis ‘Savings ($)’.
2 Scale the horizontal and vertical
axes. Time values range from 1 to 6;
therefore, the horizontal axis is
scaled in lots of one. Savings values
range from 80 to 180; therefore, the
vertical axis is scaled in lots of 20.
b Determine which of the two variables is the Time is the independent variable (x) and
dependent one and answer the question. savings is the dependent variable (y).
Note: The savings depends on the number of
months passed (time).
c 1 Plot each pair of coordinates as a
point. 180
160
2 The points lie in a straight line, so 140
Savings ($)

they form a linear pattern. 120


20
100
d Join the points to make a straight line. 80 1
60
40
20
0
1 2 3 4 5 6
Time (months)

The points form a linear pattern.

rise
e 1 Use two points to draw a triangle in e m = --------
run
order to find the rise and the run.
rise = 20, run = 1. 20
= ------
1
= 20
2Carefully extend the line until it y-intercept, c = 60
crosses the y-axis to find the value
of c, the y-intercept.
f Substitute m and c into the general f y = mx + c
equation y = mx + c. y = 20x + 60
g Replace y with savings and x with time. g Savings = 20 × time + 60

remember
1. The general rule or equation for a linear graph is y = mx + c, where m is the
gradient and c is the y-intercept.
2. The independent variable is the x-value and the dependent variable is the
y-value.
3. The domain represents the set of x-values shown by the graph.
4. The range represents the set of y-values shown by the graph.
530 Maths Quest 8 for Victoria

11I Applications of linear


graphs
WORKED 1 For each of the following sets of data, state the:
Example
16a ii independent and dependent variables
ii domain and range.
a
Time (minutes) 0 1 2 4 8 30
Distance run (m) 0 130 260 520 1040 3900

b
Length of call (minutes) 1 2 3 4 5 10
Cost (cents) 50 80 110 140 170 320

c
Number of days Number of drips from a leaky tap
0 5550
1 5505
2 1010
3 1515
4 2020
5 2525
6 3030
7 3535

WORKED 2 For each of the following graphs, state the:


Example
16b ii independent and dependent variables
ii domain and range.
a
110
100
90
80
Cost ($)

70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
Litres of petrol (L)
Chapter 11 Coordinates and graphs 531
b
600

Account balance ($)


500
400
300
200
100

0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24
Time (months)

c
400
350
300
Pay ($)

250
200
150
100
50

0 10 20 30 40 L Spre
XCE ad

sheet
E
Hours worked
Plotting
WORKED 3 Harry saved $30 per month for 6 months. The table below shows his savings at the points
Example (table)
17
end of each month.
Math
Time (months) 1 2 3 4 5 6

cad
Finding
Savings ($) 90 120 150 180 210 240 the rule

a Draw a set of axes showing time on the


x-axis and savings on the y-axis. (Check
the values you need to show on each
axis.)
b State the independent and dependent
variables.
c Plot the points from the table onto your
axis. Do they form a linear pattern?
d Join the points to form a linear graph.
e Find the gradient, m, and y-intercept, c,
for your graph.
f Write an equation for this graph using
y = mx + c.
g Replace y with savings and x with time,
so that your equation looks like:
Savings = ___ × time + ___.
532 Maths Quest 8 for Victoria

4 Chris’s fridge is not working. He called a company, which is sending someone to repair
the fridge.
Company charges are: $55 to come to your home, plus
$45 for every 1--- hour the repairer is there.
2
a Copy and complete the table to show how much it could cost Chris to have his
fridge repaired.
1
Time (hours) 0 ---
2
1 1 1--2- 2 2 1--2- 3
Cost ($) 55 100 145
b Draw a graph of this information. Place time on the x-axis and cost on the y-axis.
c State the independent and dependent variables.
d Is there a linear relationship between cost and time?
e Find the gradient of the graph.
f Find the y-intercept.
g Find the rule for this graph using y = mx + c.
h In your equation replace y with Cost and replace x with time:
Cost = ___ × time + ___.
i Use your equation to find the cost if a repair person takes 4 hours to fix Chris’s
fridge.
j State the domain and range.
5 Kyle was very bored on his holidays and decided to measure how much the grass grew
every day for one week. His results are shown in the table.
Day number 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Height of grass (mm) 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24
a State the independent and dependent variables.
b Kyle knew his dad would want the grass cut as soon
as it was 2.5 cm (25 mm) long. On which day would
this occur?
c Plot the points from the graph on a Cartesian plane
putting day on the x-axis and height on the y-axis.
d Do the points form a linear graph?
e Find the gradient and y-intercept of the graph.
f Find an equation for the height of the grass by filling
in the blanks.
Height = ___ × no. of days + ______
or h = ___ d + ______
g How long would the grass be after 14 days if it had not been cut?
6 Madeleine jogs 3 times a week. She always goes around the same path at a park near
her home. When she gets to a very steep hill in the park, her speed slows down. The
distance from the bottom to the top of the hill is 250 m. Madeleine estimates that every
50 m her speed slows down by 0.5 km/hour.
a Copy and complete the following table.

Speed (km/h) 5 4.5 2.5


Distance from bottom (m) 0 100 200
Chapter 11 Coordinates and graphs 533
b How fast is Madeleine jogging when she is at the top of the hill?
c Draw a graph of the information in the table.
d From your graph find how fast Madeleine is jogging when she is halfway up the
hill.
e How far up the hill is Madeleine when her speed is 3.25 km/h?
f State the domain and range.
7 Samantha has noticed that there are fewer students in her
home group now than when she started school 3 years ago. 26
24
The graph at right shows how the number of students has 22

Student numbers
changed. 20
18
a If the pattern continues, how many students will there be 16
14
in Samantha’s home group next year? 12
b Find the gradient and y-intercept of the graph. 10
8
c The equation for this graph would be: 6
Number of students = _____ × time + _____. 4
2
This could be shortened to s = ____ t + ____. 0
Fill in the blanks in the equation above with the gradient 1 2 3
Time (years)
and y-intercept.
d Using the equation from part c, find the number of students in Samantha’s home
group after 6 years.
e State the domain and range.
8 James and his sister are going for a bike ride. They know they can ride 25 km in an
hour (average).
a Copy and complete the following table.

Distance (km) 0 25 100


Time (hours) 2 3 5
534 Maths Quest 8 for Victoria

b Plot these points on a Cartesian plane.


c Do the points form a linear graph?
d Find the gradient and y-intercept of the graph.
e Using the gradient and y-intercept from part c, copy and complete the equation
below.
Distance = _____× time + _____ or d = ____t + ____
f Use the equation found in part e to work out how far they would have ridden after
5 hours.
g If they leave home at 9.00 am and arrive home at 5.00 pm, how far would James
and his sister have ridden?
9 Lara sells computers and is paid $300 per week plus $20 for every computer she sells.
a Draw a table to show how much money Lara would be paid if she sold between 0
and 10 computers per week.
b Plot the points in the table on a Cartesian plane.
c Do the points form a linear graph?
SHEE
T 11.3 d Find the gradient and y-intercept of the graph.
Work

e Find an equation for the graph in the form y = mx + c.


f If Lara sold 25 computers in a week, how much money would she be paid?

Graphs and relationships y


12
Each type of graph has a particular shape and distinct 3
10
characteristics. Previously we learned that a linear 8 3
graph forms a straight line and its gradient is constant, 6
3
that is, it does not change. For example, y = 3x + 4 is a 4
1
linear graph with gradient m = 3. This means that for 2

every one horizontal unit across, the graph increases by –3 –2 –1–2


0
1 2 3 x
three units vertically.
–4

Non-linear graphs
Non-linear graphs are just that, graphs that are not linear — they are curved as illus-
trated by the figures below. Note that the gradient changes as we move across the
domain (x-values).
y y y
8 8 5
4
6 5 6 4 3
4 4 2
1 1
2 3 2 2
1
1 –5 –4 –3 –2 –1 0 1 2 3 4 5x
x –1
–3 –2 –1 0 1 2 3 –3 –2 –1 0 1 2 3 x
–2 –2 –2
–3
–4 –4 –4
–6 –6 –5
–8 –8

Parabola Exponential graph Hyperbola


Chapter 11 Coordinates and graphs 535
WORKED Example 18
Copy and complete the table of x −3 −2 −1 0 1 2 3
values for the rule y = x2 − 3 and
plot the graph. y

THINK WRITE
1 Substitute x = −3 into the rule y = x2 − 3 and y = (−3)2 − 3
evaluate. =9−3
Note: Brackets are required if squaring a =6
negative number on the calculator.
2 Write the value obtained in the table.
3 Substitute x = –2 into the rule y = x2 – 3 and y = (−2)2 − 3
evaluate. =4−3
=1
4 Write the value obtained in the table, and
x −3 −2 −1 0 1 2 3
repeat for the remainder of the x-values.
y 6 1 −2 −3 −2 1 6
5 Draw a set of appropriately scaled and y
labelled axes. 6
y = x2 – 3
Note: The domain (x-values) extends from –3 4
to 3, and the range (y-values) extends from –3 2
to 6.
–3 –2 –1
0
1 2 3 x
6 Plot the points. –2
7 Connect the coordinates with a smooth curve –4
and label.

WORKED Example 19
Copy and complete the table of x −3 −2 −1 − 1--- 0 1
--- 1 2 3
2 2
4
values for the rule y = --- and plot y
x
the graph.

THINK WRITE
4 4
1 Substitute x = −3 into the rule y = --- and y = ------
evaluate. x –3
4
2 Write the value obtained in the table and = − ---
repeat for the remainder of the x-values. 3

x −3 −2 −1 − 1--- 0 1
--- 1 2 3
2 2

y − 4--- −2 −4 −8 undefined 8 4 2 4
---
3 3

Continued over page


536 Maths Quest 8 for Victoria

THINK WRITE
3 Draw a set of appropriately scaled and y
labelled axes. 8
y = 4–x
Note: The domain (x-values) extends from −3 6
to 3, and the range (y-values) extends from 4
−8 to 8. 2

4 Plot the points. x


–3 –2 –1 0 1 2 3
Note: At x = 0, the corresponding y-value is –2

4 –4
undefined because --- cannot be calculated.
0 –6
Therefore, no point can be plotted at x = 0. –8

5 Connect the coordinates with a smooth curve


and label.
Note: The graph will contain two separate
sections.

WORKED Example 20
Copy and complete the table of x −3 −2 −1 0 1 2 3
values for the rule y = 2x and plot
the graph. y

THINK WRITE

1 Substitute x = −3 into the rule y = 2x and y = 2−3


evaluate. = 0.125
2 Write the value obtained in the table, and
x −3 −2 −1 0 1 2 3
repeat for the remainder of the x-values.
y 0.125 0.25 0.5 1 2 4 8

3 Draw a set of appropriately scaled and


y
labelled axes. 8 y = 2x
Note: The domain (x-values) extends from –3 6
to 3, and the range (y-values) extends from 0 4
to 8. 2

4 Plot the points. –3 –2 –1 0 1 2 3 x

5 Connect the coordinates with a smooth curve


and label.

The next section looks at particular rules and their corresponding graphs, which we will
define as functions.
Chapter 11 Coordinates and graphs 537
One-to-one correspondence
A rule (or function) maps (changes) one set of values to another. For example the
rule y = 2x maps the x-values {–2, –1, 0, 1, 2} to y-values {–4, –2, 0, 2, 4}. Using set
notation, this is written as: {–2, –1, 0, 1, 2}→ {–4, –2, 0, 2, 4}. The coordinates are
{(–2, –4), (–1, –2), (0, 0), (1, 2), (2, 4)}.
From here it can be seen that for every individual x-value there is one unique y-value
and vice versa. That is, the y-values created by the x-values occur only once. In this
case, the function is said to be a one-to-one function.

Many-to-one correspondence
The following is a table of values for the function y = x2.

x −3 −2 −1 0 1 2 3
y 9 4 1 0 1 4 9

The coordinates here are: {(–3, 9), (–2, 4), (–1, 1), (0, 0), (1, 1), (2, 4), (3, 9)}. In this
case, the points have unique x-values but the same y-value, for example, (–3, 9) and
(3, 9). Since there are two x-values to one y-value, this is an example of a many-to-one
function.

Horizontal-line test
y
We can determine graphically whether a function
3
is one-to-one or many-to-one by applying the
Horizontal-line test
horizontal-line test. 2
1
A one-to-one function exists if any horizontal
line crosses the graph of the function only once. x
–3 –2 –1 0 1 2 3
–1
Any horizontal line will cross the graph at right
–2
only once, regardless of where the line is drawn.
–3

y
9
8
The horizontal line crosses the graph at right at 7
two points. This means there are two x-values that Horizontal-line test
have the same y-value. This is a many-to-one 6
function. 5
4
3
2
1

–3 –2 –1 0 1 2 3 x
–1
538 Maths Quest 8 for Victoria

WORKED Example 21
State whether the following functions are one-to-one or many-to-one.
a y = x2 − 7 b y = 2x y
8
x −3 −2 −1 0 1 2 3
7
y 2 −3 −6 −7 −6 −3 2 6
5
4
3
2
1

–3 –2 –1 0 1 2 3 x
–1

THINK WRITE

a 1 Check that for every individual a 1 Each x-value is unique.


x-value there is one unique y-value.

2 Check that for every individual 2 The y-values are repeated. For example
y-value there is a unique x-value. the points (–3, 2) and (3, 2) have the same
y-value.
Note: There are other coordinates that
share the same y-values.

3 Answer the question. 3 y = x2 − 7 is a many-to-one function.

b 1 Draw a horizontal line through the b 1 y


graph. 8
Note: The horizontal line must pass
7
through the graph only once for it to
be a one-to-one function. 6
5
4
Horizontal-line test
3
2
1

–3 –2 –1 0 1 2 3 x
–1

2 Answer the question. 2 y = 2x is a one-to-one function.


Chapter 11 Coordinates and graphs 539
remember
1. A function is said to be one-to-one if for every individual x-value there is one
unique y-value and vice versa.
2. A function is said to be many-to-one if two or more x-values have the same
y-value.

Graphs and
11J relationships
WORKED 1 Copy and complete the table of values for each of the following rules and plot each
Example
18
graph on a separate set of axes.
x −3 −2 −1 0 1 2 3
y

a y = x2 b y = x2 – 2
c y = x2 + 2 d y = 2x2
e y = –x2 f y = –x2 + 2

2 What do you notice about the graphs in question 1?

WORKED 3 Copy and complete the table of values for each of the following rules and plot each
Example
19
graph on a separate set of axes.
x −3 −2 −1 − 1---
2
0 1
---
2
1 2 3
y

1 2
a y = --- b y = ---
x x
3 1
c y = --- d y = − ---
x x

4 What do you notice about the graphs in question 3?

WORKED 5 Copy and complete the table of values for each of the following rules and plot each
Example
20
graph on a separate set of axes.
x −3 −2 −1 0 1 2 3
y

a y = 3x b y = 5x
c y = (1.2)x d y = ( 1--- )x
2

6 What do you notice about the graphs in question 5?


540 Maths Quest 8 for Victoria

WORKED 7 State whether the following represent one-to-one or many-to-one functions.


Example
21a a

x −3 −2 −1 0 1 2 3

y −90 −80 −70 −60 −50 −40 −30

x −3 −2 −1 0 1 2 3

y 16 11 8 7 8 11 16

x −3 −2 −1 0 1 2 3

y 0 2.2 2.8 3 2.8 2.2 0

x −3 −2 −1 0 1 2 3

y −27 −8 −1 0 1 8 27

WORKED 8 State whether the following represent one-to-one or many-to-one functions.


Example
21b a b
y y
9 18
6 9
3 x
–3 –2 –1 0 1 2 3
–9
–3 –2 –1 0 1 2 3 x
–3 –18

c y d y
6 12
10
4 8
6
2 4
2

x –3 –2 –1 0 x
–3 –2 –1 0 1 2 3 1 2 3
–1 –1
Chapter 11 Coordinates and graphs 541
e y f
y
27
1
24
21
18 –3 –2 –1 0 1 2 3 x

15
–1
12
9
6
3

–3 –2 –1 0 1 2 3 x
–3
–6
–9
–12
–15
–18
–21
–24
–27

9 A certain bacterium is found to double in number every hour for 10 hours. The formula
that gives the number of bacteria at any time is N = 2t, where t is the number of hours
and N is the number of bacteria present.
a Use this formula to complete the table.

t 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

N 1 32

b Which is the dependent and independent variable?


c Plot the graph of N = 2t.
d What is the domain?
e What is the range?
f Use your graph to find the estimate of the number of bacteria in 3 1--- hours.
2
g By extending the curve, estimate the number of hours it takes to reach 4000 bacteria.
542 Maths Quest 8 for Victoria

summary
Copy the sentences below. Fill in the gaps by choosing the correct word or
expression from the word list that follows.
1 The horizontal axis is called the .
2 The vertical axis is called the .
3 The in a coordinate refers to the position on the x-axis.
4 The in a coordinate refers to the position on the y-axis.
5 In a graph, the variable is assigned to the horizontal axis.
6 In a graph, the variable is assigned to the vertical axis.
7 The values for the are found along the x-axis.
8 The values for the are found along the y-axis.
9 When coordinates form a straight line it is called a .
10 The rule for any linear graph is .
11 Gradient is a measure of .
12 The symbol for gradient is .
13 The point where a linear graph cuts the y-axis is called the .
14 The symbol for the y-coordinate of the y-intercept is .
15 To sketch a linear graph you need only .
16 Using the gradient and y-intercept method to sketch a graph, first plot a
point at the y-intercept and then use the to plot the second
point.
17 Using the intercept method of sketching graphs, find the and
the y-intercept as the required two points.
18 At the x-intercept, y equals .
19 The y-intercept can be found by substituting into the rule or
by looking at the value of c.
20 The equation y = x2 - 100 is an example of a graph.
21 The horizontal line test is used to check if a function is or
.

WORD LIST
steepness m x-axis gradient
linear graph two points c x-intercept
x=0 first number second number zero
y-axis non-linear one-to-one independent
domain many-to-one dependent
range y = mx + c y-intercept
Chapter 11 Coordinates and graphs 543

CHAPTER
review
1 Use the graph shown below to answer the following.
11A

Hours watching television


Namiko

Rina

Tegan

Age
a Who watches the most television?
b Who is the youngest of the three?
c Does the youngest watch the least amount of television?
2 The following graph shows
Anton’s distance from the shore 11A
during a surf life-saving drill.
Distance from shore

B
A
C

Time (mins)
a Describe what each section of the graph is showing.
b The line in section A is steeper than the line in section C. What does this tell you about
Anton’s swimming speed in section A compared to his speed in section C?
3 Place the following points on your Cartesian plane.
a A(1, 4) b B(5, 3) c C(0, 2) d D(−2, 5) 11B
e E(−4, 1) f F(−5, 0) g G(−6, −6) h H(−5, −4)
i I(0, −5) j J(2, −1) k K(2, −3) l L(2, 0)
4 Write down the coordinates of the points A to M, marked on the Cartesian plane below.
y
11B
E 6
5
4 A
3 B
D 2
F C 1
–6–5 –4 –3 –2–1 0 x
–1 G1 2 3 4 5 6
–2 M
H –3
L –4 J
–5
I –6 K
544 Maths Quest 8 for Victoria

5 Plot the following points on a Cartesian plane.


11C a (−3, −1) (−2, 0) (−1, 1) (0, 2) (1, 3) (2, 4) (3, 5)
b (−3, −12) (−2, −9) (−1, −6) (0, −3) (1, 0) (2, 3) (3, 6)

6 Write these rules as equations.


11D a Add 3 to the x-value.
b Multiply the x-value by 2 and then add 4.
c Multiply the x-value by 4 and then subtract 3.

7 Find the rule for the following sets of coordinates.


11D a (−2, 1) (−1, 2) (0, 3) (1, 4) b (−2, −6) (−1, −5) (0, −4) (1, −3) (2, −2)

c x −2 −1 0 1 2 d x −2 −1 0 1 2
y −4 −2 0 2 4 y −11 −8 −5 −2 1

8 Make a table of values and plot a graph for each of the following.
11E a y=x−2 b y=x+5 c y = 4x − 2 d y = 3x + 2

9 Find the gradient of the following linear graphs.


11F a y b y c y
5 5 5
4 4 4
3 3 3
2 2 2
1 1 1
0 x 0 x 0 x
–5 –4 –3 –2 –1
–1 1 2 3 4 5 –5 –4 –3 –2 –1
–1 1 2 3 4 5 –5 –4 –3 –2 –1
–1 1 2 3 4 5
–2 –2 –2
–3 –3 –3
–4 –4 –4
–5 –5 –5

10 Find the values of m and c for each of the following graphs.


11F a y b y c y
5 5 5
4 4 4
3 3 3
2 2 2
1 1 1
0 x x 0 x
–5 –4 –3 –2 –1
–1 1 2 3 4 5 –5 –4 –3 –2 –1–10 1 2 3 4 5 –5 –4 –3 –2 –1
–1 1 2 3 4 5
–2 –2 –2
–3 –3 –3
–4 –4 –4
–5 –5 –5

11 i Find the values of m and c for the following graphs.


11G ii State the rule for each of the linear graphs.
a y b y c y
5 5 5
4 4 4
3 3 3
2 2 2
1 1 1
0 x 0 x 0 x
–5 –4 –3 –2 –1
–1 1 2 3 4 5 –5 –4 –3 –2 –1
–1 1 2 3 4 5 –5 –4 –3 –2 –1
–1 1 2 3 4 5
–2 –2 –2
–3 –3 –3
–4 –4 –4
–5 –5 –5
Chapter 11 Coordinates and graphs 545
12 Sketch the following using the gradient and y-intercept method.
a y=x+7 11H
b y = 2x − 2
c y = 3x − 5
d y = −2x + 4

13 Sketch the following using the intercept method.


a y=x+7 11H
b y=x−3
c y=x−5
d y = −x + 4

14 Chris has the newspaper delivered 7 days a week. He saves his newspapers for recycling.
Over a month the newspaper pile grows very high. The table below shows the height of the 11I
newspaper recycling pile at the end of each week.

Time (weeks) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6

Height (cm) 35 70 105 140

a Copy and complete the table.


b Draw a set of axes showing height on the y-axis and time on the x-axis. Plot the
information from your table on the axes and join the points to form a linear graph.
c Find the gradient, m, and the y-intercept, c.
d Find the rule for the graph using y = mx + c.
e Replace the y with height and x with time. Height = __ × time + __.
f What would the height of the pile be after 20 weeks?
g State the domain and range of the function.

15 State whether the following represent one-to-one or many-to-one functions.


11J
a x −3 −2 −1 0 1 2 3

y 2 4 6 8 10 12 14

b x −3 −2 −1 0 1 2 3

y 19 14 11 10 11 14 19

c y d y

0 x

0 x
546 Maths Quest 8 for Victoria

16 Copy and complete the tables for each of the following functions.
11J a y = x2 + 3
x −3 −2 −1 0 1 2 3
y
2
b y = ---
x
x −3 −2 −1 − 1--2- 0 1
---
2
1 2 3
y

c y = 2x − 5
x −3 −2 −1 0 1 2 3
y
d y = (1.4)x
11J
x −3 −2 −1 0 1 2 3
y

17 Sketch the graphs for each of the functions in question 16.


11J
18 State the domain and range for each of the functions specified in question 16.
11J
test
yourself
CHAPTER

11