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Coordinates

and graphs

11

You can predict a person’s height

(h) if you are given the length of

the person’s radius (r). The

radius is the bone in your

forearm that is on the same side

as your thumb. For a male, the

rule is h = 3.6r + 81.

For a female, the rule is different,

but is known to also follow a linear

pattern. Some results are shown in

the table below. Can you work out

the rule?

Length of Height of

radius (cm) female (cm)

14.5 122.9

Radius (r) 16 129.2

18 137.6

20 146.0

In this chapter, you will be

working with Cartesian

coordinates and investigating

linear patterns.

areyou 488 Maths Quest 8 for Victoria

Try the questions below. If you have difficulty with any of them, extra help can be

obtained by completing the matching SkillSHEET. Either click on the SkillSHEET icon

next to the question on the Maths Quest 8 CD-ROM or ask your teacher for a copy.

A B C D E

Grid coordinates I

11.1 1 ✄ ☎ ✆ ❙ ❖

1 Give the coordinates for the following symbols.

a ◆ b ✪ c ✄

d ✱ e ● 2 ● ❆ ❄ ❁ ❏

3 ❚ ❘ ◆ ✶ ❉

11.2 Grid coordinates II

2 Draw the symbol that is found: 4 ❍ ✱ ✥ ✲ ✴

a 2 squares above B5

b 3 squares to the left of ❉. 5 ✹ ✦ ✪ ✸ ■

11.3

3 a Plot the following points on a Cartesian plane (number plane).

i A(1, 4) ii B(−2, 3) iii C(3, −5)

iv D(−4, 0) v E(0, 0) vi F(0, −2)

b For each of the following, draw a number plane that extends from −5 to 5 on the horizontal

axis and −5 to 5 on the vertical axis. Mark the points on the number plane and name the shape

that is formed in each case.

i (0, 0) (1, 2) (4, 2) (3, 0) ii (−2, 1) (3, 1) (3, −2) (−2, −2)

iii (−3, 0) ( 1--- , 0) ( 1--- , 3 1--- ) (−3, 3 1--- ) iv (−5, −2) (−3, 3) (1, 3) (3, −2)

2 2 2 2

4 Substitute 5 for x in each of the following rules and then find the value of y.

a y=x+2 b y=x−4 c y = 2x + 1

11.5 5 Complete the table of values for each of the following.

a y=x+4 b y = 3x − 2

x −2 −1 0 1 2 x −2 −1 0 1 2

y 2 3 y

6 Draw up a table of values and plot the graph for each of the following rules.

a y=x+3 b y=x−2 c y = 2x

Chapter 11 Coordinates and graphs 489

Interpreting graphs

Graphs are found in many areas of everyday life. We often see graphs on television

tracking the changing value of money and other trends. Learning to interpret the

information shown on graphs is very useful.

Daily exchange rates of the Australian dollar

80c

75c

70c

US 65c

60c

55c

50c

45c

1 001 002

2 3 3 004 004 005 005

00 00 00 00

1/2 /07/2 /01/2 /07/2 /01/2 /07/2 /01/2 /07/2 /01/2 /07/2

Source:Reserve

2/0 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 Bank of Australia

1. Look at the overall picture. Where are the points situated? Does the line

increase or decrease?

2. Look at what the horizontal and vertical axes represent, the values included (if

any) and their units of measurement.

3. The values are increasing as you move up the vertical axis and to the right

along the horizontal axis.

Point graphs

For example, look at the graph at right.

Height

As C is above D, C must be taller than D.

D

As you move to the right, age is increasing. As C is to

the right of D, C must be older than D.

Age

WORKED Example 1

Use the graph shown to answer the following questions

about Brendan and Kelly.

a Who is taller, Brendan or Kelly?

Height

Brendan

Age

THINK WRITE

a Height is on the vertical axis. Kelly is a Kelly is taller.

above Brendan, so Kelly is taller.

b The horizontal axis shows age. Brendan b Brendan is younger.

is to the left of Kelly, so Brendan is

younger.

490 Maths Quest 8 for Victoria

Line graphs

A point graph shows pieces of information only. A line graph can show how the infor-

mation changes. Time is often used on the horizontal axis.

A

A

B

Height

Height

B

Age Time

Point graph Line graph

This graph shows the

distance Conchita is from

Distance

home when she is out hiking.

Describe what each straight B

C

line section of the graph is A

showing.

Time

THINK WRITE

increasing and time is increasing, so Conchita is away from home.

moving further away from home.

2 As you move along section B, the distance is Section B: Conchita could be

staying the same but time is still increasing. resting.

3 As you move along section C, the distance from Section C: Conchita is walking

home is decreasing and time is increasing. towards home.

remember

When interpreting graphs consider the following points.

1. Look at the overall picture. Where are the points situated? Does the line

increase or decrease?

2. Look at what the horizontal and vertical axes represent, the values included

(if any) and their units of measurement.

3. The values are increasing as you move up the vertical axis and to the right

along the horizontal axis.

Chapter 11 Coordinates and graphs 491

Math

11A

cad

Interpreting graphs Interpreting

graphs

Example

1

following questions about Lucas and

Selina.

a Who is taller?

b Who is younger?

Selina Lucas

Height

Age

a Does Yelena have a larger shoe size?

Yelena

b Is Yelena older than Andrea?

Shoe size

Andrea

Age

3 Use the graph at right to answer the following questions.

a Who is the youngest?

Amy

b Who weighs the most?

Weight

Talia

Age

Pocket money

Karl

4 Use the given graph to answer the following questions. Janica

a Who is given the most pocket money?

b Is the youngest person given the least amount of

pocket money? Morgan

c Is the oldest person given the most pocket money? Age

492 Maths Quest 8 for Victoria

i Who weighs the most? Hannah

ii Who is the tallest?

Weight

iii Does the shortest person weigh the least? James

b Copy this graph and plot the height and weight of Georgia, David

who is taller than Linh and weighs less than Hannah

but more than James.

Height

6 multiple choice

Which of the following is shown by this graph? Tania

Weight

A Myfanwy is the lightest and youngest. Myfanwy

B Tania is the oldest.

C Myfanwy is older than Louise and younger Louise

than Tania.

D Tania and Louise are the same age. Age

E Louise weighs the least.

7 multiple choice

Which of the following is shown by this graph? Chris Tim

Height

A Jack is the tallest.

B Chris is the oldest. Jack

C Darren and Chris are the same age. Darren

D Tim is the tallest.

E Darren is the same height as Chris. Age

Example

home when she is out rockclimbing. Describe what C E

B

Distance

2 A

each straight line section of the graph is showing.

Time

9 The graph at right shows Thomas’s head circumference

Head circumference

a Why doesn’t the graph start at zero?

b What has happened to his head circumference

during the first 12 weeks?

c What would you expect the graph to look like

beyond the first 12 weeks?

0 6 12

Age (weeks)

Chapter 11 Coordinates and graphs 493

10 The graph at right shows Monique’s journey as she walks to

school.

A

a In which section of the graph is Monique not moving?

B

b The line in section C is steeper than the line in section A.

What is this telling us about section C? C

c Where is Monique at the end of section C?

Time

11 Yupa owns an ice-cream shop. The graph below shows his profit for the first 4 months

of the year.

a In which month did Yupa make the most profit?

b In which month did Yupa make the least profit?

Profit

c Describe what has happened to Yupa’s profit over

the 4 months.

Time (months)

12 Copy the axis shown below and draw a line graph that you think would show rainfall

over one year.

Rainfall

J FMAMJ J ASOND

Time (months)

13 Cathy has been training hard for the 100 m. She has kept a record of the fastest time

she has run each week. Draw a graph that shows the following sections:

Section A: Cathy increased her speed for the 100 m each week for the first 4 weeks.

Section B: After 4 weeks Cathy’s speed stayed the same for the next 2 weeks.

Section C: Cathy had a cold and her speed decreased for 2 weeks.

Section D: Having recovered from her cold, Cathy trained hard and increased her

speed again.

QU EST

S

M AT H

E

NG

1 There is the same number of desks in each row in my classroom and the

E

CH LL rows are straight. My desk is fourth from the front and fourth from the

A

back. It has one desk to its left and two to its right. How many desks

are there in the classroom?

2 Explain how you can obtain exactly 6 litres of water using a source of

water and only two containers. One container will hold 4 litres and the

other 9 litres. The containers do not have any scale marked on them.

494 Maths Quest 8 for Victoria

Numbers can be used to accurately describe the y

position of any point or coordinate. You may

recall from last year that a system for naming

and locating points involved the Cartesian

plane. This method was invented in the 17th 0 x

Cartesian plane consists of two axes, as shown

at right. The horizontal axis is called the x-axis.

The vertical axis is called the y-axis.

Note: The axes are drawn so they cross over, instead of being drawn along two edges of

the page.

The centre of a Cartesian plane is called the origin. Both axes have numbers along

them, which start from the origin. This places the origin at 0 (zero) on both the x-axis

and the y-axis.

Arrows are placed on the end of each axis to show that

y

they actually keep going, even though we have stopped 6

drawing at these points. 5

4

As you move to the right along the x-axis, the numbers 3 Origin

increase. As you move to the left along the x-axis, the 2

numbers decrease. As you move up the y-axis, the numbers 1

x

increase. As you move down the y-axis the numbers –2 –1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6

–1

decrease. The numbers on each axis are marked the same –2

distance apart to give an even scale.

Coordinates

To describe a position on the Cartesian plane, coordinates are used. A coordinate is

made up of a set of brackets, containing two numbers. For example, consider the point

(1, 2). The first number, 1, refers to the position on the x-axis. The second number, 2,

refers to the position on the y-axis.

y

6

5

4

3

2 (1, 2)

1

x

–2 –1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6

–1

–2

plane, go across on the x-axis to the first number and then up or down on the

omet y-axis to the second number.

i Ge ry

Cabr

Coordinates

Open the Cabri Geometry file ‘Coordinates’ on the Maths Quest 8 CD-ROM to

check your understanding of x- and y-coordinates.

Chapter 11 Coordinates and graphs 495

WORKED Example 3

Draw a Cartesian plane that goes from −3 to 5 on the x-axis and −3 to 5 on the y-axis and

plot the following points.

a A(1, 2) b B(3, −2) c C(−2, −2 1--- ) d D(0, −1) e E(−2, 0)

2

THINK DRAW

5

on both the x- and y-axes. 4

2 Find and plot the position of each point, and then 3

2 A

label.

1

E

a Across to 1 on the x-axis and then up to 2 on the x

–3 –2 –1 0 1 2 3 4 5

y-axis. –1 D

B

C –2

b Across to 3 on the x-axis and then down to −2 –3

on the y-axis.

c Across to −2 on the x-axis and then down to

−2 1--2- on the y-axis.

d Stay at the origin (0 on the x-axis) and then

down to −1 on the y-axis.

e Across to −2 on the x-axis and then stay at 0 on

the y-axis.

WORKED Example 4

Write the Cartesian coordinates of the points y

B 4

A to E marked on the Cartesian plane at right. 3

2

1 A

x

–3 –2 –1 0 1 2 3 4 5

C –1

–2

–3

E D

–4

THINK WRITE

then along the y-axis to find the second number.

Point A is at 1 on the x-axis and 1 on the y-axis.

Point B is at −1 on the x-axis and 4 on the y-axis.

Point C is at −3 on the x-axis and −1 on the y-axis.

Point D is at 2 on the x-axis and −4 on the y-axis.

Point E is at 0 on the x-axis and −3 1--- on the y-axis.

2

2 Write each point as a pair of coordinates. A(1, 1) B(−1, 4) C(−3, −1)

D(2, −4) E(0, −3 1--- )

2

496 Maths Quest 8 for Victoria

remember

1. The Cartesian plane has a horizontal axis called the x-axis and a vertical axis

called the y-axis.

2. The two axes cross at the origin, which has the coordinates (0, 0).

3. A Cartesian coordinate is written as (x, y).

4. The first number gives the position on the x-axis, and the second number gives

the position on the y-axis.

5. To locate a point on the Cartesian plane, go across on the x-axis to the first

number, and then up or down on the y-axis to the second number.

reads

L Sp he

et

1 Draw a Cartesian plane that extends from − 6 to 6 on the x-axis and − 6 to 6 on the

EXCE

WORKED

Plotting Example

3

y-axis and plot and label the following points.

points

a A(3, 3) b B(2, 5) c C(5, 1)

d D(−1, 4) e E(−4, 2) f F(−2, 0)

HEET

11.1 g G(−2, −3) h H(−4, −5) i I(0, −3)

SkillS

1

l L(4 1--- , 0)

Grid 2 2

coordinates I

y

WORKED 2 Write the Cartesian coordinates of the points A to M 6 B

Example 5 E

11.2 marked on the Cartesian plane at right.

HEET 4 K D4 J

3

SkillS

2 A

Grid 1 H F

coordinates II

G I C

–6–5–4–3–2–1 0 x

–1 1 2 3 4 5 6

L –2

–3

–4

3 multiple choice M –5

–6

Note: There may be more than one correct answer.

a The point (3, 4) gives a position on the Cartesian plane of:

A 3 on the y-axis, 4 on the x-axis

B 3 left, 4 up

C 4 right, 3 up

D 3 on the x-axis, 4 on the y-axis

me E 3 right, 4 up

E ti

b The point (−2, 0) gives a position on the Cartesian plane of:

GAM

Coordinates A left 2, up 0

and graphs

— 001 B left 0, down 2

C −2 on the x-axis, 0 on the y-axis

reads D −2 on the y-axis, 0 on the x-axis.

L Sp he

et

EXCE

Cartesian

plane 4 Open the Excel file ‘Cartesian plane game’ on the Maths Quest 8 CD-ROM. Play the

game game to test your skills.

Chapter 11 Coordinates and graphs 497

DESIGN Drawing by numbers

For questions 1 to 5 the words START and STOP indicate instructions for groups of

points that must be joined in order. The answer to each question should form a picture.

1 On 1-cm graph paper, draw a Cartesian plane with an x-axis from −5 to 5 and a

y-axis from −3 to 5. Connect these three groups of points.

START (0, 5) (−3, −3) (5, 2) (−5, 2) (3, −3) (0, 5) STOP

START (5, 2) (0, 0) (−5, 2) STOP

START (3, −3) (0, 0) (−3, −3) STOP

2 On 1-cm graph paper draw a Cartesian plane with an x-axis from −6 to 6 and a

y-axis from −6 to 6. Connect these groups of points.

START (4, 6) (−4, 6) (−6, 0) (−4, −6) (4, −6) (6, 0) (4, 6) (−6, 0) (4, −6) (4, 6) STOP

START (−4, 6) (−4, −6) (6, 0) (−4, 6) STOP

START (4, 0) (2, 2.5) (−2, 2.5) (−4, 0) (−2, −2.5) (2, −2.5) (4, 0) STOP

Colour the 6 triangles between the star and the hexagon. For example the tri-

angle (6, 0) (4, 6) (4, 1) could be coloured red. Colour the 6 triangles inside the

star. For example (4, 0) (4, 1) (2, 2.5) could be coloured green.

3 Draw a Cartesian plane using the following points. First check the coordinates

to find the lowest and highest x- and y-values needed on each axis. Connect

these groups of points.

START (4, 1) (3, 1) (4, 3) (5, 3) (5.5, 4) (5.5, 5) (6, 6) (6, 7) (5, 7.5) (4, 7.5) (3, 7.5)

(2, 8) (1.5, 9) (1.5, 10) (2, 11) (3, 12) (4, 12.5) (5, 13) (6, 14) (7, 15) (8, 15) (10, 14)

(11, 11) (11, 10) (10.5, 8.5) (10, 7.5) (9, 10.5) (8.5, 8) (7.5, 7) (8, 6.5) (8, 5) (9, 4)

(10, 3) (10, 1) (4, 1) STOP

START (2, 8) (1.5, 7.5) (1, 8) (1.5, 9) STOP

START (4, 1) (4, 2) (5, 2.5) (6.5, 2.5) (5.5, 4) STOP

START (6, 6.5) (8, 6.5) (8, 6) (6, 6) STOP

EYE AT (5.5, 11)

4 Draw a Cartesian plane. Check the following coordinates to find the lowest and

highest x- and y-value needed on the axes. Then draw a cartoon character.

START (6, 7) (7.5, 9) (5, 9) (4.5, 12) (2, 11) (0, 13) (−1.5, 10) (−5, 11) (−5, 8) (−8, 6)

(−6, 4) (−8, 2) (−6, 1) (−7, −2) (−4, −1.5) (−4, −3.5) (−1.5, −3) (−2, −4) (−4, −7)

(−5, −8) STOP

START (−2, −9) (−1, −7) (1, −8) (3, −8) (4, −7.5) (5, −10) STOP

START (4, −7.5) (3.5, −6) (3.5, −4) (4, −3) (5, −2.5) (5, −2) (4, −1.5) (4, −1) (5, 0.5)

(7, 1) (8, 2) (8, 2.5) (6.5, 3) STOP

START (4, −2.5) (2, −3) (0.5, −3) (0, −2) (1, −1) (2, −0.5) (3, 0) (7, 1) STOP

START (6, 2.5) (6.5, 3) (6.5, 4) (6, 4) (4, 3) STOP

START (6, 7) (5, 7.5) (4, 7) (3, 6) (1, 6) (0, 5) (−1, 4) (0, 2) (1.5, 1.5) (3, 2) (4, 4)

(6.5, 4) (7, 5) (7, 6) (6, 7) STOP

START (4, 4) (4, 5) (3, 6) STOP

START (1, −1) (5, 0) STOP

EYES AT (1, 3) AND (5, 5)

EYE LASHES (−1, 4) TO (−2, 4.5), (0, 5) TO (−0.5, 6), (1, 6) TO (0.5, 7), (2, 6) TO

(2, 7), (4, 7) TO (3.5, 8), (5, 7.5) TO (5, 8.5), (6, 7) TO (6.5, 8), (6.5, 6.5) TO (7, 7)

5 On a piece of graph paper draw a Cartesian plane that covers the entire page.

Draw a simple picture on your graph paper. List the coordinates and instructions

showing when to start and stop joining the points. The coordinates should be

chosen carefully so that someone else can draw your picture, following your

instructions.

498 Maths Quest 8 for Victoria

Linear patterns

y

When a set of points is plotted and a pattern is formed, the 6

coordinates of each point may have the same relationship 5

4

between the x- and y-values. When this is so, the x-values 3

and y-values are connected by the same rule. 2

For example, each of the points (1, 2) (2, 3) (3, 4) (4, 5) 1

x

have the same relationship (rule) between their x- and –2 –1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6

–1

y-values. If you look closely, you will see that in each case –2

the y-value is one more than the x-value.

If these points are plotted on a Cartesian plane, they will make a pattern.

The pattern formed by these points is a straight line. We call this a linear pattern.

WORKED Example 5

Plot the following points on a Cartesian plane and comment on any pattern formed. Check

the lowest and highest values to help you decide the numbers to mark on the axes.

(−2, 1) (−1, 2) (0, 3) (1, 4) (2, 5)

THINK DRAW

points and draw a Cartesian plane. 6

5

The lowest value for the x-axis is −2, 4

the highest is 2. 3

The lowest value for the y-axis is 1, the 2

1

highest is 5.

x

Extend each axis slightly beyond these –2 –1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6

–1

values. –2

3 Comment on any pattern formed. A linear pattern is obtained as the points form a

straight line.

When the plotted points forms a pattern, we have a graph. So the Cartesian plane in

worked example 5 shows a linear graph (a straight-line graph).

Coordinates that form a pattern are often written in a table. For example, the points

(−2, 4) (−1, 2) (0, 0) (1, −2) (2, −4) could be written in a table like the one shown

below.

x −2 −1 0 1 2

y 4 2 0 −2 −4

Chapter 11 Coordinates and graphs 499

We can check whether a set of coordinate points form a linear pattern by using the

graphics calculator to show them plotted on a Cartesian plane. O

CASI

1. Press Y= and clear any entries. Plotting

points

2. Press 2nd [STAT PLOT], select 4: PlotsOff and press ENTER to turn off any

existing plots.

3. Press STAT and select 1: Edit . . .

4. Enter the x-values in the first column headed L1 (that is, List 1) and the y-values in

the second column headed L2 (for List 2). Remember to press ENTER after each

value is typed in.

5. Press 2nd [STAT PLOT] and select 1: Plot 1. . . With the cursor flashing on ON,

press ENTER and then scroll and press ENTER on the type of plot required.

6. Press ZOOM and select 9: ZoomStat to automatically select window variables that

include all the x- and y-values entered. The screen will show the plotted points.

500 Maths Quest 8 for Victoria

▼

to check the values of each point.

WORKED Example 6

a Plot the points in the table at right on a

Cartesian plane. x −4 −3 −2 −1 0 1

y −2 −1 0 1 2 3

b Do the points form a linear graph? If so, what would the next point in the pattern be?

THINK WRITE/DRAW

points and draw a Cartesian plane. 4

3

2

2 Plot each point. 1

x

–5 –4 –3 –2 –1–10 1 2 3

–2

–3

–4

b 1 Look at the position of the points b Yes, the points do form a linear graph.

and answer the question.

Note: The points form a straight line,

so we have a linear graph.

2 Study the pattern and answer the The next point in the pattern is (2, 4).

question.

Note: The pattern shows that the

x-values increase by 1, and the

y-values increase by 1. The next

x-value will be 2 and the next

y-value will be 4.

Chapter 11 Coordinates and graphs 501

remember

1. Linear means ‘in a straight line’.

2. When coordinates form a straight line on a Cartesian plane, we have a linear

graph.

11.3 SkillS

11C

HEET

Linear patterns Plotting

coordinate

points

WORKED 1 Plot the points on a Cartesian plane and comment on any pattern formed. (Check the Cabri Geo

met

Example

ry

5

lowest and highest values to help you decide which numbers to mark on the axes.)

Plotting

a (−2, −3) (−1, −2) (0, −1) (1, 0) (2, 1) b (−2, 0) (−1, 1) (0, 2) (1, 3) (2, 4) a linear

graph

c (−2, −4) (−1, −2) (0, 0) (1, 2) (2, 4) d (−2, −5) (−1, −2) (0, 1) (1, 4) (2, 7)

e (−2, 2) (−1, 1) (0, 0) (1, −1) (2, −2) f (−2, 0) (−1, −1) (0, −2) (1, −3) (2, −4) Math

cad

WORKED 2 Plot the following points on a Cartesian plane. Linear

Example patterns

6a a x −2 −1 0 1 2 b x −2 −1 0 1 2

L Spre

XCE ad

1 2 4 −2 −1

sheet

E

y 3 5 y 0 1 2

Plotting

points

c x −2 −1 0 1 2 d x −2 −1 0 1 2

y −7 −4 −1 2 5 y 3 2 1 0 −1

e x −2 −1 0 1.5 2 f x −2 −1 0 1 2

y −1 −0.5 0 0.5 1 y 4 2 0 −2 −4

WORKED 3 Plot the following points on a Cartesian plane. Do the points form a linear graph? If so,

Example

6b

state the next point in the pattern.

a (−3, −3) (−2, −1) (−1, 1) (0, 3) (1, 5) (2, 7) (3, 9)

b (−3, −5) (−2, −3) (−1, 0) (0, 1) (1, 4) (2, 5) (3, 7)

c x −2 −1 0 1 2 d x −2 −1 0 1 2

y 3 −1 −2 −3 −4 y −6 −3 0 3 6

502 Maths Quest 8 for Victoria

4 multiple choice

(Note: There may be more than one correct answer.)

a The next point in the linear pattern made by (−2, 0) (−1, 1) (0, 2) (1, 3) (2, 4) is:

A (5, 3) B (−3, −5) C (3, −5) D (3, 5) E (4, 6)

b The next point in the linear pattern made by (−2, 9) (−1, 8) (0, 7) (1, 6) (2, 5) is:

A (−3, 8) B (3, 4) C (3, 6) D (4, 3) E (6, 3)

c The next point in the linear pattern made by (−2, −18) (−1, −14) (0, −10) (1, −6)

(2, −2) is:

A (−1, 3) B (−3, −20) C (3, 2) D (4, 6) E (6, 16)

d Which of the following set of points would make a linear pattern?

A (−2, −1) (−1, −2) (0, −3) (1, −4) (2, −5)

B (−2, 12) (−1, 10) (0, 8) (1, 6) (2, 4)

C (−2, −1) (−1, 0) (0, 1) (1, −1) (2, 0)

D (−2, −5) (−1, 0) (0, 4) (1, 5) (2, 8)

E (−2, 0) (−1, 3) (0, 6) (1, 9) (2, 12)

5 Plot the following points on a Cartesian plane and join the points with a straight line.

a (−3, −2) (0, 1) (1, 2) (4, 5) b (−2, 4) (0, 2) (1, 1) (3, −1)

SHEE

T 11.1 c (−1, −1) (0, −3) (1 1--- , −6) (2, −7) d (− 3--- , −2) (− 1--- , 0) (1, 3) (3, 7)

Work

2 2 2

6 By extending each of the lines in question 5, give three examples of points that also fit

the same pattern and lie on the line.

1 3

A B C

2 What is the grid reference for the house?

3 Place the following points on a Cartesian plane: A(2, 5), B(0, −5), C(−1, −3), D(4, 0),

E(−6, 5).

4 Write the coordinates of the points A to I marked on y

the Cartesian plane at right. 6

I B

5 Plot the following points on a Cartesian plane. H 4 A

2

x −3 −2 −1 0 1 2 3 C

y −4 −3 −2 −1 0 1 2 –6 –4 –2 2 4 6 x

–2 F

D

6 True or false? The following coordinates form a linear G –4

pattern: (−3, 5) (−2, 6) (−1, 7) (0, 8) (1, 9). E

–6

7 Write the next point in the linear pattern made by (−2, 1) (−1, 3) (0, 5) (1, 7) (2, 9).

8 Give the coordinates of the origin.

9 True or false? The following coordinates form a linear pattern:

(0, 0) (1, 1) (2, 4) (3, 9) (4, 16).

10 Plot (0, 0), (3, 0), (0, 3). Give the coordinates of a point so that these four points form

a square.

Chapter 11 Coordinates and graphs 503

Finding the rule for linear relationships

y

To show that a linear graph is formed when coordinates are 4

plotted, the points may be joined to form a straight line. 3

2

1

x

–5 –4 –3 –2 –1–10 1 2 3

–2

–3

–4

4

be added to the pattern and the graph can be continued in 3

both directions by extending the line past the last points. 2

1

x

–5 –4 –3 –2 –1–10 1 2 3

–2

–3

–4

When coordinates form a linear pattern, a rule can be found for that pattern. The

rule will work for every coordinate in the pattern.

Let us discover how to find the rule for a linear pattern using the steps outlined in the

activity below. Rules are usually written as equations starting with y =.

patterns

1 Use the rule and the table of values to copy and complete the following

sentences.

a Rule: y = x

The difference in the y-values is x −2 −1 0 1 2

. y −2 −1 0 1 2

The rule shows x is multiplied by

.

b Rule: y = 2x

The difference in the y-values is x −2 −1 0 1 2

. y −4 −2 0 2 4

The rule shows x is multiplied by

.

c Rule: y = 3x

The difference in the y-values is x −2 −1 0 1 2

. y −6 −3 0 3 6

The rule shows x is multiplied by

.

504 Maths Quest 8 for Victoria

d Rule: y = 4x

The difference in the y-values is x −2 −1 0 1 2

. y −8 −4 0 4 8

The rule shows x is multiplied by

.

When finding the rule for a linear pattern, if the x-values increase by one,

then the difference in the y-values gives the number that x will be

multiplied by.

For example:

be y = 5 × x or y = 5x

a x −2 −1 0 1 2 b x −2 −1 0 1 2

y −6 −3 0 3 6 y −14 −7 0 7 14

The rule for this table will be The rule for this table will be

y= × x. y= × x.

c x −2 −1 0 1 2 d x −2 −1 0 1 2

y −8 −4 0 4 8 y −20 −10 0 10 20

The rule for this table will be The rule for this table will be

y= × x. y= × x.

Once you have worked out what the x is multiplied by, you can find the

number added or subtracted at the end of the rule.

For example:

From the table we can see that the

rule will begin with y = 2 × x. x −2 −1 0 1 2

However, 2 × x does not give the

y-value, so a number must be added or y −3 −1 1 3 5

subtracted on the end of the rule.

Choose a positive x-value and multiply by 2.

So, 1 × 2 = 2 but the y-value is 3; so 1 must be added.

This makes the rule y = 2 × x + 1.

Check with another x-value. When x = 2, y = 2 × 2 + 1 = 5. This is correct

so the rule is y = 2 × x + 1 or y = 2x + 1.

Find the number that x is multiplied by and use this part of the rule to find

the number added or subtracted on the end of the rule.

Chapter 11 Coordinates and graphs 505

3 Find the rule for each of these.

a x −2 −1 0 1 2 b x −2 −1 0 1 2

y −5 −2 1 4 7 y 0 2 4 6 8

Rule: y = ×x+ Rule: y = ×x+

c x −2 −1 0 1 2 d x −2 −1 0 1 2

y −4 −3 −2 −1 0 y −7 −5 −3 −1 1

Rule: y = ×x− Rule: y = ×x−

on the end of the rule with the y-value when x = 0.

Copy and complete the following sentence.

When x = 0, the gives the number added or subtracted on the end

of the rule.

5 Find the rule for the following.

a x −2 −1 0 1 2 b x −2 −1 0 1 2

y 3 4 5 6 7 y 6 8 10 12 14

c x −2 −1 0 1 2 d x −2 −1 0 1 2

y −9 −7 −5 −3 −1 y −9 −5 −1 3 7

e x −2 −1 0 1 2 f x −2 −1 0 1 2

y −11 −5 1 7 13 y −19 −11 −3 5 13

g x −2 −1 0 1 2 h x −2 −1 0 1 2

y 7 8 9 10 11 y −20 −11 −2 7 16

WORKED Example 7

Find the rule for this set of points. x −1 0 1 2 3

y −2 1 4 7 10

THINK WRITE

1 Look for two positive consecutive x-values, 7−4=3

for example, x = 1 and x = 2, and compare

the difference between their corresponding

y-values.

Continued over page

506 Maths Quest 8 for Victoria

THINK WRITE

2 Repeat step 1 for a different pair of positive 10 − 7 = 3

consecutive x-values, for example, x = 2 and

x = 3.

Note: The y-value increases by 3 for every

increase of 1 in the x-value. This means the

rule will begin with y = 3 × x.

3 Choose a positive x-value and multiply by 3. y = 3 × x Does not give the y-value, so

Determine whether a number must be added in this case a number must be

or subtracted to match the corresponding added to the end of the rule.

y-value from the table. When x = 1, y = 3 × 1 + 1

=4

y = 3x + 1

4 Check that the rule works for the other pairs When x = −1, y = 3 × −1 + 1

in the table. = −2

Note: If the rule does not work for all pairs of When x = 0, y = 3 × 0 + 1

values in the table, further attempts must be =1

used. When x = 2, y = 3 × 2 + 1

=7

When x = 3, y = 3 × 3 + 1

= 10

From worked example 7 and the investigation titled ‘Finding the rule for linear

patterns’, it can be seen that when x = 0 the corresponding y-value gives the number to

be added or subtracted on the end of the rule.

remember

1. To show that a linear graph is formed when coordinates are plotted, the points

may be joined to form a straight line.

2. When coordinates form a linear pattern, a rule can be found for that pattern.

The rule will work for every coordinate in the pattern.

3. When finding the rule for a linear pattern, if the x-values increase by one, then

the difference in the y-values gives the number that x will be multiplied by.

4. Once the number that x is multiplied by is obtained, use this part of the rule to

determine the number to be added or subtracted on the end of the rule.

5. When x = 0, the corresponding y-value gives the number to be added or

subtracted on the end of the rule.

6. Rules are usually written as equations, for example, y = x + 1.

Chapter 11 Coordinates and graphs 507

Finding the rule for linear

11D relationships

1 Write these rules as equations. Math

a Add 4 to the x-value. b Add 10 to the x-value.

cad

c Subtract 1 from the x-value. d Subtract 6 from the x-value. Finding

e Multiply the x-value by 7. f Multiply the x-value by 2. the rule

g Multiply the x-value by 4; then add 3. h Multiply the x-value by 3; then subtract 4.

i Multiply the x-value by −2; then add 1. j Multiply the x-value by −1; then subtract 3. progra

GC m

–TI

WORKED 2 Find the rule for each of the following sets of points. Finding

Example

the

7

a x −2 −1 0 1 2 b x −2 −1 0 1 2 rule

y 9 10 11 12 13 y −6 −3 0 3 6

am

progr –C

c −2 −1 d −2 −1

GC

asio

x 0 1 2 x 0 1 2

Finding

y −10 −5 0 5 10 y −9 −5 −1 3 7 the

rule

e x −2 −1 0 1 2 f x −2 −1 0 1 2

y −20 −12 −4 4 12 y −11 −9 −7 −5 −3

g x −2 −1 0 1 2

y 7 4 1 −2 −5

3 multiple choice

Which of the following sets of points forms a linear graph?

A (−2, −2) (−1, −1) (0, 0) (1, −1) (2, −2)

B (−2, 4) (−1, 8) (0, 2) (1, 3) (2, −6)

C (−2, −6) (−1, −2) (0, 1) (1, 10) (2, 3)

D (−2, −3) (−1, −2) (0, −1) (1, 0) (2, 1)

E (−2, −4) (−1, 3) (0, 2) (1, 1) (2, 9)

4 multiple choice

a The rule for the set of points at right is:

x −1 0 1 2 3

y −3 −2 −1 0 1

A y = 2x B y=x+2 C y=x−2

D y = 2x − 2 E y = 4x − 4

b The rule for the set of points at right is: (−2, −2), (−1, 1), (0, 4), (1, 7), (2, 10)

A y=x+4 B y = 5x C y = 4x + 1

D y = 3x + 4 E y=x

508 Maths Quest 8 for Victoria

QUEST

S

M AT H

E

NG

E

CH LL

A 1 The figure on the right consists of triangles.

How many triangles are in this figure?

(Hint: The answer is not 16.)

the left. Move 3 matches to new positions to

make exactly 5 squares, all the same size.

Plotting points to form a linear graph can be done even if you are given only the rule.

For example, let us plot the graph of y = 3x + 1. We know from the last section that this

equation is the rule for coordinates that form this linear graph. To plot the graph we

must find coordinates that fit this rule.

To find coordinates, start with a table and choose simple x-values.

Rule: y = 3x + 1 ← Rule is written at the top of the table.

x −1 0 1 2 3 ← Choose x-values.

There are an infinite number of x-values that you could choose, but it is easier to plot

the graph if you keep the values small, with some positive and some negative numbers.

Now use the rule to find the y-value for each coordinate.

When x = −1, When x = 0, When x = 1, When x = 2, When x = 3,

y = −3 + 1 y=0+1 y=3+1 y=6+1 y=9+1

= −2 =1 =4 =7 = 10

x −1 0 1 2 3

y −2 1 4 7 10

Chapter 11 Coordinates and graphs 509

WORKED Example 8

Draw a table of values and plot the graph of y = 2x + 1 and label the line.

THINK WRITE/DRAW

1 Write the rule. y = 2x + 1

2 Draw a table and choose simple

x-values.

3 Use the rule to find each y-value and

x −2 −1 0 1 2

enter them in the table.

When x = −2, y = 2 × −2 + 1 = −3. y −3 −1 1 3 5

When x = −1, y = 2 × −1 + 1 = −1.

When x = 0, y = 2 × 0 + 1 = 1.

When x = 1, y = 2 × 1 + 1 = 3. y

5

When x = 2, y = 2 × 2 + 1 = 5. 4

Draw a Cartesian plane and plot the 3

4 2 y = 2x + 1

points. 1

0 x

–5 –4 –3 –2 –1

–1 1 2 3 4 5

5 Join the points to form a straight line –2

–3

and label the graph. –4

–5

You can check whether a given point lies on the line by substituting the x- and y-coordinates Cabri Geo

met

of the point into the rule for the line. The screen shows the Cabri Geometry file ‘Linear pat-

ry

terns and equations’ on the Maths Quest 8 CD-ROM. Linear

patterns

and

equations

The main purpose of a graphics calculator is to draw graphs. If we are given the rule or

equation, we can easily produce a graph to check our results.

O

1. To clear any existing plots, press 2nd [STAT PLOT], select 4: PlotsOff and press CASI

ENTER . Drawing

2. Press the Y= key and enter the rule. For example, graphs

given the

to enter y = 2x + 1, press 2 ¥ ALPHA [X] then + and rule

1.

entered. You may need to adjust the WINDOW set-

tings to show the graph clearly on the screen.

510 Maths Quest 8 for Victoria

6: ZStandard, which shows the graph on a Cartesian

plane with x- and y-values ranging from −10 to 10.

ZDecimal has x-axis values extending from −4.7 to

4.7 and y-axis values extending from −3.1 to 3.1.

ZInteger has x-axis values extending from −47 to 47

and y-axis values extending from −31 to 31.

ZSquare keeps the scale on the x-axis the same as

the y-axis.

pressing TRACE and moving the cursor keys.

remember

To plot a linear graph, follow these steps.

1. Draw a table and choose some x-values.

2. Substitute each x-value into the rule to obtain the corresponding y-value.

3. Plot these coordinates as points on a Cartesian plane.

4. Rule a straight line through the plotted points.

5. Label the line with a rule.

HEET

11.4 WORKED 1 Complete the following tables of values, plot the points on a Cartesian plane, and join

SkillS

Example

8

them to make a linear graph. Label the graphs with the rules.

Sub-

stitution a Rule: y = x + 3 b Rule: y = x − 5

into rules

x −2 −1 0 1 2 x −2 −1 0 1 2

HEET

11.5 y 1 2 3 y −6 −3

SkillS

Completing a

c Rule: y = 5x d Rule: y = 2x + 4

table of values

for a given rule

x −2 −1 0 1 2 x −2 −1 0 1 2

y −10 0 y 0 6

HEET

11.6

e Rule: y = 3x + 2 f Rule: y = 2x − 2

SkillS

Plotting a line x −2 −1 0 1 2 x −2 −1 0 1 2

using a table

of values y y −4

Chapter 11 Coordinates and graphs 511

g Rule: y = 4x − 3 h Rule: y = −3x + 2 Cabri Geo

met

−2 −1 −2 −1

ry

x 0 1 2 x 0 1 2

Coordinates

y y 5 −4 and graphs

L Spre

2 multiple choice XCE ad

sheet

E

a y = 3x + 4 means: Plotting

graphs

A The y-value equals the x-value, add 3 and then times 4. (tables)

B The y-value equals the x-value times 3 and then add 4.

L Spre

C The x-value equals the y-value times 3 and then add 4. XCE ad

sheet

E

D The y-value equals 4 times the x-value divided by 3. Plotting

E The x-value equals 4 times the y-value and then add 3. graphs

(tables)

b A table of values shows: (DIY)

A a rule B coordinates C a linear graph

D an axis E that a rule continues forever

3 Draw a table of values and plot the graph for each of the following rules. Label each L Spre

XCE ad

sheet

E

graph.

a y=x+2 b y=x−4 Plotting

graphs

c y=x−1 d y=x+5 (rule)

e y = 3x f y = 7x

g y = 4x + 1 h y = 2x − 3 Math

i y = 3x − 5 j y = −2x

cad

k y = −6x + 2 l y = −5x + 4 Plotting

linear

graphs

4 Plot a graph of the following rules from the tables of values provided. Label the

graphs. Then copy and complete the sentences.

a y=4 b y=1

x −2 −1 0 1 2 x −2 −1 0 1 2

y 4 4 4 4 4 y 1 1 1 1 1

For the rule y = 4, the y-value For the rule y = 1, the y-value

of all coordinates is . of all coordinates is .

c y = −2 d y = −5

x −2 −1 0 1 2 x −2 −1 0 1 2

y −2 −2 −2 −2 −2 y −5 −5 −5 −5 −5

For the rule y = −2, the y-value For the rule y = −5, the y-value

of all coordinates is . of all coordinates is .

5 Make a table of values and plot the graph for each of the following rules.

a y=3 b y=2

c y = −2 d y = −4

512 Maths Quest 8 for Victoria

6 Plot the graph of each of the following rules from the table of values provided. Label

the graph. Then copy and complete the sentence.

a x=1 b x=3

x 1 1 1 1 1 x 3 3 3 3 3

y −2 −1 0 1 2 y −2 −1 0 1 2

For the rule x = 1, the x-value For the rule x = 3, the x-value

of all coordinates is . of all coordinates is .

c x = −2 d x = −7

x −2 −2 −2 −2 −2 x −7 −7 −7 −7 −7

y −2 −1 0 1 2 y −2 −1 0 1 2

For the rule x = −2, the x-value For the rule x = −7, the x-value

of all coordinates is . of all coordinates is .

7 Make a table of values; then plot and label the graph for each of the following.

a x=2 b x=5 c x = −5 d x=0

8 Draw a table of values and then graph each of these rules on the same Cartesian plane.

a y = 2x b y = 2x − 1 c y = 2x + 1

Describe the relationship between these lines.

9 Draw a table of values and graph each of these rules on the same Cartesian plane.

a y = 3x + 1 b y = −2x + 1

What do you notice?

10 Draw a table of values and graph each of these rules on the same Cartesian plane.

a y = −x b y=x+2

What do you notice?

Gradient gives a measure of how steep something is. Hill

For example, the gradient of a road might tell you how

steep the slope of a hill is. Gradient is measured in the Rise

following way.

To find the gradient of a hill, we need to measure the Run

vertical rise of the hill and the horizontal run of the hill,

as shown in the diagram at right.

rise

Gradient = ---------

run

For example, if the rise of the hill is 3 metres and the

run is 1.5, metres then the gradient can be calculated as

follows:

3

Gradient = -------

1.5

= 2

Note: The gradient in this case does not have any units.

The symbol for gradient is m.

Chapter 11 Coordinates and graphs 513

rise

The gradient of a straight line is given by: m = --------- . y

run 5

4

3

The gradient of a linear graph is found in the same way. 2

1

We measure the rise and run using any two points on the 0 x

–5 –4 –3 –2 –1

–1 1 2 3 4 5

graph. –2

–3

–4

–5

y

5

4

3

To find the gradient of this linear graph, draw a right- 2

1

angled triangle anywhere along the line as shown at right

x

and use it to measure the rise and the run. –5 –4 –3 –2 –1–10 1 2 3 4 5

–2

In the graph at right, rise = 2 and run = 2. –3

–4

2 –5

So, the gradient m = --- = 1 .

2

The gradient of a straight line is constant; that is, it does not change.

Linear graphs usually slope in one of two directions: / or \. A graph that rises from Cabri Geo

met

left to right, /, has a positive gradient. A graph that drops from left to right, \ , has a

ry

negative gradient. A linear graph that is horizontal has a zero gradient as shown below. Gradient

A vertical line has an infinite or undefined gradient.

m is positive m is negative

m is zero m is undefined

Rise Rise

Run Run

WORKED Example 9

State whether these lines have a positive, negative, zero or undefined gradient.

a y b y c y d y

0 x 0 x 0 x 0 x

THINK WRITE

a A line that rises from left to right, /, has a Positive gradient

a positive gradient.

b A line that drops from left to right, \, has b Negative gradient

a negative gradient.

c A line that is horizontal has a zero c Zero gradient

gradient.

d A line that is vertical has an undefined d Undefined gradient

gradient.

514 Maths Quest 8 for Victoria

WORKED Example 10 y

5

Find the gradient of the linear graph at right. 4

3

2

1

0 x

–5 –4 –3 –2 –1

–1 1 2 3 4 5

–2

–3

–4

–5

THINK WRITE/DRAW

1 Choose two convenient points on the line and y

5

draw a triangle to find the rise and the run. 4

Note: It does not matter which two points are 3

2

chosen because the gradient of a straight line 1

is constant. –5 –4 –3 –2 –1 0 1 2 3 4 5

x

–1

–2

–3

–4

–5

2 Read the rise and the run from the graph. rise = 2, run = 1

rise

3 Calculate the gradient. Gradient: m = --------

run

2

= ---

1

=2

Another important part of a linear graph is the y-intercept. This is the point where the

graph crosses the y-axis. The symbol for the y-intercept is c.

WORKED Example 11 y

5

Find: a the gradient, m 4

3

b the y-intercept, c, of the linear graph at right. 2

1

0 x

–5 –4 –3 –2 –1

–1 1 2 3 4 5

–2

–3

–4

–5

THINK WRITE/DRAW

a 1 Choose two convenient points on the line a y

5

and draw a triangle to find the rise and the 4

run. 3

2

1

0 x

–5 –4 –3 –2 –1

–1 1 2 3 4 5

–2

–3

–4

–5

Chapter 11 Coordinates and graphs 515

THINK WRITE/DRAW

rise – 2

2 Calculate the gradient. In this case the rise Gradient: m = -------- = ------

run 2

is negative since the line slopes down from

left to right. = −1

y-axis, and c is the y-value at this point.

remember

1. Gradient is a measure of steepness and is denoted by the symbol m.

rise

2. Gradient: m = -------- .

run

3. The gradient of a straight line is constant.

4. A linear graph can have a positive gradient ( / ), a negative gradient ( \ ), zero

gradient (——) or an undefined gradient ().

5. The y-intercept is where the graph crosses the y-axis. The symbol c stands for

the y-value at this point.

WORKED 1 State whether each of the following lines has a positive, negative, zero or undefined gradient. Cabri Geo

Example

met

a b c

ry

9 y y y

Gradient

0 x 0 x 0 x L Spre

XCE ad

sheet

E

Gradient

and

d y e y f y intercepts

L Spre

XCE ad sheet

E

0 x 0 x 0 x Gradient

and

intercepts

(DIY)

2 Find the gradient of each of the linear graphs below by measuring the rise and the run.

a y b y c y 11.7 SkillS

5 5 5

HEET

4 4 4

3 3 3 Measuring

2 2 2 the rise

1 1 1 and

0 x x x the run

–5 –4 –3 –2 –1

–1 1 2 3 4 5 –5 –4 –3 –2 –1

–1

0 1 2 3 4 5 –5 –4 –3 –2 –1–10 1 2 3 4 5

–2 –2 –2

–3 –3 –3

–4 –4 –4

–5 –5 –5

516 Maths Quest 8 for Victoria

Example

10 a 5

y

b 5

y

c 4

y

4 4 3

3 3 2

2 2 1

1 1 x

–5 –4 –3 –2 –1 0 1 2 3 4 5

0 x 0 x –1

–5 –4 –3 –2 –1

–1 1 2 3 4 5 –5 –4 –3 –2 –1

–1 1 2 3 4 5 –2

–2 –2 –3

–3 –3 –4

–4 –4 –5

–5 –5 –6

d y e y f y

5 10 5

4 8 4

3 6 3

2 4 2

1 2 1

0 x 0 x 0 x

–4 –3 –2 –1

–1 1 2 3 4 5 6 –5 –4 –3 –2–1

–2 1 2 3 4 5 –5 –4 –3 –2 –1

–1 1 2 3 4 5

–2 –4 –2

–3 –6 –3

–4 –8 –4

–5 –10 –5

Example

11

i the gradient, m

ii the y-intercept, c.

a y b y c y

5 5 5

4 4 4

3 3 3

2 2 2

1 1 1

x x x

–5 –4 –3 –2 –1

–1

0 1 2 3 4 5 –5 –4 –3 –2 –1–10 1 2 3 4 5 –5 –4 –3 –2 –1

–1

0 1 2 3 4 5

–2 –2 –2

–3 –3 –3

–4 –4 –4

–5 –5 –5

d y e y f y

5 7 5

4 6 4

3 5 3

2 4 2

1 3 1

x 2 x

–5 –4 –3 –2 –1

–1

0 1 2 3 4 5 1 –5 –4 –3 –2 –1–10 1 2 3 4 5

–2 x –2

–3 –5 –4 –3 –2 –1–10 1 2 3 4 5 –3

–4 –2 –4

–5 –3 –5

–4

–5

5 multiple choice

For each of these graphs, choose the correct alternative.

a The gradient of this graph is: y

A 1--- B −4 C 4 D − 1--- E 0 5

4

4 4

3

2

1

0 x

–5 –4 –3 –2 –1

–1 1 2 3 4 5

–2

–3

–4

–5

Chapter 11 Coordinates and graphs 517

b The gradient and y-intercept of this graph are, y

5

respectively: 4

A 2, 4 B −2, 2 C −2, 4 D 2, 2 E −4, −2 3

2

1

0 x

–5 –4 –3 –2 –1

–1 1 2 3 4 5

–2

–3

–4

–5

6 multiple choice

Hugo has developed greater skills with his skateboard. Earlier he mastered a ramp that

has a run of 2 m and a rise of 1.5 m. The ramp has a gradient of:

A 0.75 B 3 C 1.5 D − 3--- E 2

2

2

Use the graph at right to answer questions 1, 2 and 3.

1 In which section(s) did the rainfall increase? B D

A

Rainfall

2 In which section(s) did the rainfall stay the same? C

Time

Use the Cartesian plane at right for questions 4 and 5.

y

4 State the coordinates for the letter Y. 4 X

5 State the letter for the coordinates (0, −2). Y 2

6 True or false? The next point in the linear pattern made by

(−2, −1) (−1, 0) (0, 1) (1, 2) (2, 3) is (3, 4). –4 –2 2 4 x

C –2 D

7 Write the rule ‘multiply the x value by 6 then add 3’ as an –4

equation.

8 Complete the table of values below and then plot the points on a Cartesian plane.

y = −3x + 4

x −2 −1 0 1 2

y

y

10

9 Find the rule for the following set of coordinates. 8

6

x −2 −1 0 1 2 4

2

y −5 −2 1 4 7 –10 –5 –2 5 10 x

–4

10 State the gradient and the y-intercept for –6

–8

the graph of the line shown at right. –10

518 Maths Quest 8 for Victoria

1 For each of the following rules:

i draw a table of values

ii plot the coordinates on the same set of axes

iii label each graph clearly.

a y=x−2

b y=x−1

c y=x

d y=x+1

e y=x+2

2 What is the y-intercept of each of the following?

a y=x−2

b y=x−1

c y=x

d y=x+1

e y=x+2

omet

i Ge ry 3 In question 2, what did you notice about the equation of each linear graph and

Cabr

its y-intercept?

Linear

graphs and 4 For each of the following rules:

y-intercepts i draw a table of values

ii plot the coordinates on the same set of axes

iii label each graph clearly.

a y = −2x

b y = −1x (or y = −x)

c y=x

d y = 2x

5 What difference does the negative sign make to a linear graph?

6 Draw a table of values for each of the following rules by choosing x-values

from −1 to 3. Using a whole sheet of graph paper (or a whole page in your

workbook), plot the graphs for each rule on the same set of axes. (Use x-axis:

−4 to 6 and y-axis: −4 to 15.) Label each graph clearly.

a y=x+1

b y = 2x + 1

c y = 3x + 1

d y = 4x + 1

7 What did you notice about the graphs in question 6?

omet

i Ge ry 8 Find the gradient of each graph in question 6.

Cabr

Linear

equations

and Rule y=x+1 y = 2x + 1 y = 3x + 1 y = 4x + 1

gradients

Gradient

The gradient for a linear graph is given by in the rule.

Chapter 11 Coordinates and graphs 519

Finding the rule for linear graphs

We know the rule for linear graphs shows us the relationship between the y-value and

the x-value of the coordinates on the line. The rule also gives us information about the

gradient, m, and where the graph crosses the y-axis, the y-intercept, c.

The general rule for all linear graphs is given by the equation: y = mx + c. To find

the rule for any particular linear graph, we need to find the values of m and c.

WORKED Example 12

y y

For each of the linear graphs at a 5 b 5

4 4

right: 3 3

Find the gradient, m, the 2 2

1 1

y-intercept, c, and, using m and c, x

–5 –4 –3 –2 –1 0 1 2 3 4 5 0 x

work out the rule. –1 –5 –4 –3 –2 –1

–1 1 2 3 4 5

–2 –2

–3 –3

–4 –4

–5 –5

THINK WRITE/DRAW

5

line and draw a triangle to find the 4

rise and run. Use the triangle formed 3

2

by the axes. 1

0 x

–5 –4 –3 –2 –1

–1 1 2 3 4 5

–2

–3

–4

–5

rise = 2

run = 2

rise

2 Calculate the gradient. Gradient: m = --------

run

2

= ---

2

=1

is where the graph crosses the y-axis.

4 Substitute the values of m and c into y = mx + c

the general rule. =1×x+2

=x+2

5 State the rule. The rule is y = x + 2.

Continued over page

520 Maths Quest 8 for Victoria

THINK WRITE/DRAW

b 1 Choose 2 convenient points on the b y

5

line and draw a triangle to find the 4

rise and run. The rise is negative as 3

2

the line slopes downwards from left 1

to right. –5 –4 –3 –2 –1 0 1 2 3 4 5

x

–1

–2

–3

–4

–5

rise = −2

run = 1

rise

2 Calculate the gradient. Gradient: m = --------

run

–2

= ------

1

= −2

3 State the value of c. The y-intercept c=0

is where the graph crosses the y-axis.

Note: The graph passes through the

origin.

4 Substitute the values of m and c into y = mx + c

the general rule. = −2 × x + 0

= −2x

5 State the rule. The rule is y = −2x.

WORKED Example 13

State the gradient and y-intercept for each of the following linear rules.

a y = 2x − 3 b y = −x + 1

THINK WRITE

a 1 Write the rule. a y = 2x − 3

2 Compare with the general rule. y = mx + c

3 The gradient is given by m. Gradient: m = 2

4 The y-intercept is given by c. y-intercept: c = −3

2 Compare with the general rule. y = mx + c

3 The gradient is given by m. Gradient: m = −1

4 The y-intercept is given by c. y-intercept: c = 1

Chapter 11 Coordinates and graphs 521

remember

1. The rule for any linear graph is given by:

y = mx + c

↑ ↑

Gradient y-intercept

2. When the rule for a linear graph is in the form y = mx + c

(a) the number before the x in the rule tells us the gradient, m

(b) the number on the end of the rule tells us the y-intercept, c.

11G graphs Cabri Geo

met

ry

WORKED 1 For each of the following linear graphs, find i the gradient, m, ii the y-intercept, c, and, Linear

Example

12

iii using m and c, work out the rule. graphs and

y-intercept

a y b y c y

5 5 5

4 4 4

3 3 3

2 2 2 Cabri Geo

met

1 1 1

ry

0 x 0 x 0 x

–5 –4 –3 –2 –1

–1 1 2 3 4 5 –5 –4 –3 –2 –1

–1 1 2 3 4 5 –5–4 –3 –2 –1

–1 1 2 3 4 5 Linear

–2 –2 –2 equations

–3 –3 –3 and

–4 –4 –4 gradient

–5 –5 –5

d y e y f

5 5 y

4 4 5

3 3 4

2 2 3

1 1 2

0 x 0 x 1

–5 –4 –3 –2 –1

–1 1 2 3 4 5 –5 –4 –3 –2 –1

–1 1 2 3 4 5

x

–2 –2 –5 –4 –3 –2 –1–10 1 2 3 4 5

–3 –3 –2

–4 –4 –3

–5 –5

WORKED 2 State the gradient and y-intercept for each of the following linear rules. Math

Example

13 a y=x+3 b y=x−4 c y = 3x + 1 cad

d y = 5x − 2 e y = 6x + 10 f y = 8x − 7 Gradient

and

g y = 5x + 3 h y = 9x − 4 i y = −3x + 4 y-intercept

j y = −6x + 2 k y = −4x l y=x

3 multiple choice

For each of the following graphs choose the correct response.

a The rule for this linear graph is: y

A y = −3x B y=x+3 C y = 3x − 3 3

2

D y=x−3 E y=x 1

0 x

–5 –4 –3 –2 –1

–1 1 2 3 4 5

–2

–3

–4

–5

522 Maths Quest 8 for Victoria

me

b The rule for this linear graph is: y

E ti A y = −2x + 1 B y = −x + 1 C y=x+1 5

GAM

4

Coordinates D y = 2x + 1 E y = − 1--- x + 1 3

2 2

and graphs

1

— 002

0 x

–5 –4 –3 –2 –1

–1 1 2 3 4 5

–2

–3

–4

–5

4 multiple choice

a A linear graph with the rule y = 2x + 6 would have:

A m = 6, c = 2 B m = 2, c = 6 C m = −2, c = 6

T 11.2 D m = 1, c = 6 E m = 2, c = 2

SHEE

b A linear graph with the rule y = 4x − 7 would have:

Work

A m = −7, c = 4 B m = 7, c = 4 C m = 4, c = 4

D m = 4, c = 7 E m = 4, c = −7

To sketch a straight-line graph you need only two points. Here are two methods you

can use to sketch linear graphs.

1. Gradient and y-intercept method

The equation of a linear graph is of the general form y = mx + c, where m is the

gradient of the line and c is the y-intercept. If we know the y-intercept, we can use this

as one of our points. The gradient can be used to find a second point.

To sketch a graph using the gradient and y-intercept, follow these steps:

Step 1. Plot a point at the y-intercept.

rise

Step 2. Write the gradient in the form m = -------- .

run

Step 3. From the y-intercept move up the number of units suggested by the rise (move

down if the gradient is negative).

Step 4. Move across (right) the number of units suggested by the run and plot the

second point.

Step 5. Join the two points together to form a straight line.

WORKED Example 14

Sketch the graph of y = 2x + 1 using the gradient and y-intercept method.

THINK WRITE/DRAW

the general equation y = mx + c.

2 Plot a point at the y-intercept.

2

3 Write the gradient as a fraction to m = ---

1

identify the rise and the run.

So, rise = 2 and run = 1.

Chapter 11 Coordinates and graphs 523

THINK WRITE/DRAW

5

and across 1 to plot the second point. 4

Join the 2 points to form a straight line. 3

5 2 y = 2x + 1

Extend and label the line. 1

0 x

–5 –4 –3 –2 –1

–1 1 2 3 4 5

–2

–3

–4

2. Intercept method y

Another method of obtaining two points to sketch a linear x-intercept 5

4

graph is to find the x-intercept and y-intercept. These two 3

points are important features of a linear graph. 2 y-intercept

1

At the y-intercept, x = 0, so to find the y-intercept we either: –5 –4 –3 –2 –1 0 1 2 3 4 5

x

–1

1. substitute x = 0 into the equation (rule) or –2

–3

2. look at the value of c in the equation. –4

WORKED Example 15

Sketch the graph of y = x + 2 using the intercept method.

THINK WRITE/DRAW

2 At the y-intercept, x = 0. At y-intercept, x = 0

To find it, substitute x = 0 into the equation. y=0+2

=2

y-intercept (0, 2)

3 At the x-intercept, y = 0. At x-intercept, y = 0

To find it, substitute y = 0 into the equation. 0=x+2

4 Rearrange the equation so that x is on the x+2=0

left-hand side.

5 Subtract 2 from both sides of the equation. x+2−2=0−2

x = −2

x-intercept (−2, 0)

6 Plot the 2 intercepts and join them to form a y

5

straight line. Label the line. 4

3 y=x+2

2

1

0 x

–5 –4 –3 –2 –1

–1 1 2 3 4 5

–2

–3

–4

524 Maths Quest 8 for Victoria

remember

1. To sketch a straight-line graph you need only two points.

2. To obtain two points you can use the gradient and y-intercept or the x- and

y-intercepts.

3. Two methods can be used to sketch linear graphs.

(a) Gradient and y-intercept method: plot a point at the y-intercept and then

use the gradient to plot the second point.

(b) Intercept method: find the x-intercept (substitute y = 0 into the equation),

find the y-intercept (substitute x = 0 into the equation),

or find c by comparing the equation with y = mx + c.

hca

d WORKED 1 Sketch and label the following graphs using the gradient and y-intercept method.

Example

a y=x+1 b y=x+3 c y=x−3

Mat

14

Gradient d y=x−2 e y = 2x + 2 f y = 2x − 1

and

y-intercept g y = 4x − 2 h y = 6x − 4 i y = −x + 4

j y = −x + 2 k y = −x − 5 l y = −2x + 3

11.8 WORKED 2 Sketch and label the following graphs using the intercept method.

HEET Example

a y=x+3 b y=x+6

SkillS

15

Substituting c y=x−4 d y=x−5

0 for x and y e y = x + 10 f y=x−7

into a rule g y=x+1 h y=x−8

d i y=x+8 j y=x+9

hca

k y = −x + 1 l y = −x − 4

Mat

Sketching

linear graphs 3 multiple choice

x-, y-intercepts

a The gradient and y-intercept of the graph given by y = 3x − 5 is:

A m = 3, c = 5 B m = 5, c = 3 C m = −3, c = 5

D m = 3, c = −5 E m = −5, c = 3

b If m = −6 and c = 4, the rule for the linear graph would be:

A y = 4x − 6 B y = −6x + 4 C y = 6x − 4

D y = −4x + 6 E y = −6x − 4

4 multiple choice

a The x- and y-intercepts for the linear graph whose rule is y = x + 9 are:

A 9 and 9 B 9 and −9 C −9 and 9

D 0 and 9 E 0 and −9

b The x- and y-intercepts for the linear graph whose rule is y = x − 15 are:

A 15 and −15 B −15 and −15 C 15 and 0

D 15 and 15 E 0 and 15

Chapter 11 Coordinates and graphs 525

What happens from the age of 35?

Sketch the graphs of the straight lines after

determining the gradient (m) and y-intercept (c)

of each. Each line number and the letter that the

line passes through gives the puzzle code.

y

7

E B

6 U

L 5

R

4

I 3

2 Y

H 1

–8 –7 –6 –5 –4 –3 –2 –1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 x

–1 N D

S –2

V –3 T

O –4

–5 C

A

–6

1 y=2 2 y = –4 3 x=8 4 x = –3

m= m= m= m=

c= c= c= c=

5 y=x 6 y = –x 7 y=x+1 8 y = 2x – 5

m= m= m= m=

c= c= c= c=

9 y = –2x + 6 10 y = —

1

x+4 11 y = 1

– x–6 12 y = —

1

x–3

2 3 4

m= m= m= m=

c= c= c= c=

13 y = 6x – 6 x

14 y = – — 15 y = 3 16 y = –x + 4

5 +6

m= m= m= m=

c= c= c= c=

1 2 3 4 2 5 6 5 6 7 6 8 9 10 2 3 5 11 8 12

13 14 11 15 8 16 6 4 4 5 11 12 11 1

526 Maths Quest 8 for Victoria

At the start of the chapter, you were given some results to use to work out

the relationship between the length of the radius (r) of a female and her height (h).

1 Plot the given points onto a Cartesian plane and join them with a straight line.

Label the horizontal axis r for ‘length of radius’ and the vertical axis h for the

‘height’. (Choose the scale on your axes carefully.)

2 Find the gradient and axis intercepts of the line.

3 Find the rule for this graph.

4 Sketch the linear graph of the rule for a male, h = 3.6r + 81.

5 Find the approximate length of your radius.

6 Use the appropriate graph or rule to predict your height.

How does it compare?

When information or data is displayed as a graph, we can often get a much clearer

picture of any patterns or possible relationships that may exist between the variables.

This allows us to find the rule or equation that describes the data.

Data from a table is named according to the axis on which it is graphed. The x-axis (or

horizontal) variable is called the independent variable, and the y-axis (or vertical)

variable is called the dependent variable.

The table below displays the number of hours worked and money received by a

waiter. The independent variable is the number of hours worked, and the dependent

variable is the waiter’s pay.

Hours worked 0 5 10 20 30 40 50

Pay ($) 0 50 100 200 300 400 500

common sense. As is the case in most employment, the amount paid depends on the

number of hours worked.

Chapter 11 Coordinates and graphs 527

Domain and range

From the table on the previous page we can determine the hourly rate at which the

waiter is paid. We can also determine the minimum and maximum amount the waiter

can expect to be paid per week. For this example, let’s assume the maximum number of

hours the waiter can work in one week is 50 hours.

The minimum amount would be $0 (corresponding to no hours worked). The

maximum would be $10 × 50 = $500 (corresponding to 50 hours worked).

The domain includes the minimum and maximum hours worked and all the values

between them (that is, the x- or independent variables).

The range includes the minimum and maximum pay and all the values between them

(that is, the y- or dependent variables).

For this example, the domain is written as 0 ≤ x ≤ 50 and the range is written as

0 ≤ y ≤ 500.

The following section shows you how to graph data that have been recorded and then

find an equation for those data (if a linear pattern exists).

WORKED Example 16

For each of the following, state the:

ii independent and dependent variables ii domain and range.

a b

90

Time (h) 1 2 4 10 15 100 80

70

Cost ($)

60

Distance 15 30 60 150 225 1500 50

travelled (km) 40

30

20

10

0 1 2 3 4 5 6

Length of material (m)

THINK WRITE

a ii Determine which of the two variables a ii Time is the independent variable and

is the dependent one and answer the distance travelled is the dependent

question. variable.

Note: The distance travelled will

depend on the number of hours.

ii 1 Find the minimum and maximum ii From the table the minimum and

values for the independent maximum values are 1 and 100

variable. respectively. Therefore, the domain is

1 ≤ Time ≤ 100 hours.

2 Find the minimum and maximum From the table the minimum and

values for the dependent variable. maximum values are 15 and 1500

respectively. Therefore, the range is

15 ≤ Distance ≤ 1500 km.

Continued over page

528 Maths Quest 8 for Victoria

THINK WRITE

b ii Determine which of the two variables b ii The length of material is the independent

is the dependent one and answer the variable and cost is the dependent

question. variable.

Note: The cost will depend on the

length of the material.

ii 1 Find the minimum and maximum ii From the graph the minimum and

values for the independent maximum values are 0 and 6

variable. respectively. Therefore, the domain is

0 ≤ Length ≤ 6 m.

2 Find the minimum and maximum From the graph the minimum and

values for the dependent variable. maximum values are 0 and 90

respectively. Therefore, the range is

$0 ≤ Cost ≤ $90.

WORKED Example 17

Cindy saved $20 per month for 6 months.

The table below shows her savings at the

end of each month.

a Draw a set of axes showing time on the

x-axis and savings on the y-axis.

(Check the values you need to show on

each axis.)

Time Savings

(months) ($)

1 80

2 100

3 120

4 140

5 160

6 180

c Plot the points from the table onto your axis. Do they form a linear pattern?

d Join the points to form a linear graph.

e Find the gradient, m, and y-intercept, c, for your graph.

f Write an equation for this graph using y = mx + c.

g Replace y with savings (in $) and x with time (in months), so that your equation

looks like:

Savings = ___ × time + ___.

Chapter 11 Coordinates and graphs 529

THINK WRITE/DRAW

a 1 Draw a set of axes. Label the a–d

horizontal axis ‘Time (months)’ and

the vertical axis ‘Savings ($)’.

2 Scale the horizontal and vertical

axes. Time values range from 1 to 6;

therefore, the horizontal axis is

scaled in lots of one. Savings values

range from 80 to 180; therefore, the

vertical axis is scaled in lots of 20.

b Determine which of the two variables is the Time is the independent variable (x) and

dependent one and answer the question. savings is the dependent variable (y).

Note: The savings depends on the number of

months passed (time).

c 1 Plot each pair of coordinates as a

point. 180

160

2 The points lie in a straight line, so 140

Savings ($)

20

100

d Join the points to make a straight line. 80 1

60

40

20

0

1 2 3 4 5 6

Time (months)

rise

e 1 Use two points to draw a triangle in e m = --------

run

order to find the rise and the run.

rise = 20, run = 1. 20

= ------

1

= 20

2Carefully extend the line until it y-intercept, c = 60

crosses the y-axis to find the value

of c, the y-intercept.

f Substitute m and c into the general f y = mx + c

equation y = mx + c. y = 20x + 60

g Replace y with savings and x with time. g Savings = 20 × time + 60

remember

1. The general rule or equation for a linear graph is y = mx + c, where m is the

gradient and c is the y-intercept.

2. The independent variable is the x-value and the dependent variable is the

y-value.

3. The domain represents the set of x-values shown by the graph.

4. The range represents the set of y-values shown by the graph.

530 Maths Quest 8 for Victoria

graphs

WORKED 1 For each of the following sets of data, state the:

Example

16a ii independent and dependent variables

ii domain and range.

a

Time (minutes) 0 1 2 4 8 30

Distance run (m) 0 130 260 520 1040 3900

b

Length of call (minutes) 1 2 3 4 5 10

Cost (cents) 50 80 110 140 170 320

c

Number of days Number of drips from a leaky tap

0 5550

1 5505

2 1010

3 1515

4 2020

5 2525

6 3030

7 3535

Example

16b ii independent and dependent variables

ii domain and range.

a

110

100

90

80

Cost ($)

70

60

50

40

30

20

10

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100

Litres of petrol (L)

Chapter 11 Coordinates and graphs 531

b

600

500

400

300

200

100

0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24

Time (months)

c

400

350

300

Pay ($)

250

200

150

100

50

0 10 20 30 40 L Spre

XCE ad

sheet

E

Hours worked

Plotting

WORKED 3 Harry saved $30 per month for 6 months. The table below shows his savings at the points

Example (table)

17

end of each month.

Math

Time (months) 1 2 3 4 5 6

cad

Finding

Savings ($) 90 120 150 180 210 240 the rule

x-axis and savings on the y-axis. (Check

the values you need to show on each

axis.)

b State the independent and dependent

variables.

c Plot the points from the table onto your

axis. Do they form a linear pattern?

d Join the points to form a linear graph.

e Find the gradient, m, and y-intercept, c,

for your graph.

f Write an equation for this graph using

y = mx + c.

g Replace y with savings and x with time,

so that your equation looks like:

Savings = ___ × time + ___.

532 Maths Quest 8 for Victoria

4 Chris’s fridge is not working. He called a company, which is sending someone to repair

the fridge.

Company charges are: $55 to come to your home, plus

$45 for every 1--- hour the repairer is there.

2

a Copy and complete the table to show how much it could cost Chris to have his

fridge repaired.

1

Time (hours) 0 ---

2

1 1 1--2- 2 2 1--2- 3

Cost ($) 55 100 145

b Draw a graph of this information. Place time on the x-axis and cost on the y-axis.

c State the independent and dependent variables.

d Is there a linear relationship between cost and time?

e Find the gradient of the graph.

f Find the y-intercept.

g Find the rule for this graph using y = mx + c.

h In your equation replace y with Cost and replace x with time:

Cost = ___ × time + ___.

i Use your equation to find the cost if a repair person takes 4 hours to fix Chris’s

fridge.

j State the domain and range.

5 Kyle was very bored on his holidays and decided to measure how much the grass grew

every day for one week. His results are shown in the table.

Day number 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

Height of grass (mm) 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24

a State the independent and dependent variables.

b Kyle knew his dad would want the grass cut as soon

as it was 2.5 cm (25 mm) long. On which day would

this occur?

c Plot the points from the graph on a Cartesian plane

putting day on the x-axis and height on the y-axis.

d Do the points form a linear graph?

e Find the gradient and y-intercept of the graph.

f Find an equation for the height of the grass by filling

in the blanks.

Height = ___ × no. of days + ______

or h = ___ d + ______

g How long would the grass be after 14 days if it had not been cut?

6 Madeleine jogs 3 times a week. She always goes around the same path at a park near

her home. When she gets to a very steep hill in the park, her speed slows down. The

distance from the bottom to the top of the hill is 250 m. Madeleine estimates that every

50 m her speed slows down by 0.5 km/hour.

a Copy and complete the following table.

Distance from bottom (m) 0 100 200

Chapter 11 Coordinates and graphs 533

b How fast is Madeleine jogging when she is at the top of the hill?

c Draw a graph of the information in the table.

d From your graph find how fast Madeleine is jogging when she is halfway up the

hill.

e How far up the hill is Madeleine when her speed is 3.25 km/h?

f State the domain and range.

7 Samantha has noticed that there are fewer students in her

home group now than when she started school 3 years ago. 26

24

The graph at right shows how the number of students has 22

Student numbers

changed. 20

18

a If the pattern continues, how many students will there be 16

14

in Samantha’s home group next year? 12

b Find the gradient and y-intercept of the graph. 10

8

c The equation for this graph would be: 6

Number of students = _____ × time + _____. 4

2

This could be shortened to s = ____ t + ____. 0

Fill in the blanks in the equation above with the gradient 1 2 3

Time (years)

and y-intercept.

d Using the equation from part c, find the number of students in Samantha’s home

group after 6 years.

e State the domain and range.

8 James and his sister are going for a bike ride. They know they can ride 25 km in an

hour (average).

a Copy and complete the following table.

Time (hours) 2 3 5

534 Maths Quest 8 for Victoria

c Do the points form a linear graph?

d Find the gradient and y-intercept of the graph.

e Using the gradient and y-intercept from part c, copy and complete the equation

below.

Distance = _____× time + _____ or d = ____t + ____

f Use the equation found in part e to work out how far they would have ridden after

5 hours.

g If they leave home at 9.00 am and arrive home at 5.00 pm, how far would James

and his sister have ridden?

9 Lara sells computers and is paid $300 per week plus $20 for every computer she sells.

a Draw a table to show how much money Lara would be paid if she sold between 0

and 10 computers per week.

b Plot the points in the table on a Cartesian plane.

c Do the points form a linear graph?

SHEE

T 11.3 d Find the gradient and y-intercept of the graph.

Work

f If Lara sold 25 computers in a week, how much money would she be paid?

12

Each type of graph has a particular shape and distinct 3

10

characteristics. Previously we learned that a linear 8 3

graph forms a straight line and its gradient is constant, 6

3

that is, it does not change. For example, y = 3x + 4 is a 4

1

linear graph with gradient m = 3. This means that for 2

0

1 2 3 x

three units vertically.

–4

Non-linear graphs

Non-linear graphs are just that, graphs that are not linear — they are curved as illus-

trated by the figures below. Note that the gradient changes as we move across the

domain (x-values).

y y y

8 8 5

4

6 5 6 4 3

4 4 2

1 1

2 3 2 2

1

1 –5 –4 –3 –2 –1 0 1 2 3 4 5x

x –1

–3 –2 –1 0 1 2 3 –3 –2 –1 0 1 2 3 x

–2 –2 –2

–3

–4 –4 –4

–6 –6 –5

–8 –8

Chapter 11 Coordinates and graphs 535

WORKED Example 18

Copy and complete the table of x −3 −2 −1 0 1 2 3

values for the rule y = x2 − 3 and

plot the graph. y

THINK WRITE

1 Substitute x = −3 into the rule y = x2 − 3 and y = (−3)2 − 3

evaluate. =9−3

Note: Brackets are required if squaring a =6

negative number on the calculator.

2 Write the value obtained in the table.

3 Substitute x = –2 into the rule y = x2 – 3 and y = (−2)2 − 3

evaluate. =4−3

=1

4 Write the value obtained in the table, and

x −3 −2 −1 0 1 2 3

repeat for the remainder of the x-values.

y 6 1 −2 −3 −2 1 6

5 Draw a set of appropriately scaled and y

labelled axes. 6

y = x2 – 3

Note: The domain (x-values) extends from –3 4

to 3, and the range (y-values) extends from –3 2

to 6.

–3 –2 –1

0

1 2 3 x

6 Plot the points. –2

7 Connect the coordinates with a smooth curve –4

and label.

WORKED Example 19

Copy and complete the table of x −3 −2 −1 − 1--- 0 1

--- 1 2 3

2 2

4

values for the rule y = --- and plot y

x

the graph.

THINK WRITE

4 4

1 Substitute x = −3 into the rule y = --- and y = ------

evaluate. x –3

4

2 Write the value obtained in the table and = − ---

repeat for the remainder of the x-values. 3

x −3 −2 −1 − 1--- 0 1

--- 1 2 3

2 2

y − 4--- −2 −4 −8 undefined 8 4 2 4

---

3 3

536 Maths Quest 8 for Victoria

THINK WRITE

3 Draw a set of appropriately scaled and y

labelled axes. 8

y = 4–x

Note: The domain (x-values) extends from −3 6

to 3, and the range (y-values) extends from 4

−8 to 8. 2

–3 –2 –1 0 1 2 3

Note: At x = 0, the corresponding y-value is –2

4 –4

undefined because --- cannot be calculated.

0 –6

Therefore, no point can be plotted at x = 0. –8

and label.

Note: The graph will contain two separate

sections.

WORKED Example 20

Copy and complete the table of x −3 −2 −1 0 1 2 3

values for the rule y = 2x and plot

the graph. y

THINK WRITE

evaluate. = 0.125

2 Write the value obtained in the table, and

x −3 −2 −1 0 1 2 3

repeat for the remainder of the x-values.

y 0.125 0.25 0.5 1 2 4 8

y

labelled axes. 8 y = 2x

Note: The domain (x-values) extends from –3 6

to 3, and the range (y-values) extends from 0 4

to 8. 2

and label.

The next section looks at particular rules and their corresponding graphs, which we will

define as functions.

Chapter 11 Coordinates and graphs 537

One-to-one correspondence

A rule (or function) maps (changes) one set of values to another. For example the

rule y = 2x maps the x-values {–2, –1, 0, 1, 2} to y-values {–4, –2, 0, 2, 4}. Using set

notation, this is written as: {–2, –1, 0, 1, 2}→ {–4, –2, 0, 2, 4}. The coordinates are

{(–2, –4), (–1, –2), (0, 0), (1, 2), (2, 4)}.

From here it can be seen that for every individual x-value there is one unique y-value

and vice versa. That is, the y-values created by the x-values occur only once. In this

case, the function is said to be a one-to-one function.

Many-to-one correspondence

The following is a table of values for the function y = x2.

x −3 −2 −1 0 1 2 3

y 9 4 1 0 1 4 9

The coordinates here are: {(–3, 9), (–2, 4), (–1, 1), (0, 0), (1, 1), (2, 4), (3, 9)}. In this

case, the points have unique x-values but the same y-value, for example, (–3, 9) and

(3, 9). Since there are two x-values to one y-value, this is an example of a many-to-one

function.

Horizontal-line test

y

We can determine graphically whether a function

3

is one-to-one or many-to-one by applying the

Horizontal-line test

horizontal-line test. 2

1

A one-to-one function exists if any horizontal

line crosses the graph of the function only once. x

–3 –2 –1 0 1 2 3

–1

Any horizontal line will cross the graph at right

–2

only once, regardless of where the line is drawn.

–3

y

9

8

The horizontal line crosses the graph at right at 7

two points. This means there are two x-values that Horizontal-line test

have the same y-value. This is a many-to-one 6

function. 5

4

3

2

1

–3 –2 –1 0 1 2 3 x

–1

538 Maths Quest 8 for Victoria

WORKED Example 21

State whether the following functions are one-to-one or many-to-one.

a y = x2 − 7 b y = 2x y

8

x −3 −2 −1 0 1 2 3

7

y 2 −3 −6 −7 −6 −3 2 6

5

4

3

2

1

–3 –2 –1 0 1 2 3 x

–1

THINK WRITE

x-value there is one unique y-value.

2 Check that for every individual 2 The y-values are repeated. For example

y-value there is a unique x-value. the points (–3, 2) and (3, 2) have the same

y-value.

Note: There are other coordinates that

share the same y-values.

graph. 8

Note: The horizontal line must pass

7

through the graph only once for it to

be a one-to-one function. 6

5

4

Horizontal-line test

3

2

1

–3 –2 –1 0 1 2 3 x

–1

Chapter 11 Coordinates and graphs 539

remember

1. A function is said to be one-to-one if for every individual x-value there is one

unique y-value and vice versa.

2. A function is said to be many-to-one if two or more x-values have the same

y-value.

Graphs and

11J relationships

WORKED 1 Copy and complete the table of values for each of the following rules and plot each

Example

18

graph on a separate set of axes.

x −3 −2 −1 0 1 2 3

y

a y = x2 b y = x2 – 2

c y = x2 + 2 d y = 2x2

e y = –x2 f y = –x2 + 2

WORKED 3 Copy and complete the table of values for each of the following rules and plot each

Example

19

graph on a separate set of axes.

x −3 −2 −1 − 1---

2

0 1

---

2

1 2 3

y

1 2

a y = --- b y = ---

x x

3 1

c y = --- d y = − ---

x x

WORKED 5 Copy and complete the table of values for each of the following rules and plot each

Example

20

graph on a separate set of axes.

x −3 −2 −1 0 1 2 3

y

a y = 3x b y = 5x

c y = (1.2)x d y = ( 1--- )x

2

540 Maths Quest 8 for Victoria

Example

21a a

x −3 −2 −1 0 1 2 3

x −3 −2 −1 0 1 2 3

y 16 11 8 7 8 11 16

x −3 −2 −1 0 1 2 3

x −3 −2 −1 0 1 2 3

y −27 −8 −1 0 1 8 27

Example

21b a b

y y

9 18

6 9

3 x

–3 –2 –1 0 1 2 3

–9

–3 –2 –1 0 1 2 3 x

–3 –18

c y d y

6 12

10

4 8

6

2 4

2

x –3 –2 –1 0 x

–3 –2 –1 0 1 2 3 1 2 3

–1 –1

Chapter 11 Coordinates and graphs 541

e y f

y

27

1

24

21

18 –3 –2 –1 0 1 2 3 x

15

–1

12

9

6

3

–3 –2 –1 0 1 2 3 x

–3

–6

–9

–12

–15

–18

–21

–24

–27

9 A certain bacterium is found to double in number every hour for 10 hours. The formula

that gives the number of bacteria at any time is N = 2t, where t is the number of hours

and N is the number of bacteria present.

a Use this formula to complete the table.

t 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

N 1 32

c Plot the graph of N = 2t.

d What is the domain?

e What is the range?

f Use your graph to find the estimate of the number of bacteria in 3 1--- hours.

2

g By extending the curve, estimate the number of hours it takes to reach 4000 bacteria.

542 Maths Quest 8 for Victoria

summary

Copy the sentences below. Fill in the gaps by choosing the correct word or

expression from the word list that follows.

1 The horizontal axis is called the .

2 The vertical axis is called the .

3 The in a coordinate refers to the position on the x-axis.

4 The in a coordinate refers to the position on the y-axis.

5 In a graph, the variable is assigned to the horizontal axis.

6 In a graph, the variable is assigned to the vertical axis.

7 The values for the are found along the x-axis.

8 The values for the are found along the y-axis.

9 When coordinates form a straight line it is called a .

10 The rule for any linear graph is .

11 Gradient is a measure of .

12 The symbol for gradient is .

13 The point where a linear graph cuts the y-axis is called the .

14 The symbol for the y-coordinate of the y-intercept is .

15 To sketch a linear graph you need only .

16 Using the gradient and y-intercept method to sketch a graph, first plot a

point at the y-intercept and then use the to plot the second

point.

17 Using the intercept method of sketching graphs, find the and

the y-intercept as the required two points.

18 At the x-intercept, y equals .

19 The y-intercept can be found by substituting into the rule or

by looking at the value of c.

20 The equation y = x2 - 100 is an example of a graph.

21 The horizontal line test is used to check if a function is or

.

WORD LIST

steepness m x-axis gradient

linear graph two points c x-intercept

x=0 first number second number zero

y-axis non-linear one-to-one independent

domain many-to-one dependent

range y = mx + c y-intercept

Chapter 11 Coordinates and graphs 543

CHAPTER

review

1 Use the graph shown below to answer the following.

11A

Namiko

Rina

Tegan

Age

a Who watches the most television?

b Who is the youngest of the three?

c Does the youngest watch the least amount of television?

2 The following graph shows

Anton’s distance from the shore 11A

during a surf life-saving drill.

Distance from shore

B

A

C

Time (mins)

a Describe what each section of the graph is showing.

b The line in section A is steeper than the line in section C. What does this tell you about

Anton’s swimming speed in section A compared to his speed in section C?

3 Place the following points on your Cartesian plane.

a A(1, 4) b B(5, 3) c C(0, 2) d D(−2, 5) 11B

e E(−4, 1) f F(−5, 0) g G(−6, −6) h H(−5, −4)

i I(0, −5) j J(2, −1) k K(2, −3) l L(2, 0)

4 Write down the coordinates of the points A to M, marked on the Cartesian plane below.

y

11B

E 6

5

4 A

3 B

D 2

F C 1

–6–5 –4 –3 –2–1 0 x

–1 G1 2 3 4 5 6

–2 M

H –3

L –4 J

–5

I –6 K

544 Maths Quest 8 for Victoria

11C a (−3, −1) (−2, 0) (−1, 1) (0, 2) (1, 3) (2, 4) (3, 5)

b (−3, −12) (−2, −9) (−1, −6) (0, −3) (1, 0) (2, 3) (3, 6)

11D a Add 3 to the x-value.

b Multiply the x-value by 2 and then add 4.

c Multiply the x-value by 4 and then subtract 3.

11D a (−2, 1) (−1, 2) (0, 3) (1, 4) b (−2, −6) (−1, −5) (0, −4) (1, −3) (2, −2)

c x −2 −1 0 1 2 d x −2 −1 0 1 2

y −4 −2 0 2 4 y −11 −8 −5 −2 1

8 Make a table of values and plot a graph for each of the following.

11E a y=x−2 b y=x+5 c y = 4x − 2 d y = 3x + 2

11F a y b y c y

5 5 5

4 4 4

3 3 3

2 2 2

1 1 1

0 x 0 x 0 x

–5 –4 –3 –2 –1

–1 1 2 3 4 5 –5 –4 –3 –2 –1

–1 1 2 3 4 5 –5 –4 –3 –2 –1

–1 1 2 3 4 5

–2 –2 –2

–3 –3 –3

–4 –4 –4

–5 –5 –5

11F a y b y c y

5 5 5

4 4 4

3 3 3

2 2 2

1 1 1

0 x x 0 x

–5 –4 –3 –2 –1

–1 1 2 3 4 5 –5 –4 –3 –2 –1–10 1 2 3 4 5 –5 –4 –3 –2 –1

–1 1 2 3 4 5

–2 –2 –2

–3 –3 –3

–4 –4 –4

–5 –5 –5

11G ii State the rule for each of the linear graphs.

a y b y c y

5 5 5

4 4 4

3 3 3

2 2 2

1 1 1

0 x 0 x 0 x

–5 –4 –3 –2 –1

–1 1 2 3 4 5 –5 –4 –3 –2 –1

–1 1 2 3 4 5 –5 –4 –3 –2 –1

–1 1 2 3 4 5

–2 –2 –2

–3 –3 –3

–4 –4 –4

–5 –5 –5

Chapter 11 Coordinates and graphs 545

12 Sketch the following using the gradient and y-intercept method.

a y=x+7 11H

b y = 2x − 2

c y = 3x − 5

d y = −2x + 4

a y=x+7 11H

b y=x−3

c y=x−5

d y = −x + 4

14 Chris has the newspaper delivered 7 days a week. He saves his newspapers for recycling.

Over a month the newspaper pile grows very high. The table below shows the height of the 11I

newspaper recycling pile at the end of each week.

Time (weeks) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6

b Draw a set of axes showing height on the y-axis and time on the x-axis. Plot the

information from your table on the axes and join the points to form a linear graph.

c Find the gradient, m, and the y-intercept, c.

d Find the rule for the graph using y = mx + c.

e Replace the y with height and x with time. Height = __ × time + __.

f What would the height of the pile be after 20 weeks?

g State the domain and range of the function.

11J

a x −3 −2 −1 0 1 2 3

y 2 4 6 8 10 12 14

b x −3 −2 −1 0 1 2 3

y 19 14 11 10 11 14 19

c y d y

0 x

0 x

546 Maths Quest 8 for Victoria

16 Copy and complete the tables for each of the following functions.

11J a y = x2 + 3

x −3 −2 −1 0 1 2 3

y

2

b y = ---

x

x −3 −2 −1 − 1--2- 0 1

---

2

1 2 3

y

c y = 2x − 5

x −3 −2 −1 0 1 2 3

y

d y = (1.4)x

11J

x −3 −2 −1 0 1 2 3

y

11J

18 State the domain and range for each of the functions specified in question 16.

11J

test

yourself

CHAPTER

11

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