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Chapter 27
Chapter 27

Differences between American ASME Y 14.5M Geometric dimensioning and tolerancing (GD & T) and ISO/BS 8888 geometrical tolerancing, standards

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This chapter aims to highlight, identify and analyse, the dif- ferences between the ASME and ISO/BS 8888 systems. The Authors make no claim as to which might be the better and/or accommodate in any specific application. Some of these dif- ferences are of a smaller nature, and as such are self-evident, while others are not, and involve indications which are inter- preted differently by users of the two different systems, giving rise to significant differences of the intended design specifi- cation. All Geometric controls included throughout this man- ual are to the ISO/BS 8888 standards. There are a few differences in terminology as detailed in Table 27.1.

few differences in terminology as detailed in Table 27.1 . TABLE 27.1 Comparison of ASME Y
few differences in terminology as detailed in Table 27.1 . TABLE 27.1 Comparison of ASME Y

TABLE 27.1 Comparison of ASME Y 14.5M and ISO termi- nologies

ASME Y 14.5M

ISO

Basic dimension Feature control frame Variation True position (TP) Reference dimension

frame Variation True position (TP) Reference dimension Theoretical exact dimension (TED) Tolerance frame Deviation

Theoretical exact dimension (TED) Tolerance frame Deviation Theoretical exact position Auxiliary dimension

Deviation Theoretical exact position Auxiliary dimension Applicability of standards The rules to which any drawing is

Applicability of standards

The rules to which any drawing is produced must be indi- cated within the framework of the drawing, i.e. ISO or ASME Y 14.5M. If a provision from ASME Y 14.5M were needed to be invoked on a drawing conforming to ISO rules, the relevant ASME Y 14.5M cross-reference must be specifically iden- tified at the point of application.

Symbology

ASME Y14.5 specifies in addition to or deviating from ISO 1101 the symbols shown in Table 27.2.

Specification of datums

Whilst the general understanding that a datum is basically a ‘good starting surface or point’ is not wrong. The ad- vancement and availability of today’s manufacturing tech- nology, has created many more options of specific applications of datums that may be required. ISO 5459 and ASME Y 14.5 M standards comprehensively define these conceptual options together by their respec- tive rules. These two set of rules can lead to substan- tially different conclusions. A brief explanation appears below. ISO standards keeping in line with these developments of modern techniques, give a wide range of different, sophis- ticated, practical conceptual terms and procedures for the various types of datums which may be specified on a draw- ing. Basically, where a specified datum feature has a form that allows the work piece to ‘rock’ within itself, the ISO rule is to ‘equalize’ the rock, in order to establish an ‘average’ position and orientation, to be used as the intended datum. ASME Y 14.5M specifies the concept of ‘candidate datums’ which allows every position that an unstable da- tum can rock to (with some limitations) is a valid ‘candidate datum’. A set of candidate datum reference frames can be derived for each set of requirements that are referenced to the same datum system, using the same precedence and the same material conditions. These sets of requirements are, by default, evaluated simultaneously to each candidate datum reference frame. If there is a candi- date datum reference frame where all the requirements are fulfilled exists, the workpiece is acceptable with regard to the requirements. In general, the ASME Y 14.5M system accepts more workpieces as the form error of the datum feature increases. However, some workpieces accepted under the applied ISO rules can be rejected upon application of the ASME Y 14.5M rules, so assumptions should not be made.

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Manual of Engineering Drawing

TABLE 27.2 Additional symbols found in ASME Y 14.5M Additional symbols found in ASME Y 14.5M

Drawing TABLE 27.2 Additional symbols found in ASME Y 14.5M Symbol Designation Interpretation Tangent Symbol placed

Symbol

Designation

Interpretation

Tangentfound in ASME Y 14.5M Symbol Designation Interpretation Symbol placed within the tolerance frame indicating a

Symbol placed within the tolerance frame indicating a tolerance applies to the contacting tangential element

CR Controlled radius Symbol placed before the toleranced radius dimension. The tolerance zone is defined by two arcs (the minimum and maximum radii) that are tangent to the adjacent surfaces. The part

contour within the crescent-shaped tolerance zone must be a fair curve without reversals with all points on the radii being within the tolerance zone Statistical tolerancing Symbol placed after a toleranced dimension indicating the assigning of tolerances to related components of an assembly on the basis of sound statistics (such as the assembly tolerance is equal to the square root of the sum of the squares of the individual tolerances)

root of the sum of the squares of the individual tolerances) Counterbore or spotface Symbol indicating
root of the sum of the squares of the individual tolerances) Counterbore or spotface Symbol indicating

Counterbore or spotface

Symbol indicating a flat bottom hole, presented before the associated dimension

Countersink

Symbol indicating a countersink, presented before the associated dimension

Deep/depth

Symbol indicating depth of a feature, presented before the dimension

depth of a feature, presented before the dimension
depth of a feature, presented before the dimension

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Exclusion of surface texture

The ISO standards do not currently state whether surface texture should be included or excluded within a specified geometric control, when evaluated. (However, the applica- tion of BS 8888 requires that surface texture be excluded by the use of appropriate filtering techniques.) ASME Y 14.5M states that ‘all requirements apply after application of the smoothing functions’. In other words sur- face texture shall be disregarded when evaluating work- pieces using ‘ASME Y 14.5M’ and thus is similar to the dictates of BS 8888.

Tolerancing principle

The ASME Y 14.5M interprets size tolerances using the ‘Principle of Dependency of size and form’ in the same terms as the ISO envelope principle (Taylor principle), i.e. when only a size tolerance is quoted, the form of a workpiece is always within its maximum size when at maximum material condition (MMC). This is known as ‘Rule 1’ and stated in the ASME Y 14.5M standard. It was realized that this overall rule was not practical in all cases, and some exceptions to this rule are as follows:

(a)

It does not apply to stock materials (bar stock, sheet, tubing, etc.).

(b)

It does not apply to flexible parts, subject to free-state variation in the unstrained condition.

(c)

It does not apply to features of size which have a straightness tolerance applied to their axes or median plane.

(d)

It may be overruled where a feature of size has a specified relationship between size and a geometric

control for example the use of M or L in the
control for example the use of M or L in the

control for example the use of M or L in the

tolerance frame.

(e)

It may be overruled with a statement such as ‘PERFECT FORMAT MMC NOT REQUIRED’ placed by a feature of size tolerance.

ISO promotes (ISO 8015) the ‘The Principle of Independency’ which states: ‘Each specified dimensional or geometrical requirement on a drawing shall be met inde- pendently, unless a particular relationship is specified.’ i.e.

unless a particular relationship is specified.’ i.e. Maximum or Minimum Material Condition M , L or
unless a particular relationship is specified.’ i.e. Maximum or Minimum Material Condition M , L or

Maximum or Minimum Material Condition M , L or the

E .
E
.

envelope principle (the Taylor principle)

This means that local two point measurements control the linear dimensional tolerances only, and not the form devia- tions of the feature.

Features-of-size

The following table lists features of size recognized by each standard (Table 27.3).

ISO

TABLE 27.3 Feature-of-size

ASME Y 14.5M

Cylindrical surfaces

Spherical surfaces Two parallel, opposed surfaces

cone

wedge

Cylindrical surfaces Spherical surfaces Two parallel, opposed surfaces

Two opposed elements (such as the radiused ends of a slot)

Chapter | 27

Differences between the ASME and ISO/BS 8888 standards

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Tolerance characteristics (Table 27.4)

TABLE 27.4 Comparison of tolerance characteristics Comparison of tolerance characteristics

Tolerance

BS 8888 and ISOs

ASME Y 14.5M:1994

Positional

Tolerance BS 8888 and ISOs ASME Y 14.5M:1994 Positional Concentricity coaxiality Positional tolerance can be used

Concentricity coaxiality

ISOs ASME Y 14.5M:1994 Positional Concentricity coaxiality Positional tolerance can be used to control the location

Positional tolerance can be used to control the location of features-of-size and also points, lines and flat planes

These characteristics have the same symbol even though they distinctively relate to different characteristics, with the term concentricity frequently and mistakenly confused with coaxially, and visa versa

The ISO definition describes concentricity as

The positional tolerance is only used with features of size ASME Y 14.5M recommends the use of Profile of a Surface to control a flat planar surface

Known only as ‘Concentricity’ tolerance. It is defined as the condition whereby the median points of all diametrically opposed elements of a figure of revolution are congruent with the axis or centre point of a datum feature

The standard states that concentricity cannot be used with the maximum and minimum material modifiers

be used with the maximum and minimum material modifiers

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the situation whereby the centre point of a feature is located on a datum point or axis Coaxially is described as the situation where an axis of a feature is aligned to a datum axis.

Concentricity/coaxially tolerances can be replaced by using a positional tolerance to provide an identical control Both these characteristics like the positional tolerance can be used with the maximum and minimum material condition modifiers

Symmetry

maximum and minimum material condition modifiers Symmetry ISO considers this as a special case of the

ISO considers this as a special case of the positional tolerance, which can be used to control the location of an axis or median plane of a feature of size in relation to a datum axis

Symmetry is defined as the condition where the median points of all opposed or corresponding located elements of two or more feature surfaces are congruent with the axis or centre plane of a datum feature It is also stated that symmetry cannot be used with the maximum or minimum condition modifiers

Profile of a line and surface

These tolerance zones are generated by

These tolerance zones are generated by a

placing a theoretical circle or sphere, with a diameter corresponding to the size of the

placing a theoretical circle or sphere, with a diameter corresponding to the size of the tolerance, on every point of the theoretically

vector offset from the theoretically exact profile (or surface) to generate the boundary limits

exact profile (or surface) to generate the boundary limits.

exact profile (or surface) to generate the boundary limits.

Where the theoretically exact profile (or surface) contains sharp corners (or edges) the tolerance zone boundary external to the corners (or edges) is radiused

Where the theoretically exact profile (or surface) contains sharp corners or (edges) the tolerance zone boundary is extended to give a sharp corner (or edge)

Roundness

is extended to give a sharp corner (or edge) Roundness ISO uses the term ‘Roundness’ for

ISO uses the term ‘Roundness’ for this form of tolerance

ASME uses the term ‘Circularity’ for this form of tolerance

uses the term ‘Roundness’ for this form of tolerance ASME uses the term ‘Circularity’ for this
uses the term ‘Roundness’ for this form of tolerance ASME uses the term ‘Circularity’ for this

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