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Steel industrial platform

- SEMESTRIAL PROJECT -
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Platformă cu strucrură metalică

Tema proiectului:

Să se întocmească proiectul de execuţie pentru o platformă de lucru şi


depozitare situată într-o clădire industrială.
Structura de rezistenţă va fi alcătuită dintr-o reţea de griunzi principale
şi secundare peste care reazemă tablă groasă striată. Grinzile principale
reazemă pe stâlpi metalici.
Dimensiunile în plan ale platformei sunt:
A = 3⋅ L 
 A = 37.5m
B = 5⋅l 
B = 25m
n = 2; L = 12.5m; l = 5m 
L, l sunt dimensiunile grinzii principale, respectiv
secundare.
Grinzile secundare se distribuie dae lungul grinzilor principale la
distanţa a = 1.25m
Cota superioară a platformei va fi de H = 4.5 m.
Încărcare utilă pe platformă provenind din utilaje, materiale şi produse
depozitate este:
p =14
kN/m 2

Grinzile secundare vor fi proiectate din profile „dublu T” laminate la


cald ( INP sau IPE )
Tabla groasă striată va di de grosime g = 5 mm ( TGS 5 ) de tip II
conform STAS 3480 – 80.
Grinzile principale vor avea secţiunea „dublu T” compusă cu îmbinări
sudate.
Stalpul platformei încastrat în fundaţie se va proiecta în secţiune
compusă din profile „U” laminate la cald ( UNP ) solidarizate co plăcuţe.
Materialul folosit pentru elementele platformei: OL 37 conform STAS
500/2 – 80 ( S 235 conform SREN 10025 + A1/94).

Etapizarea proiectului:

1. a) Scema constructivă a platformei la scara 1:100;


b) Calculul tablei groase striate şi a grinzii secundare având secţiunea
din europrofile dublu T laminate la cald;
2. Calculul grinzii secundare în varianta de grindă cu goluri hexagonale în
inimă;
3. Dimensionarea grinzii principale, verificarea de rezistenţă;
4. a) Variaţia secţiunii în lungul grinzii (variaţia grosimii tălpilor);
b) Verificarea tensiunilor echivalente;
5. Verificarea rigidităţii grinzii principale printr-o metodă exactă;
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6. a) Verificarea stabilităţii generale a grinzii principale;


b) Rigidizările inimii;
7. a) Verificarea rigidizării de reazem;
b) Verificarea stabilităţii locale (voalare) a inimii şi tălpii comprimate;
8. Înădirea de montaj cu eclise şi şuruburi de înaltă rezistenţă
pretensionate a grinzii principale;
9. a) Rezemerea grinzii secundare pe grinda principală;
b) Planşa grinzii principale la scara 1:10;
10. Dimensionarea stâlpului şi verificarea secţiunii;
11. Calculul elementelor de solidarizare şi prinderea lor de ramurele
stâlpului;
12. Capitelul şi baza stâlpului;
Planşa stâlpului la scara 1:10, detalii, la scara 1:51
1.a Schema constructivă a platformei la scara 1:100

1.b.1 Calculul tablei groase striate

• Calculul încărcarii:
q n = ( p + g ) ⋅1cm unde g − greutatea proprie a TGS 5
p = 14 kN / m = 14 ⋅10−2 daN / cm2
2

g = 41 ⋅10−4 daN / cm2


q n = (14 ⋅10−2 + 41 ⋅10−4 ) ⋅1 = 0.1441 daN/cm
q c = (1.5 ⋅ p + 1.35 ⋅ g ) ⋅1cm = (1.5 ⋅14 ⋅10−2 + 1.35 ⋅ 41 ⋅10−4 ) ⋅1 = 0.2155 daN / cm2

• Verificarea rezistenţei
N M
σ= + ≤ RTGS
, A W
RTGS = 0.8 ⋅ R = 0.8 ⋅ 2350 = 1880 daN / cm 2
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A =1cm ⋅ t c , unde t c = t −1mm = 5 −1 = 4 = 0.4cm


A =1 ⋅ 0.4 = 0.4cm 2
1 ⋅ t c 2 1 ⋅ 0.4 2
W = = = 0.0267 cm 3
6 6
4⋅ D 2 qc ⋅ a2
N= ⋅ u ; M = ⋅Ψ
a2 8

E ⋅ t c3  E = 2.1⋅ 1 60d a / cN m2
D= 
1 ⋅ 2(1 − μ3 )  μ = 0 .3
2.1⋅ 1 60⋅ 0.43
D= = 1 2 .36 0d9 7a N
1 ⋅ 2(1 − 0.3 )
3

E ⋅ t c4 2.1 ⋅106 ⋅ 0.44


λ= = = 1.6792 ⋅10−3
(1 − µ ) ⋅ q ⋅ a
2 n 4
(1 − 0.3 ) ⋅ 0.1441 ⋅125
2 4

Ψ = 0.028

lg10 ⋅ λ = 1.22 ⇒ u = 8.5
4

ω = 0.032

4 ⋅12307.69
N = 1.2 ⋅ 2
⋅ 8.52 = 273.17 daN
125
0.2155 ⋅1252
M= ⋅ 0.028 = 11.78 daNm
8
273.17 11.78
σ= + = 1124.12daN / cm 2 < RTGS = 1880daN / cm2
0.4 0.0267

• Verificarea rigidităţii:
a
f ≤ f a unde f a = =1.25 cm
100
f = f0 ⋅ ω
qn ⋅ a4 5 0.1441 ⋅1254 5
f0 = ⋅ = ⋅ = 28.63 cm
D 384 16000 384
f = 28.63 ⋅ 0.032 = 0.9161cm < f a

1.2.2 Calculul grinzii secundare

Calculul grinzii secundare se face în două variante:


a) Varianta de grindă secundară cu secţiune plină;
b) Varianta de grindă secundară cu goluri hexagonale;
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a) Varianta de grindă secundară cu secţiune plină:

• Încărcari:
n
qGS = ( p + gTGS ) ⋅ a + g GS , unde g GS = 20 ÷ 50 daN / m
n
qGS = (14 ⋅10−2 + 41 ⋅10−4 ) ⋅125 + 0.5 = 18.51 daN/cm
c
qGS = (1.5 ⋅ p + 1.35 ⋅ gTGS ) ⋅125 + 1.5 ⋅ gGS
c
qGS = (1.5 ⋅14 ⋅10−2 + 1.35 ⋅ 41 ⋅10−4 ) ⋅125 + 1.35 ⋅ 0.5 = 27.61 daN / cm

• Eforturi:
c
qGS ⋅ l 2 27.61 ⋅ 5002
M max = = = 863027.3daNcm
8 8
q c ⋅ l 27.61⋅ 500
Vmax = GS = = 6902.5daN
2 2

• Dimensionarea grinzii secundare:

M max 863027.3
Wnec = = = 367.24cm3 ⇒ profil I 26
R 2350
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h = 26cm Wy = 442cm3


b = 11.3cm 
 I y = 5740cm
4

I 24 ⇒  ; 
t = 1.41cm  S y = 223cm
3

d = 0.94cm 
G = 41daN / m

• Verificarea secţiunii adoptate:


– Recalcularea încărcărilor şi eforturilor:

n
qGS = (14 ⋅10−2 + 41⋅10−4 ) ⋅125 + 0.41 = 18.422 daN/cm
c
qGS = (1.5 ⋅14 ⋅10−2 + 1.35 ⋅ 41 ⋅10−4 ) ⋅125 + 1.35 ⋅ 0.41 = 27.94 daN / cm
c
qGS ⋅ l 2 27.94 ⋅ 5002
M max = = = 873125daNcm
8 8
c
qGS ⋅ l 27.94 ⋅ 500
Vmax = = = 6985daN
2 2

– Verificarea rezistenţei:

 M m ax
 σ m ax = W ≤ R
 y

 Vm ax ⋅ S y R
τ
 m ax = ≤ R f , undeR f =
 d ⋅ Iy 3

 σ ech = σ x + 3 ⋅ τ x ≤ 1.1⋅ R
2 2


873125
- σ max = = 1975.39daN / cm 2 < R = 2350daN / cm2
442
6985 ⋅ 223
- τ max = = 288.68daN / cm 2 < R f = 1357 daN / cm2
0.94 ⋅ 5740
M x hi Vx ⋅ S y
σx = ⋅ ; τx =
Iy 2 d ⋅Iy
c
qGS ⋅l qc l x 
Mx = ⋅ x − GS ⋅ 
2 3 2  c
qGS ⋅ l 2 27.94 ⋅ 5002
M = = = 776111.11daNcm
qc ⋅ l   x 9 9
Vx = GS − q ⋅ x ⇒
 
2  V = qGS ⋅ l = 27.94 ⋅ 500 = 2328.3daN
c

l   x 6 6
x= 
3 
776111.11 23.18
σx = ⋅ = 1567.09daN / cm 2
5740 2
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2328.3 ⋅177.61
τx = = 76.64daN / cm 2
0.94 ⋅ 5740
- σ ech = 1567.092 + 3 ⋅ 76.642 = 1572.7 daN / cm2 ≤ 1.1 ⋅ R = 2585daN / cm2

– Verificarea rigidităţii:

n
5 qGS ⋅l4 l 500
f max = ⋅ ≤ f a unde f a = = = 2cm
384 E ⋅ I y 250 250
5 18.422 ⋅ 5004
f max = ⋅ = 1.24cm < f a
384 2.1 ⋅106 ⋅ 5740

b) Varianta de grindă secundară cu goluri hexagonale pe inimă:

Schema statică şi încărcările sunt aceleaşi ca şi la varianta de grindă


secundară cu secţiune plină. Ca urmare şi eforturile care apar în grindă sunt
aceleaşi:
M max = 873125daNcm
Vmax = 6985daN
• Dimensionarea grinzii secundare:
Dimensionarea secţiunii se face din condiţia următoare:
M max
( A0 ⋅ h0 ) nec ≥
(0.7.. 0.8) R
873125
( A0 ⋅ h0 ) nec ≥ = 495.39cm3 ⇒ profil Igh 24 / 290 × 95 cu ( A0 ⋅ h0 )ef = 509.19.73cm3
0.75 ⋅ 2350
 h0 = 24.41cm η0 = 22.96mm
 2 
 A1 = 41.72cm  A0 = 20.86cm
2

 I = 6517cm 4  I = 151.62cm 4
1  0
Igh 24 / 290 × 95 ⇒  2 
 A = 50.42cm W0 = 21.05cm
3

 I = 6590cm 4  d = 8.1mm
 
 I med = 6553cm 4  g = 31.1daN / m
h 24
Se adoptă bc = = = 12cm; p = 1.5 ⋅ h = 1.5 ⋅ 24 = 36cm .
2 2
• Verificarea secţiunii adoptate:
– Recalcularea încărcărilor şi eforturilor:

n
qGS = (14 ⋅10−2 + 41⋅10−4 ) ⋅125 + 0.31 = 18.322 daN/cm
c
qGS = (1.5 ⋅14 ⋅10−2 + 1.35 ⋅ 41 ⋅10−4 ) ⋅125 + 1.35 ⋅ 0.31 = 27.36 daN / cm
c
qGS ⋅ l 2 27.36 ⋅ 5002
M max = = = 855011.71daNcm
8 8
q c ⋅ l 27.36 ⋅ 500
Vmax = GS = = 6840daN
2 2
8|Page

– Verificarea rezistenţei:
a) la încovoiere:
M M N
σ max = max = max = ≤R
W0 h0 ⋅ A0 A0
855011.71
σ max = = 1679.15daN / cm 2 < 2350daN / cm2
24.41 ⋅ 20.86
l h0 ⋅ A0 ⋅ h
x= − → σ = σm +σv ≤ R
2 8 ⋅ W0
500 24.41 ⋅ 20.86 ⋅ 36
x= − = 141.15cm
2 8 ⋅ 21.05
Mx 
σm = 
h0 ⋅ A0  M x Vx ⋅ h
 ⇒ σ= + ≤ R
V h M v Vx ⋅ h  h0 ⋅ A0 8 ⋅ W0
M v = ⋅ ⇒ σv = =
2 4 W0 8 ⋅ W0 
c
qGS ⋅l qc ⋅ x 2 
Mx = ⋅ x − GS  27.36 ⋅ 500 27.36 ⋅141.152
2 2  ⇒ M x = ⋅ 141.15 − = 692915daNcm
 2 2
x = x = 141.15cm 
c
qGS ⋅l 
Vx = − qGS
c
⋅ x 27.36 ⋅ 500
2  ⇒ Vx = − 27.36 ⋅141.15 = 2978.13daN
2
x = x = 141.15cm 
692915 2978.13 ⋅ 24
σ= + = 1785.24daN / cm 2 < R = 2350daN / cm2
20.86 ⋅ 24.41 8 ⋅ 21.05
9|Page

b) la forfecare:
V ⋅S
τ = max 0 ≤ R f
2 ⋅ d ⋅ I0
d ⋅ (a − η0 ) 2 0.81⋅ (5.5 − 2.29) 2
S0 = = = 4.17cm3
2 2
6840 ⋅ 4.17
τ= = 117.66daN / cm 2 < 1357 daN / cm2
2 ⋅ 0.81 ⋅151.62
c) în sudură

h0 V p V p
MC = 0 ⇒ Hm ⋅ = ⋅ + ⋅
2 2 2 2 2
V ⋅ p 6840 ⋅ 36
H m = max = = 10087.6daN
h0 24.41
H Hm
τS = m = ≤ R fS = 0.6 ⋅ R
AS d ⋅ (bc − 2 ⋅ d )

10087.6
τS = = 1200daN / cm 2 < 1410daN / cm2
0.81 ⋅ (12 − 2 ⋅ 0.81)

– Verificarea rigidităţii:

5 qGS n
⋅l4 l 500
f max = fV + f M = α ⋅ f M = α ⋅ ⋅ ≤ fa unde fa = = = 2cm
384 E ⋅ I y ,med 250 250
α – coeficient care ţine seama de deschiderea grinzii, α = 1.15
5 18.322 ⋅ 5004
f max = 1.15 ⋅ ⋅ = 1.24cm < f a
384 2.1 ⋅106 ⋅ 6553

Secţiune grindă secundară:


a) Secţiune plină: I 26 → g = 41daN / m
b) Secţiune cu goluri hexagonale: Igh 24 / 290 × 95 → g = 31.1daN / m
10 | P a g e

3. Calculul ginzii principale:

• Încărcări:
S n = [( p + gTGS ) ⋅ a + g GS ] ⋅ l
S n = [(14 ⋅10−2 + 41 ⋅10−4 ) ⋅125 + 0.311] ⋅ 500 = 11467.5 daN
S c = [(1.5 ⋅ p + 1.35 ⋅ gTGS ) ⋅ a + 1.35 ⋅ gGS ] ⋅ l
S c = [(1.5 ⋅14 ⋅10−2 + 1.35 ⋅ 41 ⋅10−4 ) ⋅125 + 1.35 ⋅ 0.311] ⋅ 500 = 13680.18daN
n
qGP = gGP ⋅ l , unde gGP = 15 ÷ 25daN / m 2
n
qGP = 20 ⋅10−4 ⋅ 500 = 1daN / cm
c
qGP = 1.35 ⋅ gGP ⋅ l
c
qGP = 1.35 ⋅ 20 ⋅10−4 ⋅ 500 = 1.35 daN / cm

• Eforturi:

RV 0 = RV 10 =
∑S c
+ qGP
c
⋅l
=
8 ⋅13680.18 + 1.35 ⋅1250
= 55564.47 daN
2 2
M 0 = M 10 = 0
a a2
M 1 = M 9 = RV 0 ⋅ − qGP c
⋅ = 3470142.6daNcm
2 8
3⋅ a 9 ⋅ a2
M 2 = M 8 = RV 0 ⋅ − qGP ⋅
c
− S c ⋅ a = 8684585.15daNcm
2 8
5⋅ a 25 ⋅ a 2
M 3 = M 7 = RV 0 ⋅ − qGP ⋅
c
− S c ⋅ a ⋅ (2 + 1) = 12167911.41daNcm
2 8
7⋅a 49 ⋅ a 2
M 4 = M 6 = RV 0 ⋅ − qGPc
⋅ − S c ⋅ a ⋅ (3 + 2 + 1) = 13920121.4daNcm
2 8
7 5 3 1
M 5 = RV 0 ⋅ 4 ⋅ a − qGP
c
⋅ 8 ⋅ a 2 − S c ⋅ a ⋅  + + +  = 13933305daNcm
2 2 2 2
V0 = V10 = 55564.47 daN
11 | P a g e

a
V1st = V9dr = RV 0 − qGP
c
⋅ = 55500.62daN
2
a
V1dr = V9st = RV 0 − qGP
c
⋅ − S c = 41799.91daN
2
3 ⋅a
V2st = V8dr = RV 0 − qGP
c
⋅ − S c = 41631.16daN
2
3⋅ a
V2dr = V8st = RV 0 − qGP
c
⋅ − 2 ⋅ S c = 27950.9daN
2
5⋅a
V3st = V7dr = RV 0 − qGP
c
⋅ − 2 ⋅ S c = 27782.2daN
2
5 ⋅a
V3dr = V7st = RV 0 − qGP
c
⋅ − 3 ⋅ S c = 14102.05daN
2
7 ⋅a
V4st = V6dr = RV 0 − qGP
c
⋅ − 3 ⋅ S c = 13933.3daN
2
7⋅a
V4dr = V6st = RV 0 − qGP
c
⋅ − 4 ⋅ S c = 253.12daN
2
V5st = V5dr = 0

• Eforturi:
n
M max = 11655000daNcm
c
M max = M 5 = 13933305daNcm
c
Vmax = V0 = 55564.47 daN

• Dimensionarea secţiunii:
 o p t Mm a x
 hi = k , ti = 6. 1. m2 m
o p t
R ⋅ ti
hi ≤ hi ≤ hi 
m in

 hm i =n 5 ⋅ R ⋅ L ; f = L
2

 i 2 4E ⋅ f ⋅ n a 4 0 0
 a m ed
(1.5⋅ p + 1.35 TGS
g⋅ ) a ⋅ 1.35
+ GS ⋅ ⋅ 14 ⋅ 10− 2 +1.35 41
g (1.5 ⋅ 10⋅4 − ) 500⋅ 1.35
+ 31.1⋅ 102 ⋅ −
nmed = = −2 4− −
1.495 =
( p + gTGS ) ⋅a +gGS (14 10 ⋅ 41 + ) ⋅500 31.1
10 ⋅ 2 10 + ⋅
5 2350 ⋅12502 ⋅ 400 
hi
min
= ⋅ = 77.97cm 
24 2.1 ⋅10 ⋅1250 ⋅1.495
6

 ⇒ hi = 100cm
13933305 
hiopt = 1.15 = 99cm
2350 ⋅ 0.8 
12 | P a g e

 1   1 
0.53cm  hi  ≤ ti ≤ 0.86cm  ⋅ hi  
 150   100  
 ⇒ ti = 1cm = 10mm
Vmax 55564.47
ti ≥ = = 0.505cm 
hi ⋅ R f 78 ⋅ 0.6 ⋅ 2350 

t = 1 .23. m0 m
 ⇒ t = 2 m0 =m2c m
t = (1. 3. )t i 
1 1 
b =  ..  hi ⇒ 19cm ≤ b ≤ 31cm 
3 5  ⇒ b = 25cm
b ≤ 30 ⋅ t = 60cm 

ti ⋅ hi3  b ⋅t3  hi + t  
2

I y = I i + 2 ⋅ It = + 2⋅ + b ⋅t ⋅  
12  12  2  

1 ⋅1003  25 ⋅ 23  100 + 2  
2

Iy = + 2⋅ + 25 ⋅ 2 ⋅    = 343466.63cm
4

12  12  2  

Iy Iy 343466.63
Wy ,ef = = = = 6605.12cm3
zmax hi 50 + 2
+t
2
M max 13933305
Wnec ≥ = = 6333.32cm3 ⇒ Wnec ≤W y ,ef
R 2200

• Verificarea secţiunii adoptate:

c
M max = 13933305daNcm
0 = 55564.47 daN
c
Vmax
13 | P a g e

 M m ax
 m ax W ≤ R
σ =
 y

 Vm ax ⋅ S y
τ
 m ax = ≤ Rf
 d ⋅ I y

 σ ec h = σ x + 3 ⋅ τ x ≤ 1.1⋅ R
2 2


13933305
- σ max = = 2109.47 daN / cm 2 < R = 2200daN / cm2
6605.12
55564.47 ⋅ 3494
- τ max = = 565.24daN / cm 2 < R f = 1410daN / cm2
1 ⋅ 343466.6
h +t h h 100 + 2 100 100
S 1/y 2 = b ⋅ t ⋅ i + ti ⋅ i ⋅ i = 25 ⋅ 2 ⋅ + 1⋅ ⋅ = 3494cm3
2 2 4 2 2 4
M x hi Vx ⋅ S y
σx = ⋅ ; τx =
Iy 2 d ⋅Iy
L
x= = 416.66cm
3
x2
M x = RV 0 ⋅ x − qGP
c
⋅ − S c ⋅ (3 ⋅ x − 562.5) = 13670611.21daNcm
2
Vx = RV 0 − qGPc
⋅ x − 3 ⋅ S c = 13961.43daN
13670611.21 100
σx = ⋅ = 1990.09daN / cm2
343466.6 2
13961 ⋅ 3494
τx = = 142.02daN / cm 2
1 ⋅ 343466.6
- σ ech = 1990.092 + 3 ⋅142.022 = 2005.23daN / cm2 < R = 2200daN / cm2

4. Calculul ginzii principale în varianta secţiune variabilă (variaţia


grosimii tălpilor):

• Variaţia secţiunii în lungul grinzii (variaţia grosimii tălpilor);


14 | P a g e

t = 20 mm
t1 = t − 4 = 20 − 4 = 16 mm
Pentru evaluarea zonelor de variaţie a secţiunii se foloseşte metoda
momentului capabil
M ef ( x ) = M cap ( x )
n
qech ⋅ L2 8 ⋅ M max
n
8 ⋅11655000
n
M max = ⇒ qech
n
= 2
= = 59.67 daN / cm
8 L 12502
q c ⋅ L2 8 ⋅ M max
c
8 ⋅13933305
c
M max = ech ⇒ qech
c
= 2
= = 71.33daN / cm
8 L 12502
I1−1 = 343466cm 4  W1−1 = 6605.12cm3
⇒
I 2−2 = 289801.5cm4  W2−2 = 5616.3cm3
 qech
c
⋅L qc ⋅ x 2
 ⋅ x1 − ech 1 = W ⋅ R
 2 2
I = 343466.63cm 4 } ⇒ { W = 6605.12cm3
 71.33 ⋅1250 71.33 ⋅ x 2  x t = 380.192cm
 ⋅ x − = 5616.3 ⋅ 2100 ⇒  t
 2 2  x ' = 869.8cm
b
x P = xt − = 380.192 − 10 = 370cm ⇒ 350cm
2
b
x 'P = x 't + = 869.8 + 10 = 879.8cm ⇒ 850cm
2
• Calculul îmbinării sudate de uzină a tălpilor:
15 | P a g e

c
qech ⋅ L P qechc
⋅ x1P 2 71.33 ⋅1250 71.33 ⋅ 5502
M x P = M x 'P = ⋅ x1 − = ⋅ 550 − = 13731025daNcm
1 1
2 2 2 2
M xP = M t
x1P
+ M xi P
1 1

I yt 130066.66
M xt P = ⋅ M xP = ⋅13731025 = 5199773.14daNcm
1
Iy 1
343466.63
M xt P 5199773
Nt = 1
= = 51178.86daN
ht 101.6
Nt Nt 
σs = =
As as ⋅ ( b − 2 ⋅ as )  ⇒ σ s =
51178.86
= 1467.28daN / cm 2 < Ri s = R
 1.6 ⋅ ( 25 − 2 ⋅1.6 )
as = t1 

• Verificarea tensiunilor echivalente:


σ ech = σ x2 + 3 ⋅τ x2 ≤ 1.1 ⋅ R
x = x t = 380cm
c
qech ⋅ L P qech c
⋅ x1P 2 71.33 ⋅1250 71.33 ⋅ 5502
M x P = M x 'P = ⋅ x1 − = ⋅ 550 − = 13731025daNcm
1 1
2 2 2 2
qc ⋅ L 71.33 ⋅1250
Vx P = ech − qech
c
⋅ x1P = − 71.33 ⋅ 550 = 5349.75daN
1
2 2
13731025 1783.25 ⋅ 2032
σx = = 2078.84daN / cm 2 τ x = = 37.51daN / cm 2
6605.12 1⋅ 289801.5

σ ech = 2078.842 + 3 ⋅ 37.512 = 2079.85daN / cm2 < 1.1 ⋅ R

5. Verificarea rigidităţii ginzii principale printr-o metodă exactă


(Metoda integrării ecuaţiei dformatei):

f max ≤ f a
L 1250
fa = = = 3.12cm
400 400

d 2z M ( x)
=−
dx 2
E ⋅I y
n
qech ⋅L qn ⋅ x2
M ( x) = ⋅ x − ech
2 2
d 2z n
qech ⋅L n
qech ⋅ x2
E ⋅ Iy ⋅ 2 = − ⋅x+
dx 2 2
16 | P a g e

 d z1 qenc h⋅ L 2 qen c h⋅ x13


 E ⋅ I y1 ⋅ = − ⋅ x1 + + C1
 d x1 4 6

 qen c h⋅ L 3 qen c h⋅ x14
 E ⋅ I y1 ⋅ z1 = − 1 2 ⋅ x1 + 2 4 + C1 ⋅ x1 + D1
 d z2 qen c h⋅ L 2 qen c h⋅ x23
 E ⋅ I y2 ⋅ = − ⋅ x2 + + C2
 d x2 4 6

 qen c h⋅ L 3 qen c h⋅ x24
 E ⋅ I y 2 ⋅ z2 = − 1 2 ⋅ x2 + 2 4 + C2 ⋅ x2 + D2

x1 = 0 ⇒ z1 = 0 ⇒ D1 = 0

 d 1 z d 2z
 E ⋅ I y1 ⋅ d x= E ⋅ I y2 ⋅ d x
x1 = x2 ⇒  1 2
 E⋅ I ⋅ z = E⋅ I ⋅ z
 y1 1 y2 2
d2 z
L  =0
x2 = ⇒  d 2 x
2
 z = fm a x
3
L
2
n
qech ⋅ 
L dz q ⋅L  L
n
 2  +C = 0
x2 = ⇒ 2 = 0 ⇒ − ech ⋅   + 2
2 dx2 4 2 6
n
qech ⋅ L3 qech n
⋅ L3 qech
n
⋅ L3
⇒ C2 = − =
16 48 24
dz I y 2 dz 2 I y2 I y 2 qech
n
⋅ L3
x1 = x2 ⇒ 1 = ⋅ ⇒ C1 = ⋅ C2 = ⋅
dx1 I y1 dx2 I y1 I y1 24
17 | P a g e

I y2
x1 = x2 = x1P ⇒ E ⋅ I y1 ⋅ z1 = E ⋅ I y 2 ⋅ z 2 ⇒ z1 = ⋅ z2
I y1
I y 2 qech
n
⋅ L3 q n ⋅ L3 q n ⋅ L3 P  I y 2 
⇒ D2 = ⋅ ⋅ x1 − ech ⋅ x2 = ech ⋅ x1 ⋅ − 1
I y1 24 24 24  
 I y1 
1  q n ⋅ L 3 q n ⋅ x 4 q n ⋅ L3 n
qech ⋅ L3 P  I y 2  
z2 = 
⋅ − ech
⋅ x2 + ech 2
+ ech
⋅ x2 + ⋅ x1 ⋅ −1
E ⋅ I y2  12 24 24 24 I 
  y1  
1  qech  L  qech ⋅ L L qech ⋅ L P  I y 2  
3 4
L n
⋅ L  L  qech n n 3 n 3
x2 = ⇒ f max = ⋅ − ⋅  + ⋅  + ⋅ + ⋅ x1 ⋅ −1
2 E ⋅ I y 2  12  2  24  2  24 2 24 I 
 y1  
1  q n ⋅ L4 q n ⋅ L4 q n ⋅ L4 q n ⋅ L3 P  I y 2 
f max = ⋅  − ech + ech + ech + ech ⋅ x1 ⋅  − 1 
E ⋅ I y 2  96 384 48 24 I 
 y1 
1  5 ⋅ q n ⋅ L4 q n ⋅ L3 P  I y 2 
f max = ⋅ ech
+ ech ⋅ x1 ⋅  − 1 
E ⋅ I y2  384 24 I 
  y1 
1  5⋅ 59.67 ⋅ 1250 59.67 ⋅12503
4
 343466  
f max = ⋅ + 350⋅  ⋅ 1− = cm a f≤
3.06
2.1⋅ 10 ⋅ 343466 
6
384 24  289801.5  

6. Verificarea stabilităţii ginzii principale:

• Verificarea stabilităţii generale a grinzii principale

Dacă l1 ≤ 40 ⋅ i z , atunci stabilitatea generală a grinzii principale este


asigurată şi nu se mai face verificare de stabilitate.
Iz
iz = ; l1 = a = 125 cm ;
A
t ⋅ b3 2 ⋅253
Iz = = =2604.16 cm4
12 12
A = b ⋅ t = 25 ⋅2 =50 cm2
2604.16
iz = =7.21 cm
50
50 ⋅ iz = 50 ⋅ 7.21 = 360.84cm > l1 = 125cm ⇒ stabilitatea generală este asigurată.
18 | P a g e

M max
σ= ≤R
φg ⋅W y
φg - coeficient de siguranţă la instabilitate
l
φg ←  λtr = 1
a, b, c

iz ⋅ ξ
3
M M 
ξ = 1.75 −1.05 ⋅ 3 + 0.3 ⋅  3  ≤ 2.3
M4  M4 
3
12167911.41  12167911.41 
ξ = 1.75 − 1.05 ⋅ + 0.3 ⋅   = 1.033 < 2.3
13920121.4  13920121.4 
125
λtr = = 17.06 
a, b, c
→ φg = 0.927
7.21 ⋅ 1.033
13933305
σ= =1955.47daN / cm2 ≤R
0.927 ⋅ 6605.12

• Rigidizările inimii:
Rigidizările inimii sunt de doua tipuri:
- rigidizări curente;
- rigidizări de reazem;
Rigidizări curente:
h 100 
br ≥ i + 40 mm ⇒ br ≥ +4 =7.33 cm
30 30  ⇒ br =10 cm
br ≥ 10 ⋅ ti ⇒ br ≥10 ⋅1 =10 cm 

b 10 
tr ≥ r ⇒ br ≥ = 0.6 c7 m 
15 15  ⇒ tr = 0.8c m
tr ≥ 0.7 5⋅ ti ⇒ tr ≥ 0.7 5⋅ 1 = 0.7 c5 m
19 | P a g e

Rigidizări de reazem:

7.a. Verificarea rigidizării de reazem:

• Verificarea la flambaj
Vmax
σ= ≤R
ϕ ⋅ Am
Am = b'r ⋅t r +15ti2
lf hi
ϕ ←λ = = ≤ λa = 150
ix ix
Ix
ix =
Am
Am = 21 ⋅ 0.8 +15 ⋅12 = 31 .8cm 2
0.8 ⋅ 213 15 ⋅13
Ix = + = 360 .3cm 4
12 12
360 .3
ix = = 3.37 cm
31 .8
100
λ= = 29.67 < λa → ϕ =0.886
3.37
20 | P a g e

55564.47
σ= = 1972.13daN / cm 2 < R
0.886 ⋅ 31.8

• Verificarea la strivire
V
σ = max ≤ m ⋅R
Astr
Astr = b ' r ⋅ tr = 21 ⋅0.8 =16.8 cm2
55564.47
σ= =3307.4daN / cm2 <1.5 2350
⋅ =3525daN / cm2
16.8

• Verificarea sudurilor
Vmax
τ= ≤ R sf = 0.7 ⋅ R = 1645daN / cm 2
∑ as ⋅ l s
3mm ≤ as ≤ 0.7 ⋅ tmin
tmin = min(ti , tr ) = 0.8cm
ls = hi = 100cm
55564.47
τs = = 926.07 daN / cm 2 < Rfs
2 ⋅ 0.3 ⋅100

7.b. Verificarea satbilităţii locale a inimii si a tălpii comprimate


• Verificarea stabilităţii locale a inimii
hi 2100
> 110
ti R
100 2100
> 110 =107.47 ⇒Trebuie verificată stabilitatea inimii
1 2350

2 2
 σ  τ 
  +   ≤1
 σ cr   τ cr 
2 2
t   1 
σ cr = 7 ⋅  i  ⋅107 daN / mm 2 ⇒ σcr =7 ⋅  ⋅ 7 =7000daN / mm 2
10
 hi   100 
21 | P a g e

  0.95   ti 
2

τ cr =  1.25 + 2  ⋅  ⋅10 daN /cm
7 2

  α d  
 max(a , hi ) max(125,100) 125 
α = = = =
1.25 ⇒
 min(a , hi ) min(125,100) 100 
 d = max( a, ti ) =125 
 
 
2
 0.95   1  7
τ cr =  1.25 + ⋅
2    ⋅10 daN /cm =1189.12daN /cm
2 2

 1.25  125 

M hi
σ= ⋅
Iy 2
M1 + M 2
Dacă a ≤ hi ⇒ M =
2
Mi + M2
Dacă a > hi ⇒ M =
2

352.52
M i = RV 0 ⋅352.5 − q ⋅
c
GP −Sc 290
⋅ −Sc 165
⋅ −Sc 50

2
352.52
M i = 55564.47 ⋅352.5 −1.35 ⋅ −13680.18 ( ⋅ 290 +165 +50) =1259411
1.81 daNcm
2
12594111.81+ 13920121.4
M= =13257116.6 daNcm
2
13257116.6 100
σ= ⋅ =1929.9daN / cm2
343466 2
V ⋅ S yt
τ=
d ⋅Iy
Vi +V2
V =
2

12559.6 + 13933.3
V= = 13246.45daN
2
13245.45 ⋅ 2032
τ= = 78.36daN / cm 2
1 ⋅ 343466
2 2
 1929.9   78.36 
  +  = 0.283 < 1
 7000   1189.12 

• Verificarea stabilităţii tălpii comprimate:


22 | P a g e

b − ti 25 − 1
b' = = = 12cm
2 2
b' 12
≤ 15 ⇒ = 7.5 < 15 ⇒ Stabilitatea tăltii comprimate este asigurată.
t 1.6

8. Înnădirea de montaj cu eclise şi şuruburi de înaltă rezistenţă


pretensionate a grinzii principale:

L 1250 
x= = = 312cm 
4 4  ⇒ x = 375cm
x − mijlocul unui panou 

qc ⋅ x 2 1.35 ⋅ 3752
M x = RVc 0 ⋅ x − − S c ⋅ ( 62.5 + 187.5 + 312.5 ) = 55564.47 ⋅ 375 − − 13680.18 ⋅ 562.5
2 2
M x = 13046653.13daNcm
Vx = RVc 0 − q c ⋅ x − S c ⋅ 3 = 55564.47 − 1.35 ⋅ 375 − 13680.18 ⋅ 3 = 14017.68daN

i. Înnădirea inimii
Ii
Mi = M x ⋅
Ii + 2 It
ti ⋅ hi3 1 ⋅1003
Ii = = = 83333.33cm4
12 12
b⋅t 3
25 ⋅ 23
It = + At ⋅ zg2 = + 25 ⋅ 2 ⋅ 512 = 130066.6cm4
12 12
83333.33
M i = 13046653.13 ⋅ = 3165434daNcm
83333.33 + 2 ⋅130066.6

• Calculul ecliselor:
he < hi
te ≥ 0.5ti = 0.6mm
hi ⋅ ti 100 ⋅1
Ai = Ae ⇒ ti ⋅ hi = 2 ⋅ te ⋅ he ⇒ heV = = = 83.33 ⇒ heV = 84cm
2 ⋅ te 2 ⋅ 0.6
ti ⋅ hi2 te ⋅ he2 ti ⋅ hi2 1 ⋅100
Wi = We ⇒ = 2⋅ ⇒ he =
M
= = 91.28cm ⇒ heM = 92cm
6 6 2 ⋅ te 2 ⋅ 0.6
he = max ( heV , heM ) = heM 92cm

• Verificarea ecliselor:
23 | P a g e

Mi 3165434
σ= = = 1831daN / cm 2 < R
2 ⋅ We 2 ⋅ 846.4
0.6 ⋅ 92 2
We = = 846.4cm3
6
V 14017.68
τ= i = = 126.97 daN / cm 2 < R f
2 ⋅ Ae 2 ⋅ 55.2
Ae = 0.6 ⋅ 92 = 55.2cm2
σ ech = σ 2 + 3 ⋅τ 2 = 2056.872 + 3 ⋅126.972 = 2068.59daN / cm2 < 1.1 ⋅ R

• Verificarea şuruburilor
d = 5 ⋅ t min − 0.2cm = 5 ⋅ 0.6 − 0.2 =1.53 cm ⇒ M 16
be = 2 ⋅ d ⋅ 4 + 3 ⋅ d ⋅ 6 + 5mm = 8 ⋅16 +18 ⋅16 + 5 = 325 mm ⇒ be = 325 mm = 32 .5cm
be 33 
= = 16.5cm 
2 2  be he
he 92
⇒ < ⇒
2 3
ℜ= (N ) + (N )
M 2
0
V 2
≤ N cSIRP
= = 30.6cm 
3 3 

M i ⋅ z max
N 0M =
∑ zi2
Vi
NV =
n1 ⋅ n2

3165434 ⋅ 38.4
N 0M = = 8620daN
( 4.8 + 9.6 + 14.4 + 19.22 + 242 + 28.82 + 33.62 + 38.42 ) ⋅ 3
2 2 2

12559.6
NV = = 369.4daN
3 ⋅17
ℜ = 86202 + 369.42 = 8627.9daN
N cSIRP = nF ⋅ m ⋅ f ⋅ 0.8 ⋅ A0 ⋅ Rc
N cSIRP = 2 ⋅ 0.9 ⋅ 0.35 ⋅ 0.8 ⋅ 2.01 ⋅ 9000 = 9117 .36 daN
ℜ = 8627.9daN < N cSIRP = 9117.36daN
24 | P a g e

ii. Înnădirea tălpii


2 ⋅130066.6
M t = 13046653.13 ⋅ = 9881218.7 daNcm
83333.33 + 2 ⋅130066.6

• Calculul ecliselor:
b ⋅t
Ae = At ⇒ be ⋅ te = b ⋅ t ⇒ te =
be
be = bes + 2 ⋅ bei
bes = b = 20cm
b − ti − 2 ⋅ as 25 − 1 − 2 ⋅ 0.7
bei = = = 11.3cm ⇒ bei = 11cm
2 2
be = 25 + 2 ⋅11 = 47cm
25 ⋅ 2
te = = 1.06cm ⇒ te = 1.2cm
47

• Calculul îmbinării:
M t 9881218.7
Nt = = = 95011.7 daN
ht 104
Nt 95011.7
N cSIRP ⋅ n > Nt ⇒ n ≥ SIRP = = 12.44 ⇒ nŞIRP = 12
Nc 7636
le = 3 ⋅ d ⋅12 + 4 ⋅ 2 ⋅ d + 5mm = 3 ⋅16 ⋅12 + 4 ⋅ 2 ⋅16 + 5mm = 613mm ⇒ le = 62cm
25 | P a g e

9.a. Rezemarea grinzii secundare pe grinda principală

• a1 , l1
3mm ≤ a1 ≤ 0.7 ⋅ t min ⇒ a1 = 5mm = 0.5cm
l1 = br = 10cm
l1c = l1 − 2 ⋅ a1 = 10 − 2 ⋅ 0.5 = 9cm
V 13246.45
τ s1 = = = 1471daN / cm 2 < Rfs = 1645daN / cm2
2 ⋅ a1 ⋅ l1c
2 ⋅ 0.5 ⋅ 9
• a2 , l 2
Acţiuni: V , M = e ⋅V
2
e = br ⋅
3
3mm ≤ a2 ≤ 0.7 ⋅ t min ⇒ a2 = 5mm = 0.5cm
l2c = l2 − 2 ⋅ a2
l2 = 46 cm
l2c = 46 − 2 ⋅ 0.5 = 45 cm
26 | P a g e

M V ⋅e V ⋅ 2 ⋅ br 13246.45 ⋅ 2 ⋅10
τ sM2 = = = = = 65.41daN / cm 2
2 ⋅ Ws a ⋅l c2
a2 ⋅ l2
c2
0.5 ⋅ 452
2⋅ 2 2
6
V V 13246.45
τ sV2 = = = = 294.36daN / cm 2
2 ⋅ A2 2 ⋅ a2 ⋅ l2 2 ⋅ 0.5 ⋅ 45
c

(τ ) + (τ )
2 V 2
τr = M
s2 s2 ≤ Rsf

τ r = 65.412 + 294.362 = 301.54daN / cm2 < Rfs

9.b. Planşa grinzii principale

10. Dimensionarea stâlpului şi verificarea secţiunii:


27 | P a g e



 




 




l = H + hi − hGP = 4.5 + 0.75 − 0.915 = 4.335 m

− Lungimea de flambaj
l f = µ ⋅l

µ = µ1 ⋅ ∑N ⋅ I
≥ 0.7; µ1 = 2
N ∑I
4⋅N I
µy = 2 ⋅ ⋅ =1.15
N 12 ⋅ I
3⋅ N I
µz = 2 ⋅ ⋅ =1
N 12 ⋅ I
l fy =1.15 ⋅ 4.335 = 4.99 m
l fz =1 ⋅ 4.335 = 4.335 m

• Calculul încărcarii:
28 | P a g e

L 1 L L
n
Vmax = ( p n + gTGS ) ⋅ l ⋅ + ⋅ ⋅ gGS ⋅ l + gGP ⋅
2 2 a 2
gGP = A ⋅1 ⋅ γ = ( 100 ⋅1 + 2 ⋅ 20 ⋅ 2 ) ⋅ 7850 ⋅10 = 1.3daN / cm
−6

L 1 L L
c
Vmax = ( 1.5 ⋅ pn + 1.35 ⋅ gTGS ) ⋅ l ⋅ + ⋅ ⋅1.35 ⋅ gGS ⋅ l + 1.35 ⋅ gGP ⋅
2 2 a 2
1250 1 1250 1250
c
Vmax = ( 1.5 ⋅14 ⋅10−2 + 1.35 ⋅ 41 ⋅10−4 ) ⋅ 500 ⋅ + ⋅ ⋅1.35 ⋅ 31 ⋅10−2 ⋅ 550 + 1.35 ⋅1.3 ⋅ = 69518daN
2 2 125 2
L 1 L L
n
Vmin = gTGS ⋅ l ⋅ + ⋅ ⋅ gGS ⋅ l + gGP ⋅
2 2 a 2
gGP = A ⋅1 ⋅ γ = ( 85 ⋅1 + 2 ⋅ 20 ⋅ 2 ) ⋅ 7850 ⋅10−6 = 1.3daN / cm
L 1 L L
c
Vmin = 1.1 ⋅ gTGS ⋅ l ⋅ + ⋅ ⋅1.1⋅ gGS ⋅ l + 1.1 ⋅ gGP ⋅
2 2 a 2
1250 1 1250 1250
c
Vmin = 1.35 ⋅ 41 ⋅10−4 ⋅ 500 ⋅ + ⋅ ⋅1.35 ⋅ 31⋅10−2 ⋅ 500 + 1.35 ⋅1.3 ⋅ = 3872.8daN
2 2 125 2

• Eforturi:
 N max
n
= 2·Vmax ·1.05 = 2·69518·1.05 = 145987.8daN
Ipoteza 1: 
 M c = 0

 N c = (Vmax + Vmin )·1.05 = (69518 + 3872.8)·1.05 = 77060.34daN

Ipoteza 2:  M max = (Vmax − Vmin )·e·1.05
 10 + 8
e = = 9mm ⇒ M max = (69518 − 3872.8)·0.9 = 59080.6daNcm
 2

• Dimensionarea secţiunii stâlpului:


M c = 0; N max = 145987.8daN ;
 l fy l fz
 hnec ≥ ; bnec ≥ ;
  λy ⋅ α y λz ⋅ α z
λy = 80 ; => ϕ =0.694 ;
  l fy 499
hnec ≥ = =16 .41cm ;

λy ⋅αy 80 ·0.38
N 145987.8
  Anec = max = = 95.61cm2 ;
 ϕ ⋅ R 0.694 ⋅ 2200

i y = 9.9cm
⇒ 2U 26 ( UNP 260 ) cu Aef = 2 ⋅ 48.3 = 96.6cm 2 ⇒ 
iz = 2.56cm
l 499
λ y = fy = = 50.4 ⇒ ϕ y = 0.790
iy 9.9
29 | P a g e

N max 145987.8
σ= = = 1912.9daN / cm 2 < R
ϕ y ⋅ A 0.790 ⋅ 96.6
Distanţa dintre profile se determină cu condiţia λy = λtr ;
Dimensiunile geometrice ale plăcuţelor se stabilesc astfel încat sa fie
îndeplinita condiţia:
I p ⋅ l1
 ≥ 5;
I z1 ⋅ 2c
 
λy = λtr ;

    λtr = λ2z + λ2z1 ;


i z = i z1 + c 2
 
 l1 40iz1
 λz 1 = = = 40
i z1 i z1
l fz
λz =
iz1 + c 2

l fy 499
λy = = = 50.4
iy 9.9
2
 l fz  l fz2 lfz2
50.4 =   + 40 ⇒ 50.4 =
2
+ 40 ⇒ 50.4 =
2 2
+ 402
 i + c2  iz 1 + c 2
iz1 + c 2
 z1 

433.52 433.52 433.52


⇒ = 50.4 2
− 40 2
⇒ 2.56 + c 2
= ⇒ c = − 2.56 = 14.04cm
2.56 + c 2 50.42 − 402 50.42 − 402
b = 2 ⋅ c + 2 ⋅ e = 2 ⋅ 7.15 + 2 ⋅ 2.36 = 32.81cm
b − 2 ⋅ e 30 − 2 ⋅ 2.36
b ≥ 12 + 2bt = 12 + 2·9 = 30cm ⇒ c = = = 12.64cm
2 2

λtr = λ2z + λ2z1


λz1 = 40
l fz 433.5
λz = = = 34.05
i z1 + c 2
2.36 + 12.642
λtr = 34.052 + 402 = 52.53

• Verificarea secţiunii stâlpului:

a) Verificarea la compresiune axială


30 | P a g e

A = 2 ⋅ 48.3 = 96.6cm 2
i y = 9.9cm; iz 1 = 2.36cm
I z = 2 ⋅ ( 317 + 48.3 ⋅ 6.642 ) = 4893.05cm4
Iz 4893.05
iz = = = 7.11cm
A 96.6
I 4893.05
Wz = z = = 376.388cm3
ymax 13
l 499
λ y = fy = = 50.4
iy 9.9
l fz 433.5
λz = = = 60.97
iz 7.11
l1 95
λ1 = = = 40.25
iz1 2.36
λtr = 73.05
λmax = max ( λ y , λtr ) = 73.05
N max 145987.8
σ= = = 2146.67 daN / cm 2 < R
ϕ y ⋅ A 0.704 ⋅ 96.6
Distanaţele între plăcuţtlt de solidarizare:
l1 = 40 ⋅ iz1 = 40 ⋅ 2.36 = 94.4cm ⇒ 95cm
b) Verificarea la compresiune cu încavoiere:
M max = 59080.6daNcm
N = 77060.34daN
Nc c z ·M max
Nc 77060.34 σ= + ≤R
= = 1133.13daN / cm > 0.15R ⇒
2
ϕmin ⋅ Aef ϕ (1 − σ ) ⋅W
ϕmin ⋅ Aef 0.704·96.6 g
σ cr z

 M2  M  0  0
cz = 0.3 1 + 12  + 0.4 2 = 0.3 1 + 2  + 0.4 = 0.55
 M2  M1  59080.6  59080.6
ϕg =1
N c 77060.34
σ= = = 797.72daN / cm 2 - efortul unitar dat de forta de compresiune a
Aef 96.6
stalpului;
π 2 ·E
σ cr = 2 - efortul unitar critic, corespunzator axei z-z , in jurul careia se
λz
π 2 ·E 3.142 ·2.1·106
produce incovoierea; σ cr = = = 5569.88daN / cm 2
λz 2
60.97 2
31 | P a g e

Nc cz ·M max 77060.34 0.55 ⋅ 59080.6


σ= + = + = 1233.99daN / cm 2 < R
ϕmin ⋅ Aef  σ  0.704 ⋅ 96.6  797.72 
ϕ g 1 −  ⋅ Wz 1 ⋅ 1 −  ⋅ 376.38
 σ cr   5569.88 

c)Verificarea ramurii mai comprimate:

N max 145987.8
N1 = = = 72993.9daN
2 2
N M 77060.34 59080.6
N1' = c + max = + = 40867.21daN
2 2⋅c 2 2 ⋅12.64
l 499
λ y1 = fy = = 50.4
i y1 9.9
l1 80
λz1 = = = 40.25
iz1 2.32
λmax = max ( λ y1 , λz1 ) = 50.4 ⇒ ϕ = 0.790
N1 72993.9
σ= = = 1912.98daN / cm 2 < R
ϕ ⋅ Aef 0.790 ⋅ 48.3

 

  

 

 

 






 
 
  


11. Calculul elementelor de solidarizare şi prinderea lor de ramurele


stâlpului:

V =Vs +Vc

Vs = 0

• Forţa tăietoare convenţionala:


32 | P a g e

Vc = 0.012 ⋅ A ⋅ R = 0.012 ⋅ 96.6 ⋅ 2200 = 2550.2daN

V = Vc = 2550daN
V 2550
V1 = = = 1275.12daN
2 2
• Eforturile sectionale in placute:
V ⋅ l1 2550 ⋅ 95
V pl = = = 9582.67daN
2 ⋅ c 2 ⋅12.64
l1 V ⋅ l1 2550 ⋅ 95
M pl = Vpl ⋅ c = V ⋅ ⋅c = = = 60562.5daNcm;
4c 4 4
• Dimensionarea plăcuţelor:
V pl 
τ = 1.5 ⋅ ≤ Rf  V pl 9582.67
Apl  ⇒ hpl = 1.5 ⋅ = 1.5 ⋅ = 3.26 ⇒ hVpl = 4cm
V

t pl ⋅ R f 1 ⋅ 2 ⋅ 2200
t pl = 6 ÷ 20mm 

M pl 6 ⋅ M pl 6 ⋅ 60562.5
σ= ≤ R ⇒ hplM = = = 9.08cm ⇒ hplM = 10cm
W pl t pl ⋅ R 2 ⋅ 2200

• Verificarea plăcuţelor:
M 60562.5
σ = pl = = 1819daN / cm 2 < R
W pl 33.3
t pl ⋅ hpl2
2 ⋅102
W pl = = = 33.3cm3
6 6
V 9582.67
τ = 1.5 ⋅ pl = 1.5 ⋅ = 719daN / cm 2 < R f = 1410daN / cm2
Apl 10 ⋅ 2
σ ech = σ 2 + 3 ⋅τ 2 = 18192 + 3 ⋅ 7192 = 2204.5daN / cm2 < 1.1 ⋅ R = 2420daN / cm2

• Calculul cordoanelor de sudură pentru prinderea plăcuţelor de ramurile


stâlpului:

3mm ≤ as ≤ 0.7t min

0.7 ⋅ tmin = 0.7 min ( t pl , ttalpa ) = 0.7 min ( 2;10 ) = 7 mm ⇒ as = 7mm ;


ls = h pl − 2 ⋅ as =100 − 2 ⋅ 7 = 86 mm


M pl 60562.5 ⋅ 6
τ sM = = = 7018.75daN / cm 2
Ws 0.7 ⋅ 8.62
33 | P a g e

V pl 9582.67
τ sV = = = 1591.8daN / cm 2
a s ⋅ ls 0.7 ⋅ 8.6

(τ ) + (τ )
2 2
τ rez = M
s
V
s = 7018.752 + 1591.82 = 7196.9daN / cm2 > Rfs = 1410daN / cm2
Deoarece nu se verifică rezistenţa în sudură, se vor lungi cordoanele de
sudură şi pe părţile laterale a plăcuţei:
as = 10mm

ls1 = 90mm
ls = h + 2·ls1 − 2 ⋅ as = 100 + 180 − 2 ⋅10 = 260mm
   yGs =
∑A ⋅ysi Gi
=
10 ⋅100 ⋅ 32.5
= 14.77mm
∑A


si 10 ⋅100 + 2 ⋅10 ⋅ 60
   As = ls ⋅ as = 26 ⋅1 = 26cm 2
 Iy =
1 ⋅103  6 ⋅13
+ 10 ⋅1 ⋅1.702 + 2 ⋅ 

+ 6 ⋅1 ⋅1.5482  = 141.98cm4
12  12 
13 ⋅10  63 ⋅1 
Ix = + 2⋅ + 6 ⋅1 ⋅ 5.752  = 433.58cm4
12  12 
rmax = 45.482 + 502 = 67.6mm = 6.76cm
M 60562.5
τ sMmax = pl ⋅ rmax = ⋅ 6.76 = 711.31daN / cm 2
I Gs 141.98 + 433.58
V 9582.67
τ sV = pl = = 368.5daN / cm 2
As 26

(τ ) + (τ )
2 2
τ rez = M
s
V
s = 711.312 + 368.52 = 801.12daN / cm2 < Rfs = 1410daN / cm2

12. Capitelul şi baza stâlpului


A. Capitelul stâlpului:
34 | P a g e

 




  

    
    

   
 


    

    

a1 , l1
3mm ≤ a1 ≤ 0.7 ⋅ t min
t min = min (10 ;15 ) ⇒ a1 = 5mm

260 − 10
br1 = =125 mm
2
br 2 = 720 − 2 ⋅0.8 =718.4 mm
l1 = 2 ⋅( br 2 −2 ⋅a1) +4 ( ⋅ br 1 −2 a⋅1 30
−) 2(= 718.4
⋅ 2) −5 ⋅ ( 4 + 125
⋅ 2 −5 ) 30
⋅ − 1756.8
= mm 175.68
= cm
2 ⋅ Vmax 2·69518
τs = = = 1582.8daN / cm 2 > Rf = 1410daN / cm2 ⇒ se frezează marginile
a1 ·l1 0.5·175.68
diafragmelor.
2 ⋅ Vmax ⋅ 0.40 2 ⋅ 69518 ⋅ 0.40
⇒τ = = = 633.2daN / cm 2 < R f = 1410daN / cm2
a1 ⋅ l1 0.5 ⋅175.68
2 ⋅ Vmax ⋅ 0.60 2 ⋅ 69518 ⋅ 0.60
σ= = = 1947.28daN / cm 2 < R = 2350daN / cm2
Ad 1 + Ad 2 30.84 ⋅1 + 2 ⋅ 6 ⋅1
a2 , l 2
3mm ≤ a2 ≤ 0.7 ⋅ t min
t min = min (10 ;15 ) ⇒ a2 = 5mm

2 ⋅ Vmax 2 ⋅Vmax 2 ⋅ 69518


τ s = 1.5 ⋅ ≤ R fs ⇒ l2 ≥ 1.5 ⋅ ⇒ l2 ≥ 1.5 ⋅ = 42.26cm
4 ⋅ a2 ⋅ l2 4 ⋅ a2 ⋅ R f
s
4 ⋅ 0.5 ⋅1645
hdiaf ≥ l2 + 2 ⋅ as 2 = 42.26 + 2 ⋅ 0.5 = 43.26cm ⇒ hdiaf = 50cm
35 | P a g e

Dimensiunile diafragmei 1 : 500 × 258 ×10mm


Dimensiunile diafragmei 2 : 300 ×85 ×10 mm
Dimensiunile plăcii 1: 300 × 250 ×15 mm

• Verificarea diafragmei d1 la forfecare:


V 69518
τ = max = = 1390.36daN / cm 2 < R f = 1410daN / cm2
hd ·td 50 ⋅1

• Verificarea diafragmei d1 la încovoiere:

2 ⋅Vmax ⋅ 2 ⋅ c 2 ⋅ 69518 ⋅ 2 ⋅12.64


M max = = = 878707.52daNcm
4 4
M 6 ⋅ 878707.52
σ = max = = 2108.8daN / cm 2 < R = 2200daN / cm2
Wd 1 ⋅ 502

B. Baza stâlpului:

 

 
 

  




  



   


RB = 70 daN / cm 2 ( C12 .5 / 15 )

 Nm a x
 σ 1 = A ⋅ B
σ B⇒ 
 σ = Nc ± 6 ⋅ M m a ≤x R
 1,2 A ⋅ B A2 ⋅ B b
36 | P a g e

N max 145987.8
Abaza ≥ = = 2085.5cm 2 ;
RB 70
B ≥ hU 26 + 2 ⋅ c 

c = ( 3 ÷ 4 ) ⋅ t p = 90mm  ⇒ B = 26 + 2 ⋅ 9 = 44cm

t p = 20 ÷ 40mm = 30mm 
N 145987.8
A ≥ max = = 47.39cm ⇒ A = 50cm
B ⋅ Rb 44 ⋅ 70
1 A 50
≤ = = 1.13 ≤ 1.5
1.5 B 44

• Verificarea presiunilor efective pe beton:


N 145987.8
σ = max = = 66.35daN / cm 2 < RB = 70daN / cm2
A⋅ B 50 ⋅ 44
N c 6·M max
σ 1, 2 = ± 2 ≤ RB = 70daN / cm2
A⋅ B A ·B
77060.34 6 ⋅ 59080.6
σ1 = + = 38.25daN / cm2 < RB = 70daN / cm2
50 ⋅ 44 502 ⋅ 44
77060.34 6 ⋅ 59080.6
σ2 = − = 35.02daN / cm 2 < RB = 70daN / cm2
50 ⋅ 44 50 ⋅ 44
2

• Determinarea grosimii plăcii de bază:

Placa 1
50
= 5.55 > 2 ⇒ calculul se face pe direcţia scurtă
9
c 9
1
M max = σ b ⋅ c1 ⋅ 1 = 66.35 ⋅ 9 ⋅ = 2687.17 daNcm
2 2
Placa 3
l1 7
= = 0.38 ⇒ α = 0.06
l2 18
3
M max = σ b ⋅1⋅ l12 ⋅ α = 66.35 ⋅1 ⋅ 72 ⋅ 0.06 = 195.06daNcm
Placa 4
l1 26
= = 1.4 ⇒ α = α max = max ( 0.05;0.075 ) = 0.075
l2 18
4
M max = σ b ⋅1⋅ l22 ⋅ α = 66.35 ⋅1 ⋅ 262 ⋅ 0.075 = 3363.9daNcm
M max = max ( M max
1 3
; M max 4
; M max ) = Mmax
3

6 ⋅ M max 6 ⋅ M max 6 ⋅ 3363.9


σ= ≤ R ⇒ tp ≥ = = 3.02cm ⇒ tp = 3cm
1⋅ t p
2
R 2350

• Calculul traverselor:
37 | P a g e

tt =10 mm
m B 9 44
Mt = σb ⋅ m ⋅ ⋅ = 70 ⋅ 9 ⋅ ⋅ = 62370daNcm
2 2 2 2
B 44
Vt = σ b ⋅ m ⋅ = 70 ⋅ 9 ⋅ = 13860daN
2 2
6⋅ M 6 ⋅ Mt 6 ⋅ 62370 
σ = 2 t ≤ R ⇒ htM ≥ = = 13.04cm 
ht ⋅ tt tt ⋅ R 1 ⋅ 2200 
 ⇒ ht = 15cm
Vt Vt 13860
τ = 1.5 ⋅ => ht ≥ 1.5 ⋅
V
= 1.5 ⋅ = 14.74cm 
ht ⋅ tt R f ⋅ tt 1410 ⋅1 

• Calculul sudurii:
N max = max ( N1 ; N '1 ) = 72993.9daN
a1 , l1
3mm ≤ a1 ≤ 0.7 ⋅ t min
a1 = 3mm
l1 = ht − 2 ⋅ a1 = 15 − 2 ⋅ 0.3 = 14 .4cm

N max 72993.9
τs = ≤ R sf ⇒ τ s = = 2112.09daN / cm 2> 0.7⋅ R= 1540daN / cm 2
8 ⋅ a1 ⋅ l1 8⋅ 0.3⋅ 14.4
a2 , l 2
3mm ≤ a2 ≤ 0.7 ⋅ t min
a2 = 3mm

N max
τs = ≤ R fs
a2 ⋅ ∑ l2
∑l 2 = 2 ⋅ A + 2 ⋅ 26 + 4 ⋅ 7 − 2 ⋅ 6 ⋅ 0.7 = 2 ⋅ 50 + 2 ⋅ 26 + 4 ⋅ 7 − 2 ⋅ 6 ⋅ 0.3 = 176.4cm
72993.9
τs = = 1379.3daN / cm 2 < 0.7 ⋅ R = 1540daN / cm2
0.3 ⋅176.4

• Ancorarea stâlpului în fundaţie:


Deoarece sub placa de bază există numai eforturi de compresiune, stâlpul
se va ancora în fundaţie constructiv cu şuruburi de ancoraj M 20 .
Lungimea de ancoraj necesară este l = 44 ⋅ d = 44 ⋅ 20 = 880mm . Lungimea tijei
şurubului, inclusiv ciovul, este de 900mm.