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1.1 Introduction 1
1.2Motivation 1
1.3 Previous Work 2
1.4 Outline of the Present Work 4
1.5 Conclusion 4

 
Ê   
  
2.1 Introduction 5
2.2 Motor selection procedure 5
2.3 Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor Drive System 6
2.3.1 Operation 7
2.4 Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor 7
2.4.1 Permanent Magnet Materials 8
2.4.2 Classification of Permanent Magnet Motors 8
2.4.2.1 Direction of field flux 8
2.4.2.2 Flux density distribution 8
2.4.2.3 Permanent magnet radial field motors 9

2.4.3 Advantages of PMSM 10


2.4.4 Applications of PMSM 11
2.5 Position Sensor 11
2.5.1 Position Revolver 11

c
2.6 Current Controlled Inverter 12
2.6.1 Hysteresis current controller 13
2.6.2 PWM Current Controller 15
2.7 Conclusion 16


 
99   
  
3.1 Introduction 17
3.2. Dynamic d-q Model 17
3.3AxesTransformation 19
3.4 Synchronously Rotating Reference Frame²Dynamic Model (Kron -Equation) 22
3.5 PM Motor Control 26
3.6 Field Oriented Control of PM Motors 27
3.6.1 Constant torque operation 28
3.6.2 Flux-weakening 28
3.7conclusion 29

  
Ê   9  9 
4.1 Introduction 30
4.2. Advantages of MATLAB 30
4.3 WHAT IS SIMULINK? 31
4.3.1 Tool for Model-Based Design 31
4.3.2 Tool for Simulation 32
4.3.3 Tool for Analysis 32

4.4 About the Simple Model 32


4.5 Creating a Simple Model 33
4.6 Adding Blocks 35
4.7 Conclusion 36

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5.1 Introduction 37

5.2 Simulation Tools 37

©
5.3 Simulink Simulation of PMSM Drive 37
5.4 Speed Control of PM Motor 40
5.4.1 Implementation of the Speed Control Loop 41
5.5 Conclusion 43

^  9 9
6.1 Introduction 44
6.2 Simulation Results 44
6.3 Simulation for Operation at 200 rad/second 45
6.3.1Hysteresis Current Control 45
6.3.2PWM Current Control 47

6.4 Simulation for Operation at Higher Speed of 700 rad/sec 48


6.4.1Hysteresis Current Control 48
6.4.2PWM Current Control 49
6.5 Conclusion 52


Ê Ê9   53

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×

Ê

There are a variety of ac servo drives on the market competing with both the dc brush
machine and others ac servo drives. Two types of permanent-magnet ac motor drives are
available in the drives industry. These are the permanent-magnet synchronous-motor (PMSM)
drive with a sinusoidal flux distribution, and the brushless dc motor (BDCM) drive with a
trapezoidal flux distribution.

The application of vector control to the PMSM and complete modeling, simulation, and
analysis of the drive system are given. Performance differences due to the use of pulse width-
modulation (PWM) and hysteresis current controllers are also examined. Particular attention is
paid to the motor torque pulsations and speed response. Some experimental verification of the
drive performance is also given.

a
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9

Figure2.1 Motor selection procedure 6

Figure2.2 Drive System Schematic 6


Figure2.3. PM Synchronous Motor Cross Section 7
Figure2.4 Surface Permanent Magnet Motor 9
Figure2.5 Interior Permanent Magnet Motor 10

Figure2.6 Resolver 12

Figure2.7 Inverter circuit of PMSM 13

Figure2.8 Hysteresis current controller. 14

Figure2.9 PWM current controller 15


Figure3.1 Coupling effect in three-phase stator and rotor 18
windings of motor
Figure3.2 Equivalent two-phase machine 19
Figure3.3 Stationary frame a-b-c to ds-qs axes transformation 19
Figure3.4. Stationary frame ds -qs to synchronously rotating 21
frame de- qe transformation
Figure3.5 qe_axis circuit 24
e
Figure3.6 d axis circuit 24
Figure3.7 Steady State Torque versus Speed 26
Figure4.1 shows the simple model of the Simulink 33
Figure4.2 showing the Simulink library 33
Figure4.3 shows the commonly used blocks 34
Figure4.4 shows the untitled page of simulink 34
Figure4.5 shows the Simulink sources 35
Figure4.6 simulink library browser 36

½
Figure5.1 conversion of 3-phase variables into 2-phase variables 38

Figure5.2 conversion of 2-phase variables into 3-phase variables 38


Figure5.3 torque block 39
Figure5.4 speed block 39
Figure5.5 Hysteresis Current Controller 40
Figure5.6 PWM Current Controller 40
Figure5.7 System flow diagram 41
Figure.5.8 PI controller 42

Figure5.9 PM Motor Drive System in Simulink 43


Figure6.1 Iabc Currents with Hysteresis Control at 200 rad/s 45‘
Figure6.2 Developed Torque with Hysteresis Control at 200 rad/s 46
Figure6.3 Motor Electrical Speed with Hysteresis Control at 200 rad/s 46
Figure6.4 Iabc Currents with PWM Control at 200 rad/s 47

Figure6.5 Developed Torque with PWM Control at 200 rad/s 47

Figure6.6 Motor Electrical Speed with PWM Controller at 200 rad/sec 48


Figure6.7 Iabc Currents with Hysteresis Control at 700 rad/sec 48

Figure6.8 Developed Torque with Hysteresis Control at 700 rad/sec 49

Figure6.9 Motor Electrical Speed with Hysteresis Control at 700 rad/sec 49


Figure6.10 Iabc Current with PWM Control at 700 rad/sec 50
Figure6.11 Developed Torque with PWM Control at 700 rad/sec 50
Figure6.12 Motor Electrical Speed with PWM Control at 700 rad/sec 51
Figure6.13 inverter frequency Vs window size 51
Table6.1 interior permanent magnet motor parameters 44

^
 Ê9

PMSM Permanent magnet synchronous Motor

PM Permanent magnet

PWM Pulse Width Modulation

PI Proportional integral

IM Indution Motor

BDCM Brush less DC motor

B damping constant

J moment of Inertia

Te electric torque

Tl load torque

șr rotor angle

Ȧr rotor speed

P number of poles

R stator resistance

Ȝd,Ȝq stator d and q axis flux linkage

Ȝm air gap flux linkage

u
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‘
‘
‘
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‘

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‘

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Ê 

 
Ê m
This chapter discusses briefly about the motivation of work, previous work carried
out by different authors on modeling and simulation of PMSM drive and organization of thesis.
Permanent magnet (PM) synchronous motors are widely used in low and mid power
applications such as computer peripheral equipments, robotics, adjustable speed drives and
electric vehicles. The growth in the market of PM motor drives has demanded the need of
simulation tools capable of handling motor drive simulations.
Simulations have helped the process of developing new systems including motor
drives, by reducing cost and time. Simulation tools have the capabilities of performing dynamic
simulations of motor drives in a visual environment so as to facilitate the development of new
systems. In this work, the simulation of a field oriented controlled PM motor drive system is
developed using Simulink. The simulation circuit will include all realistic components of the
drive system.
A closed loop control system with a PI controller in the speed loop has been designed to
operate in constant torque and flux weakening regions. Implementation has been done in
Simulink. A comparative study of hysteresis and PWM control schemes associated with current
controllers has been made.

 
Modeling and simulation is usually used in designing PM drives compared to building
system prototypes because of the cost. Having selected all components, the simulation process
can start to calculate steady state and dynamic performance and losses that would have been
obtained if the drive were actually constructed. This practice reduces time, cost of building
prototypes and ensures that requirements are achieved.
A comparative study associated with hysteresis and PWM control techniques in current
controllers has been made. A speed controller has also been designed for closed loop operation
of the drive. Design method for the PI controller is also given.




Ñ
 
PM motor drives have been a topic of interest for the last twenty years. Different authors
have carried out modeling and simulation of such drives.
In 1986 Sebastian, T., Slemon, G. R. and Rahman, M. A. reviewed permanent magnet
synchronous motor advancements and presented equivalent electric circuit models for such
motors and compared computed parameters with measured parameters. Experimental results on
laboratory motors were also given.
In 1986 Jahns, T.M., Kliman, G.B. and Neumann, T.W. discussed that interior permanent
magnet (IPM) synchronous motors possessed special features for adjustable speed operation
which distinguished them from other classes of ac machines. They were robust high power
density machines capable of operating at high motor and inverter efficiencies over wide speed
ranges, including considerable range of constant power operation.
The magnet cost was minimized by the low magnet weight requirements of the IPM
design. The impact of the buried magnet configuration on the motor¶s electromagnetic
characteristics was discussed. The rotor magnetic saliency preferentially increased the
quadrature-axis inductance and introduced a reluctance torque term into the IPM motor¶s torque
equation. The electrical excitation requirements for the IPM synchronous motor were also
discussed. The control of the sinusoidal phase currents in magnitude and phase angle with
respect to the rotor orientation provided a means for achieving smooth responsive torque control.
A basic feed forward algorithm for executing this type of current vector torque control was
discussed, including the implications of current regulator saturation at high speeds. The key
results were illustrated using a combination of simulation and prototype IPM drive
measurements.
In 1988 Pillay and Krishnan, R. presented PM motor drives and classified them
into two types such as permanent magnet synchronous motor drives (PMSM) and brushless
dc motor (BDCM) drives. The PMSM has a sinusoidal back emf and requires sinusoidal stator
currents to produce constant torque while the BDCM has a trapezoidal back emf and requires
rectangular stator currents to produce constant torque.
The PMSM is very similar to the wound rotor synchronous machine except that the
PMSM that is used for servo applications tends not to have any damper windings and excitation
is provided by a permanent magnet instead of a field winding. Hence the d, q model of the

c
PMSM can be derived from the well known model of the synchronous machine with the
equations of the damper windings and field current dynamics removed. Equations of the PMSM
are derived in rotor reference frame and the equivalent circuit is presented without dampers. The
damper windings are not considered because the motor is designed to operate in a drive system
with field-oriented control. Because of the non sinusoidal variation of the mutual inductances
between the stator and rotor in the BDCM, it is also shown in this paper that no particular
advantage exists in transforming the abc equations of the BCDM to the d-q frame.
As an extension of his previous work, Pillay, P. and Krishnan, R. in 1989 presented the
permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) which was one of several types
of permanent magnet ac motor drives available in the drives industry. The motor had a sinusoidal
flux distribution. The application of vector control as well as complete modeling, simulation, and
analysis of the drive system were given. State space models of the motor and speed controller
and real time models of the inverter switches and vector controller were included. The machine
model was derived for the PMSM from the wound rotor synchronous motor. All the equations
were derived in rotor reference frame and the equivalent circuit was presented without dampers.
The damper windings were not considered because the motor was designed to operate in a drive
system with field-oriented control.
Performance differences due to the use of pulse width modulation (PWM) and hysteresis
current controllers were examined. Particular attention was paid to the motor torque pulsations
and speed response and experimental verification of the drive performance were given.
Bose, B. K., in 2001 presented different types of synchronous motors and compared them
to induction motors. The modeling of PM motor was derived from the model of salient pole
synchronous motor. All the equations were derived in synchronously rotating reference frame
and was presented in the matrix form.
The equivalent circuit was presented with damper windings and the permanent magnet
was represented as a constant current source. Some discussions on vector control using voltage
fed inverter were given.




cc
 
 
The thesis consists of 6 chapters.
Ê !  presents a theoretical review about motivation of PMSM and the previous
work carried out by different authors for modeling and simulation of PMSM drive.
Ê !  presents a theoretical review of permanent magnet motors drives which
includes permanent magnet materials, classification of the permanent magnet motors, position
sensors, inverters and current controllers.
Ê !  deals with the detailed modeling of PMSM, closed loop control techniques
used for PM motor drives, field oriented control of the motor in constant torque and flux-
weakening regions, and the design of speed control for PM motor.
Ê ! This chapter gives main idea about introduction to matlab,simulink,creating a
simple model and adding blocks to window.

Ê ! is dedicated to the simulation. It deals with the selection of the simulation tool
for dynamic simulation of motor drives. The real drive system is simulated using Simulink with
block by block explanation.
Ê ! ^ deals with the simulation results .A comparative study of PMW and
Hysteresis current controllers used with this drive system has been made in terms of total
harmonic distortion.


Ê"# 
This chapter discussed about PMSM, previous works carried out by different
authors on modeling and simulation of PMSM drive and organization of thesis.



 
Ê   
  
  $" 

This chapter gives main idea about the operation of PMSM drive, classification of PM
motors, advantages and applications of PM motor, operation of position sensor and operation of
two control techniques namely hysteresis and PWM current controllers.

  #"!"$

There are a variety of ac servo drives on the market competing with both the dc brush
machine and others ac servo drives. The selection process of a servo drive for a particular
application in the fractional to 30-hp range can be represented by the figure-2.1.

From the figure.2.1 it is clear that the first decision to be made is whether to use a dc
brush or a brushless servo. The reasons for choosing brushless servo motor drives over the brush
type dc motor drives are well known and include robustness, higher torque, speed bandwidths
and lower maintenance. The mechanical commutator and brushes of the dc motor also enforces
severe limitations on its maximum speed and over current capabilities.

Assuming that it has been decided to use a brushless servo motor drive, the next decision
to make is whether to use an ac or a switched reluctance motor. The switched reluctance motor is
inherently a pulsating torque machine, although some work has been done in an attempt to
reduce the torque ripple. Hence if a reasonable smooth output torque is required, an induction or
permanent magnet machine is to be preferred over the switched reluctance motor.

Depending on the application, a choice is made between an IM or ac PM motor drive if


the dc brush and switched reluctance servos are excluded. If the choice is narrowed to an ac
permanent magnet motor drive, then there are hardly any guidelines to differentiate the available
permanent magnet motor drives, namely, the PMSM drive and the BDCM drive.

ca
APPLICATIONS

DC BRUSH BRUSH LESS

AC MOTORS SWITCHED RELUCTANCE

PERMANENT MAGNET INDUCTION

PMSM BDCM


  #"!"$

   
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The motor drive consists of four main components, the PM motor, inverter, control unit
and the position sensor. The components are connected as shown in figure 2.2.

 
 
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   ! 
The operation of PMSM drive system is as follows. By using the inverter DC voltage is
converted into AC voltage of variable frequency and magnitude. The motor is fed from a voltage
source inverter with current control. The control is performed by regulating the flow of current
through the stator of motor. For the proper operation of PMSM we need position sensor in the
rotor shaft which measures the position of rotor. The rotor position feedback is necessary to
generate the reference currents. Now the controller compares reference currents with actual
currents which produces an error. This error is given to the gate signals of inverter due to which
input voltage is controlled. So by controlling the input voltage output can be controlled.
Descriptions of the different components used in drive system are as followsm

   
%"   
 
 A permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) is a motor that uses permanent
magnets to produce the air gap magnetic field rather than using electromagnets. These motors
have significant advantages, attracting the interest of researchers and industry for use in
many applications.
The PM synchronous motor is a rotating electric machine with classic 3-phase stator like
that of an induction motor; the rotor has surface-mounted permanent magnets. In this respect, the
PM synchronous motor is an equivalent to an induction motor, where the air gap magnetic field
is produced by a permanent magnet, so the rotor magnetic field is constant.
PM synchronous motors offer a number of advantages in designing modern motion-
control systems. The use of a permanent magnet to generate substantial air gap magnetic flux
makes it possible to design highly efficient PM motors.

‘
‘

   %"  Ê"‘

c^
    
 # 
The properties of the permanent magnet material will affect directly the performance of
the motor and proper knowledge is required for the selection of the materials and for
understanding PM motors. The earliest manufactured magnet materials were hardened steel.
Magnets made from steel were easily magnetized. However, they could hold very low energy
and it was easy to demagnetize.
In recent years other magnet materials such as Aluminum Nickel and Cobalt alloys
(ALNICO), Strontium Ferrite or Barium Ferrite (Ferrite), Samarium Cobalt (First generation
rare earth magnet) (SmCo) and Neodymium Iron-Boron (Second generation rare earth magnet)
(NdFeB) have been developed and used for making permanent magnets .The rare earth magnets
are categorized into two classesm Samarium Cobalt (SmCo)magnets and Neodymium Iron Boride
(NdFeB) magnets. SmCo magnets have higher flux density levels but they are very expensive.
NdFeB magnets are the most common rare earth magnets used in motors these days.

  Ê#"  
  

   
"#$#& 
PM motors are broadly classified by the direction of the field flux. The first field flux
classification is radial field motor meaning that the flux is along the radius of the motor. The
second is axial field motor meaning that the flux is perpendicular to the radius of the motor.
Radial field flux is most commonly used in motors and axial field flux have become a topic
of interest for study and used in a few applications.

    #&$%$'
PM motors are classified on the basis of the flux density distribution and the shape of
current excitation. They are PMSM and PM brushless motors (BLDC).
The PMSM has a sinusoidal-shaped back EMF and is designed to develop sinusoidal
back EMF waveforms. They have the followingm
1. Sinusoidal distribution of magnet flux in the air gap
2. Sinusoidal current waveforms
3. Sinusoidal distribution of stator conductors.

cu
BLDC has a trapezoidal-shaped back EMF and is designed to develop trapezoidal back
EMF waveforms. They have the followingm
1. Rectangular distribution of magnet flux in the air gap
2. Rectangular current waveform
3. Concentrated stator windings.

     
$##$ 
In PM motors, the magnets can be placed in two different ways on the rotor. Depending
on the placement they are called either as surface permanent magnet motor or interior permanent
magnet motor. Surface mounted PM motors have a surface mounted permanent magnet rotor.
Each of the PM is mounted on the surface of the rotor, making it easy to build, and specially
skewed poles are easily magnetized on this surface mounted type to minimize cogging
torque.This configuration is used for low speed applications because of the limitation that the
magnets will fly apart during high-speed operations. These motors are considered to have small
saliency, thus having practically equal inductances in both axes.
The permeability of the permanent magnet is almost that of the air, thus the magnetic
material becoming an extension of the air gap. For a surface permanent magnet motor 9 ‘ § 9‘
The rotor has an iron core that may be solid or may be made of punched laminations for


simplicity in manufacturing .Thin permanent magnets are mounted on the surface of this core
using adhesives. Alternating magnets of the opposite magnetization direction produce radially
directed flux density across the air gap. This flux density then reacts with currents in windings
placed in slots on the inner surface of the stator to produce torque. Figure 2.4 shows the
placement of the magnet.










 "  
 


Interior PM motors have interior mounted permanent magnet rotor as shown in figure 2.5. Each
permanent magnet is mounted inside the rotor. It is not as common as the surface mounted type
but it is a good candidate for high-speed operation. There is inductance variation for this type of
rotor because the permanent magnet part is equivalent to air in the magnetic circuit calculation.
These motors are considered to have saliency with q axis inductance greater than the d axis
inductance ( 9‘Õ 9 ‘).


    
 

  $
  
1.‘ The rare earth and neodymium boron PM machine has a lower inertia when compared
with an IM because of the absence of a rotor cage; this makes for a faster response for a
given electric torque. In other words,the torque to inertia ratio of these PM machines is
higher.
2.‘ The PM machine has a higher efficiency than an induction machine. This is primarily
because there are negligible rotor losses in permanent magnet machines ;the rotor losses
in the IM, however, can be considerable ,depending on the operating slip. This discussion
is applicable to constant flux operation.
3.‘ The IM requires a source of magnetizing current for excitation. The PM machine already
has the excitation in the form of the rotor magnet.
4.‘ The need for magnetizing current and the fact that the IM has a lower efficiency
necessitates a larger rated rectifier and inverter for the IM than for a PM machine of the
same output capacity.
5.‘ The PM machine is smaller in size than an induction motor of the same capacity. Hence,
it is advantageous to use PM machines, especially where space is a serious limitation.


6.‘ In addition, the permanent magnet machine weight less. In other words, the power
density of permanent magnet machines is higher.
7.‘ The rotor losses in a PM machine are negligible compared with those in the induction
motor. A problem that has been encountered in the machine tools industry is the
transferal of these rotor losses in the form of heat to the machine tools and work pieces
thus affecting the machining operation. This problem is avoided in permanent magnet
machines.

  !!#"  
PMSM is preferable for certain high performance applications like
1.‘ Spinning mills
2.‘ Robotics
3.‘ Aerospace actuators
4.‘ Electric vehicles
5.‘ Ship propulsion
6.‘ Cement mills

  
Operation of permanent magnet synchronous motors requires position sensors in the rotor
shaft when operated without damper winding. The need of knowing the rotor position requires
the development of devices for position measurement. There are four main devices for the
measurement of position, the potentiometer, linear variable differential transformer, optical
encoder and resolvers. The ones most commonly used for motors are encoders and revolvers.
Depending on the application and performance desired by the motor a position sensor with the
required accuracy can be selected.

  # 
Position revolver as shown in figure 2.6 also called rotary transformers, works on the
transformer principle. The primary winding is placed on the rotor and depending upon the
rotor shaft angle the induced voltage at the two secondary windings of the transformer shifted by
90° would be different. The position can be calculated using the two voltages. The resolver is

©
basically a rotary transformer with one rotating reference winding (Vref) and two stator windings.
The reference winding is fixed on the rotor, and therefore, it rotates jointly with the shaft passing
the output windings, as is depicted in figure 2.6. Two stator windings are placed in quadrature
(shifted by 90°) with one another and generate the sine and cosine voltages (Vsin , Vcos)
respectively. Both windings will be further referred to as output windings.
In consequence of the excitement applied on the reference winding Vref and along with the
angular movement of the motor shaft ș, the respective voltages are generated by resolver output
windings Vsin , Vcos.




   
  
 ^#


 ^ÊÊ##$  
The motor is fed form a voltage source inverter with current control. The control is
performed by regulating the flow of current through the stator of the motor. Current controllers
are used to generate gate signals for the inverter. Proper selection of the inverter devices and
selection of the control technique will guarantee the efficacy of the drive.
‘‘The power converter in a high-performance motor drive used in motion control
essentially functions as a power amplifier, reproducing the low power level control signals
generated in the field orientation controller at power levels appropriate for the driven machine.
High-performance drives utilize control strategies which develop command signals for the AC
machine currents. The basic reason for the selection of current as the controlled variable is the
same as for the DC machine; the stator dynamics (effects of stator resistance, stator inductance,
and induced EMF) are eliminated. Thus, to the extent that the current regulator functions as an

©c
ideal current supply, the order of the system under control is reduced and the complexity of the
controller can be significantly simplified.
Current regulators for AC drives are complex because an AC current regulator must
control both the amplitude and phase of the stator current.
The AC drive current regulator forms the inner loop of the overall motion controller. As
such, it must have the widest bandwidth in the system and must, by necessity, have zero or
nearly zero steady-state error.
Both current source inverters (CSI) and voltage source inverters (VSI) can be operated in
controlled current modes. The current source inverter is a "natural" current supply and can
readily be adapted to controlled current operation. The voltage source inverter requires more
complexity in the current regulator but offers much higher bandwidth and elimination of current
harmonics as compared to the CSI and is almost exclusively used for motion control
applications. Current controllers can be classified into two groups, hysteresis and PWM current
controllers. Both types are discussed below.

 ^ (%""## 
Hysteresis current controller can also be implemented to control the inverter currents.
The controller will generate the reference currents with the inverter within a range which is
fixed by the width of the band gap. In this controller the desired current of a given phase is
summed with the negative of the measured current. The error is fed to a comparator having a
hysteresis band. The power circuit that drives the PMSMis shown in Figure.2.7

 
  ) ""of  

©©
Whenever Y ‘ is ³on,´ "‘ increases positively using either the m‘ or ʑphases as a return path. As
soon as Y‘switches from an ³on´ to an ³off´ position, and since the current through the machine
winding cannot go to zero instantaneously, the freewheeling diode across its complementary
transistor, in this case Yü‘begins to conduct the phase V‘current. When this occurs, the voltage of
phase V‘switches from ´‘Ú ‘to ‘Ú ü‘where the midpoint of the dc supply ڑ ‘‘is taken as
the reference. The opposite occurs when Yswitches from ³on´ to ³off.´ A similar procedure
exists in the other phases. It is assumed that a reasonably well-filtered dc supply is available.The
six switches Tl-T6‘are used to control the‘three stator phase currents. The control strategy is as
follows. The actual values of " and " ‘that are flowing into the motor are measured. From this " ‘
can be constructed; this removes the need for an additional current sensor. The actual and
reference values are compared and error signals generated. In making the comparison between
the actual currents and the reference values, the scheme in Figure. 2.8is used.


  * (%""##

Fig. 2.8shows the reference value "ñ‘In addition, two other curves consisting of "‘´‘ "‘and "‘
‘ƒ"‘are shown. ƒ"‘defines the hysteresis bands. The hysteresis property allows the actual value of
"ü‘to exceed or be less than the reference value by ¨"ñ Note that complementary switching of the
power devices is considered undesirable and, therefore, is not used.
When the error crosses the lower limit of the hysteresis band, the upper switch of the
inverter leg is turned on. But when the current attempts to become less than the upper reference

©×
band, the bottom switch is turned on. This controller does not have a specific switching
frequency and changes continuously but it is related with the band width.
The reason that this is called a hysteresis controller is that the phase voltage switches to
keep the phase currents within the hysteresis bands. The phase currents are, therefore,
approximately sinusoidalm the smaller the hysteresis bands, the more closely do the phase
currents represent sine waves. Small hysteresis bands, however, imply a high switching
frequency, which is a practical limitation on the power device switching capability. Increased
switching also implies increased inverter losses.

 ^  ÊÊ##
 A second method used to generate the required stator currents is to use a pulse width-
modulated (PWM) current controller.PWM current controllers are widely used. The switching
frequency is usually kept constant. They are based in the principle of comparing a triangular
carrier wave of desire switching frequency and is compared with error of the controlled signal.
The error signal comes from the sum of the reference signal generated in the controller and the
negative of the actual motor current. The comparison will result in a voltage control signal that
goes to the gates of the voltage source inverter to generate the desire output. Its control will
respond according to the error.
If the error command is greater than the triangle waveform, the inverter leg is held
switched to the positive polarity (upper switch on). When the error command is less than the
triangle waveform, the inverter leg is switched to the negative polarity (lower switch on). This
will generate a PWM signal like in figure 2.9. The inverter leg is forced to switch at the
frequency of the triangle wave and produces an output voltage proportional to the current error
command. The nature of the controlled output current consists of a reproduction of the reference
current with high-frequency PWM ripple superimposed.



 + ""##

©a
Note that it is un necessary to use complementary switching to achieve this voltage
profile. For example, if Y‘is conducting, Ô ‘is equal to ´‘Ô‘ ‘ü‘where Vdcis the dc supply
voltage and the reference is taken as the midpoint of the supply. By switching Y‘ off, the
freewheeling diode across Y‘immediately starts conducting to maintain the current flow through
the motor inductance. This automatically forces ÚÀ ‘to equal to ‘Vdc,/2even though Y‘is
not yet conducting. This is called a PWM current controller because of the pulse width
modulation of the voltage.
The advantage of the PWM current controller over hysteresis that the switching
frequency is preset, and it is, therefore, easy to ensure that the inverter switching capability
is not exceeded.
In the hysteresis controller the switching frequency depends on the value of the hysteresis
window, and the actual switching frequency demanded from the inverter is unknown. A trial-
and-error procedure must be adopted to ensure that the inverter switching frequency is not
exceeded. The advantage of the hysteresis over the PWM controller is that, from a control point
of view, there is no transportation delay or system lag. In the PWM controller this does exist
with the average lag being equal to half the period of the PWM However, if this lag is less than
about one-tenth the stator time constant of the machine, it has a negligible effect on the drive
performance.

 )Ê"# 
This chapter discussed about the operation of PMSM drive, classification of PM motors,
advantages and applications of PM motor, operation of position sensor and operation of two
control techniques namely hysteresis and PWM current controllers.

©½
©^
 
99   
 

  $" 
This chapter gives main idea about the modelling of PMSM by which d-q
variables are obtained from abc variables through park transform and abc variables are obtained
from d-q variables through the inverse of park transform and also about the field oriented control
i.e. vector control of PMSM due to which SM can be controlled like a separately exicted DC
motor.

  
% "$,- $# 
The permanent magnets used in the PMSM are of a modern rare-earth variety with high
resistivity, so induced currents in the rotor are negligible .In order to make modeling of PM drive
system easy, the following assumptions are needed. They are as followsm

.Saturation is neglected although it can be taken into account by parameter changes.
‘
‘The induced EMF is sinusoidal.

.Eddy currents and hysteresis losses are negligible.

.There are no field current dynamics.

) There is no cage on the rotor.

The dynamic performance of an ac machine is somewhat complex because the three-phase


rotor windings move with respect to the three-phase stator windings as shown in Figure 3.1.

Basically, it can be looked on as a transformer with a moving secondary, where the cou-
pling coefficients between the stator and rotor phases change continuously with the change of
rotor position o ‘The machine model can be described by differential equations with time-vary-
ing mutual inductances, but such a model tends to be very complex. Note that a three-phase
machine can be represented by an equivalent two-phase machine as shown in Figure 3.2 where

‘‘‘correspond to stator direct and quadrature axes, and ‘‘ ‘correspond to rotor direct and
quadrature axes. Although it is somewhat simple, the problem of time-varying parameters still
remains.

©u
R. H. Park, in the 1920s, proposed a new theory of electric machine analysis to solve this
problem. He formulated a change of variables which, in effect, replaced the variables (voltages,
currents, and flux linkages) associated with the stator windings of a synchronous machine with
variables associated with fictitious windings rotating with the rotor at synchronous speed.
Essentially, he transformed, or referred, the stator variables to a synchronously rotating reference
frame fixed in the rotor. With such a transformation (called Park's transformation), he showed
that all the time-varying inductances that occur due to an electric circuit in relative motion and
electric circuits with varying magnetic reluctances can be eliminated.

Later, in the 1930s, H. C. Stanley showed that time-varying inductances in the voltage
equations of an induction machine due to electric circuits in relative motion can be eliminated by
transforming the rotor variables to variables associated with fictitious stationary windings. In this
case, the rotor variables are transformed to a stationary reference frame fixed on the stator. Later,
G. Kron proposed a transformation of both stator and rotor variables to a synchronously rotating
reference frame that moves with the rotating magnetic field. This model is extremely important,
and will be discussed later in detail.

D. S. Brereton proposed a transformation of stator variables to a rotating reference frame


that is fixed on the rotor. In fact, it was shown later by Krause and Thomas that time-varying
inductances can be eliminated by referring the stator and rotor variables to a common reference
frame which may rotate at any speed (arbitrary reference frame).

 
 Ê!#
" ,! $/$
 

©Œ

 -#/,!  " 

Without going deep into the rigor of machine analysis, we will try to develop a dynamic
machine model in synchronously rotating and stationary reference frames.

 &  
Consider a symmetrical three-phase induction machine with stationary  ‘axes at 2ʌ/3-angle
apart, as shown in Figure 3.1b Our goal is to transform the three-phase Stationary reference frame
 
‘variables into two-phase stationary reference frame 
‘variables and then transform
these to synchronously rotating reference frame ‘
‘and vice versa.


 % ,',"$,-& 

©Ñ
Assume that the ‘axes are oriented at o‘angle, as shown in Figure 3.3 The voltages Ú ‘and Ú‘
can be resolved into  ‘components and can be represented in the matrix form as

Ú    1 Ú 

cos• sin•
 È 
  0
 0 È Ú  È
Ú  È  cos(• 120 ) sin(• 120 ) 1È  È ( 3.1)
 Ú È cos(•  120 ) sin(•  120 ) 1È Ú   È
0 0
  

The corresponding inverse relation is

 Ú     cos • cos( •  120 0 ) cos( • 120 0 )   Ú  


 È  2  È
Ú  È  sin • sin( •  120 0 ) sin( • 120 0 ) È  Ú  È
3  È
Ú È 
 0 .5 0 .5 0 .5 È  Ú  È
   ‘ (3.2)

where Ú ‘ is added as the zero sequence component, which may or may not be present. We have
considered voltage as the variable. The current and flux linkages can be transformed by similar
equations.
It is convenient to set o‘‘‘so that the qs axis is aligned with the as-axis. Ignoring the zero sequence
component, the transformation relations can be simplified as 

Vas§Vqss (3 3)

Vbs§ - Å Vqss - 2 Vdss (3.4)

Vcs § - Å Vqss + 2 Vdcs (3.5)

and inversely

Vqss § 2/3 Vas -1/3Vbs -1/3 Vcs§ Vas (3.6)

Vdss § -1/ Vbs+1/ Vcs (3.7)




×
Figure 3.4 shows the synchronously rotating ‘‘axes, which rotate at synchronous speed
 ‘with respect to the ‘‘‘axes and the angle o ‘‘ ‘The two-phase ‘‘‘windings are
transformed into the hypothetical windings mounted on the ‘‘ ‘axes. The voltages on
the ‘‘‘axes can be converted (or resolved) into the ‘-  ‘frame as followsm

Vqs § Vqss cosșe - Vdsssinșe (3.8)

Vds § Vqsssinșe+Vdss cosșe (3.9)


  % $,-%" #%
 $,- 

For convenience, the superscript ‘ has been dropped from now on from the synchronously
rotating frame parameters. Again, resolving the rotating frame parameters into a stationary
frame, the relations are

Vqss § Vqs cosșe + Vdssinșe (3.10)

Vdss § - Vqssinșe+Vds cosșe (3.11)

×c
As an example, assume that the three-phase stator voltages are sinusoidal and
balanced, and are given by

Vas§vm cos(wet + Ɏ) (3.12)

Vbs § Vm cos(wet-(2ʌ/3 ) + Ɏ ) (3.13)

Vcs § Vm cos(wet+(2ʌ/3 ) + Ɏ ) (3.14)

Substituting Equations (3.12)- (3.15)-in (3.6)_(3.7)yields

Vqss § Vm cos(wet+ Ɏ ) [3.15)

Vdss § - Vm sin(wet+ Ɏ ) (3.16)

substituting Equations (3.8)_(3.9)in (3.15)_(3.16)

Vqs § Vm cos Ɏ (3.17)

Vds § - Vm sin Ɏ (3.18)

Equations (3.15)_(3.16) show that Vqss and Vdss are balanced, two-phase voltages of
equal peak values and the latter is at Ȇ/2 angle phase lead with respect to the other component.
Equation (3.17)_(3.18) verify that sinusoidal variables in a stationary frame appear as dc quantities
in a synchronously rotating reference frame. This is an important derivation. Note that the stator
variables are not necessarily balanced sinusoidal waves. In fact, they can be any arbitrary time
functions.

 %" #%
"  
% " $#[,
-.m
For the two-phase machine shown in Figure 3.2, we need to represent both ‘- ‘and ‘-  ‘
circuits and their variables in a synchronously rotating ‘-  ‘frame. We can write the following stator
circuit equationsm

ש
vqss § Rs iqss + d  (ȥqss
‘(3.19)

vdss § Rs idss + d  (ȥdss ) (3.20)

where «‘and ‘« ‘are g-axis and d-axis stator flux linkages, respectively. When these
equations are converted to  ‘frame, the following equations can be written

vqs § Rs iqs+ d  (ȥqs ) + we ȥds (3.21)

Vds§ Rs ids+ d  (ȥds ) - we ȥqs (3.22)

where all the variables are in rotating form. The last term in Equations (3.21)and (3.22) can be
defined as speed emf due to rotation of the axes, that is, when  ‘‘0, the equations revert to sta-

tionary form. Note that the flux linkage in the ‘ and  ‘ axes induce emf in the  ‘ and
‘ axes,
respectively, with ‘lead angle.

If the rotor is not moving, that is,  ‘‘0, the rotor equations for a doubly-fed wound-rotor
machine will be similar to Equations (3.21)_(3.22)

Vqr § Rr iqr+ d  (ȥqr) + we ȥdr      (3.23)

Vdr§ Rr idr+ d  (ȥdr ) - we ȥqr (3.24)

where all the variables and parameters are referred to the stator. Since the rotor actually moves at
speed Ȧ ‘the ‘axes fixed on the rotor move at a speed  ‘‘ ‘relative to the synchronously rotating
frame. Therefore, in ‘‘ ‘frame, the rotor equations should be modified as

Vqr § Rr iqr+ d  (ȥqr) + (we-wr) ȥdr (3.25)

××
Vdr § Rr idr+ d  (ȥdr ) ± (we-wr) ȥqr (3.26)


 - &""


 ^$&""

Figure 3.5 and 3.6 shows the ‘ -  ‘ dynamic model equivalent circuits that satisfy

Equations (3.21)_(3.22)and (3.25)_(3.26). A special advantage of the ‘-  ‘dynamic model of
the machine is that all the sinusoidal variables in stationary frame appear as dc quantities in syn-
chronous frame, as discussed before.

The flux linkage expressions in terms of the currents can be written from Figure 3.5 and
3.6 as followsm

Ȍqs§ Llsiqs+Lm(iqs+ iqr) (3.27)

Ȍqr§ Llriqr+Lm(iqs+ iqr) (3.28)

Ȍqm§Lm(iqs+ iqr) (3.29)

×a
Ȍds§Llsids+Lm(ids+idr) (3.30)

Ȍdr§Llridr+Lm(ids+idr) (3.31)

Ȍdm§Lm(ids+ idr) (3.32)

Combining the above expressions with Equations (3.21),(3.22),(3.25) and (3.26) the electrical
transient model in terms of voltages and currents can be given in matrix form as

Ú     9
 Ù 9 9 Ù 9  " 
Ú È  Ù 9   Ù 9 È " È
 È   9 9 È  È



(Ù  Ù ) 9  (3.33)
Ú  È  9  9 (Ù Ù ) 9 È "  È
 È    (Ù  Ù ) 9  È È
Ú  (Ù Ù ) 9 9  9 "

The speed  ‘in Equation (3.33) cannot normally be treated as a constant. It can be related
to the torques as

Te§TL+BWe+J( dWm/dt) (3.34)

The mechanical Torque equation is

Te§ ( )(Ȝdiq-Ȝqid) (3.35)

Solving for the rotor mechanical speed form the above equation

Wm §‫ ׬‬ሺሺܶ݁ െ ܶ‫ ܮ‬െ ‫݉߱ܤ‬ሻ ሻ†–` (3.36)

And

Wm§wr(2/p) (3.37)

In the above equations Ȧr is the rotor electrical speed where as Ȧm is the rotor mechanical speed.


×½
   Ê# 
Control of PM motors is performed using field oriented control for the operation of
synchronous motor as a dc motor. The stator windings of the motor are fed by an inverter that
generates a variable frequency variable voltage. Instead of controlling the inverter frequency
independently, the frequency and phase of the output wave are controlled using a position sensor
as shown in figure2.2
Field oriented control was invented in the beginning of 1970s and it demonstrates that an
induction motor or synchronous motor could be controlled like a separately excited dc motor by
the orientation of the stator mmf or current vector in relation to the rotor flux to achieve a desired
objective. In order for the motor to behave like DC motor, the control needs knowledge of the
position of the instantaneous rotor flux or rotor position of permanent magnet motor. This needs
a resolver or an absolute optical encoder. Knowing the position, the three phase currents can be
calculated. Its calculation using the current matrix depends on the control desired. Some control
options are constant torque and flux weakening. These options are based in the physical
limitation of the motor and the inverter. The limit is established by the rated speed of the motor,
at which speed the constant torque operation finishes and the flux weakening starts as shown in
figure3.5



 
 )$%-!$

×^
 ^ #$ $Ê#   

The PMSM control is equivalent to that of the dc motor by a decoupling control known as field
oriented control or vector control. The vector control separates the torque component of current
and flux channels in the motor through its stator excitation. The vector control of the PM
synchronous motor is derived from its dynamic model. Considering the currents as inputs, the
three currents arem 

Ia§imsin(Ȧrt+Į) (3.38)

Ib§imsin(Ȧrt+Į-2ʌ/3) (3.39)

Ic§imsin(Ȧrt+Į+2ʌ/3) (3.40)

Writing equation 3.38 to 3.40 in the matrix formm

 
"   cos(   ) È
" È  cos(    2Y ) È Ž"

 È  È 
3 È
( 3.41)
" È 
cos(    2Y )È
 3 È

Where Į is the angle between the rotor field and stator current phasor,Ȧ ‘ is the electrical‘
rotor speed. The previous currents obtained are the stator currents that must be transformed to the
rotor reference frame with the rotor speed Ȧ ‘ , using Park¶s transformation. The q and d axis‘
currents are constants in the rotor reference frames since Į is a constant for a given load‘torque.
As these constants, they are similar to the armature and field currents in the‘separately excited dc
machine. The q axis current is distinctly equivalent to the armature‘current of the dc machine; the
d axis current is field current, but not in its entirety. It is only a‘partial field current; the other part
is contributed by the equivalent current source‘representing the permanent magnet field. For this
reason the q axis current is called the‘torque producing component of the stator current and the d
axis current is called the flux‘producing component of the stator current.‘

×u
Substituting equation 3.41 and 3.2 is obtain id and iq in terms of Im as follows

"     sin  
" È " cos  È ( 3.42)
 

×   


Constant torque control strategy is derived from field oriented control, where the maximum
possible torque is desired at all times like the dc motor. This is performed by making the torque
producing current iq equal to the supply current Im. That results in selecting the Į angle to be 90
degrees according to equation 3.42. By making the id current equal to zero the torque equation
can be rewritten asm 
Te§(3/2)(p/2)Ȝfiq (3.43)

Assuming thatm 

Kt§(3/2)(p/2)Ȝf (3.44)

The torque is given by

  Te§kt.iq (3.45)

Like the dc motor, the torque is dependent of the motor current.

×   #&,/

Flux weakening is the process of reducing the flux in the d axis direction of the motor
which results in an increased speed range. The motor drive is operated with rated flux linkages
up to a speed where the ratio between the induced emf and stator frequency (V/f) is maintained
constant. After the base frequency, the V/f ratio is reduced due to the limit of the inverter dc
voltage source which is fixed. The weakening of the field flux is required for operation above the
base frequencyThis reduces the V/f ratio. This operation results in a reduction of the torque
proportional to a change in the frequency and the motor operates in the constant power region.
The rotor flux of PMSM is generated by permanent magnet which can not be directly
reduced as induction motor. The principle of flux-weakening control of PMSM is to increase

׌
negative direct axis current and use armature reaction to reduce air gap flux, which equivalently
reduces flux and achieves the purpose of flux-weakening control This method changes torque by
altering the angle between the stator MMF and the rotor d axis. In the flux weakening region
where Ȧr Õ Ȧrated angle Į is controlled by proper control of id and iq for the same value of stator
current. Since iq is reduced the output torque is also reduced. The angle Į can be obtained asm

Į§ tan-1(iq/id) (3.46 )
the current im is related to id and iq by
im§(iq2 +id2)1/2 (3.47 )


 )Ê"#
This chapter discussed about the modelling of PMSM by which d-q variables are
obtained from abc variables through park transform and abc variables are obtained from d-q
variables through the inverse of park transform and also about the field oriented control i.e.
vector control of PMSM due to which SM can be controlled like a separately exicted DC motor.




 

×Ñ



 

a
  
Ê   9  9 
  $" 

This chapter gives main idea about introduction to matlab,simulink, advantages of


matlab, tool for model based design,tool for simulation,tool for analysis,creating a simple model
and adding blocks to window.

  $" 9  9  

MATLAB, developed by math works Inc, is a software package for performance


numerical computation and visualization. The combination of analysis capabilities, flexibility,
reliability and powerful graphics makes MATLAB the premier software package for electrical
engineers.

MATLAB provides an interactive environment with hundreds of reliable and accurate


built in mathematical functions. These functions provide solution to a broad range of
mathematical problems including matrix algebra, complex arithmetic, linear systems, differential
equations, signal processing, optimization non-linear systems and many other types of scientific
computations.

The most important feature of MATLAB is its programming capability, which is very
easy to learn and use, and which allows user developed functions it also allows access to
FORTRAN algorithms and C codes by means of external interfaces. There are several option
toolboxes written for special applications such as signal processing, control system design,
system identification, statistics, neural net works, fuzzy logic, symbolic computations.

  $
 9 

MATLAB has many advantages compared to conventional computer languages for


technical problem solving. Among them arem

1. Ease of use

2. Platform independence

ac
3. Predefined functions

4. Device independent plotting

5. Graphical user interface

 (  9 0

Simulink is software for modeling, simulating, and analyzing Dynamic systems. It


supports linear and nonlinear systems, modeled in continuous time, sampled time, or a hybrid of
the two. Systems can also be multi rate, i.e., have different parts that are sampled or updated at
different rates.

Simulink enables you to pose a question about a system, model it, and see what happens.
With Simulink, you can easily build models from scratch, or take an existing model and add to it.
Thousands of engineers around the world use Simulink to model and solve real problems in a
variety of industries. The following topics highlight key aspects of Simulinkm

Tool for Model-Based Design

Tool for Simulation

Tool for Analysis

  # $#,$



With Simulink, you can move beyond idealized linear models to explore more realistic
nonlinear models, factoring in friction, air resistance, gears lippsage, hard stops, and the other
things that describe real-world phenomena. Simulink turns your computer into a lab for modeling
and analyzing systems that simply wouldn't be possible or practical otherwise, whether the
behavior of an automotive clutch system, the flutter of an airplane wing, the dynamics of a
predator-prey model, or the effect of the monetary supply on the economy. Simulink provides
numerous demos that model a wide variety of such real-world phenomena.

For modeling, Simulink provides a graphical user interface (GUI) for building models
as block diagrams, using click-and-drag mouse operations. with this interface, you can draw the
models just as you would with pencil and paper (or as most textbooks depict them). This

interactive graphical environment is a far cry from simulation packages that require you to
formulate differential equations and difference equations in a language or program. Simulink
includes a comprehensive block library of sinks, sources, linear and nonlinear components, and
connectors. You can also customize and create your own blocks.

Models are hierarchical, so you can build models using both top-down and bottom-up
approaches. You can view the system at a high level, then double-click blocks to go down
through the levels to see increasing levels of model detail. This approach provides insight into
how a model is organized and how its parts interact.

  # #

After you define a model, you can simulate it, using a choice of mathematical integration
methods, either from the Simulink menus or by entering commands in the MATLAB®
Command Window. The menus are convenient for interactive work, while the command line is
useful for running a batch of simulations (for example, if you are doing Monte Carlo simulations
or want to sweep a parameter across a range of values). Using scopes and other display blocks,
you can see the simulation results while the simulation runs. In addition, you can change many
parameters and see what happens for "what if" exploration. The simulation results can be put in
the MATLAB workspace for post processing and visualization.

  ##%

Model analysis tools include linearization and trimming tools, which can be accessed from the
MATLAB command line, plus the many tools in MATLAB and its application toolboxes.
Because MATLAB and Simulink are integrated, you can simulate, analyze, and revise your
models in either environment at any point.

 '  !# $#

This chapter shows you how to create a simple model using many of the model construction
techniques that you will use to create your own models. Afterward, the chapter instructs you to
simulate the model that you construct. The instructions for constructing and simulating the
example model are brief.


In the sections that follow, you will construct a simple model that integrates a sine wave and
displays the result along with the sine wave. When completed, the block diagram that constitutes
your example model should appear similar to this.

‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘ ‘ ‘ 
  /  !# $#  #

 ^Ê
 !# $#

The following sections show you how to model a simple dynamic system using Simulinkm

1. Creating an Empty Model

2. Adding Blocks

3. Connecting the Blocks

To create an empty modelm

1‘ Start Simulink. In the MATLAB Command Window, enter Simulink. On UNIX,the


Simulink library window appears.

   
  /
  ##'%

aa
On Microsoft Windows, the Simulink Library Browser appears.

‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘ ‘‘‘ ‘‘‘‘‘ 


  / " #%$'#"

2.Create a new model.

On UNIX, from the Simulink library window's File menu, select NewÕ Model.

On Windows, click the new model button

on the Simulink Library Browser's toolbar. Simulink displays an empty model window.

 
  / #$!
 #


 )$$
#"

To construct the example model that this chapter describes, you need to copy blocks into
the model window that the previous section instructed you to create (see Creating an Empty
Model).You can copy blocks from either the Library Browser (Windows only) or a library
window (UNIX and Windows). The following steps describe how to add blocks to your example
model using each of these methodsm

1. Locate the Sine Wave block in the Sources library.

On UNIX, in the Simulink library window, double-click the Sources library. Simulink
displays the Sources library window.

‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘ ‘


  /  #"

a^
On Windows, in the left side of the Simulink Library Browser under the Simulink node, select
the Sources library. The right pane of the Simulink Library Browser displays the contents of the
Sources library.


 ^ ##'%'/

 *Ê"# 
This chapter discussed about introduction to matlab,simulink, advantages of matlab, tool
for model based design,tool for simulation,tool for analysis,creating a simple model and adding
blocks to window.

au












  9    
 

  $" 
This chapter gives main idea about the blocks converting the 3-phase variables into 2-
phase variables and 2-phase variables into 3-phase variables, implementing of torque block and
the speed block, and speed control of PM motor.


  ##
Study of electric motor drives needs the proper selection of a simulation tool. Their
complex models need computing tools capable of performing dynamic simulations. Today with
the growth in computational power there is a wide selection of software titles available for
electrical simulations such as ACSL, ESL, EASY5, and PSCSP are for general systems and
SPICE2, EMTP, and ATOSEC5 for simulating electrical and electronic circuits. IESE and
SABER are examples of general-purpose electrical network simulation programs that have
provisions for handling user-defined modules. SIMULINK® is a toolbox extension of the
MATLAB program. It is a program for simulating dynamic systems.
Simulink has the advantages of being capable of complex dynamic system simulations,
graphical environment with visual real time programming and broad selection of tool boxes. The
simulation environment of Simulink has a high flexibility and expandability which allows the
possibility of development of a set of functions for a detailed analysis of the electrical drive .Its
graphical interface allows selection of functional blocks, their placement on a worksheet,
selection of their functional parameters interactively, and description of signal flow by
connecting their data lines using a mouse device. System blocks are constructed of lower level
blocks grouped into a single maskable block. Simulink simulates analogue systems and discrete
digital systems.


  # #  
 
The PM motor drive simulation was built in several steps like abc phase transformation to
dqo variables, calculation torque and speed, and control circuit. The abc phase transformation to


dqo variables is built using Parks transformation and for the dqo to abc the reverse
transformation is used. For simulation purpose the voltages are the inputs and the current are
output.
Parks transformation used for converting the 3-phase variables into 2-phase variables is shown in
figure 5.1 and the reverse transformation for converting the 2-phase variables into 3-phase
variables is shown in figure 5.2


 ",! '#,! '#
Where the functions are as follows

fcn§ 2/3*(u(1)*cos(u(4)) + u(2)*cos(u(4)-2*pi/3) + u(3)cos(u(4)+2*pi/3))


fcn1§ 2/3*(u(1)*sinu(4) + u(2)*sin(u(4)-2*pi/3) + u(3)*sin(u(4)+2*pi/3))
fcn2§ 2/3*(u(1)*1/2)+u(2)*1/2+u(3)*1/2)


 ",! '#,! '#

½
Where the functions are as follows
fcn§u(1)*cos(u(4)) + u(2)*sin(u(4)) + u(3)
fcn1§u(1)*cos(u(4)-2*pi/3) + u(2)*sin(u(4)-2*pi/3) + u(3)
fcn2§u(1)*cos(u(4)+2*pi/3) + u(2)*sin(u(4)+2*pi/3) + u(3)
Figure 5.3shows the implementation of torque block in Simulink. This block is developed
using equation 3.35


 -'#"

Where the function is


F(u) § (u(1)*u(2)-u(3)*u(4))*(3/2)*(u(5)/2)

The speed of the motor is obtain using figure 5.3 and equation 3.36 The developed
speed block is shown in figure 5.4


 !$'#"

½c
Where the functions are
Fcn3§ u(1)*u(2)/(2*u(3))
Fcn4§ (u(1)*u(2)/2*u(3))*(2/u(2))

For proper control of the inverter using the reference currents, current controllers are
implemented to generate the gate pulses for the IGBT¶s. Current controllers used are shown
in figure 5.5 and 5.6.

 
 (%ÊÊ##



 


 ^ ÊÊ##


 !$Ê#   

Many applications, such as robotics and factory automation, require precise control of speed and
position. Speed Control Systems allow one to easily set and adjust the speed of a motor. The

½©
control system consists of a speed feedback system, a motor, an inverter, a controller and a speed
setting device. A properly designed feedback controller makes the system insensible to
disturbance and changes of the parameters. The purpose of a motor speed controller is to take a
signal representing the demanded speed, and to drive a motor at that speed. Closed Loop speed
control systems have fast response, but become expensive due to the need of feedback
components such as speed sensors.
‘
   !#  !$Ê#9! 
The operation of the controller must be according to the speed range. For operation up to
rated speed it will operate in constant torque region and for speeds above rated speed it will
operate in flux-weakening region. In this region the d-axis flux and the developed torque are
reduced. The process can be easily understood with the flow diagram in figure 5.7.


  )% #/$
 
½×
Speed controller calculates the difference between the reference speed and the actual
speed producing an error, which is fed to the PI controller. PI controllers are used widely for
motion control systems.
They consist of a proportional gain that produces an output proportional to the input error
and an integration to make the steady state error zero for a step change in the input. Block
diagram of the PI controller is shown in figure 5.8.


 
 * "##

Speed control of motors mainly consist of two loops the inner loop for current and the
outer loop for speed. The order of the loops is due to their response, how fast they can be
changed. This requires a current loop at least 10 times faster than the speed loop. Since the
PMSM is operated using field oriented control, it can be modeled like a dc motor.
The design begins with the innermost current loop by drawing the block diagram. But in
PMSM drive system the motor has current controllers which make the current loop. The current
control is performed by the comparison of the reference currents with the actual motor currents.

½a
Using all the drive system blocks the complete system block has been developed as
shown in figure 5.9.


 +  
%  #

 Ê"# 
This chapter discussed about the blocks converting the 3-phase variables into 2-phase
variables and 2-phase variables into 3-phase variables, implementing of torque block and the
speed block, and speed control of PM motor.

½½


½^
^  9 9
^  $" 
This chapter deals with the simulation results of PMSM drive system. The parameters of
the motor are given. Simulation results for the two techniques hysteresis current control and
PWM current control are compared.


^  ##
The system built in Simulink for a PMSM drive system has been tested with the two
current control methods, Hysteresis and PWM, at the constant torque and flux-weakening
regions of operation. The motor parameters used for simulation are given in table 6.1. These
parameters were taken from reference.
The motor is operated with constant torque up to its rated speed and beyond that rated
speed flux-weakening mode is adopted. Simulation results are given at electrical speeds of 200
radians per second and 700 radians per second. The above speeds represent below and above
rated speed of the motor.
      9
  9
1 VLL Rated voltage 200V

2 Pout Magnetic flux 900V


3 P Numberof 4
poles
4 Wm Rated speed 700RPS
5 Is Rated current 3AMPS
6 Ismax Maximum 2*Is
current

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 ! 

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The simulation was carried out using two current control techniques to study the
performance of the motor drive. The techniques are Hysteresis current control and PWM current
control. The plots of current, torque and speed are given for both cases.
The simulation was carried out using two current control techniques to study the
performance of the motor drive. The techniques are Hysteresis current control and PWM current
control. The plots of current, torque and speed are given for both cases.

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Figure 6.1 shows the three phase currents drawn by the motor as a result of the
hysteresis current control. The currents are obtained using Park's reverse transformation. It is
clear that the current is non sinusoidal at the starting and becomes sinusoidal when the motor
reaches the controller command speed at steady state. So by using this control the oscillations die
out at 0.019sec and reaches the steady state after 0.019sec.
‘

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‘

 
^ 
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‘
Figure 6.2 shows the developed torque of the motor. The starting torque is twice the
steady state value. The steady torque is 2.5 Nm.


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Figure 6.3 shows a variation of the speed with time. The steady state speed is the same as
that of the commanded reference speed.

The above plots have been repeated with PWM control for comparing hysteresis control
with PWM control.

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^   ÊÊ# 


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Figure 6.4shows the three phase currents as a result of the PWM current control obtained
from Park's reverse transformation. It is clear that the current is non sinusoidal at the starting and
becomes sinusoidal when the motor reaches the controller command speed at steady state. so by
using this control the steady state occurs after 0.016sec.

 
^ 
#!$-/  Ê#11$
Figure 6.5 shows the developed torque of the motor. The starting torque is twice the
steady state value. The developed torque is the same as the load torque (2.5Nm) under steady
state condition.

^
 
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Figure 6.6 shows a variation of the speed with time. The steady state speed is the same as
that of the commanded reference speed.

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!$)11$"

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Figure 6.7 shows the three phase currents as a result of the hysteresis current control
obtained from Park's reverse transformation. It is clear that the current is non sinusoidal at the
starting and becomes sinusoidal when the motor reaches the controller command speed of
700 rad/sec at steady state. so by using this control the steady state occurs after 0.022sec.

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Figure 6.8 shows the developed torque of the motor. The starting torque is quiet high and
the steady state value of torque is reduced to 1.5 Nm at this speed. At this speed the motor is
operating in the constant power region.

 
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Figure 6.9 shows a variation of the speed with time. The steady state speed is the same as
that of the commanded reference speed of 700 rad/sec.

^   ÊÊ# 
The above plots have been repeated with PWM control for comparing hysteresis control
with PWM control.



 
^ 1 '"Ê/  Ê#)11$"

Figure 6.10 shows the three phase currents as a result of the PWM current control
obtained from Park's reverse transformation. It is clear that the current is non sinusoidal at the
starting and becomes sinusoidal when the motor reaches the controller command speed at steady
state. so by using this control the steady state occurs after 0.019sec.


^ 
#!$-/  Ê#)11$

Figure 6.11 shows the developed torque of the motor. When the speed of the motor is less
than the rated speed, the torque is more and gets reduced at speeds greater than the rated speed.


 
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Figure 6.12 shows a variation of the speed with time. The steady state speed is the same
as that of the commanded reference speed.

From the figure 6.13 it is also clear that the inverter switching frequency increases as the
hysteresis window size decreases. This relationship is shown in Figure 6.13.  the hysteresis
window size decreases, the required inverter switching frequency increases in a nonlinear
manner.
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From the results it is seen that PWM current control technique is superior to hysteresis
controller. Hysteresis control incurs higher switching frequencies with the possibility of
exceeding device ratings. PWM has constant switching frequency.

^ Ê"# 
This chapter discussed the simulation results of PMSM drive system. The parameters of
the motor are given. And also it is seen that PWM current control technique is superior to
hysteresis controller. Hysteresis control incurs higher switching frequencies with the possibility
of exceeding device ratings. PWM has constant switching frequency. PWM outperforms in terms
of switching frequency and torque pulsations.


Ê Ê9 

A detailed Simulink model for a PMSM drive system with field oriented control has
being developed and operation below and above rated speed has been studied using two current
control schemes. Simulink has been chosen from several simulation tools because its flexibility
in working with analog and digital devices. Mathematical models can be easily incorporated in
the simulation and the presence of numerous tool boxes and support guides simplifies the
simulation of large system compared to Spice. Simulink is capable of showing real time results
with reduced simulation time and debugging.
Usually in such a drive system the inverter is driven either by hysteresis or by PWM
current controllers. A comparative study has been made of the two current control schemes in
terms of switching frequency.
This study proves that PWM current controllers are better than hysteresis current
controllers because of having constant switching frequency Hysteresis current controllers have a
variable switching frequency that depends of the hysteresis band and if the bandwidth is very
small it may affect the device switching capability. However, the simulation with hysteresis
current controller allows faster simulations with reduced time and computational resources.











^^
 

The implementation of additional control techniques like unity power factor control,
constant mutual air gap flux linkages control, optimum torque per ampere control and sensor less
control can be taken up for detail simulation and performance calculation of PMSM
drive systems. Detailed modeling and simulation of other types of synchronous motor drives
can also be taken up for transient and steady state analysis.

















^u
 Ê 
.R. Krishnan and A. J. Beutler, ³Performance and design of an axialfield permanent
magnet synchronous motor servo drive,´ in î  ‘  ‘V‘ ‘V‘ "‘1985, pp.
634-640.
.E. Richter, T. J. E. Miller, T. W. Neumann, and T. L. Hudson, ³Theferrite PM ac
motor-A technical and economic assessment, ´ Y ‘  ‘V‘vol. IA-21, no. 4, pp. 644-
650, May/June 1985.[4]
.V. B. Honsinger, ³Permanent magnet machinesm Asynchronousoperation,´ ‘Y ‘
î  V‘ ‘vol. PAS-99, no. 4, pp.[5]
.T. J. E. Miller, ³Transient performance of permanent magnetmachines,´ in î ‘  ‘
V‘ ‘V‘ "‘1981, pp. 500-502.[6]
.W. Leonard, Ê  ‘ ‘  "‘ "Ú ‘New Yorkm Springer-Verlag, 1984.[7]
^. ~‘Pfaff, A. Weschta, and A. Wick, ³Design and experimental resultsof a brushless ac
servo drive,´ in î ‘ ‘  ‘V‘ ‘V "‘1982, pp. 692-697.
).R. Krishnan, ³Analysis of electronically controlled motor drives,´class notes, Virginia
Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ., Blacksburg,1986.
*.M. Lajoie-Mazenc, C. Villanueva, and J. Hector, ³Study andimplementation of
hysteresis controlled inverter on a permanent magnetsynchronous machine,´ ‘ Y ‘  ‘
V‘vol. IA-21, no. 2,pp. 408-413, Mar./Apr. 1985.
+ P. Enjeti, J. F. Lindsay, and M. H. Rashid, ³Stability and dynamicperformance of
variable speed permanent magnet synchronous motors,´in î ‘ Ê‘1985, pp. 749-754.
1.-, ³Parameter estimation and dynamic performance of permanentmagnet synchronous
motors,´ in î ‘ ‘  ‘V‘SOCV.  "‘1985, pp. 627-633.
.P. Pillay and R. Krishnan, ³Control characteristics and speedcontroller design for a
high-performance permanent magnet synchronousmotor drive,´ in î ‘ ‘  ‘ î  ‘
  "‘ ""Ê ‘1987, pp. 598-606.
., ³Application characteristics of permanent magnet synchronousand brushless dc
motors for servo drives,´ in î ‘  ‘V‘ V‘ "‘1987, pp. 380-390.





  9
Resistance (R) 1.4ȍ
d-axis inductance (Ld) 6.6mH
q-axis inductance(Lq) 5.8mH
 Moment of inertia (J) 0.00176kgm2
 Damping constant(B) 0.00038818Nm/rad/sec