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D1

Prismatic design

Objectives
Through completing the exercises in this lesson, you will be able to:

Task

Create simple 2D designs Exercise 1 – Using Polyline command and


Coordinates

Exercise 1a – using Polylines to create a


Turning component

Exercise 1b- Sweep Command

Exercise 1c – Creating Parallel Lines

Exercise 2 – Creating a Simple Profile

Exercise 3 – Offsetting a Simple Profile

Exercise 4 – Adding Depth to a Profile

Exercise 5 – Drawing Arcs

Exercise 6, 6a, 6b, – Drawing Arcs

Exercise 7 – Creating Points

Exercise 8 – Creating referenced entities

Exercise 9- – Filtering Entities

Manipulate 2D designs Exercise 10 - Creating chamfered corners

Exercise 11 - Creating blend corners

Exercise 12 – Trimming Entities

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Manipulate 2D designs Exercise 13, 13a – Breaking Entities

Exercise 14- Layer control

Exercise 15 Trimming Commands

Using Arc & Line Dialogs Exercise 16 – Create a full Profile

Transforming Entities Exercise 17 – Rotating Entities

Exercise 17 a – Mirror Entities

Exercise 17 b Translate Entities

Exercise 17 c – Transpose Entities

Exercise 17 d – Save Limited

Full Design Creation Exercise 18 - Creating ‘Packing Adapter’


component

Exercise 19 - Creating ‘Stub Axle’


component

Exercise 20 – Designing a Location Shaft

3D Design Exercise 21 – Creating a 3D Dice

Create contoured wall Exercise 22 - Designing a contour wall


designs for 3-axis milling

Preparing a model for Exercise 23,23a,23b - Working with IGES


machining Files

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Conventions used in this guide


To enable you to use the information in this guide effectively, you need to understand the
conventions used in the guide to represent different types of information.

• Buttons on the screen are represented as bold lettering with initial capitals. For example:
Click on the OK button.

• Menu options are represented as italics. For example:


Select the Open option from the File menu.

• Field names are represented as bold text. For example:


Enter the value in the Offset field.

• Keys on the keyboard are represented as bold lettering. For example:


Press Enter.

. This is a note. It contains useful or additional information.

+ This is a reference. It directs you to another part of the user guide.

This is a thought box. It is generally used in exercises and contains a question for you to
consider.

8 This is a warning. It contains information that you must not ignore.

This is a tip. It is generally used in exercises and offers further advice.

1. This is a list

2. of instructions, that you must

3. follow in sequence.

• This is a list

• of items, in which

• the order is not important.

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Pre-requisites
This lesson assumes that you have previously completed training in:

Lesson Refer to

Getting started with EdgeCAM GS1

. You must successfully complete these lessons before beginning work on the following
exercises.

Licensing requirements
To complete this lesson you must have the EdgeCAM Milling (ENS00-0) licence.

8 Please note that, although you can design contour walls under the ENTRY LEVEL
EdgeCAM licence, you can machine components with contour walls only under the
3-AXIS MILLING (or higher level) EdgeCAM licence.

Before you start


Before you begin work on the following exercises, make sure that you display the following
toolbars on the screen:

• Standard toolbar

• Main toolbar

• Edit toolbar

• Display toolbar

• Input Options toolbar.

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Overview of the lesson


In the following work sessions, you will learn how to create and manipulate 2D designs for
both mill and turn components. Later you will work with 3D designs. Here are examples of
the type of work you will cover:

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You will also learn how to use system construction planes (CPL’s) in order to create
geometry on different planes as shown in this dice component:

Furthermore, you will learn the use of a continuous entity whilst working in 3D design.

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D1.1 Creating simple 2D designs


All of the designs you will create throughout this lesson are based around the following
entities:

• points - the simplest geometric entities, which are defined in 3D space

• lines - which have two end points

• arcs - non-linear geometric entities, each point of which is equally distant from a fixed
central point.

You combine points, lines and arcs to form basic geometrical shapes such as rectangles,
polygons and circles. EdgeCAM also provides automated tools for standard shapes.

You use the following commands to create basic geometric shapes:

Draw a single line, which starts and ends at the points you
Single Line specify.

Draw a horizontal line, which is always horizontal (along the X


Horizontal Line axis) to the start point you specify.

Draw a vertical line, which is always vertical (along the Y axis)


Vertical Line to the start point you specify.

Draw a polyline, which is a series of connected lines. Each point


Polyline you specify is joined to the previous point until you end the
command.

Offers all combinations of designing a line. Allows further detail


Line Dialog
to be discussed i.e. Length and Angle

Arc Dialog Offers all combinations of designing an Arc. Allows further


detail to be discussed i.e. Tangent and Diameter

Draw an arc or circle, for which you specify the radius, and
Radius Arc optional start and end angles

Draw a rectangle, for which you specify the dimensions.


Rectangle

Draw a polygon, for which you specify the dimensions, number


Polygon of sides and further options as required.

Creates entities that are geometrically offset from a stated


Offset profile.

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Drawing a complex Line

Click on the Line Dialog button on the Main toolbar to display the Line dialog. You
can specify the following options to create your line:

+ You can also create specific types of lines by using the Individual Line command. You
access these by clicking on the Main toolbar.

Drawing a complex arc

Click on the Arc Dialog button on the Main Toolbar to display Arc Dialog. You are
allowed to specify more complex types of arc entities including Tangent relationship.

. An Arc entity always travels in an anti-clockwise direction.

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Drawing an arc

Click on the Radius Arc button on the Main toolbar to display the Arc dialog. You can
specify the following options to create your arc:

. You do not have to stipulate the Start and End angle if a full arc is required. EdgeCAM will
default to a full circle.

+ Refer to the EdgeCAM Design User Guide for further information on using both Arc and Line
dialog.

Drawing a rectangle
Select the Rectangle option from the Geometry menu:

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You see the Rectangle dialog. You can specify the following options to create your rectangle:

. When prompted to position the rectangle, its reference point is always the centre of the
feature.

Drawing a polygon
Select the Polygon option from the Geometry menu to display the Polygon dialog. You can
specify the following options to create your polygon:

. If you forget to state the Initial Angle, you can dynamically position the polygon with a mouse
key click if the initial angle is set to digitize.

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Positioning entities
EdgeCAM defines the position of an entity in 3D space using several methods. The three
most common are: -

• Specify Explicit Co-ordinates

• Free digitise

• Entity digitise

. You can use cartesian, polar or angular co-ordinates in EdgeCAM. The majority of exercises
throughout this Guide will use Cartesian co-ordinates.

+ Refer to the GS1 ‘Getting Start with EdgeCAM’ GS1.7 & GS1.8

Speed of Mouse Click


One may vary the time delay used when activating the Sub functions menu. Use the
Shortcut (Option Menu) to determine the dwell time.

End of entity Mid point of entity Centre point of circle

. Remember you can control Intellisnap in the Preferences command.

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About Polar Co-ordinates


The Polar Co-ordinate system defines a position on a plane using:
• A radius centred at an origin.

• An angle from the X-axis.

To specify polar co-ordinates


When Polar co-ordinates are selected the Co-ordinate Input dialog box is displayed as shown
below:

Type your required values into the Radius and Angle boxes.

Radius values are taken incrementally from the last co-ordinate position. If no
previous position has been given, the origin of the selected axis system is used.
Angles are always absolute values (degrees).

Radius and Angle values are shown in the Command box as they are entered.

Select the OK or Continue buttons when you have completed your co-ordinate
specification.

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. Notice the command syntax. If this is mis-typed, EdgeCAM will return an error.

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Creating a profile using Polyline

The Polyline command creates a series on connected lines. The command will allow you to create
numerous lines that “flow” in a profile. It is especially useful, for example, where a turning
drawing is involved. Making an example out of say a stepped shaft, the drawing is dimensioned
“point to point” Moving from shoulder to diameter.

In this next exercise you will not only learn the character of the polyline, but also see how co-
ordinates can be mixed within one transaction.

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Exercise 1 – Using Polyline command and Coordinates

Your next task is to place lines in a chained fashion with Polyline and Co-ordinate inputs

You will learn: -


• Character of a Polyline

• Working with Co-Ordinates

• Using Absolute, Incremental, Cartesian & Polar co-ordinates

• Zoom Command.

1. Select Polyline and observe the prompt in the bottom left hand corner.

2. “Start Point of Line” Select co-ordinates and specify the first position X0 Y0

3. Press Continue and specify the next co-ordinate X40 Y56.

As an alternative to selecting ’Continue’ press the comma key on your keyboard.

4. Proceed with the remaining positions; note you will be mixing Absolute,
Incremental & Polar co-ordinates.
• Incremental X29

• Incremental y-20

• Polar co-ordinate Radius 20 Angle –35

• Absolute X100

• Incremental Y30

• Polar co-ordinate Radius 34 Angle 49

5. Select ‘OK’ or ‘Enter’ at the end of the procedure.

6. Save the part ‘Polylines_metric.ppf’

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Selecting the turning environment


The ZX environment caters specifically for the manufacture of a turned part. In this
environment, the Z-axis is horizontal and the X-axis is vertical. To create a turned part, you
must select to work in the ZX environment.

Select the ZX environment option from the Options menu:

The default CPL for the ZX environment is the ‘Turn’ CPL. This is automatically displayed
in the CPL field on the Standard toolbar:

+ Refer to the GS1 ‘Getting Start with EdgeCAM’ GS1.5

Exercise 1a – using Polyline to create a Turning component


1. For the next exercise you will alter the EdgeCAM environment to Turning.

2. Digitise the displayed environment on the bottom right hand side of the screen.

. As the majority of Turning Drawings use Diametral dimensions, EdgeCAM interprets the X
input as Diametral.

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3. Using Polyline, design the component shown herewith:

• X0 Z0

• X60

• Z-35

• X100

• Z-65

• X140

• Z-115

When verifying horizontal lines, the value will be reported Diametrally.

4. Save this part as “Turned Part_Metric.ppf

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Sweeping a Turned Profile


EdgeCAM offers the ability to produce a 3D image of a Turned Profile. This is naturally a
desirable function as it allows the user to understand the character of the part more clearly.
Turning drawings, require the minimum amount of design – as a rule of thumb, only design
the sections of the drawing that the tool will actually travel over.

For enhanced viewing of the drawing, use the Sweep Function (View Menu)

Exercise 1b – Sweep Command


4. Open the Part File ‘Turned Part Metric.ppf’

5. Open the Sweep Command (View Menu)

6. Enter the following modifiers

• Circles – checked (create arcs at the profile intersections)

• End Angle - 360° (produce one complete revolution)

• Layer – Swept (the Browser will create a new layer)

• Repeats – 100 (the amount of times the profile is reproduced)

7. Dismiss the dialog by selecting ‘OK’

8. Observe the prompt ‘Digitise Entities to be swept’

9. Hold down the Control Key (Ctrl) and letter ‘A’ on your keyboard

10. Observe the entities are highlighted – now click the Right-Hand mouse button in order
to complete the procedure.

11. Re-save the part.

12. Zoom, Pan and Rotate the part.

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. Use the Toggle Wire Frame icon to render the swept part

. Observe the Browser – you will observe a new Layer has been created.

Consider why it would be desirable for to place the ‘Swept’ entities on a different Layer.

+ Refer to the GS1 ‘Getting Start with EdgeCAM’ GS2.0 Selecting Entities

+ Refer to the GS1 ‘Getting Start with EdgeCAM’ GS2.3 Manipulating your View

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Creating parallel lines

You can create lines, which are automatically parallel to an existing line by using Line
Dialog. You can create:

• a single parallel line, which is offset a specified distance from the original line

• two parallel lines, one on each side of the original line, and offset a specified distance on
each side of the original.

You create parallel lines by clicking on the Line Dialog button on the Main toolbar, or
by selecting the Line option from the Geometry menu.

Remember to observe the command prompt displayed in the bottom left hand corner
of your screen. This will advise you as to what information is required to complete a
task.

You see the Line dialog:

Enter the distance by which you want to offset the parallel line(s) in the Parallel or
Parallel 2 fields. Alternatively, select 'Digitise' in either of the fields.

Once you have set your parallel line specification, you must select the line you want to copy,
and indicate the start and end points for the copy line(s). If you selected 'Digitise' in either of
the Parallel fields, you must also indicate the distance by which you want the copy line(s)
offset from the original line.

EdgeCAM creates a copy of the selected line, parallel to and offset from the original by the
specified distance.

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. When creating one parallel line, the exact point at which you click to select the line to copy
determines the side on which the parallel copy line is created. For example, if you click
slightly to the left of a vertical line, the parallel copy line is created to the left of the original.

Creating two parallel lines is a useful way of positioning entities a set distance away from,
and on either side of, an existing entity or design. For example, to slice a circle into three
sections, you could create three lines that are parallel simply by drawing a line that passes
through the mid point of the circle and then creating two parallel lines, like this (the parallel
lines are shown as dotted lines):

Exercise 1c - Creating parallel lines


1. Create a horizontal line of no fixed position and randomly place it in the design port..

2. Click on the Line Dialog button on the Main toolbar. You see the Line dialog.

3. Enter 10 in the Parallel 2 field, to create a parallel line, offset by 10mm, on each side of
a selected line.

4. Click on OK. You return to the main screen.

5. Observe the prompt “Digitise line to be parallel to”

6. Select the line you created.

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7. Observe the next two prompts “Start point of Line” “End point of Line”.

8. Digitise the start and end point of the original horizontal line

. The lines are separate entities.

9. Repeat this exercise but this time using the Parallel field. Produce a fourth line which is
parallel to the top-most line by 30mm Your design should now look like this:

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Exercise 2 – Creating a Simple profile

• Produce the above component, using any combination of line geometry tools.

• Observe that you have to produce a 12mm parallel line within the part.

• There are numerous ways of creating the above drawing.

• Beginning at X0 Y0 and working in an anticlockwise fashion, consider how you


would produce the first 3 lines – A, B and C.

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1. To Draw Line A. Use Single Line draw command. Use co-ordinate input to
state the start & end points (X0 Y0, Y-40)

2. Alternatively, using Line Dialog, describe the character as Vertical & Length –
40. Use co-ordinates to state the start point of the line.

3. T o Draw Line B. Using Single Line draw command. Use Entity digitise to
state the start point of the line (Alternatively, digitise the end of the last line).
Use co-ordinate input to state the end point (Absolute X104 Incremental Y30)

4. To draw Line C. Using Single Line draw command. Use Entity digitise to
state the start point of the Line. (Alternatively, digitise the end of line ‘B’) Use
co-ordinate input to state the end point (Incremental Y42)

5. Alternatively, using Line Dialog, state the character of the line as Vertical, Length
42mm. Use Entity digitise to state the start point of the line. (Digitise the end of
the line ”B”)

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6. Upon Completion of this exercise, save the drawing as “Lines


Exercise_Metric.ppf

Creating an offset
An offset is a copy of an existing entity, at a specified distance from the original. The offset
command is particularly useful if you want to create a larger or smaller copy of a profile, like
this:

. Each point of the offset is an equal distance from the original.

You create an offset by selecting the Offset option from the Geometry menu. You see the
Offset dialog:

8 You can create a round- or square-cornered offset to the outside of a square-cornered


profile. However, because each point of the offset must be equidistant from the
original entity, you cannot create an offset with rounded corners to the inside of a
square-cornered profile.

. You can specify whether the offset is created by default on the inside or outside of the
original entity. You can change the offset side later in the command by changing the direction
of the offset arrow EdgeCAM displays.

Once you have set your offset specifications, you must select the entity or profile you want to
offset, then right-click to progress to the next step of the offset command.

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EdgeCAM indicates the side on which the offset will be created by displaying an arrow, like
this:

You can accept or change the offset side. Left mouse button click to change the direction of
the arrow to the other side of the entity or profile, if required. Right-click to end the offset
command.

Exercise 3 - Offsetting a simple profile


1. Open the file “Lines Exercise_Metric.ppf

2. Select the Offset option from the Geometry menu. You see the Offset dialog.

3. Enter the following specifications to create a 5mm offset, with rounded corners, to the
outside of the original entity:
− enter '5' in the Offset field
− select 'Round corners' in the Type field
− select 'Outside' in the Default Offset Side field.

How else can you specify the offset side?

4. Click on OK. You are prompted “Line/arc/Group/Continuous as profile”

5. Select the profile by Chaining the entire drawing.

+ Refer to the GS1 ‘Getting Start with EdgeCAM’ GS2.0

To Chain a profile – place the cursor on the profile and double click the left hand
mouse button. You will observe that EdgeCAM highlights the entire profile.

6. Right-click to end the selection command. EdgeCAM displays an offset arrow. The
arrow should point to the outside of the profile, as you specified in the Offset dialog.

7. Right-click to accept the offset side and end the offset command. EdgeCAM creates the
offset.

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8. Undo the offset, then create another 5mm offset, with round corners, to the inside of the
original profile.

9. You do not need to re-save this part.

Why does EdgeCAM create an offset with square corners?

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Trainee Notes

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D1.14 adding depth to a design


Setting the current Z level
You may add depth to your design by altering the current Z level.

You set the current Z level by entering a positive or negative value in the Z Level field on
the Standard toolbar:

For example, if you set the current Z level to -10, then create a new line by specifying the
co-ordinates for the start of the line at X0Y0, the start of the line is created in 3D space at the
point X0Y0Z-10.

8 If you specify Z co-ordinates when creating a new entity, the current Z level is ignored.

Working with 3D designs in two dimensions


When you set a new Z level, the entities you have already created may lie at a different level
to the one at which you are now working. This means that, if you select existing entities at a
different Z level as reference points for the creation or modification of other entities, the Z
level of the new entities will be the same as the selected entities. For example, you could not
select the start point of a line at X50Y50Z0 as the start point for a new line at X50Y50Z-10,
even though the XY co-ordinates are the same.

To overcome this problem, you can select to work in two dimensions. When this option is
set, EdgeCAM ignores the specified Z level (by automatically setting it to the level of the
currently selected CPL), which means that EdgeCAM can only reference the XY co-
ordinates.

To select to work in two dimensions, you click on the 2D Snap button on the Input
Options toolbar.

. The 2D Snap button is not enabled until you select a geometry command.

Once you have clicked on the 2D Snap button, it is permanently displayed as 'on'. To de-
activate the command one must be within a transaction to access this particular function.

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Once you add depth to a design, you start working with the Z co-ordinate in addition to the X
and Y co-ordinates. You use the Z co-ordinate to add the third dimension to your geometry
by specifying the depth of entities and positioning entities in 3D space.

. If you imagine that the X and Y axes lie in the plane of the screen, the Z axis points up out of
the screen, like this:

+ Refer to the GS1 ‘Getting Start with EdgeCAM’ Coordinate Systems GS1.7

Projecting a 2D design
You can add depth to an existing design by projecting one or more entities to a specific Z
level.

You project one or more entities by clicking on the Project button on the Edit toolbar. You
see the Project dialog:

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The depth you specify in the Z field indicates the distance away from the original, along the
Z-axis, at which the projection is created. It is not the Z level to which the entities are
projected, i.e. the value is incremental.

Once you have specified the level to which you want to project selected entities, you must
select the entity or entities you want to project, then right-click to end the project command.

EdgeCAM projects the selected entities by the specified distance along the Z axis, and
automatically creates vertical connecting lines at the break points of the original entities

EdgeCAM creates the projected entities with the same entity attributes as the originals. You
can specify the layer on which to create the connecting projection lines, in the Link Layer
field in the Project dialog. You can then hide this layer, which is useful if you do not want to
view the connecting lines while working on the design.

Exercise 4 - adding depth to a Profile


1. Open the file “Lines Exercise_Metric.ppf”

2. Open the Project Dialog box and enter a Z value of –20mm

3. Dismiss the dialog box by selecting “OK” – observe the prompt.

4. “Select the entities to transform” - chain the main profile.

5. Your component shape should look like this:

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6. Pan, Zoom and Rotate the part.

7. Save the part – over-writing Lines Exercise_Metric.ppf

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D1.15 - Creating Arc entities


There are THREE basic rules you will need to know when creating Circles / Arcs in
EdgeCAM.

• an ARC entity always travels anti-clockwise


• the natural start/end point of a circle is always at 0/360 degrees position.
• It is desirable to place a point entity at the centre of the arc when it is to be used
in a manufacturing hole cycle.

ARC - command will prompt you for three positions, the arc will pass through all three
points. Always construct the three positions in an anti-clockwise sweep.

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RADIUS ARC will request the starting and ending angles plus the radius size. If Start
and End Angle is left to “None” EdgeCAM assumes the arc will be a full circle.

ARC DIALOG - contains every permutation of creating an arc.

Tangent to Point; Radius and 2 Points; Blend Radius and Tangent And Centreline - all
demand a radius value.

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Exercise 5 - Drawing arcs

1. The 33.2mm Radius cannot be created without the profile – begin by creating the five
lines as shown above.

2. Click on the Arc Dialog button on the Main toolbar. You see the Arc dialog.

3. Enter 33.2 in the Radius and 2 Points field, then click on OK.

4. Observe the command prompt ‘Start Point of Arc’ – digitise the base of the 10mm
vertical line.

5. Observe the next command prompt ‘End Point of Arc’ – digitise the left-hand end of the
12mm vertical line.

6. The next command prompt will state - ‘Two Possible Arcs – Digitise near the centre of
the required arc’ Free Digitise the approximate position for the centre point of the
33.2mm Radius.

Consider why it is necessary for EdgeCAM to request the centre of the new arc entity

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Exercise 6 - Positioning Arcs


Using Line Dialog to create a horizontal line, length 25mm, position the Line at X0 Y0 Z0

Create a second line, 75° angle 30mm length. Position this line at the mid-point of the first
line.

Create an arc, radius 10mm. The arc is to be positioned so as the 75° line is it centre-line. The
arc must “sit on” top of the horizontal line.

Use Arc Dialog, Tangent and Centre line.

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Exercise 6a - Drawing arcs on a turn profile


1. Create the following Turning design. Remember to switch the Environment.

2. Initially, ignore the corner radius. Create the Shaft, using Polyline.

3. Using Tangent to Point create the 8mm arc.

4. The 30mm diameter will be tangent. The 36mm Dia. X 20mm long position will
represent the point.

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Exercise 6b - additional methods of creating arcs

Why can’t Radius Arc command be used for the 23mm Radius arc?

Maths equations can be used within the dialog boxes. Ensure the format is correct.
Selecting “Control” and “Equals” keys, displays the end result.

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D1.16 - Creating Points

The point entity is the most primitive of all EdgeCAM entities. Simply state the position of
the point by using any of the previously discussed methods: -

• Free Digitise

• Entity Digitise

• Co-ordinates

Examples of where a point entity is useful would be where drilled hole centres are specified
or, when construction entities are required.

A useful tool within EdgeCAM is its ability to create multiple point entities, which represent
Arc centres. This is advantageous when using the Hole Cycle command.

The following is a typical example of a user working with a drawing that has been originally
created in 3rd Party CAD software and now wishes to add hole points.

Exercise 7 Creating Points


1. Open the file ‘Inspection Cover_Metric.ppf’

2. From the Geometry menu select Point – activate “Arc Centre”

3. Dismiss the dialog by selecting ‘OK’ and observe the command prompt –‘Arc to
Specify Position of Point’

4. Form a ‘Window’ over the entire design drawing. Observe that only Arc entities are
selected.

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+ Refer to the GS1 ‘Getting Start with EdgeCAM’ GS2.0 Selecting Entities

5. In this instance, too many arcs are selected (the outer arcs forming the profile) You can
de-select these Arcs by simply digitising them.

As an alternative to Window command - pick all entities by holding down the


“Control” and letter “A” keys.

EdgeCAM indicates that an entity is selected by highlighting the item. You may
deselect the item by re-digitising.

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Input Options menu


The Input Options menu offers further functionality, which is utilised in both Design and
Manufacturing modes.

The following exercises will demonstrate some of the more commonly used commands.

Exercise 8 - Creating Referenced entities


The following exercise will introduce you to the Reference & Intersection commands. Both
functions are to be found on the Input Options menu.

The object of this exercise is to simply create a point entity, at a fixed distance from the
corner of the existing design.

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21. Select Point geometry Icon

21. Select Reference command.

21. Select Intersection command

21. Observe the command prompt ‘Intersection specify 1st line/arc/curve’

21. Digitise the top Horizontal line

21. Observe the next command prompt ‘Intersection specify 2nd line/arc/curve’

21. Digitise the left-hand Vertical line

21. Enter co-ordinates X 15 Y19

Think of situations where either the Reference or Intersection commands could be useful.

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Deleting Entities
In the past exercises you have been creating entities. Here we learn how to remove entities.
Essentially this will involve four EdgeCAM commands.

On selecting the DELETE icon EdgeCAM will request which entities are to be removed. At
that stage the User will digitise each unwanted entity

If using Delete under the Edit menu option – one will be offered the added functionality of
specifying the entity’s colour.

The UNDO button will make EdgeCAM release the last transaction. If the last
completed command in Design was to draw ten lines, and the UNDO button is
selected, those ten lines are removed. Transversely, if the last completed command
was to delete a number of entities, those entities will be recreated.

The REDO command will counteract the UNDO. For example if the User has
initially created five lines, then – by mistake - Undone them, the User can put the
lines back on again by way of the REDO command.

The ABORT function will exit a transaction.

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Exercise 9 – Filtering Entities


The following exercise will demonstrate: -

• Entity Types command

• Window Selection command

• Delete by Colour function.

1. Open the file ‘Entity Filters_Metric.ppf’

2. Select the Delete command. You are prompted “Digitise Entity to Delete”

3. You will favour the Window command in situations such as this, as it is the most
efficient method of selecting multiple entities. However, the command will select EVERY
entity found within its boundary. You can force the system to ignore specific entities by
using the Entity Types command.

4. Select ‘None’ to cancel all check-boxes. Re-activate ‘Dimensions’.

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5. Dismiss the Dialog box & launch the window over the entire drawing. Observe that only
the dimension entities are removed.

Think of reasons why the linear dimensions and arrow heads have not been removed.

6. Select Delete (Edit Menu). Activate ‘Match Colour’.

7. Observe the command prompt “Entity to Match with” – Digitise any White entity.

8. Observe the next command prompt “Digitise Entity to Delete” Window the entire
drawing.

Another useful method of deleting entities is to use Layer Control.

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D1.2 Manipulating 2D designs


Now that you are familiar with the basics of prismatic design, you can learn how to
manipulate simple 2D shapes to create more complex designs.

Creating blend and chamfered corners


You create blend and chamfered corners in order to remove sharp corners from components.

A chamfer is a straight line, drawn at an angle in the corner between two entities, which
intersect. This rectangle has chamfered corners:

A blend is an arc drawn between two entities that intersect, or could intersect as a result of
the blend arc. This rectangle has blended corners:

. When creating geometry, you must ensure that your design can be machined. Blending
corners helps to enable machine tools to fit into corners which otherwise would remain uncut.

EdgeCAM provides the following commands to automatically create blends and chamfers:

Displays the Chamfer dialog. Create chamfers of a


Chamfer specified angle and length, or at a specified distance
along each selected line.

Displays the Edit Radius dialog. Create blend arcs of


Radius a specified radius.

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Creating a chamfered corner

You create a chamfered corner by clicking on the Chamfer button on the Edit toolbar.
You see the Chamfer dialog:

Once you have set your chamfer specifications, you must select the two entities between
which the chamfer is required by left-clicking on each entity in turn. EdgeCAM
automatically creates the chamfer once you have selected the second entity.

You can then continue in chamfer mode, or right-click to end the chamfer command.

. EdgeCAM regards the entity you select first as the 'First Entity'.

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Creating a blend corner

You create a blend corner by clicking on the Radius button on the Edit toolbar. You see
the Edit Radius dialog:

Ensure the Trim checkbox is checked if you want to trim the entities to the intersection with
the blend arc, like this:

Not trimmed Trimmed

Once you have set your blend specifications, you must select the corner in which the blend
radius is required. If you checked the Dynamic checkbox, EdgeCAM displays possible blend
radius formations as you hold the cursor over the required corner.

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Exercise 10 - Creating chamfered corners


1. Select the Rectangle option from the Geometry menu. You see the Rectangle dialog.

2. Enter 100 in the Length and Width fields to create a square 100mm x 100mm.

3. Click on OK. You return to the main screen.

4. Position the square at X0Y0.

5. Click on the Chamfer button . You see the Chamfer dialog.

6. Enter 45 in the Angle field and 10 in the Length field.

7. Ensure both the Trim checkboxes are checked, and then click on OK. You return to the
main screen.

8. Select the right-hand line of the square, and then select the top line of the square.
EdgeCAM creates the chamfer between the two selected lines, and trims the lines to the
intersection with the chamfer line.

9. Repeat step 8 until you have created chamfers in all corners of the square, like this:

10. Verify the new design.

Notice that each chamfer is an entity in its own right.

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Exercise 11 - Creating blend corners


1. Select the Rectangle option from the Geometry menu. You see the Rectangle dialog.

2. Enter 100 in the Length and Width fields to create a square 100mm x 100mm.

3. Click on OK. You return to the main screen.

4. Position the square at X0Y0.

5. Click on the Radius button . You see the Edit Radius dialog.

6. Enter 20 in the Radius field.

7. Ensure the Dynamic and Trim checkboxes are checked, then click on OK. You return to
the main screen.

8. Hold the cursor in the corner between two sides of the square. EdgeCAM highlights the
lines and displays the blend radius you specified, in the highlight colour.

9. Left-click while the lines and blend radius are highlighted. EdgeCAM creates the blend
arc and trim the lines to the intersection with the blend arc.

10. Repeat steps 8 - 9 until you have blended each corner, like this:

11. Verify the new design.

What do you notice?

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Trainee Notes

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D1.21 Trimming Commands


Trimming an entity
You use the trim command to:

• Trim one or more entities to an intersection with another entity:

• elongate one or two non-parallel entities to the point at which they intersect:

• break an entity at the point at which it intersects with another entity.

+ Refer to the section 'Breaking an entity', for information on breaking entities.

EdgeCAM provides the following commands to trim entities:

Trim (Edit menu) Displays the Trim dialog. Trim one or more entities
against another entity, or trim two entities against
each other.
Alternatively, elongate one or two entities to the
point at which they would intersect.

Trim the first entity you select to the point at which it


Trim First intersects with the second entity you select.
Alternatively, elongate the first entity to the point at
which it would intersect with the second entity.

Trim both entities you select to the point at which


Trim Both they intersect.
Alternatively, elongate both entities until they
intersect.

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When you select the Trim option from the Edit menu, you see the Trim dialog:

Checking the First checkbox performs the same command as clicking on Trim First on the
Edit toolbar. Checking the First and Second checkboxes performs the same command as
clicking on Trim Both on the Edit toolbar.

. You can check the Second checkbox only to trim the second entity you select to the point at
which it intersects with the first entity you select.

Check the Multiple checkbox if you want to select multiple entities to trim against a selected
entity.

Once you have set your trim specifications, or clicked on the appropriate Edit toolbar trim
button, you must select the entity or entities you want to trim, then right-click to progress
through the trim command.

Digitise on the portion of the entity to be retained. Always be aware of the position of
the cursor during the Trim transactions.

Select the entity against which they will be trimmed, then right-click to end the trim
command. Take care to select the entities in the correct order if you have not selected the trim
both command.

. You can also use blend arcs and chamfers to trim existing entities against the blend or
chamfer entity.

+ Refer to the section 'Creating blend and chamfer corners' for information on creating blend
arcs and chamfers.

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Breaking an entity
You can also use the trim command to break an entity, in other words to create one or more
breaks on an entity which is intersected by another entity or entities. This means that you can
split an entity into two or more separate entities, for example you could split a circle into two
separate arcs.

This is particularly useful if you want to remove a section of an entity. For example, you
could remove the middle section of the horizontal line in this diagram by breaking the
horizontal line at the two intersections with the vertical lines:

You break an entity by checking the Break checkbox in the Trim dialog. You must then
select the entity you want to break, then right-click to progress through the trim command.
Select the first point at which you want to break the selected entity, then right-click to
progress through the trim command. Select the second point at which you want to break the
selected entity, if required, then right-click to end the trim command.

8 EdgeCAM automatically deletes the section of the entity between the two break points
specified.

. You can select only one break point for the selected entity if required, by selecting the right
hand mouse button once you have selected the first break point.

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Exercise 12 - Trimming entities


1. Create a vertical line and a horizontal line, which intersect at their mid-points to form a
cross:

2. Create another line, at 60° to the X-axis, which is to the right of, but not touching, the
cross. Your design should now look something like this:

3. Click on the Trim Both button and select the horizontal and vertical line entities, to
trim the cross to form the following geometry:

8 Ensure that you click on the part of each line that you want to keep.

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4. Extend the horizontal line until it intersects with the 60° line, and trim the 60° line so
that it does not extend below the horizontal line.

Think about the ways in which you can do this.

Your design should now look something like this:

If you want to check how the extended line looks, before trimming the 60° line, you
could perform two separate trim first commands, selecting the horizontal line first to
perform the extension. You could then perform another trim first command, selecting
the 60° line first to perform the trim.

Alternatively, you could select the trim both command, which would extend the
horizontal line and trim the 60° line in one go.

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Exercise 13- Breaking an entity


1. Create a circle - 15mm radius, centre at X0 Y0.

2. Create two lines that cross the circle. One at 135°, the other at 225° both lines to be
20mm long and to be positioned at X0 Y0. Your design should now look something like
this:

3. Break the circle, removing the inner sector. You will achieve this by using the Trim –
Break command.

Select entity to Break – digitise the smaller section of the arc

Select entity for first break point – digitise one of the lines

Select entity for second break point – digitise the second line

4. Your design will now look like this:

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Exercise 13a - Breaking an entity


1. Create a 20mm Dia. arc.

2. Create a line that crosses the arc, at 45° to the X-axis. Your design should now look
something like this:

3. Break the circle twice, at both points where it is intersected by the line, using two
separate trim commands. Your design looks the same, but should now consist of four
separate entities: two arcs below and one arc above the line. Verify the entities to check
this.

Finish the Break command AFTER the prompt “Digitise Entity for First break point”

4. Delete the arcs below the line to create the following geometry:

5. If you were to machine the top profile of this geometry, the machine tool would not be
able to cut into the corners created where the line intersects the arc. Create blend arcs to
solve this problem

You cannot automatically use the Blend arcs command, with trim activated, IF the line
is one single item. Break the line into two entities BEFORE you create the blend arcs.

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6. Having used the Blend Radius command, your design should now look something like
this:

The blend radius you specify depends on the size of the entities you want to blend,
and the size of the tools you might use to machine the component. Try using different
blend radii to create different profiles.

Think of an alternative method of Breaking the 45° Line – thus allowing you to place the
Blend Radii.

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Editing Geometry Entities

The following section deals with manipulating existing geometry inside


EdgeCAMs design environment.
Having created a design element one may discover it needs to be modified. Rather
than delete the item, you may alter its character by using editing tools.

Apply to All will alter the parameters of a selected number of entities.

• Select Apply to All

• Observe command prompt – ‘Entities to Alter’

• Window, Chain or individually digitise the target entities.

• Right hand mouse key click to complete the transaction, you will witness the
following dialog box.

• Change the relevant modifiers – select OK.

The most efficient method to modify a single design entity, is to Double click the Left-
hand mouse button whilst the cursor is positioned over the element.

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D1.22 Layer Control


EdgeCAM offers the ability to divide a drawing into several layers. A layer can be perceived
as an individual drawing sheet, which can be hidden, or displayed at the request of the user. It
is an extremely useful tool when handling large, complex drawings, where many entities are
in use.

+ Refer to the GS1 ‘Getting Start with EdgeCAM’ GS1.9 Layer Control

Exercise 14 - Layer Control


The next exercise will allow you to practice the Trim commands mentioned in the previous
chapter. You will also be shown how to manipulate layers.

You will be asked to create drawings – placing them on different layers – and edit the
drawings using the Trim commands.

As you complete each exercise, switch off the layer on which it was originally created, and
turn on the next layer in readiness for the next drawing.

1. Create a new layer – name it “Rectangle”. Right hand mouse key click over an existing
layer. Having selected “OK” you will notice that the layer is now active (Red
background in layer browser or displayed within Standard Toolbar)

2. Draw – by any method you wish to choose - the following item. The size, shape and
proportion of your drawing do not matter. Use free digitises to position the entities.
Your drawing should look like this:

3. Hide the layer by double clicking the Show tab from the “Yes” option, to “No”

4. Zoom Extents your drawing.

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. The Rectangle Layer is still active – even though it is hidden. If you attempt to create fresh
geometry you will receive the following warning message.

5. Create a new layer, name it “Random Lines” Create five single lines that are
approximately positioned as shown below:

6. Hide the layer called Random Lines. As before double click the “yes” or, right click the
layer to reveal the following menu:

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7. Create a further layer – name it Breaks. Construct one arc and two lines. The two lines
cross the arc. You should end up with something like this:

8. Hide the layer called ‘Breaks’. Reveal the layer called “Rectangle” You are now ready to
start the Trim Exercises.

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Exercise 15 – Trimming Commands

The first task is to practise the use of Trim and , these are selected from the Edit
toolbar. The shape should end up looking like this.

1. Use Trim Both and entity digitise each of lines. This will result in a
trimmed corner. Continue this process for the remaining corners.

It is not important which order the lines are digitised in but you must select the part of
the line to be retained.

2. Once finished use Abort . The original set of lines will re-appear.

3. Carry out a similar exercise to that above using Trim First . Notice the way
that only the first entity digitised is trimmed so now it is important which entity is
chosen first.

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4. Hide Layer “Rectangle”. Show Layer “Random Lines” Using the Trim multiple
command remove the surplus lines.

5. Hide the layer called Random Lines. Show the Layer called Breaks

6. Referring to the previous Edit, Trim Break exercise, produce the following shape.

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Trainee Notes

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Exercise 16 - Create a full Profile


Using the information shown so far, create this drawing.

Create the entities that you have definite dimensions for – do not guess or assume
their character

1. Create two partial arcs – 15mm & 12mm – estimate their start & end angles

2. Draw line C adjoining the two arcs by using the Tangent to Tangent modifier

3. Create Line D by using the Tangent to Point Command.

4. Create Line E by way of the Line Dialog, Relative Angle & Length modifiers

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5. Create Line A by using basically the same method, but this time don’t use the length
modifier (you do not know this value) use the “To X Co-ordinate modifier”

6. Create Vertical Line B by using the Tangent, Angle 90° and Length modifiers

7. Finally, to create the 60mm Arc – A1 - use the Arc Dialog with Radius and 2 points

8. Save this parts as Full Profile_Metric.ppf

8 Do not ignore the final prompt from the Radius And 2 Points command.

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D1.23 - Transforming entities


You can transform a single entity, or a group of entities, by using the following commands:

Displays the Translate dialog. Create one or more copies


Translate of one or more entities, or move one or more entities to a
specified position.

Displays the Mirror dialog. Create a mirror image of one


Mirror or more entities.

Displays the Rotate dialog. Rotate one or more entities


Rotate about the same point.

Display the Project command. Translates entities in the Z


Project axis direction. Creates a link line between the original and
duplicated profile.

Scale Displays the Scale dialog. Scale one or more entities from
a specified origin by a specified amount. This command is
not covered in this lesson.

Displays the Transpose dialog. Transpose one or more


Transpose entities between the milling and turning environments.

Translating an entity

Click on the Translate button on the Edit toolbar. You see the Translate dialog:

Check the Copy checkbox to copy selected entities, or leave it blank to move the original(s).
If you select to copy the original, specify the number of copies you require, in the Repeats
field.

Once you have set your translation specifications, you must select the entity or entities you
want to move or copy, then end the translate command.

EdgeCAM moves or copies the original(s) to the co-ordinates you specified in the Translate
dialog. For example, if you specified 100 in the X field, the entity or group of entities is
moved or copied 100mm along the X axis, like this:

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If you had specified to create two copies, the entity is copied a further 100 units along the X
axis, like this:

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Mirroring an entity

Click on the Mirror button on the Edit toolbar. You see the Mirror dialog:

Check the Copy checkbox to create a mirrored image of the entity, as a copy of the original.
Leave the checkbox blank to create a mirrored image of the entity, as a replacement of the
original.

Once you have set your mirror specifications, you must select the entity or entities you want
to mirror, and end the mirror command.

EdgeCAM mirrors the selected entity or group of entities, across the co-ordinates you
specified in the Mirror dialog. This diagram shows examples of the co-ordinates you would
enter to mirror an entity at X50Y50 across different points and axes:

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Transposing geometry
If you design a turned part in the XYZ (milling) environment, you must convert it to the ZX
environment before you can work with it in the turning environment.

To transpose geometry from one environment to another, you select the Transform and then
Transpose option from the Edit menu.

You see the Transpose dialog:

Select the appropriate option from the Transpose field, for example XY to ZX to transpose
geometry from the milling to the turning environment.

Once you have specified your required option, EdgeCAM converts all axis references into
the new environment. For example, a circle positioned at X0Y0 in the milling environment is
automatically transposed to the position Z0X0 in the turning environment.

The Transpose command is especially useful when working with third party CAD files
(.IGS,.DXF and DWG) Draughting systems always produce files in the XY convention.
Therefore, when using these files in EdgeCAMs Turning environment, one must always
Transpose the file.

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Rotate an entity

Click on the Rotate button on the Edit toolbar. You see the Rotate dialog:

Check the Copy box to retain the original entity/entities.

Fixed Orientation – Check to keep the selected entities in their original alignment. When
used, EdgeCAM will prompt the user to specify the anchor position.

X, Y, and Z Rotation – Specifies an incremental angular value in the X, Y and Z-axis.

Repeats – Specifies the number of times to rotate the entities.

Layer – Specifies a layer to put the new entities on.

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Exercise 17 – Rotate Entities


1. Using the Polygon command (Geometry Menu), create a triangle with the following
dimensions. Position this item at Y0 X100

2. Using the Rotate command (Edit-Transform Menu), rotate the triangle 120° - two
extra times. Set the modifier fields with the following parameters.

3. Select OK – EdgeCAM will prompt ‘Digitise the centre of rotation’ Either Select the
CPL Marker or specify Co-ordinates of X0Y0Z.

4. The next prompt is ‘Select the Entities to transform’ – Chain or Window the triangle.

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Exercise 17a – Mirror entities


1. Draw two 20mm Diameter Arcs – positioning them at X0 Y0 and X0 Y40

2. Mirror both arcs, in the X-axis direction by 20mm:

3. Select OK – EdgeCAM will prompt you to ‘Select the Entitles to Transform’

4. Digitise the two 20mm Arcs.

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Exercise 17 b– Translating entities


1. Create a circle with a 12mm radius, at X50Y50.

2. Create two copies of the circles by Translating them 25mm along the X-axis, and
25mm along the Y-axis. Your design should now look like this:

3. Create a copy of the three circles, translated by -50 along the Y-axis. Your design should
now look like this:

4. Mirror the whole design (i.e. all six circles) across the Y-axis at X0. Your design should
now look like this:

5. Try entering different co-ordinates to create different mirror images.

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Exercise 17c -Transposing Entities


5. Set EdgeCAMs Environment to Turn Inch

+ Refer to Configuring your Environment GS1.5


6. Open the part called Turned Flange.DXF

. Remember to switch the ‘Files of Type’ to *.dxf

7. As this is a CAD file EdgeCAM will attempt to import the drawing details and
dimensions. De-activate the ‘Details’ check box.

8. Use Zoom Extents to view the drawing. Whilst in the Turn view, you not see the full
drawing. Change the View port to Isometric – you will now be able to see the file.

9. Select the Transform command (Edit Menu) setting the option to XY>>ZX

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10. EdgeCAM will prompt you to ‘Digitise Entities to Transpose’


11. Window the entire drawing – all entities will be highlighted

Think of a different method of selecting the entire drawing.

12. When viewed from the Turn Port one will see this image.
13. Save the part as ‘Turned Flange_Metric.ppf’

Class Exercise 17d -Save Limited


1. Open the Part file called Turned Flange_Metric.ppf’. You will observe that the file
contains many unwanted entities. Furthermore, notice how the Datum (CPL marker) is
not in the desired position.
2. Using the Save Limited command – set the file name to ‘Turned Flange 1_Metric.ppf’

3. You are prompted to digitise the Origin. Digitise one of the vertical lines representing
the front of the component. Ensure Intellisnap confirms you are selecting the correct
portion of the line.

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4. The final prompt is to ‘Digitise entities to Save’ - Window the upper section of the
Turned component. Upon completion of this transaction, EdgeCAM will create a new
.PPF part file, which contains the entities that have been windowed. Furthermore, the
Datum position will be correct.

5. Clear the current EdgeCAM work session by using the File New command – do not save
the part when prompted
6. Open the file called Turned Flanged 1.ppf – this is the file that has just been created by
using the File Save Limited command.
7. Despite selecting the image during the “Save Limited command” - you will probably
still have to delete some more entities. As the original drawing was designed using
different entity colours, you can use the “Match Colour” option to remove the majority
of the unwanted entities.

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8. Select Delete (Edit Menu) activate ‘Match Colour’

9. When prompted “Entity to Match with” digitise any white coloured entity.
10. When prompted “Digitise Entities to Delete” – window the whole drawing.
11. Continue to delete any other unwanted entities on the part. The drawing should finally
look like the image below.

You may discover that EdgeCAM refuses to delete the “arrow-head” entities. Try and find out
why this and how to remedy it.

12. From a Manufacturing point of view, one will now need to rotate the part so as the
larger bore diameter is facing a tailstock. Use the Rotate command. Place a value of
180° in the X-Axis modifier and use the CPL and the rotation point.

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13. The CPL datum should be positioned on the right-hand side of the component Use the
Translate command to achieve this.
14. You must supply a value in the Z-axis modifier. An efficient method of doing this is to
set the modifier to “Digitise”. EdgeCAM will prompt you to select two positions on the
component. The two positions are subtracted from one another and the answer becomes
the Z Axis translate amount.

15. If you verify the drawing, one will discover that EdgeCAM reports dimensions in
Imperial. If you wish to metricate the part you must not only switch from Inch
environment to Metric, but also Scale the part.

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16. Click “IN”, it will revert to displaying MM


17. Using the Scale command. Place a value of 25.4 in the Scale Factor. Use the CPL
Datum as the “Origin for Scale”

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Trainee Notes

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Exercise 18 - Creating ‘Packing Adaptor’ Component


By now, you have learned the basic design techniques you need to begin creating your
component. The component is called Packing Adaptor.

Starting with a square and two circles, you will be able to create the following initial design
for the component:

The following table lists the attributes of each entity. You should refer to this table
throughout the following exercise.

Feature Size Command Position

Outer profile 100 x 100mm Rectangle X50Y50

Inner profile 4mm smaller than Outer 0ffset


Profile

Circles 8mm radius Arc Digitised

Before you turn the page, think about the steps involved in creating the above shape. How
would you create the outer profile? How would you create the inner profile? How would you
position the circles?

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To create your component:

1. Create a 100 x 100mm rectangle, with its centre at X50Y50.

As an alternative to using the icon, active the co-ordinates input box, by striking either
X, Y or Z on the keyboard.

2. Blend and trim the bottom left and top right corners of the rectangle with a blend radius
of 50mm.

3. Blend and trim the top left and bottom right corners of the rectangle with a blend radius
of 12mm.

4. Your design should now have the following profile:

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5. Offset the profile, to the inside of the original, by 4mm.

. This profile will form the basis of two inner pockets. You will create these pockets later in the
lesson.

6. Create two 8mm Radius arcs, positioned so that their centres are at the centres of the top
left and bottom right (12mm) blend arcs.

. These circles will form countersink holes later in the lesson.

Your design should now look like this:

7. Save your component as ‘Packing Adapter.ppf'.

8. Having got this far, plan & consider how you can complete this drawing.

Before you turn the page, think about the steps involved in creating the additional geometry.
How would you split the inner profile to form the two pockets, at the specified distance from
the centre? How would you create the blend arcs in the outer corners of each pocket?

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9. Re-Open the part file ‘Packing Adapter.ppf

10. Ensure layer “Inner” is active.

11. Create the line from X0Y0 to X100Y100

You know that this intersects the profile through its midpoint because the initial
rectangle you used to create the profile was 100 by 100mm, with its centre at X50Y50.

Now that you have the outline of two inner pockets, you must offset the straight edge of
each pocket from the centre of the component by 4mm.

12. Create two copies of the intersecting line, offset on each side of the original line by 4mm.
These diagonal lines will form the straight edge of each pocket.

What command will you use to create the two 4mm lines that represent the wall thickness?

13. Delete the centre line. Your design should now look like this:

You can see that the two pockets are beginning to take shape.

Your next step is to produce the 4 –10mm radii found in the corners of the pockets.

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How will you produce the 4 –10mm Radii?

Think of what effect trimming will have on your entities

Can you split the inner profile and create the blend arcs against the straight edge of each
pocket yet? Think about the entities that form the inner profile.
Before you can split the inner profile to create the two pockets, you must break the arcs that
outline the top and bottom corners of each pocket.

14. Break both the 46mm arcs, into two divisions – double click the left hand mouse button
over the arc.

15. Using the Edit Radius command, create the four, 10mm radii in each corner, trimming
away the surplus portion of the arc.

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16. Your component will look like this.

17. You must now create the inverted 12mm arcs, in the outer corners of each pocket.

Look at the component diagram at the beginning of this exercise. You can see that the
inverted arcs in the outer corners of each pocket have the same radius as the blend arcs
created in the corresponding corners of the initial rectangle.

You could create the inverted arcs by mirroring the blend arcs in the top left and
bottom right corners of the outer profile. To save you from working out the
co-ordinates at which you would have to mirror the arcs, it is simpler to draw a circle
with the same radius and centre point as the arc, which you can then blend and trim.

18. Create two 12mm Radius circles, positioned so that their centres are at the centres of the
top left and bottom right (12mm) blend arcs of the outer profile.

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Whilst creating the 12mm arcs – restrict their start and end positions. You do not
require a full arc.

19. Blend and trim the outer corners of each pocket to the 12mm circles, with a blend radius
of 10mm.

8 If using the Edit Radius command without “Dynamic” – remember to digitise the
entities in an anti-clockwise order.

20. Save your component as ‘Packing Adaptor.ppf

You have now learned how to work with 3D designs, which you need to add the finishing
touches to your component.

Starting with the component you created in the last exercise, you will be able to project your
component and create two holes at a different depth to finish your component design:

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21. Select the ‘Project’ command

 outer profile to a depth of -30.


 inner pockets to a depth of -15
 Counterbores, 8mm Radius to a depth of -5

Rotate the view to a different orientation so that you can see the design in three dimensions.

Return to the 'Top' view orientation by clicking on the blue view status bar and selecting
'Top'

Set the current Z level to -5.

− Create two 4mm circles, positioned so that their centres are at the X & Y centres of
the two 8mm circles.

How can the 2D Snap function assist you when specifying the centres of the 8mm
diameter Thru’ Holes?

Remember Intellisnap!

Project the 8mm dia. thru’ holes to a depth of -25

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How can you check that each entity has been projected to the correct depth?

You can check the depth of each projected entities by either verifying the Z co-
ordinate details, or by viewing the design from the 'Front' view orientation.

You have now finished creating your component and it is ready to be machined. Your design
should look like this viewed from the 'Top' orientation:

Your design should look like this viewed from the 'Front' orientation:

Your design should look like this viewed in three dimensions:

Save the part as ‘Packing Adaptor_Metric.ppf'. You will learn how to machine this
component in lesson M1, Prismatic milling.

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D2.1 Overview of the lesson


In this lesson, you will learn how to create and manipulate designs, in order to create the
following components:

Stub Axle.ppf

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Selecting the turning environment


The ZX environment caters specifically for the manufacture of a turned part. In this
environment, the Z-axis is horizontal and the X-axis is vertical. To create a turned part, you
must select to work in the ZX environment.

Select the ZX environment option from the Options menu:

The default CPL for the ZX environment is the ‘Turn’ CPL. This is automatically displayed
in the CPL field on the Standard toolbar. Furthermore, observe the bottom right hand side of
the EdgeCAM screen – ‘DIA ZX MM’ should be displayed.

+ Refer to the GS1 ‘Getting Start with EdgeCAM’ GS1.5 Configuring your Environment

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Exercise 19 – Creating ‘Stub Axle’ component


By now, you have learned the basic techniques you need to design your first turned part. The
part is called ‘Stub Axle’

1. Using the co-ordinates shown, create the following component, on a layer called
‘Profile’, using the ‘Fire Engine Red’ colour:

2. Note the single figure dimensions are incremental. Furthermore, the X-axis dimensions
are stated Radial.

+ Refer to the component drawing ‘Stub Axle’ shown on previous page.

Think about the different ways in which you could do this.

3. To see what the turned part will look like, sweep the design through 360° with 50 repeats.
Your design should look something like this:

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The structure of the swept design depends on the values you enter for the sweep
command. Try entering different values into the End Angles and Repeat fields.

4. Rotate the view so that you can see your design in three dimensions.

5. Save the component as Turned Component_Metric.ppf

6. Using the information given below, create the following blend radii and chamfered
corners.

• Blend Radius 0.8mm

• Chamfer 4mm x 45°

7. It is not essential to design the entities that make up the drilled hole. However, for
aesthetic reasons, the following procedure can be used for creating the drilled hole.

8. Create a horizontal line , start point Z0X10 end point Z-25.

9. Create a vertical line that starts at Z-25X10 and end at X0.

10. Save the component as ‘Stub Axle_Metric.ppf’

11. Sweep the design, if required, so that you can rotate the view and see your design in three
dimensions. Your design should now look something like:

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Exercise 20 – Designing a Location Shaft


Based on the information that you have leant in the previous chapter, create the following
drawing, using your own methods.

Save the part ‘Location Shaft_Metric.ppf’

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D1.24 – Basic 3D designing


Working on different construction planes
Now that you have learnt how to work with depth in designs, you can learn how to use
system construction planes (CPL’s) to create geometry in different planes, i.e. on different
faces of a component.

A CPL defines a local co-ordinate system at each orientation. This means that each CPL has
its own X, Y and Z-axes that are automatically translated into World co-ordinates.

. The 'Top' CPL co-ordinates correspond exactly with World co-ordinate system.

Working on different CPL’s means that you do not have to 'rotate' the XYZ reference points
as you rotate a component design to create geometry on different faces of the component. In
other words, X and Y lie in the plane of the screen and Z points up out of the screen, within
each CPL.

EdgeCAM provides a number of pre-defined system CPL’s, which cover the basic
orientations with respect to World co-ordinates.

You select the CPL at which you want to work in the CPL Field on the Standard toolbar:

8 To view a component directly through the active CPL, you must also select the correct
view orientation from the blue view status bar at the bottom of the graphics area. For
example, if you have selected to work in the 'Front' CPL, but are viewing the design
using the 'Top' orientation, you cannot see the 'Front' face of the component as you
are working on it.

The best way of illustrating the use of CPL’s is by working through the following Exercise -
Creating a dice, below.

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Exercise 21 - Creating a 3D dice


You have now learned how to work on different CPL’s, or 'faces' of a 3D component. In this
exercise, you will create a cube and then create geometry on each face of the cube to design
the numbers of the dice:

Before you start this exercise, think about the steps involved in creating the dice.

What preparations should you make before you create the cube?

How many different CPL’s will you use?

3D design involves 3 EdgeCAM functions - all based around CPL’s

Use this learning mnemonic:

C – Construction Plane
P – Port (the View Port)
L – Level (the Z-Level)

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To create your dice:

1. Create a 100mm'' cube at X0Y0Z0.

8 Imagine this is a component sat on in the centre of a Rotary Table. Datum Zero is the
dead centre of the Cube i.e. the centre of the Rotary table.

2. Set the current Z level to 100mm

This is because the centre point of the cube is at Z0, which means that each face of the cube
is 50mm', along the Z axis, from the centre, EXCEPT the top face which is 100mm

3. Ensure the CPL and view orientation is set to ‘TOP’

4. Using the Text Feature command (Geometry Menu) create the word ‘TOP FACE’ on the
Top of the Cube.

The Text Feature offers True Type Font and Vector Text- use Vector in this instance.

The Text Milling Cycle can only machine vector Text. True Type Font text can be
machined by all other prismatic cycles i.e. Areaclear, Profile etc

5. Your Vector Text modifiers should include:

• Height and Width 10mm

• Rotation 0°

• Alignment – Centre

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6. Position the text at X0 Y0. You do not have to consider the Z axis position as the Z-Level
is set to 100mm

7. Set the CPL to FRONT. Set the Z-Level to 50mm

8. Create the word ‘Front Face’ on the front of the cube.

Remember to change the String to ‘Front Face’.

9. Position the text at Y50mmX0.

Why has the position of the Text now changed? Look at the Datum position.

24. Set the CPL to Right. Set the Z-Level to 50mm.

24. Create the word ‘Right Face’ on the Right hand side of the cube. Position the Text at Y50
X0

24. Set the CPL to Left. Set the Z-Level to 50mm

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24. Create the word ‘Left Face’ on the Left hand side of the cube. Position the Text at
Y75mm X0

24. Set the CPL to Bottom. Set the Z-Level to 0mm

Why is the Z-Level now zero’? Look at the Datum position.

24. Create the word ‘Bottom Face’ on the Bottom of the cube. Position the Text at Y0 X0

Why has the position of the Text now changed? Observe the CPL Marker position.

24. Set the CPL to Back. Set the Z-Level to 50mm

24. Create the word ‘Back Face’ on the Back of the cube. Position the Text at Y-25mm
X0

8 In this scenario the Back CPL is not a practicable option. The Y Axis is pointing into
the Rotary Table. This is the EdgeCAM convention, which relates to the “World axis” If
this had been a machine tool, which Rotates around the X Axis - Back CPL would have
been acceptable.

24. Save the dice design as 'Dice_Metric.ppf'.

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Creating contoured wall designs


You create contoured walls to enable the machining of molds and filleted edges with 3-axis
milling techniques.

8 You can design and machine contoured walls under the EdgeCAM Milling licence.

Molds usually contain contoured walls to allow the machined component to be removed from
the mold. For example, an outline of a mold for machining a cube might look like this
(viewed from the 'Front' orientation):

However, you do not need to define the whole shape of the mold in order to machine it. You
can simply create one profile, in the Z-axis direction, to indicate the path the tool must take.
For example, you could create the following geometry to dictate an ever-decreasing toolpath
for an areaclear cycle. In this example, a rectangle represents the top of the component (2D
Profile) into which the pocket will be cut (viewed from the 'Front' orientation):

8 Before you can mill this component, you must convert the lines that form the contour
wall in this design into a continuous entity. This is because you cannot chain a
contour when specifying milling commands.

+ Refer to the section 'Converting to continuous entities' for further information on transforming
more than one entity into a continuous entity.

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When viewed from the Isometric view, the design looks like this:

A fillet edge, in design terms, is simply an arc constructed between perpendicular entities.
For example, you could create the following geometry to design a fillet edge, (viewed from
the 'Front' orientation, where the horizontal line is a rectangle on the 'Top' CPL and the
vertical line and arc are on the 'Right' CPL):

When viewed from different orientations, the design looks like this:

'Top' orientation Dynamic orientation

Think about the different ways in which you can design geometry to influence the way in
which a component is machined.

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Converting to continuous entities


You can convert a collection of entities that share a common start or end point, or intersect,
into a continuous entity. EdgeCAM treats the entities that form the continuous entity as a
single entity, which allows you to select or reference the continuous entity with a single
digitise. This is particularly useful if you design a contour wall.

. EdgeCAM displays the number of constituent entities that form the continuous entity when
you verify a continuous entity.

8 When creating a continuous entity you are given the choice of either retaining or
deleting the ‘base entities’

You convert to a continuous entity by selecting the Continuous option from the Geometry
menu. You see the Continuous dialog:

. You do not have to enter a name for the continuous entity.

Once you have specified a name, if required, you must select the entities that you want to
convert by using any of the chain commands.

+ Refer to Getting Started with EdgeCAM GS1.1O for information on Chaining

It is useful to select a different colour attribute and layer name for the continuous
entity.

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Exploding a continuous entity


Once you have created a continuous entity and elected to “delete base entities” there may be
occasions where you want to ‘resurrect’ the original geometry.

This is made possible by using the Explode command (Edit Menu)

. You can also explode group entities.

+ Refer to the EdgeCAM Design User Guide for further information on group entities.

To explode a continuous entity, select the Explode option from the Edit menu. You see the
Explode dialog:

Once you have specified the mode, you must select the continuous entity you want to
explode, then right-click to progress the explode command. You see the second explode
dialog, which is named after the type of entity you selected, for example the Continuous
dialog:

Once you have specified the attributes you want to apply to the exploded entities, EdgeCAM
explodes the continuous entity into its original constituent entities, and applies the attributes
you specified.

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Exercise 22 - Designing a contour wall


1. Using the Rectangle command create a 100 x 100mm square, with 15mm corner radius,
positioned at X50Y50, on the 'Top' CPL.

2. Select the 'Front' CPL and view orientation.

3. Set the Z-Level to –50

Think – Why has the Z-Level been positioned at –50mm?

4. Create the following profile in the Front View.

5. A combination of Polyline and Co-Ordinate input will produce the profile.

• X100Y0

• IY-30

• IY-30IX10

• IY-10IX15

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• IY-7.

6. Using the Edit Radius command, create three 12mm radius between the 3 lower lines.

7. Your design should now look like this, (viewed from the 'Front' and ‘Iso’ views):

How can you split the screen and activate Front View and Isometric View?

7. Create a continuous entity out of the geometry that makes up the Contour Wall Profile.
That is to say, the entities that exists in the Front CPL/View only.

How can you identify the continuous entity more easily? How can you select the original
entities to delete them?

8. Save the part Contour Wall_Metric.ppf

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Trainee Notes

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D1.3 Preparing a model for machining


It is industry practice to use component parts that have already been designed using a
dedicated draughting package, for example Solid Edge, Solid Works, Inventor etc. This is
particularly the case for 3D surface components, which are generally quite complex in
comparison to prismatic components.

+ Refer to Exercise 17c ‘Transposing Entities’ for further information on working with
Translation files.

You can use with these 3D models within EdgeCAM, however, you need to understand the
principles of loading and manipulating interchange files in order to produce the ideal
circumstances for manufacturing within EdgeCAM. This includes use of the following:

• Explode command

• Boundary command

• Surface curves

• Layers.

The following part will be used to illustrate how to load and prepare a model for machining:

. This part has been designed using a third party CAD package.

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Exercise 23-Working with IGES Files


1. Load the part file 'Lift Link.IGS'.

2. As this is not a native EdgeCAM part, you presented with a dialog, which allows you to
ignore certain types of entities. In this case, accept the default.

3. Use the Entity Count command to ascertain what the part consists of.

4. Complete the command by Right-Hand mouse key click. By default EdgeCAM will
capture all entities that are on the screen.

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Notice that there is no wireframe, i.e. lines, arcs, points, Splines or continuous entities. This
will cause are problem as the 2.5 D Machining cycles, rely upon these entities.

For manufacturing purposes, you need to prepare this model as described in the following
exercises.

Exercise 23a
Either an Areaclear or Roughing Cycle will be used to machine the pocket indicated in this
exercise. Both cycles rely on the presence of line and/or arc entities. As theses entities are not
present - you must create them from the model’s surfaces.

1. Ensure the file ‘Lift Link.IGS’ is open.

2. Create a new layer for the pocket boundary, Call it ‘Wire Frame’

3. Use the Generate Boundary command, to create a boundary using top surface that makes
up the pocket feature.

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4. Activate “Base Entities” and dismiss the Dialog by selecting “OK”

5. Select the top face of the component as indicated below.

6. Switch all Layers off – except ‘Wire Frame’

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Exercise 23b
The hole feature will be drilled out, rather than machine it away with an endmill. You need to
find out the exact size of the hole feature, in order to select the correct size drill.

1. Use the Generate Boundary command again (Base Entities), to create a boundary using
the surfaces that make up the circular recess. Select the top surfaces as indicated below.

Create a new layer so as the wire fame is exclusive to this layer.

2. Delete the unwanted entities, leaving behind the arcs.

3. Verify the size of the smaller arc.

.
4. The resultant value will decide the diameter of the drill that must be used.

5. Save the component as 'Lift Link_Metric.ppf'.

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Lesson summary
By completing this lesson, you have:

• created simple geometric entities by:


− drawing lines, arcs and rectangles
− positioning entities

• manipulated geometric entities to form more complex shapes, by:


− creating blend and chamfered corners
− copying, translating, mirroring, offsetting and trimming entities

• added depth to a 2D design

• designed an X-Y component, which you will machine in lesson M1, Prismatic milling

• designed a Z-X component, which you will machine in lesson M2, 2-Axis Turning

• worked on different faces of a 3D design, by using system CPL’s

• designed a dice

• discussed how you might influence the way in which a component is machined using
different design techniques

• converted a collection of entities to a continuous entity.

• Learnt how to manipulate IGS files containing surface entities

You can now progress to one of the following lessons, depending on the EdgeCAM licence
with which you are working:

• M1 - Prismatic milling

• M2 – 2 axis Turning.

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To repeat this exercise at your own pace once you have completed this training
course, you can refer to the following example components which are supplied with
the training CD:

Polylines_metric.ppf’

Packing Adapter_Metric.ppf'

Stub Axle_Metric.ppf

Turned Part_Metric.ppf

Lines Exercise_Metric.ppf

Entity Types_Metric.ppf

Turned Flange.DXF

Lift Link.DXF

Inspection Cover_Metric.ppf

Location Shaft_Metric.ppf

Turned Component_Metric.ppf

Full Profile_Metric.ppf

Dice_Metric.ppf

Contour wall_Metric.ppf

Document Revision

1 – 3. Original versions

4. December 2003 – general updates for EdgeCAM 8.50

5. February 2005 – updated for version EdgeCAM 9.50

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