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AASHTO LRFD Brid ge D es i gn Specifications Prestressed Concrete RICHARD A. MILLER, PhD,
AASHTO LRFD Brid ge D es i gn Specifications Prestressed Concrete RICHARD A. MILLER, PhD,

AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design Specifications Prestressed Concrete

RICHARD A. MILLER, PhD, PE, FPCI PROFESSOR UNIVERSITY OF CINCINNATI
RICHARD A. MILLER, PhD, PE, FPCI
PROFESSOR
UNIVERSITY OF CINCINNATI
AASHTO-LRFD Specification, 4th Edition
AASHTO-LRFD Specification, 4th Edition

General

This module covers prestressed concrete superstructure elements. Segmental boxes are NOT covered. Topics which are related to reinforced concrete only are covered in another module. Concrete structures are covered in Chapter 5. Chapter 5 uses a unified approach – reinforced concrete and prestressed concrete are covered in the same chapter. Loads and load combinations related to concrete are covered in Chapter 3. Analysis of concrete structures is covered in Chapter 4.

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Prestressed Concrete: Slide #2

General

LRFD equations are in KSI units!

Example Modulus of Rupture:

f = 0.24 5 ksi = 0.530 ksi LRFD r f = 7.5 5000 psi
f
=
0.24
5
ksi
=
0.530
ksi
LRFD
r
f
=
7.5
5000
psi
=
530
psi STD SPEC
.
.
r
In most cases, the equations are simply the old Standard
Specifications equations converted to ksi units.
7.5
5000 psi
7.5 1000
5 ksi
7.5
5
ksi
=
=
= 0.24
5 ksi
1000
psi ksi
/
1000
1000
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Prestressed Concrete: Slide #3

§ 5.4 – Material Properties

Materials must meet AASHTO LRFD Bridge Construction Specifications. Unless specified otherwise, all provisions apply for strengths up to 10 ksi (Art. 5.4.2.1). Some provisions allow up to 15 ksi. There is an effort to extend all provisions to 18 ksi. If a provision does not allow higher strength, use a maximum of 10 ksi in the calculations. Decks must have a minimum strength of 4 ksi.

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Prestressed Concrete: Slide #4

§ 5.4 – Material Properties

A current problem with the LRFD Specifications is that some provisions allow strengths up to 18 ksi, but many are limited to 15 ksi or the default of 10 ksi. So what do you do if you are using a high strength concrete and a specific provision does not allow that strength? Use the highest strength allowed by that provision. For example, assume a 15 ksi strength is specified but a particular provision has not been verified for that strength. For that particular provision, you must use a concrete strength of 10 ksi for your calculations (you may still use 15 ksi concrete in the structure, you just cannot take advantage of the additional strength for that particular provision). However, if other provisions allow the use of 15 ksi concrete, you can use 15 ksi for those provisions.

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Prestressed Concrete: Slide #5

§ 5.4 – Material Properties

§ 5.4.2.3 – Shrinkage and Creep

For calculation of creep and shrinkage, the engineer may use:

Articles 5.4.2.3.2 and 5.4.2.3.3 CEB-FIP Model Code ACI 209 For prestressed concrete – the loss equations include creep and shrinkage. The main use of these provisions for prestressed concrete is for calculating restraint moments for continuous for live load bridges. These are verified to 15 ksi. The creep equations do not work for strengths over 15 ksi.

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Prestressed Concrete: Slide #6

§ 5.4 – Material Properties § 5.4.2.3 – Shrinkage and Creep Creep Coefficien t Art
§ 5.4 – Material Properties
§ 5.4.2.3 – Shrinkage and Creep
Creep Coefficien t Art
(
.5.4.2.3.2):
H = Relative Humidity
ψ (
− 0.118
t t
,
i )=
1.9
k k
k k t
vs hc
f
td i
  V 
t = time from first loading to
time being considered
k
=
1.45
0.13
≥
1.0
vs
S
= time of first loading
t i
k
1.56
0.008
H
hc =
V/S = volume to surface
5
1 +
f
'
f ci
ci
t 
k
= 
= concrete strength at time of
prestress transfer or time of
first load (RC).
td
61
4
f
'
+
t
ci
If unknown, assume = 0.8f c ’.
Std. Spec did not have a creep coefficient. Previous versions of LRFD use a
different equation. It is similar to the ACI equation using ∆t 0.6 /(10+ ∆t 0.6 ).
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Prestressed Concrete: Slide #7

k

f

=

§ 5.4 – Material Properties § 5.4.2.3 – Shrinkage and Creep Shrinkage ( Art .5.4.2.3.3):
§ 5.4 – Material Properties
§ 5.4.2.3 – Shrinkage and Creep
Shrinkage ( Art
.5.4.2.3.3):
H
= Relative Humidity
(
− 3
)
ε
=− k k k k
0.48 10
x
s
h vs
h
s
f
td
t
= time from end of cure to
time being considered
=
1.45 −
0.13   V 
≥
1.0
k vs
S
V/S
= volume to surface
2 − 0.014
H
= concrete strength at time of
f ci
5
prestress transfer or time of
k
f =
1 +
f
'
first load (RC).
ci
If unknown, assume = 0.8f c ’.
t 
k
td
=  
61
4
f
'
+
t
 
ci
Std. Spec. set shrinkage = 0.002. Previous editions of LRFD used an ACI type
equation with a term of t/(35+t).
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Prestressed Concrete: Slide #8

k

hs

=

§ 5.4 – Material Properties

§ 5.4.2.6 – Modulus of Rupture

There are now 3 defined Moduli of Rupture for normal weight concrete:

For Arts. 5.7.3.4 (crack control) and 5.7.3.3.2 (I eff ):

0.24

f c ’ksi (= 7.5f c ’ in psi units)

For Art. 5.7.3.3.2 (minimum reinforcement):

0.37

f c ’ksi (= 11.5f c ’ in psi units)

For Art. 5.8.3.4.3 (shear) (this is new in 2007):

0.20 f c ’ksi (= 6 f c ’ in psi units)

Note that the value for Article 5.8.3.4.3 (shear) ONLY applies to the new, “simplified” method.

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Prestressed Concrete: Slide #9

§ 5.4 – Material Properties

§ 5.4.2.4 – Modulus of Elasticity & § 5.4.2.5 – Poisson’s Ratio

E

 

1.5

f ' c
f
'
c

(5.4.2.4-1)

c

= 33,000K w

1c

Where:

µ = 0.2

(5.4.2.5)

K 1 = Aggregate factor. Taken as 1.0 unless determined by testing or as approved by a jurisdiction. w = concrete unit weight in kcf f c = concrete strength ksi

by testing or as approved by a jurisdiction. w = concrete unit weight in kcf f
by testing or as approved by a jurisdiction. w = concrete unit weight in kcf f

E is basically the old Standard Specifications equation converted to ksi units and with an aggregate correction factor added.

µ is unchanged from Standard Specifications.

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Prestressed Concrete: Slide #10

§ 3.4 - Loads and Load Factors

§3.4.1: Load Factors and Load Combinations

For prestressed girders, the following service load combinations are most common:

Service I:

Used for compression and transverse tension in prestressed

concrete. Service III: Used for longitudinal tension in prestressed concrete girders.

Service IV: Used for tension in prestressed columns, for crack control.

Strength I: Basic load combination.

Fatigue :

Fatigue of reinforcement does NOT need to be checked for fully prestressed components designed using Service III (Art. 5.5.3.1)

Strength II-V and Extreme Event I and II are checked as warranted.

Service II is for steel and never applies to prestressed concrete.

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Prestressed Concrete: Slide #11

§ 3.4 - Loads and Load Factors

§3.4.1: Load Factors and Load Combinations

Table 3.4.1-1 Load Combinations and Load Factors

 

DC

                 

DD

LL

Use One of These at a Time

DW

IM

       

EH

CE

EV

BR

TU

ES

PL

CR

Load Combination

EL

LS

WA

WS

WL

FR

SH

TG

SE

EQ

IC

CT

CV

STRENGTH I

                         

(unless noted)

γ

p

1.75

1.00

--

--

1.00

0.50/1.20

γ TG

γ SE

--

--

--

--

STRENGTH II

γ

p

1.35

1.00

--

--

1.00

0.50/1.20

γ TG

γ SE

--

--

--

--

STRENGTH III

γ

p

 

1.00

1.40

--

1.00

0.50/1.20

γ TG

γ SE

--

--

--

--

STRENGTH IV

γ

p

 

1.00

--

--

1.00

0.50/1.20

 

--

 

--

--

--

--

--

STRENGTH V

γ

1.35

1.00

0.40

1.0

1.00

0.50/1.20

γ

TG

γ

SE

--

--

--

--

   

p

                       

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Prestressed Concrete: Slide #12

§ 3.4 - Loads and Load Factors

§3.4.1: Load Factors and Load Combinations

Table 3.4.1-1 Load Combinations and Load Factors (cont.)

 

DC

                 

DD

DW

LL

IM

Use One of These at a Time

       

EH

CE

EV

BR

TU

ES

PL

CR

Load Combination

EL

LS

WA

WS

WL

FR

SH

TG

SE

EQ

IC

CT

CV

EXTREME EVENT I

γ

p

γEQ

1.00

--

--

1.00

--

--

--

1.00

--

--

--

EXTREME EVENT II

γ

p

0.50

1.00

--

--

1.00

--

--

--

--

1.00

1.00

1.00

FATIGUE – LL, IM, & CE ONLY

--

0.75

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

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Prestressed Concrete: Slide #13

§ 3.4 - Loads and Load Factors

§3.4.1: Load Factors and Load Combinations

Table 3.4.1-1 Load Combinations and Load Factors (cont.)

 

DC

                 

DD

LL

Use One of These at a Time

DW

IM

EH

CE

       

EV

BR

TU

Load

ES

PL

CR

Combination

EL

LS

WA

WS

WL

FR

SH

TG

SE

EQ

IC

CT

CV

SERVICE I

1.00

1.00

1.00

0.30

1.0

1.00

1.00/1.20

γ

TG

γ

SE

--

--

--

--

SERVICE II

1.00

1.30

1.00

--

--

1.00

1.00/1.20

 

--

 

--

--

--

--

--

SERVICE III

1.00

0.80

1.00

--

--

1.00

1.00/1.20

γ

TG

γ

SE

--

--

--

--

SERVICE IV

1.00

--

1.00

0.70

--

1.00

1.00/1.20

 

--

1.0

--

--

--

--

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Prestressed Concrete: Slide #14

§ 3.4 - Loads and Load Factors

§3.4.1: Load Factors and Load Combinations

Service III applies only to LONGITUDINAL TENSION in prestressed girders. The modifier to (LL+IM) is 0.8. The modifier is < 1 because it was found that the tensile capacity of prestressed girders is underestimated. This is largely because the loss of prestressing force is usually overestimated and a lower bound is used for the tensile strength (modulus of rupture).

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Prestressed Concrete: Slide #15

AASHTO - LRFD Distribution Factors for Precast/Prestressed Concrete Elements AASHTO-LRFD Specification, 4th Edition
AASHTO - LRFD Distribution Factors for Precast/Prestressed Concrete Elements AASHTO-LRFD Specification, 4th Edition

AASHTO-LRFD Distribution Factors for Precast/Prestressed Concrete Elements

AASHTO - LRFD Distribution Factors for Precast/Prestressed Concrete Elements AASHTO-LRFD Specification, 4th Edition
AASHTO-LRFD Specification, 4th Edition
AASHTO-LRFD Specification, 4th Edition

Distribution Factors for Precast/Prestressed Concrete Elements

§ 4.6.2.2.2 Distribution Factor Method for Moment and Shear

The simplified distribution factors may be used if:

Shear The simplified distribution factors may be used if: Width of the slab is constant Number

Width of the slab is constant Number of beams, N b > 4 Beams are parallel and of similar stiffness Roadway overhang d e < 3 ft

Central angle < Article 4.6.1.2

Cross section conforms to AASHTO Table 4.6.2.2.1-1

Note: Multiple presence factors are NOT used with simplified distribution factors.

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Prestressed Concrete: Slide #17

This is part of Table 4.6.2.2.1-1 showing common precast/ prestressed concrete bridge types. The letter
This is part of Table 4.6.2.2.1-1 showing common precast/ prestressed concrete bridge types. The letter

This is part of Table 4.6.2.2.1-1 showing common precast/ prestressed concrete bridge types. The letter below the diagram correlates to a set of distribution factors .

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Prestressed Concrete: Slide #18

Distribution Factors for Precast/Prestressed Concrete Elements

§ 4.6.2.2.2 Distribution Factor Method for Moment and Shear

Beam and Slab Bridges would be a Type “k” bridge.

Shear Beam and Slab Bridges would be a Type “k” bridge. Moment distribution factor s -

Moment distribution factors - LRFD Table 4.6.2.2.2b-1:

Two or more lanes loaded:

DFM = 0.075+(S/9.5) 0.6 (S/L) 0.2 (K g /12.0Lt s 3 ) 0.1 One lane loaded:

DFM= 0.06+( S/14 ) 0.4 ( S/L ) 0.3 (K g /12.0Lt s 3 ) 0.1

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Prestressed Concrete: Slide #19

Distribution Factors for Precast/Prestressed Concrete Elements

§ 4.6.2.2.2 Distribution Factor Method for Moment and Shear

S

L

t s

N b

K g

= girder spacing (ft)

3.5 < S < 16.0

= span length (ft) = slab thickness (in) = Number of Beams

20 < L < 240 4.5 < t s < 12.0 N b > 4

= n(I g + A g e g 2 )

(in 4 ) 10,000 < K g < 7,000,000

n = E c,beam /E c,slab

I g

A

e g

g

= gross moment of inertia, non composite girder (in 4 ) = gross area, non composite girder (in 2 ) = distance between centers of gravity of the non composite beam and slab. (in)

If N b = 3, use the lesser of the equations above with N b = 3 and the lever rule.

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Prestressed Concrete: Slide #20

Distribution Factors for Precast/Prestressed Concrete Elements

§ 4.6.2.2.2 Distribution Factor Method for Moment and Shear

Beam and Slab Type “k” bridge

for Moment and Shear Beam and Slab Type “k” bridge Shear Distribution Factors - LRFD Table

Shear Distribution Factors - LRFD Table 4.6.2.2.3a-1:

Two or more lanes loaded:

DFV = 0.2 + ( S/12 ) - ( S/35 ) 2

One lane loaded:

DFV = 0.36 + ( S/25 )

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Prestressed Concrete: Slide #21

Distribution Factors for Precast/Prestressed Concrete Elements

4.6.2.2.2 Distribution Factor Method for Moment and Shear

§

3.5 < S < 16.0 ft. 20 < L < 240 ft. 4.5 < t s < 12.0 in. N b > 4

3.5 < S < 16.0 ft. 20 < L < 240 ft . 4.5 < t
3.5 < S < 16.0 ft. 20 < L < 240 ft . 4.5 < t
3.5 < S < 16.0 ft. 20 < L < 240 ft . 4.5 < t

If N b = 3; use the lever rule.

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Prestressed Concrete: Slide #22

Distribution Factors for Precast/Prestressed Concrete Elements

§ 4.6.2.2.2 Distribution Factor Method for Moment and Shear

Beam and Slab Bridge Type “k” – Exterior – Moment

Two or more lanes loaded:

g

ext

= eg

int

d

9.1

One lane loaded – use the Lever Rule

LRFD Table 4.6.2.2.2d-1

g = DFM

– use the Lever Rule LRFD Table 4.6.2.2.2d-1 g = DFM = distance from edge of

= distance from edge of the traffic railing to the exterior web of the

exterior beam. The term d

(shown) and negative when the railing is inboard. -1.0 < d e < 5.5 ft.

e

is positive when the railing is outboard

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Prestressed Concrete: Slide #23

d

e

e =

0.77 +

e

Distribution Factors for Precast/Prestressed Concrete Elements

§ 4.6.2.2.2 Distribution Factor Method for Moment and Shear

Beam and Slab Bridge Type “k” – Exterior – Shear

Two or more lanes loaded:

g

ext

= eg

int

d

10

One lane loaded – use the Lever Rule

LRFD Table 4.6.2.2.3b-1

lane loaded – use the Lever Rule LRFD Table 4.6.2.2.3b-1 July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do

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Prestressed Concrete: Slide #24

e =

0.6 +

e

g = DFV -1.0 < d e < 5.5 ft.

g = DFV -1.0 < d e < 5.5 ft.

Distribution Factors for Precast/Prestressed Concrete Elements

§ 4.6.2.2.2 Distribution Factor Method for Moment and Shear

Beam and Slab Bridge – Type “k” Longitudinal Beams on Skewed Supports

Any number of lanes loaded; multiply DFM by:

(LRFD Table 4.6.2.2.2c-1)

1

c

1

(

tan

θ

)

1.5

 

s

0.25

c

1

=

K

12 Lt

0.25

 

L

S  

0.5

θ = Angle of skew; 30 o < θ < 60 o ; if θ<30 o , c 1 = 0; if θ>60 o then θ=60 o

L = Span,

S = Beam Spacing, N b > 4

20 < L < 240 ft

3.5 < S < 16 ft

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Prestressed Concrete: Slide #25

Distribution Factors for Precast/Prestressed Concrete Elements § 4.6.2.2.2 Distribution Factor Method for Moment and
Distribution Factors for Precast/Prestressed Concrete Elements
§ 4.6.2.2.2 Distribution Factor Method for Moment and Shear
Beam and Slab Bridge – Type “k” Longitudinal Beams
on Skewed Supports
Correlation Factor for Load Distribution Factor for Support Shear at
Obtuse Corner - (LRFD Table 4.6.2.2.3c-1)
0.3
3
12 Lt
s
1.0
+ 0.20
 
tanθ
K
 
g
θ = Angle of skew; 0 o < θ < 60 o ;
L = Span,
20 < L < 240 ft
S = Beam Spacing,
N b > 4
3.5 < S < 16 ft
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Prestressed Concrete: Slide #26

Distribution Factors for Precast/Prestressed Concrete Elements

§ 4.6.2.2.2 Distribution Factor Method for Moment and Shear

Lever Rule: Assume a hinge develops over each interior girder and solve for the reaction in the exterior girder as a fraction of the truck load.

This is for one lane loaded. Multiple Presence Factors apply 1.2 is the MPF

M

H

1.2

Pe RS

−=

0

R

=

1.2

Pe

DF

∴=

1.2

e

 
 

S

 

S

g

,

1.5’ 36k 36k
1.5’
36k
36k

; is the resultant force. All three loads are NOT applied at the same time.

Note that truck cannot be closer than 2’

In the dia ram P/2 are the wheel loads P

8 ft from the barrier (3.6.1.3)
8 ft
from the barrier
(3.6.1.3)

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Loads & Analysis: Slide #27

Distribution Factors for Precast/Prestressed Concrete Elements § 4.6.2.2.2 Distribution Factor Method for Moment and
Distribution Factors for Precast/Prestressed Concrete Elements
§
4.6.2.2.2 Distribution Factor Method for Moment and Shear
Minimum Exterior DFM: (Rigid Body Rotation of Bridge Section)
N
L
X
e
Ext
N
L
DF
=
+
Ext Min
,
N
(C4.6.2.2.2d-1)
N
b
b
2
x
N L
N b
e
x
- Number of loaded lanes under consideration
- Number of beams or girders
- Eccentricity of design truck or load from CG of pattern of
girders (ft.)
- Distance from CG of pattern of girders to each girder (ft.)
X Ext - Distance from CG of pattern of girders to exterior girder (ft.)
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Loads & Analysis: Slide #28

Distribution Factors for Precast/Prestressed Concrete Elements

§ 4.6.2.2.2 Distribution Factor Method for Moment and Shear

Adjacent Box Girders Adjacent box girders with shear keys and a cast-in-place overlay are Type “f” sections.

Adjacent box girders with shear keys, but no cast-in- place deck, are Type “g” sections. Type “g” sections may or may not be laterally post-tensioned.

Lack of lateral post-tensioning causes a reduction of the distribution factor.

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Prestressed Concrete: Slide #29

Distribution Factors for Precast/Prestressed Concrete Elements

§ 4.6.2.2.2 Distribution Factor Method for Moment and Shear

Interior Box Girders The following distribution factors may be used for a Type “f” (composite deck) or a Type “g” (non-composite) bridge IF the girders are “sufficiently connected together” – meaning they achieve transverse flexural continuity.

This can be done with lateral post-tensioning of at least 250 psi (Commentary 4.6.2.2.1; paragraph 12).

The Commentary further states that bridges without a structural overlay and which use untensioned transverse rods should NOT be considered as sufficient to achieve transverse flexural continuity, unless demonstrated by testing or experience (Commentary 4.6.2.2.1, paragraph

14).

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Prestressed Concrete: Slide #30

Distribution Factors for Precast/Prestressed Concrete Elements

§ 4.6.2.2.2 Distribution Factor Method for Moment and Shear

Interior Box Girders

Type “f” (composite deck) or “g” with lateral PT - LRFD Table 4.6.2.2.2b-1 Moment:

Two lanes loaded DFM = k ( b/305 ) 0.6 ( b/12.0L ) 0.2 ( I/J ) 0.06 One lane loaded DFM = k(b/33.3L) 0.5 (I/J) 0.25

lane loaded DFM = k(b/33.3L) 0 . 5 (I/J) 0 . 2 5 July 2007 ODOT

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Prestressed Concrete: Slide #31

Distribution Factors for Precast/Prestressed Concrete Elements

§

4.6.2.2.2 Distribution Factor Method for Moment and Shear

k

=25.

0 2 > 1 5

( N

b )-

.

Interior Box Girders .

N b = number of beams 5 < N b < 20

b

= width of beam, in 35< b < 60 in

L

= span of beam, ft

20< L < 120 ft

I

= moment of inertia of beam, in 4

J

= St. Venant torsional constant in 4

 

,

For preliminary design, ( I/J ) 0.06 = 1.0

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Prestressed Concrete: Slide #32

Distribution Factors for Precast/Prestressed Concrete Elements

§ 4.6.2.2.2 Distribution Factor Method for Moment and Shear

Interior Box Girders

Distribution Factors for Shear - LRFD Table 4.6.2.2 3a-1 Two Lanes Loaded:

DFV = (b/156) 0.4 (b/12L) 0.1 (I/J) 0.05 (b/48)

One Lane Loaded:

DFV = (b/130L) 0.15 (I/J) 0.05

These are used for both composite and non-composite; even if the girders are NOT sufficiently connected.

5 < N

35< b < 60 in 20< L < 120 ft 25,000 < J < 610,000 in 4 40,000 < I < 610,000 in 4

< 20

b

in 4 40,000 < I < 610,000 in 4 < 20 b July 2007 ODOT Short

July 2007

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AASHTO-LRFD 2007

Prestressed Concrete: Slide #33

Distribution Factors for Precast/Prestressed Concrete Elements

§ 4.6.2.2.2 Distribution Factor Method for Moment and Shear

Type “g” box with NO lateral PT

for Moment and Shear Type “g” box with NO lateral PT DFV (distribution factor for shear)

DFV (distribution factor for shear) does not change. It is the same for Type “g” structures with and without lateral PT. DFM is different. For Type “g” structures without lateral PT, the old Standard Specifications equations are used.

NOTE: The Standard Specifications equations were based on wheel loads and the LRFD equations are based on axle loads; so the equations changed by a factor of 2.

July 2007

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Prestressed Concrete: Slide #34

Distribution Factors for Precast/Prestressed Concrete Elements

§

4.6.2.2.2 Distribution Factor Method for Moment and Shear

Distribution Factor for Moment - LRFD Table 4.6.2.2.2b-1

DFM = S/D

S = width of precast beam (ft)

D = (11.5 - N L )+1.4N L (1-0.2C) 2 when C < 5

D = (11.5 - N L ) when C > 5

Where:

N L = number of traffic lanes C = K(W/L) < K

N L = number of traffic lanes C = K(W/L) < K

July 2007

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AASHTO-LRFD 2007

Prestressed Concrete: Slide #35

Distribution Factors for Precast/Prestressed Concrete Elements

§ 4.6.2.2.2 Distribution Factor Method for Moment and Shear

C = K(W/L) < K

Where: (1+µ) I K = J
Where:
(1+µ) I
K =
J

For Preliminary Design Beam Type

K

Nonvoided rectangular beams

0.7

Rectangular beams with circular voids:

0.8

Box section beams

1.0

Channel beams

2.2

T-beam

2.0

Double T-beam

2.0

W = overall width of bridge measured perpendicular to the longitudinal beam (ft) L = span (ft) µ = Poisson’s ratio = 0.2 for concrete (5.4.2.5)

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Prestressed Concrete: Slide #36

Distribution Factors for Precast/Prestressed Concrete Elements

§ 4.6.2.2.2 Distribution Factor Method for Moment and Shear

J

Where:

4 A

∑

2

S

t

A = Area enclosed by the centerline of the webs and flanges. S = length of a web or flange centerline. t = thickness of the corresponding web or flange.

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Prestressed Concrete: Slide #37

Distribution Factors for Precast/Prestressed Concrete Elements

§ 4.6.2.2.2 Distribution Factor Method for Moment and Shear

The bending moment for exterior beams is determined by multiplying the distribution factor for interior beams by a factor, e, which accounts for the distribution of load to the exterior girder. Note that this applies to type “g” even if there is no lateral post-tensioning. Lack of lateral post- tensioning is accounted for in the DVM.

Minimum exterior distribution factor based on rigid body rotation does not apply to adjacent box girders.

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Prestressed Concrete: Slide #38

Distribution Factors for Precast/Prestressed Concrete Elements

§ 4.6.2.2.2 Distribution Factor Method for Moment and Shear

Exterior Box Girders

Multiplier for Moment – Types “f” and “g” - LRFD Table 4.6.2.2.2d-1

– Types “f” and “g” - LRFD Table 4.6.2.2.2d-1 Two or more lanes loaded: g ext

Two or more lanes loaded:

g ext = eg interior

Where:

e = 1.04 + ( d e / 25 ) > 1 d e =distance from edge of the traffic railing to the exterior web of the exterior beam. The term d e is positive when the railing is outboard (shown) and negative when the railing is inboard. d e < 2.0 UNIT IS FEET! g= DFM

July 2007

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Prestressed Concrete: Slide #39

Distribution Factors for Precast/Prestressed Concrete Elements

§ 4.6.2.2.2 Distribution Factor Method for Moment and Shear

Exterior Box Girder

Multiplier for Moment – Types “f” and “g” - LRFD Table 4.6.2.2.2d-1

One lane loaded:

g ext = eg interior

e

= 1.125 + ( d e / 30 ) > 1

d e < 2.0 ft.

e accounts for the distribution of load to the exterior girder

July 2007

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Prestressed Concrete: Slide #40

Distribution Factors for Precast/Prestressed Concrete Elements

§ 4.6.2.2.2 Distribution Factor Method for Moment and Shear

Exterior Box Girders

Multiplier for Shear Types “f” and “g” - LRFD Table 4.6.2.2.3b-1 Two or more lanes loaded:

eg   48

 

b

48

b

≤ 1

g

0.5

d

e = + 

 

1

 

b

2.0

1.0

d e < 2.0

e +

12

40

35 < b < 60 in

g = DFV

 

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Prestressed Concrete: Slide #41

ext

=

int

Distribution Factors for Precast/Prestressed Concrete Elements

§ 4.6.2.2.2 Distribution Factor Method for Moment and Shear

Multiplier for Shear – Types “f” and “g” - LRFD Table

One lane loaded:

g ext = eg interior

4.6.2.2.3b-1

e = 1.125 + ( d e / 20 ) > 1

d e < 2.0 ft.

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Prestressed Concrete: Slide #42

Distribution Factors for Precast/Prestressed Concrete Elements

§ 4.6.2.2.2 Distribution Factor Method for Moment and Shear

Skewed Box Girders Multiplier for Moment - LRFD Table 4.6.2.2.2c-1

1.05 - 0.25 ( tan θ)

<

1.0

θ = skew angle

If θ > 60 0

use θ = 60 0

This is optional.

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Prestressed Concrete: Slide #43

Distribution Factors for Precast/Prestressed Concrete Elements

4.6.2.2.2 Distribution Factor Method for Moment and Shear

§

When the skew angle of a bridge is small, say, less than 20 o , it is often considered safe to ignore the angle of skew and to analyze the bridge as a zero-skew bridge whose span is equal to the skew span. This approach is generally conservative for moments in the beams, and slightly unsafe (<5%) for slab-on-girder decks for longitudinal shears. The LRFD Specifications Table 4.6.2.2.e-1 lists reduction multipliers for moments in longitudinal beams. The previous slide illustrates the multiplier for spread box beams, adjacent box beams with concrete overlays or transverse post- tensioning and double tees in multi-beam decks or Types (b), (c), (f) and (g).

concrete overlays or transverse post- tensioning and double tees in multi-beam decks or Types (b), (c),
concrete overlays or transverse post- tensioning and double tees in multi-beam decks or Types (b), (c),

July 2007

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Prestressed Concrete: Slide #44

Distribution Factors for Precast/Prestressed Concrete Elements

§ 4.6.2.2.2 Distribution Factor Method for Moment and Shear

Correlation Factor for Load Distribution Factor for Support Shear at Obtuse Corner – Types “f” and “g” - (LRFD Table 4.6.2.2.3c-1) – This is mandatory.

1.0 +

12.0 L tanθ 90 d
12.0 L
tanθ
90
d

0 o < θ < 60 o 20 < L < 240 ft 17 < d < 60 in 35 < b < 60 in 5 < N b < 20

.

d is depth of the girder b is width of the flange

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Prestressed Concrete: Slide #45

AASHTO -LRFD Flexure and Axial Loads AASHTO-LRFD Specification, 4th Edition
AASHTO -LRFD Flexure and Axial Loads AASHTO-LRFD Specification, 4th Edition

AASHTO-LRFD Flexure and Axial Loads

AASHTO -LRFD Flexure and Axial Loads AASHTO-LRFD Specification, 4th Edition
AASHTO-LRFD Specification, 4th Edition
AASHTO-LRFD Specification, 4th Edition

Flexure and Axial Loads

Definitions of various “d” terms for

and Axial Loads Definitions of various “d” terms for July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not

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AASHTO-LRFD 2007

Prestressed Concrete: Slide #47

Flexure and Axial Loads

AASHTO LRFD now uses the same terminology as ACI

318-05.

This is a unified method for prestressed and reinforced concrete members. Article 5.7.2.1 defines 3 states:

Tension Controlled Compression Controlled Transition In all cases, extreme fiber compressive strain = 0.003 (Article 5.7.2.1). Values above 0.003 are allowed for confined cores.

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Prestressed Concrete: Slide #48

Flexure and Axial Loads

§ 5.7.2 Assumptions for Strength and Extreme Event Limit States

Definition of Section Types

Extreme tensile steel strain when the extreme concrete compressive strain = 0.003

Type of section

ε t > 0.005

Tension controlled

ε t < f y / E s (may use = 0.002)

Compression controlled

0.005 > ε t > f y / E s

Transition

For all prestressing or Grade 60 non-prestressed steel, ε t may be assumed = 0.002 in place of f y /E s for compression controlled.

The ACI 318 code, upon which this provision is based, requires flexural members (that is, members with a superimposed axial load of < 0.1f c ’A g ) to have ε s > 0.004. AASHTO does not impose this requirement.

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Prestressed Concrete: Slide #49

Flexure and Axial Loads

§ 5.7.2 Assumptions for Strength and Extreme Event Limit States

Assumptions for Strength and Extreme Event Limit States Definition of strain conditions for determining tension or

Definition of strain conditions for determining tension or compression control. Note that tensile strain in the steel closest to the tensile face is used. Balanced condition is when ε t = ε y . For Grade 60 steel and all prestressing steel, ε y may be taken as 0.002. Note that for prestressing steel, ε t is the tensile strain which occurs in the steel after the pre-compression in the concrete is lost.

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Prestressed Concrete: Slide #50

Flexure and Axial Loads

§ 5.7.2 Assumptions for Strength and Extreme Event Limit States

d t
d t

For a prestressed beam, it is important to understand the definition of ε t .

Begin by considering the strain condition of the beam at the point where the only loads are the prestressing force and the beam self weight.

In this condition, the top of the beam is usually in tension (due to the prestressing). There is a net tensile strain in the prestressing steel of ε p1 . This is the initial pull minus any strain lost due to prestress losses. At the level of the steel, there is a compressive strain the concrete, ε c .

July 2007

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Prestressed Concrete: Slide #51

Flexure and Axial Loads

§ 5.7.2 Assumptions for Strength and Extreme Event Limit States

d t
d t

As load is applied, the strain profile changes, the bottom decompresses and eventually reaches a point where the CONCRETE strain at the level of the steel is 0. This is called

“decompression”.

If there were no losses (except for elastic shortening), the strain

in the steel, ε

would be the initial pull. The actual strain in the steel, with losses, can be calculated by mechanics.

p2

at this point

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Prestressed Concrete: Slide #52

Flexure and Axial Loads

§ 5.7.2 Assumptions for Strength and Extreme Event Limit States

d t
d t

This is the condition at M n . The compressive strain in the concrete is 0.003. The total strain in the

prestressing steel is the sum of the strain in the steel at

decompression, ε

developed between decompression and the ultimate state, ε t .

p2

, and the strain

The specifications only regulate the strain developed between decompression and the ultimate state, ε t . The additional strain in the prestressing steel, ε p2 is not part of the specification.

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Prestressed Concrete: Slide #53

Flexure and Axial Loads

§ 5.5.4.2 Resistance Factors

Φ = 0.9 tension controlled reinforced concrete members 1.0 tension controlled prestressed concrete members

0.75

compression controlled members with spirals or ties (except for members in Seismic Zones 3 & 4)

0.90

shear and torsion

0.70

shear and torsion lightweight concrete

For transition members, use a linear interpolation of the Φ factor based on the extreme tensile steel strain.

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Prestressed Concrete: Slide #54

Flexure and Axial Loads

§ 5.5.4.2 Resistance Factors 1.05 Prestressed 1 Prestressed: Strain = 0.004 0.95 Phi = 0.92
§ 5.5.4.2 Resistance Factors
1.05
Prestressed
1
Prestressed:
Strain = 0.004
0.95
Phi
= 0.92
Reinforced
0.9
0.85
0.8
0.75
0.7
Compression
Tension
0.65
Transition
Controlled
Controlled
0.6
0
0.001
0.002
0.003
0.004
0.005
0.006
0.007
Phi Factor

Extreme Steel Strain

d

Prestressed Members

0.75

φ

≤=

Reinforced Members

0.75

φ

≤=

0.583

+

.25

 

t

1

 

1.0

(5.5.4.2.1-1)

 

c

 

d

0.65

+

.15

 

t

1

 

1.0

(5.5.4.2.1-2)

 

c

 

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Prestressed Concrete: Slide #55

Flexure and Axial Loads

§ 5.5.4.2 Resistance Factors

Effect of New Resistance Factors It is allowable to design flexural members with extreme fiber steel strains < 0.005. This is done by increasing the area of steel. However, in general, the Φ factor is reduced at a slightly lower rate than moment resistance is gained. There is a slight increase in M n but it is minimal. , increasing the amount of steel above that required to bring the extreme fiber steel strains to 0.005.

Th s there is little effect on the allowable moment b

u

y

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Prestressed Concrete: Slide #56

Flexure and Axial Loads § 5.5.4.2 Resistance Factors For tension controlled partially prestressed members: φ=
Flexure and Axial Loads
§ 5.5.4.2 Resistance Factors
For tension controlled partially prestressed members:
φ=
0.90
+
0.10PPR
(5.5.4.2.1-3)
A
f
A
f
+ Af
ps
py
s
y
PPR = Partial prestressing ratio
A
= Area of prestressing steel
ps
f py = Yield strength of the prestressing steel
A s = Area of mild steel
f y = Yield strength of the mild steel
July 2007
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Prestressed Concrete: Slide #57

PPR =

ps

py

(5.5.4.2.1-4)

Flexure and Axial Loads

Flexure and Axial Loads The stress block remains the same as Standard Specifications. Analysis of reinforced

The stress block remains the same as Standard Specifications. Analysis of reinforced concrete RECTANGULAR beams is the same as Standard Specifications. HOWEVER, there are some differences with prestressed concrete.

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Prestressed Concrete: Slide #58

AASHTO - LRFD Prestressed Beams with Bonded Tendons AASHTO-LRFD Specification, 4th Edition
AASHTO - LRFD Prestressed Beams with Bonded Tendons AASHTO-LRFD Specification, 4th Edition

AASHTO-LRFD Prestressed Beams with Bonded Tendons

AASHTO-LRFD Specification, 4th Edition
AASHTO-LRFD Specification, 4th Edition
Prestressed Beams with Bonded Tendons § 5.7.3 Flexural Members The value of f ps can
Prestressed Beams with Bonded Tendons
§ 5.7.3 Flexural Members
The value of f ps can be found from (if f pe > 0.5f pu ):
 c
f
py
f
= f
1k −
(5.7.3.1.1-1)
 
k = 21.04 −
(5.7.3.1.1-2)
ps
pu
 
d
  
p
 
f pu
Then:
0.85f 'b a
= A
f
c
ps
ps
a
1 c
c
0.85f 'b
β=
c
A
f
1
k
c
1
ps
pu
d
  
p
A
f
ps
pu
c =
f pu
d
p
Stress in the steel, f ps , can also be found from strain compatibility analysis.
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Prestressed Concrete: Slide #60

0.85f '

c

β

1

b

+

kA

ps

Prestressed Beams with Bonded Tendons

§

5.7.3 Flexural Members

c =

A f

ps

pu

f pu

ps d

p

c

b

A ps = area of TENSILE prestressing steel d p = depth to centroid of tensile prestressing steel f pu = tensile strength of prestressing steel f py = yield strength of prestressing steel

β 1 = stress block factor – same as Std. Spec.

= depth of neutral axis

= width of compression block

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Prestressed Concrete: Slide #61

0.85 f

c

' β

1

b + kA

Prestressed Beams with Bonded Tendons § 5.7.3 Flexural Members If there is mild (nonprestressed) tensile
Prestressed Beams with Bonded Tendons
§ 5.7.3 Flexural Members
If there is mild (nonprestressed) tensile steel, A s and mild
compression steel A s ’ both with a yield stress of f y , the
equation for c becomes:
.85
f ' b
β
c
+
A ' f
'
=+ Af
A f
k
c
1
s
y
s
y
ps
pu
A f
+
Af
A f
'
'
ps
pu
s
y
s
y
c =
f (5.7.3.1.1-4)
d
p
The engineer must do an analysis to see if the compression steel yields. If the
compression steel does not yield, the actual stress is substituted for f y ’ into
equation 5.7.3.1.1-4.
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Prestressed Concrete: Slide #62

   1

   1 − c d p   

c

d

   1 − c d p   

p

 

   1 − c d p   

0.85

f

c

'

β +

b kA

1

0.85 f c ' β + b kA 1 ps pu

ps

pu

Prestressed Beams with Bonded Tendons

§ 5.7.3 Flexural Members

Sometimes, things change for the better!!!!

Flexural Members Sometimes, things change for the better!!!! Std. Spec And LRFD 2005 Interim Editions 1

Std. Spec

And

LRFD 2005

Interim

Editions 1 through 3 of LRFD

In Editions 1-3 of the LRFD Specifications, the β factor was applied to the flange as well as to the web. This made no sense. It was changed with the 2005 Interim back to the old definition . Now it is the same definition as ACI 318 and Std. Spec.

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Prestressed Concrete: Slide #63

Prestressed Beams with Bonded Tendons § 5.7.3 Flexural Members The T beam equation returns to
Prestressed Beams with Bonded Tendons
§ 5.7.3 Flexural Members
The T beam equation returns to normal:
 a
M =
A f
d
−+ a 
Af
d
−−

n
ps
ps
p
s
y
s
(5.7.3.1.1-1)
 
2
 
 2
0.85
 
2
 
22
Again the engineer must do an analysis to see if the compression steel
yields. If the compression steel does not yield, the actual stress is
substituted for f y ’ into equation 5.7.3.1.1-1.
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Prestressed Concrete: Slide #64

Af '

sy

'

d

s

'

−+ a

f ' bbh

c

(

wf )

Af ' sy '  d s ' −+ a  f ' bbh c (
Af ' sy '  d s ' −+ a  f ' bbh c (
Af ' sy '  d s ' −+ a  f ' bbh c (

a

h

f

Prestressed Beams with Bonded Tendons § 5.7.3 Flexural Members The LRFD Specifications give only this
Prestressed Beams with Bonded Tendons
§ 5.7.3 Flexural Members
The LRFD Specifications give only this equation:
If the section is NOT a “T” beam, b = b w and:

aa

a
M
=
A
f
d
−+
A f
d
−−
A'
f '
d'


n
ps
ps
p
s
y
s
s
s
s

22

 
2
 
If there is no compression steel:
a d −
a d −
M
= A
f
+
Af


n
ps
ps
p
s
y
s
 2
 2
If there is no non-prestressed tensile steel:
a