AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design Specifications Prestressed Concrete
General
This module covers prestressed concrete superstructure elements. Segmental boxes are NOT covered. Topics which are related to reinforced concrete only are covered in another module. Concrete structures are covered in Chapter 5. Chapter 5 uses a unified approach – reinforced concrete and prestressed concrete are covered in the same chapter. Loads and load combinations related to concrete are covered in Chapter 3. Analysis of concrete structures is covered in Chapter 4.
July 2007
ODOT Short Course
Do Not Duplicate
AASHTOLRFD 2007
Prestressed Concrete: Slide #2
General
LRFD equations are in KSI units!
Example Modulus of Rupture:
§ 5.4 – Material Properties
Materials must meet AASHTO LRFD Bridge Construction Specifications. Unless specified otherwise, all provisions apply for strengths up to 10 ksi (Art. 5.4.2.1). Some provisions allow up to 15 ksi. There is an effort to extend all provisions to 18 ksi. If a provision does not allow higher strength, use a maximum of 10 ksi in the calculations. Decks must have a minimum strength of 4 ksi.
July 2007
ODOT Short Course
Do Not Duplicate
AASHTOLRFD 2007
Prestressed Concrete: Slide #4
§ 5.4 – Material Properties
A current problem with the LRFD Specifications is that some provisions allow strengths up to 18 ksi, but many are limited to 15 ksi or the default of 10 ksi. So what do you do if you are using a high strength concrete and a specific provision does not allow that strength? Use the highest strength allowed by that provision. For example, assume a 15 ksi strength is specified but a particular provision has not been verified for that strength. For that particular provision, you must use a concrete strength of 10 ksi for your calculations (you may still use 15 ksi concrete in the structure, you just cannot take advantage of the additional strength for that particular provision). However, if other provisions allow the use of 15 ksi concrete, you can use 15 ksi for those provisions.
July 2007
ODOT Short Course
Do Not Duplicate
AASHTOLRFD 2007
Prestressed Concrete: Slide #5
§ 5.4 – Material Properties
§ 5.4.2.3 – Shrinkage and Creep
For calculation of creep and shrinkage, the engineer may use:
Articles 5.4.2.3.2 and 5.4.2.3.3 CEBFIP Model Code ACI 209 For prestressed concrete – the loss equations include creep and shrinkage. The main use of these provisions for prestressed concrete is for calculating restraint moments for continuous for live load bridges. These are verified to 15 ksi. The creep equations do not work for strengths over 15 ksi.
July 2007
ODOT Short Course
Do Not Duplicate
AASHTOLRFD 2007
Prestressed Concrete: Slide #6
k
f
=
k
hs
=
§ 5.4 – Material Properties
§ 5.4.2.6 – Modulus of Rupture
There are now 3 defined Moduli of Rupture for normal weight concrete:

For Arts. 5.7.3.4 (crack control) and 5.7.3.3.2 (I _{e}_{f}_{f} ): 

0.24 
√f _{c} ’ksi (= 7.5√f _{c} ’ in psi units) 


For Art. 5.7.3.3.2 (minimum reinforcement): 

0.37 
√f _{c} ’ksi (= 11.5√f _{c} ’ in psi units) 


For Art. 5.8.3.4.3 (shear) (this is new in 2007): 
0.20 √f _{c} ’ksi (= 6 √f _{c} ’ in psi units)
Note that the value for Article 5.8.3.4.3 (shear) ONLY applies to the new, “simplified” method.
July 2007
ODOT Short Course
Do Not Duplicate
AASHTOLRFD 2007
Prestressed Concrete: Slide #9
§ 5.4 – Material Properties
§ 5.4.2.4 – Modulus of Elasticity & § 5.4.2.5 – Poisson’s Ratio
E 
1.5 
f
'
c

(5.4.2.41) 

c 
= 33,000K w 1c 
Where:
_{µ} _{=} _{0}_{.}_{2}
(5.4.2.5)
K _{1} = Aggregate factor. Taken as 1.0 unless determined by testing or as approved by a jurisdiction. w = concrete unit weight in kcf f _{c} ’ = concrete strength ksi
E is basically the old Standard Specifications equation converted to ksi units and with an aggregate correction factor added.
µ is unchanged from Standard Specifications.
July 2007
ODOT Short Course
Do Not Duplicate
AASHTOLRFD 2007
Prestressed Concrete: Slide #10
§ 3.4  Loads and Load Factors
§3.4.1: Load Factors and Load Combinations
For prestressed girders, the following service load combinations are most common:

Service I: 
Used for compression and transverse tension in prestressed 

concrete. Service III: Used for longitudinal tension in prestressed concrete girders. 


Service IV: Used for tension in prestressed columns, for crack control. 


Strength I: Basic load combination. 


Fatigue : 
Fatigue of reinforcement does NOT need to be checked for fully prestressed components designed using Service III (Art. 5.5.3.1) 

Strength IIV and Extreme Event I and II are checked as warranted. 


Service II is for steel and never applies to prestressed concrete. 
July 2007
ODOT Short Course
Do Not Duplicate
AASHTOLRFD 2007
Prestressed Concrete: Slide #11
§ 3.4  Loads and Load Factors
§3.4.1: Load Factors and Load Combinations
Table 3.4.11 Load Combinations and Load Factors
DC 

DD 
LL 
Use One of These at a Time 

DW 
IM 

EH 
CE 

EV 
BR 
TU 

ES 
PL 
CR 

Load Combination 
EL 
LS 
WA 
WS 
WL 
FR 
SH 
TG 
SE 
EQ 
IC 
CT 
CV 

STRENGTH I 

(unless noted) 
^{γ} 
p 
1.75 
1.00 
 
 
1.00 
0.50/1.20 
^{γ} TG 
^{γ} SE 
 
 
 
 

STRENGTH II 
^{γ} 
p 
1.35 
1.00 
 
 
1.00 
0.50/1.20 
^{γ} TG 
^{γ} SE 
 
 
 
 

STRENGTH III 
^{γ} 
p 
1.00 
1.40 
 
1.00 
0.50/1.20 
^{γ} TG 
^{γ} SE 
 
 
 
 

STRENGTH IV 
^{γ} 
p 
1.00 
 
 
1.00 
0.50/1.20 
 
 
 
 
 
 

STRENGTH V 
γ 
1.35 
1.00 
0.40 
1.0 
1.00 
0.50/1.20 
^{γ} 
TG 
^{γ} 
SE 
 
 
 
 

p 
July 2007
ODOT Short Course
Do Not Duplicate
AASHTOLRFD 2007
Prestressed Concrete: Slide #12
§ 3.4  Loads and Load Factors
§3.4.1: Load Factors and Load Combinations
Table 3.4.11 Load Combinations and Load Factors (cont.)
DC 

DD DW 
LL IM 
Use One of These at a Time 

EH 
CE 

EV 
BR 
TU 

ES 
PL 
CR 

Load Combination 
EL 
LS 
WA 
WS 
WL 
FR 
SH 
TG 
SE 
EQ 
IC 
CT 
CV 

EXTREME EVENT I 
^{γ} 
p 
γEQ 
1.00 
 
 
1.00 
 
 
 
1.00 
 
 
 
EXTREME EVENT II 
^{γ} 
p 
0.50 
1.00 
 
 
1.00 
 
 
 
 
1.00 
1.00 
1.00 
FATIGUE – LL, IM, & CE ONLY 
 
0.75 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
July 2007
ODOT Short Course
Do Not Duplicate
AASHTOLRFD 2007
Prestressed Concrete: Slide #13
§ 3.4  Loads and Load Factors
§3.4.1: Load Factors and Load Combinations
Table 3.4.11 Load Combinations and Load Factors (cont.)
DC 

DD 
LL 
Use One of These at a Time 

DW 
IM 

EH 
CE 

EV 
BR 
TU 

Load 
ES 
PL 
CR 

Combination 
EL 
LS 
WA 
WS 
WL 
FR 
SH 
TG 
SE 
EQ 
IC 
CT 
CV 

SERVICE I 
1.00 
1.00 
1.00 
0.30 
1.0 
1.00 
1.00/1.20 
^{γ} 
TG 
^{γ} 
SE 
 
 
 
 
SERVICE II 
1.00 
1.30 
1.00 
 
 
1.00 
1.00/1.20 
 
 
 
 
 
 

SERVICE III 
1.00 
0.80 
1.00 
 
 
1.00 
1.00/1.20 
^{γ} 
TG 
^{γ} 
SE 
 
 
 
 
SERVICE IV 
1.00 
 
1.00 
0.70 
 
1.00 
1.00/1.20 
 
1.0 
 
 
 
 
July 2007
ODOT Short Course
Do Not Duplicate
AASHTOLRFD 2007
Prestressed Concrete: Slide #14
§ 3.4  Loads and Load Factors
§3.4.1: Load Factors and Load Combinations
Service III applies only to LONGITUDINAL TENSION in prestressed girders. The modifier to (LL+IM) is 0.8. The modifier is < 1 because it was found that the tensile capacity of prestressed girders is underestimated. This is largely because the loss of prestressing force is usually overestimated and a lower bound is used for the tensile strength (modulus of rupture).
July 2007
ODOT Short Course
Do Not Duplicate
AASHTOLRFD 2007
Prestressed Concrete: Slide #15
AASHTOLRFD Distribution Factors for Precast/Prestressed Concrete Elements
Distribution Factors for Precast/Prestressed Concrete Elements
§ 4.6.2.2.2 Distribution Factor Method for Moment and Shear
The simplified distribution factors may be used if:
Width of the slab is constant Number of beams, N _{b} > 4 Beams are parallel and of similar stiffness Roadway overhang d _{e} < 3 ft
Central angle < Article 4.6.1.2
Cross section conforms to AASHTO Table 4.6.2.2.11
Note: Multiple presence factors are NOT used with simplified distribution factors.
July 2007
ODOT Short Course
Do Not Duplicate
AASHTOLRFD 2007
Prestressed Concrete: Slide #17
This is part of Table 4.6.2.2.11 showing common precast/ prestressed concrete bridge types. The letter below the diagram correlates to a set of distribution factors .
July 2007
ODOT Short Course
Do Not Duplicate
AASHTOLRFD 2007
Prestressed Concrete: Slide #18
Distribution Factors for Precast/Prestressed Concrete Elements
§ 4.6.2.2.2 Distribution Factor Method for Moment and Shear
Beam and Slab Bridges would be a Type “k” bridge.
Moment distribution factors  LRFD Table 4.6.2.2.2b1:
Two or more lanes loaded:
DFM = 0.075+(S/9.5) ^{0}^{.}^{6} (S/L) ^{0}^{.}^{2} (K _{g} /12.0Lt _{s} ^{3} ) ^{0}^{.}^{1} One lane loaded:
DFM= 0.06+( S/14 ) ^{0}^{.}^{4} ( S/L ) ^{0}^{.}^{3} (K _{g} /12.0Lt _{s} ^{3} ) ^{0}^{.}^{1}
July 2007
ODOT Short Course
Do Not Duplicate
AASHTOLRFD 2007
Prestressed Concrete: Slide #19
Distribution Factors for Precast/Prestressed Concrete Elements
§ 4.6.2.2.2 Distribution Factor Method for Moment and Shear
S
L
t _{s}
N _{b}
K _{g}
= girder spacing (ft) 
3.5 < S < 16.0 
= span length (ft) = slab thickness (in) = Number of Beams 
20 < L < 240 4.5 < t _{s} < 12.0 N _{b} > 4 
= n(I _{g} + A _{g} e _{g} ^{2} )
(in ^{4} ) 10,000 < K _{g} < 7,000,000
^{n} ^{=} ^{E} c,beam ^{/}^{E} c,slab
I _{g}
A
e _{g}
_{g}
= gross moment of inertia, non composite girder (in ^{4} ) = gross area, non composite girder (in ^{2} ) = distance between centers of gravity of the non composite beam and slab. (in)
If N _{b} = 3, use the lesser of the equations above with N _{b} = 3 and the lever rule.
July 2007
ODOT Short Course
Do Not Duplicate
AASHTOLRFD 2007
Prestressed Concrete: Slide #20
Distribution Factors for Precast/Prestressed Concrete Elements
§ 4.6.2.2.2 Distribution Factor Method for Moment and Shear
Beam and Slab Type “k” bridge
Shear Distribution Factors  LRFD Table 4.6.2.2.3a1:
Two or more lanes loaded:
DFV = 0.2 + ( S/12 )  ( S/35 ) ^{2}
One lane loaded:
DFV = 0.36 + ( S/25 )
July 2007
ODOT Short Course
Do Not Duplicate
AASHTOLRFD 2007
Prestressed Concrete: Slide #21
Distribution Factors for Precast/Prestressed Concrete Elements
4.6.2.2.2 Distribution Factor Method for Moment and Shear
§
3.5 < S < 16.0 ft. 20 < L < 240 ft. 4.5 < t _{s} < 12.0 in. N _{b} > 4
If N _{b} = 3; use the lever rule.
July 2007
ODOT Short Course
Do Not Duplicate
AASHTOLRFD 2007
Prestressed Concrete: Slide #22
Distribution Factors for Precast/Prestressed Concrete Elements
§ 4.6.2.2.2 Distribution Factor Method for Moment and Shear
Beam and Slab Bridge Type “k” – Exterior – Moment
Two or more lanes loaded:
g
ext
= eg
int
d
9.1
One lane loaded – use the Lever Rule
LRFD Table 4.6.2.2.2d1
g = DFM
= distance from edge of the traffic railing to the exterior web of the
exterior beam. The term d
(shown) and negative when the railing is inboard. 1.0 < d _{e} < 5.5 ft.
e
is positive when the railing is outboard
July 2007
ODOT Short Course
Do Not Duplicate
AASHTOLRFD 2007
Prestressed Concrete: Slide #23
d
e
e =
0.77 +
e
Distribution Factors for Precast/Prestressed Concrete Elements
§ 4.6.2.2.2 Distribution Factor Method for Moment and Shear
Beam and Slab Bridge Type “k” – Exterior – Shear
Two or more lanes loaded:
g
ext
= eg
int
d
10
One lane loaded – use the Lever Rule
LRFD Table 4.6.2.2.3b1
July 2007
ODOT Short Course
Do Not Duplicate
AASHTOLRFD 2007
Prestressed Concrete: Slide #24
e =
0.6 +
e
g = DFV 1.0 < d _{e} < 5.5 ft.
Distribution Factors for Precast/Prestressed Concrete Elements
§ 4.6.2.2.2 Distribution Factor Method for Moment and Shear
Beam and Slab Bridge – Type “k” Longitudinal Beams on Skewed Supports
Any number of lanes loaded; multiply DFM by:
(LRFD Table 4.6.2.2.2c1)
1 
− c 
1 
( 
tan θ 
) 
1.5 

s 
0.25 

c 
1 
= 
K 12 Lt 0.25 

L 
S
0.5
θ = Angle of skew; 30 ^{o} < θ < 60 ^{o} ; if θ<30 ^{o} , c _{1} = 0; if θ>60 ^{o} then θ=60 ^{o}
L = Span,
S = Beam Spacing, N _{b} > 4
20 < L < 240 ft
3.5 < S < 16 ft
July 2007
ODOT Short Course
Do Not Duplicate
AASHTOLRFD 2007
Prestressed Concrete: Slide #25
Distribution Factors for Precast/Prestressed Concrete Elements
§ 4.6.2.2.2 Distribution Factor Method for Moment and Shear
Lever Rule: Assume a hinge develops over each interior girder and solve for the reaction in the exterior girder as a fraction of the truck load.
This is for one lane loaded. Multiple Presence Factors apply 1.2 is the MPF
∑
M
H →
1.2
Pe RS
−=
0
R 
= 
1.2 
Pe 
DF ∴= 
1.2 
e 
S 
S 
g
,
; is the resultant force. All three loads are NOT applied at the same time.
Note that truck cannot be closer than 2’
In the dia ram P/2 are the wheel loads P
July 2007
ODOT Short Course
Do Not Duplicate
AASHTOLRFD 2007
Loads & Analysis: Slide #27
Distribution Factors for Precast/Prestressed Concrete Elements
§ 4.6.2.2.2 Distribution Factor Method for Moment and Shear
Adjacent Box Girders Adjacent box girders with shear keys and a castinplace overlay are Type “f” sections.
Adjacent box girders with shear keys, but no castin place deck, are Type “g” sections. Type “g” sections may or may not be laterally posttensioned.
Lack of lateral posttensioning causes a reduction of the distribution factor.
July 2007
ODOT Short Course
Do Not Duplicate
AASHTOLRFD 2007
Prestressed Concrete: Slide #29
Distribution Factors for Precast/Prestressed Concrete Elements
§ 4.6.2.2.2 Distribution Factor Method for Moment and Shear
Interior Box Girders The following distribution factors may be used for a Type “f” (composite deck) or a Type “g” (noncomposite) bridge IF the girders are “sufficiently connected together” – meaning they achieve transverse flexural continuity.
This can be done with lateral posttensioning of at least 250 psi (Commentary 4.6.2.2.1; paragraph 12).
The Commentary further states that bridges without a structural overlay and which use untensioned transverse rods should NOT be considered as sufficient to achieve transverse flexural continuity, unless demonstrated by testing or experience (Commentary 4.6.2.2.1, paragraph
14).
July 2007
ODOT Short Course
Do Not Duplicate
AASHTOLRFD 2007
Prestressed Concrete: Slide #30
Distribution Factors for Precast/Prestressed Concrete Elements
§ 4.6.2.2.2 Distribution Factor Method for Moment and Shear
Interior Box Girders
Type “f” (composite deck) or “g” with lateral PT  LRFD Table 4.6.2.2.2b1 Moment:
Two lanes loaded DFM = k ( b/305 ) ^{0}^{.}^{6} ( b/12.0L ) ^{0}^{.}^{2} ( I/J ) ^{0}^{.}^{0}^{6} One lane loaded DFM = k(b/33.3L) ^{0}^{.}^{5} (I/J) ^{0}^{.}^{2}^{5}
July 2007
ODOT Short Course
Do Not Duplicate
AASHTOLRFD 2007
Prestressed Concrete: Slide #31
Distribution Factors for Precast/Prestressed Concrete Elements
§ 
4.6.2.2.2 Distribution Factor Method for Moment and Shear 

k 
=25. 
0 2 > 1 5 


( N 
_{b} ) 
. Interior Box Girders . 


N _{b} = number of beams 5 < N _{b} < 20 


b 
= width of beam, in 35< b < 60 in 


L 
= span of beam, ft 
20< L < 120 ft 


I 
= moment of inertia of beam, in ^{4} 


J 
= St. Venant torsional constant in ^{4} 

, 


For preliminary design, ( I/J ) ^{0}^{.}^{0}^{6} = 1.0 
July 2007
ODOT Short Course
Do Not Duplicate
AASHTOLRFD 2007
Prestressed Concrete: Slide #32
Distribution Factors for Precast/Prestressed Concrete Elements
§ 4.6.2.2.2 Distribution Factor Method for Moment and Shear
Interior Box Girders
Distribution Factors for Shear  LRFD Table 4.6.2.2 3a1 Two Lanes Loaded:
DFV = (b/156) ^{0}^{.}^{4} (b/12L) ^{0}^{.}^{1} (I/J) ^{0}^{.}^{0}^{5} (b/48)
One Lane Loaded:
DFV = (b/130L) ^{0}^{.}^{1}^{5} (I/J) ^{0}^{.}^{0}^{5}
These are used for both composite and noncomposite; even if the girders are NOT sufficiently connected.
5 < N
35< b < 60 in 20< L < 120 ft 25,000 < J < 610,000 in ^{4} 40,000 < I < 610,000 in ^{4}
< 20
b
July 2007
ODOT Short Course
Do Not Duplicate
AASHTOLRFD 2007
Prestressed Concrete: Slide #33
Distribution Factors for Precast/Prestressed Concrete Elements
§ 4.6.2.2.2 Distribution Factor Method for Moment and Shear
Type “g” box with NO lateral PT
DFV (distribution factor for shear) does not change. It is the same for Type “g” structures with and without lateral PT. DFM is different. For Type “g” structures without lateral PT, the old Standard Specifications equations are used.
NOTE: The Standard Specifications equations were based on wheel loads and the LRFD equations are based on axle loads; so the equations changed by a factor of 2.
July 2007
ODOT Short Course
Do Not Duplicate
AASHTOLRFD 2007
Prestressed Concrete: Slide #34
Distribution Factors for Precast/Prestressed Concrete Elements
§ 
4.6.2.2.2 Distribution Factor Method for Moment and Shear 

Distribution Factor for Moment  LRFD Table 4.6.2.2.2b1 

DFM = S/D 

S = width of precast beam (ft) 

D = (11.5  N _{L} )+1.4N _{L} (10.2C) ^{2} when C < 5 

D = (11.5  N _{L} ) when C > 5 

Where: 
N _{L} = number of traffic lanes C = K(W/L) < K
July 2007
ODOT Short Course
Do Not Duplicate
AASHTOLRFD 2007
Prestressed Concrete: Slide #35
Distribution Factors for Precast/Prestressed Concrete Elements
§ 4.6.2.2.2 Distribution Factor Method for Moment and Shear
C = K(W/L) < K
For Preliminary Design Beam Type 
K 
Nonvoided rectangular beams 
0.7 
Rectangular beams with circular voids: 
0.8 
Box section beams 
1.0 
Channel beams 
2.2 
Tbeam 
2.0 
Double Tbeam 
2.0 
W = overall width of bridge measured perpendicular to the longitudinal beam (ft) L = span (ft) µ = Poisson’s ratio = 0.2 for concrete (5.4.2.5)
July 2007
ODOT Short Course
Do Not Duplicate
AASHTOLRFD 2007
Prestressed Concrete: Slide #36
Distribution Factors for Precast/Prestressed Concrete Elements
§ 4.6.2.2.2 Distribution Factor Method for Moment and Shear
J
_{≈}
Where:
4 A
∑
2
S
t
A = Area enclosed by the centerline of the webs and flanges. S = length of a web or flange centerline. t = thickness of the corresponding web or flange.
July 2007
ODOT Short Course
Do Not Duplicate
AASHTOLRFD 2007
Prestressed Concrete: Slide #37
Distribution Factors for Precast/Prestressed Concrete Elements
§ 4.6.2.2.2 Distribution Factor Method for Moment and Shear
The bending moment for exterior beams is determined by multiplying the distribution factor for interior beams by a factor, e, which accounts for the distribution of load to the exterior girder. Note that this applies to type “g” even if there is no lateral posttensioning. Lack of lateral post tensioning is accounted for in the DVM.
Minimum exterior distribution factor based on rigid body rotation does not apply to adjacent box girders.
July 2007
ODOT Short Course
Do Not Duplicate
AASHTOLRFD 2007
Prestressed Concrete: Slide #38
Distribution Factors for Precast/Prestressed Concrete Elements
§ 4.6.2.2.2 Distribution Factor Method for Moment and Shear
Exterior Box Girders
Multiplier for Moment – Types “f” and “g”  LRFD Table 4.6.2.2.2d1
Two or more lanes loaded:
^{g} ext ^{=} ^{e}^{g} interior
Where:
e = 1.04 + ( d _{e} / 25 ) > 1 d _{e} =distance from edge of the traffic railing to the exterior web of the exterior beam. The term d _{e} is positive when the railing is outboard (shown) and negative when the railing is inboard. d _{e} < 2.0 UNIT IS FEET! g= DFM
July 2007
ODOT Short Course
Do Not Duplicate
AASHTOLRFD 2007
Prestressed Concrete: Slide #39
Distribution Factors for Precast/Prestressed Concrete Elements
§ 4.6.2.2.2 Distribution Factor Method for Moment and Shear
Exterior Box Girder
Multiplier for Moment – Types “f” and “g”  LRFD Table 4.6.2.2.2d1
One lane loaded:
^{g} ext ^{=} ^{e}^{g} interior

e = 1.125 + ( d _{e} / 30 ) > 1 

d _{e} < 2.0 ft. 
e accounts for the distribution of load to the exterior girder
July 2007
ODOT Short Course
Do Not Duplicate
AASHTOLRFD 2007
Prestressed Concrete: Slide #40
Distribution Factors for Precast/Prestressed Concrete Elements
§ 4.6.2.2.2 Distribution Factor Method for Moment and Shear
Exterior Box Girders
Multiplier for Shear – Types “f” and “g”  LRFD Table 4.6.2.2.3b1 Two or more lanes loaded:
eg 48
b
48
b
≤ 1
g
0.5
d e = + 1 
b 
− 2.0 ≥ 1.0 
d _{e} < 2.0 

e + 
12 40 
35 < b < 60 in g = DFV 
July 2007
ODOT Short Course
Do Not Duplicate
AASHTOLRFD 2007
Prestressed Concrete: Slide #41
ext
=
int
Distribution Factors for Precast/Prestressed Concrete Elements
§ 4.6.2.2.2 Distribution Factor Method for Moment and Shear
Multiplier for Shear – Types “f” and “g”  LRFD Table
One lane loaded:
^{g} ext ^{=} ^{e}^{g} interior
4.6.2.2.3b1

e = 1.125 + ( d _{e} / 20 ) > 1 

d _{e} < 2.0 ft. 
July 2007
ODOT Short Course
Do Not Duplicate
AASHTOLRFD 2007
Prestressed Concrete: Slide #42
Distribution Factors for Precast/Prestressed Concrete Elements
§ 4.6.2.2.2 Distribution Factor Method for Moment and Shear
Skewed Box Girders Multiplier for Moment  LRFD Table 4.6.2.2.2c1
1.05  0.25 ( tan θ)
<
1.0
θ = skew angle
If θ > 60 ^{0}
use θ = 60 ^{0}
This is optional.
July 2007
ODOT Short Course
Do Not Duplicate
AASHTOLRFD 2007
Prestressed Concrete: Slide #43
Distribution Factors for Precast/Prestressed Concrete Elements
4.6.2.2.2 Distribution Factor Method for Moment and Shear
§
When the skew angle of a bridge is small, say, less than 20 ^{o} , it is often considered safe to ignore the angle of skew and to analyze the bridge as a zeroskew bridge whose span is equal to the skew span. This approach is generally conservative for moments in the beams, and slightly unsafe (<5%) for slabongirder decks for longitudinal shears. The LRFD Specifications Table 4.6.2.2.e1 lists reduction multipliers for moments in longitudinal beams. The previous slide illustrates the multiplier for spread box beams, adjacent box beams with concrete overlays or transverse post tensioning and double tees in multibeam decks or Types (b), (c), (f) and (g).
July 2007
ODOT Short Course
Do Not Duplicate
AASHTOLRFD 2007
Prestressed Concrete: Slide #44
Distribution Factors for Precast/Prestressed Concrete Elements
§ 4.6.2.2.2 Distribution Factor Method for Moment and Shear
Correlation Factor for Load Distribution Factor for Support Shear at Obtuse Corner – Types “f” and “g”  (LRFD Table 4.6.2.2.3c1) – This is mandatory.
1.0 +
0 ^{o} < θ < 60 ^{o} 20 < L < 240 ft 17 < d < 60 in 35 < b < 60 in 5 < N _{b} < 20
.
d is depth of the girder b is width of the flange
July 2007
ODOT Short Course
Do Not Duplicate
AASHTOLRFD 2007
Prestressed Concrete: Slide #45
AASHTOLRFD Flexure and Axial Loads
Flexure and Axial Loads
Definitions of various “d” terms for
July 2007
ODOT Short Course
Do Not Duplicate
AASHTOLRFD 2007
Prestressed Concrete: Slide #47
Flexure and Axial Loads
AASHTO LRFD now uses the same terminology as ACI
31805.
This is a unified method for prestressed and reinforced concrete members. Article 5.7.2.1 defines 3 states:
Tension Controlled Compression Controlled Transition In all cases, extreme fiber compressive strain = 0.003 (Article 5.7.2.1). Values above 0.003 are allowed for confined cores.
July 2007
ODOT Short Course
Do Not Duplicate
AASHTOLRFD 2007
Prestressed Concrete: Slide #48
Flexure and Axial Loads
§ 5.7.2 Assumptions for Strength and Extreme Event Limit States
Definition of Section Types
Extreme tensile steel strain when the extreme concrete compressive strain = 0.003 
Type of section 
ε _{t} > 0.005 
Tension controlled 
ε _{t} < f _{y} / E _{s} (may use = 0.002) 
Compression controlled 
0.005 > ε _{t} > f _{y} / E _{s} 
Transition 
For all prestressing or Grade 60 nonprestressed steel, ε _{t} may be assumed = 0.002 in place of f _{y} /E _{s} for compression controlled.
The ACI 318 code, upon which this provision is based, requires flexural members (that is, members with a superimposed axial load of < 0.1f _{c} ’A _{g} ) to have ε _{s} > 0.004. AASHTO does not impose this requirement.
July 2007
ODOT Short Course
Do Not Duplicate
AASHTOLRFD 2007
Prestressed Concrete: Slide #49
Flexure and Axial Loads
§ 5.7.2 Assumptions for Strength and Extreme Event Limit States
Definition of strain conditions for determining tension or compression control. Note that tensile strain in the steel closest to the tensile face is used. Balanced condition is when ε _{t} = ε _{y} . For Grade 60 steel and all prestressing steel, ε _{y} may be taken as 0.002. Note that for prestressing steel, ε _{t} is the tensile strain which occurs in the steel after the precompression in the concrete is lost.
July 2007
ODOT Short Course
Do Not Duplicate
AASHTOLRFD 2007
Prestressed Concrete: Slide #50
Flexure and Axial Loads
§ 5.7.2 Assumptions for Strength and Extreme Event Limit States
For a prestressed beam, it is important to understand the definition of ε _{t} .
Begin by considering the strain condition of the beam at the point where the only loads are the prestressing force and the beam self weight.
In this condition, the top of the beam is usually in tension (due to the prestressing). There is a net tensile strain in the prestressing steel of ε _{p}_{1} . This is the initial pull minus any strain lost due to prestress losses. At the level of the steel, there is a compressive strain the concrete, ε _{c} .
July 2007
ODOT Short Course
Do Not Duplicate
AASHTOLRFD 2007
Prestressed Concrete: Slide #51
Flexure and Axial Loads
§ 5.7.2 Assumptions for Strength and Extreme Event Limit States
As load is applied, the strain profile changes, the bottom decompresses and eventually reaches a point where the CONCRETE strain at the level of the steel is 0. This is called
“decompression”.
If there were no losses (except for elastic shortening), the strain
in the steel, ε
would be the initial pull. The actual strain in the steel, with losses, can be calculated by mechanics.
p2
at this point
July 2007
ODOT Short Course
Do Not Duplicate
AASHTOLRFD 2007
Prestressed Concrete: Slide #52
Flexure and Axial Loads
§ 5.7.2 Assumptions for Strength and Extreme Event Limit States
This is the condition at M _{n} . The compressive strain in the concrete is 0.003. The total strain in the
prestressing steel is the sum of the strain in the steel at
decompression, ε
developed between decompression and the ultimate state, ε _{t} .
p2
, and the strain
The specifications only regulate the strain developed between decompression and the ultimate state, ε _{t} . The additional strain in the prestressing steel, ε _{p}_{2} is not part of the specification.
July 2007
ODOT Short Course
Do Not Duplicate
AASHTOLRFD 2007
Prestressed Concrete: Slide #53
Flexure and Axial Loads
§ 5.5.4.2 Resistance Factors
Φ = 0.9 tension controlled reinforced concrete members 1.0 tension controlled prestressed concrete members
0.75 
compression controlled members with spirals or ties (except for members in Seismic Zones 3 & 4) 
0.90 
shear and torsion 
0.70 
shear and torsion lightweight concrete 
For transition members, use a linear interpolation of the Φ factor based on the extreme tensile steel strain.
July 2007
ODOT Short Course
Do Not Duplicate
AASHTOLRFD 2007
Prestressed Concrete: Slide #54
Flexure and Axial Loads
Extreme Steel Strain
d

Prestressed Members 
0.75 φ ≤= 

Reinforced Members 
0.75 φ ≤= 
0.583 
+ 
.25 

t 
− 
1 

≤ 
1.0 
(5.5.4.2.11) 
c 
d
0.65 
+ 
.15 

t 
− 
1 

≤ 
1.0 
(5.5.4.2.12) 
c 
July 2007
ODOT Short Course
Do Not Duplicate
AASHTOLRFD 2007
Prestressed Concrete: Slide #55
Flexure and Axial Loads
§ 5.5.4.2 Resistance Factors
Effect of New Resistance Factors It is allowable to design flexural members with extreme fiber steel strains < 0.005. This is done by increasing the area of steel. However, in general, the Φ factor is reduced at a slightly lower rate than moment resistance is gained. There is a slight increase in M _{n} but it is minimal. , increasing the amount of steel above that required to bring the extreme fiber steel strains to 0.005.
Th s there is little effect on the allowable moment b
u
y
July 2007
ODOT Short Course
Do Not Duplicate
AASHTOLRFD 2007
Prestressed Concrete: Slide #56
PPR =
ps
py
(5.5.4.2.14)
Flexure and Axial Loads
The stress block remains the same as Standard Specifications. Analysis of reinforced concrete RECTANGULAR beams is the same as Standard Specifications. HOWEVER, there are some differences with prestressed concrete.
July 2007
ODOT Short Course
Do Not Duplicate
AASHTOLRFD 2007
Prestressed Concrete: Slide #58
AASHTOLRFD Prestressed Beams with Bonded Tendons
0.85f '
c
β
1
b
+
kA
ps
Prestressed Beams with Bonded Tendons
§
5.7.3 Flexural Members
c =
A f
ps
pu
f pu
ps d
p
c
b
A _{p}_{s} = area of TENSILE prestressing steel d _{p} = depth to centroid of tensile prestressing steel f _{p}_{u} = tensile strength of prestressing steel f _{p}_{y} = yield strength of prestressing steel
β _{1} = stress block factor – same as Std. Spec.
= depth of neutral axis
= width of compression block
July 2007
ODOT Short Course
Do Not Duplicate
AASHTOLRFD 2007
Prestressed Concrete: Slide #61
0.85 f
c
' β
1
b + kA
1 −
c
d
p
0.85
f
c
'
β +
b kA
1
ps
pu
Prestressed Beams with Bonded Tendons
§ 5.7.3 Flexural Members
Sometimes, things change for the better!!!!
Std. Spec
And
LRFD 2005
Interim
Editions 1 through 3 of LRFD
In Editions 13 of the LRFD Specifications, the β factor was applied to the flange as well as to the web. This made no sense. It was changed with the 2005 Interim back to the old definition . Now it is the same definition as ACI 318 and Std. Spec.
July 2007
ODOT Short Course
Do Not Duplicate
AASHTOLRFD 2007
Prestressed Concrete: Slide #63
Af '
sy
'
d
s
'
−+ a
f ' bbh
c
(
wf )
a
−
h
f
Mult mai mult decât documente.
Descoperiți tot ce are Scribd de oferit, inclusiv cărți și cărți audio de la editori majori.
Anulați oricând.