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ICCBT2008

Engineering Properties of Concrete Containing Recycled Tire


Rubber

N. J. Azmi *, Universiti Tenaga Nasional, MALAYSIA


B. S. Mohammed, Universiti Tenaga Nasional, MALAYSIA
H. M. A. Al-Mattarneh, Universiti Tenaga Nasional, MALAYSIA

ABSTRACT

The test program was carried out to develop information about the mechanical properties of
rubberized concretes. A control Portland cement concrete mix (PCC) is designed using
American Concrete Institute mix design methods and crumb rubber contents of 10, 15, 20 and
30% by volume were chosen by partially replacing the fine aggregate with crumb rubber.
Totally 15 concrete mixes with three different water cement ratio (0.41, 0.57 and 0.68) were
cast and tested for compressive strength, splitting tensile strength, flexural strength and
modulus elasticity. The results revealed that although there is a reduction in strength for
crumb rubber mixture, but slump values increase as the crumb rubber content increase from
0% to 30%. Meaning that crumb rubber mixture is more workable compare to normal
concrete and can be acceptable to produce crumb rubber concretes. The results also
indicated that inclusion crumb rubber in concrete reduced the static modulus elasticity.
Although there is a reduction in modulus elasticity but the deformability crumb rubber
concrete increasing compared to normal concrete.

Keywords: crumb rubber, recycled tire, concrete, compressive strength

*Correspondence Author: Dr Bashar S. Mohammed, university Tenaga Nasional, Malaysia. Tel:


+60389212272, Fax: +60389212116. E-mail: bashar@uniten.edu.my

ICCBT 2008 - B - (34) – pp373-382


Engineering Properties of Concrete Containing Recycled Tire Rubber

1. INTRODUCTION

Utilization of industrial waste products in concrete has attracted attention all around the world
due to the rise of environmental consciousness. Accumulations of stockpiles of tires are
dangerous because they pose a potential environmental concern, fire hazards and provide
breeding grounds for mosquitoes that may carry disease (1). Tire pile fires have been an even
greater environmental problem. Tire pile fires can burn for months, sending up an acrid black
plume that can be seen for dozens of miles (1). That plume contains toxic chemicals and air
pollutants, just as toxic chemicals are released into surrounding water supplies by oily runoff
from tire fires (1).

In order to prevent the environmental problem from growing, recycling tire is an innovative
idea or way in this case. Recycling tire is the processes of recycling vehicles tires that are no
longer suitable for use on vehicles due to wear or irreparable damage (such as punctures). The
cracker mill process tears apart or reduces the size of tire rubber by passing the material
between rotating corrugated steel drums (2) .By this process an irregularly shaped torn
particles having large surface area are produced and this particles are commonly known as
crumb rubber (2).

A review of the literature revealed that several investigations into rubber concrete have been
previously performed. Fattuhi et al. (3) mentioned in his report that the concrete made with
low grade rubber concrete had lower compressive strength compared with high grade rubber
concrete. These similar observations were also made by Topcu at al (4) and this could be
caused by weak interfacial bonds between the cement paste and tire rubber. Tarun et al. (2)
have reported that the compressive strength of rubberized concrete can be improve when fine
aggregate was fully replaced by fine crumb rubber. He also indicated that if the rubber
particles have rougher surface or given a pretreatment, the better and improved bonding may
develop with the surrounding matrix, and that may result in higher compressive strength. Piti
el al (5) outlined that crumb rubber responses were found to denote greater flexibility and
toughness with larger deflection at peak load, longer post-peak load responses and higher
fracture energy.

This paper presents data on the mechanical properties of concrete incorporating crumb rubber.
These data were compared to those of the control concrete mixes, which was prepared
separately. The strength parameters investigated included; the compressive strength, flexural,
splitting tensile strength of the concretes and the modulus of elasticity.

2. EXPERIMENTAL DETAILS

2.1 Materials

2.1.1 Portland Cement


Ordinary Portland cement (OPC), which conforms to ASTM Type 1, was used (6).

2.1.2 Crumb rubber


The crumb rubber used was processing with a granulator and/or cracker mill and having a 2-
2.36 mm nominal maximum size.

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N. J. Azmi and B. S. Mohammed

2.1.3 Aggregates
Coarse aggregate from a local commercial quarry with a maximum nominal size of 10 mm
was used. The fine aggregate used was natural river sand having a 2.36 mm nominal
maximum size. The results of physical properties of crumb rubber, fine aggregate and coarse
aggregate are shown in Table 1.

Table 1. Physical properties of aggregates


Fine Coarse Crumb
Property
aggregate aggregate rubber
Specific gravity 2.66 2.81 0.54
Fineness modulus 2.36 - 2.36
Water absorption (%) 25 1.76 85

2.2 Mix proportion

Concrete mix proportions used are shown in Table 2. A control Portland cement concrete mix
(PCC) is designed using American Concrete Institute mix design method (7). Water content
was kept constant at 243 kg/m³ of concrete and the design slump 75-100 mm was selected for
all control mixes. The parameters examined were water to cement ratio and crumb rubber
content .These parameter were related to the following variables : crumb rubber content of
10%, 15%, 20%, and 30% by volume of the total fine aggregate has been used to replace fine
aggregate in the mixtures and w/c ratios of 0.41,0.57 and 0.68. Each of the water cement ratio
mixture has attained a different values target of 28 days compressive strength of 40, 30 and 20
MPa for water to cement ratio of 0.41, 0.57 and 0.68.

Table 2. Mix proportion for a cubic meter of concrete


crumb rubber Cement fine aggregate coarse aggregate water
w/c % kg/m³ kg/m³ kg/m³ kg/m³ kg/m³
0.41 0% 0 592.68 775.96 673.35 243
0.41 10% 16.41 592.68 698.37 673.35 243
0.41 15% 24.62 592.68 659.57 673.35 243
0.41 20% 32.83 592.68 620.77 673.35 243
0.41 30% 49.24 592.68 543.18 673.35 243

0.57 0% 0 426.32 750.65 750.65 243


0.57 10% 18.30 426.32 778.53 750.65 243
0.57 15% 27.45 426.32 735.28 750.65 243
0.57 20% 36.60 426.32 692.03 750.65 243
0.57 30% 54.90 426.32 605.53 750.65 243

0.68 0% 0 357.35 901.96 782.69 243


0.68 10% 19.08 357.35 811.76 782.69 243
0.68 15% 28.62 357.35 766.67 782.69 243
0.68 20% 38.16 357.35 721.57 782.69 243
0.68 30% 57.24 357.35 631.37 782.69 243

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Engineering Properties of Concrete Containing Recycled Tire Rubber

2.3 Preparation and casting of specimens

The total mixes that need to be prepared in this study is about 15 mixing and this included a
preparation of 90 cubes samples (100X100X100) mm for compressive strength test, 135
samples of beam (100X100X500) mm for flexural test, 180 samples of cylinders (150
diameter X 300 height) mm for splitting tensile test and modulus elasticity test. All the
samples have been prepared for conventional concrete and replacement fine aggregate with
crumb rubber for 10%, 15%, 20%, and 30%. The samples were categorized by age of the
concrete at the day of testing and the rubber content. For each percent rubber content (10%,
15%, 20%, and 30%), 3 cubes were tested for compressive strength after 7 and 28 days
immersed in the water, 3 samples of cylinders were used to test splitting tensile at age 28 days
and modulus elasticity at age 28 and 90 days. The 3 samples of beam were tested on flexural
strength test at age 7, 14 and 28 days of curing.

3. RESULT AND DISCUSSION

3.1 Properties of Fresh Concrete

The results for slump values are given in Figure 1. The results show that the workability of the
Portland cement concrete can be improved when adding the crumb rubber content. The mix
design for water cement ratio 0.68 gave the highest workability compared to others mix
design. The slump value increased approximately about 10% as the crumb rubber content
increased from 0% to 30%. Meaning, the crumb rubber concrete specimens have acceptable
workability in terms of ease of handling, placement, and finishing. In the current study, the
balling effect during the mixing is reported especially when incorporating with 30%
replacement of crumb rubber. This is due to the interlocking actions of the wires was apparent
before the mixing process. Even though the balling effects the mixing but the mix remained
workable (8).

Figure 1. The workability of concrete mixes for water cement ratio 0.41, 0.57 and 0.68

376 ICCBT 2008 - B - (34) – pp373-382


N. J. Azmi and B. S. Mohammed

3.2 Compressive Strength

The compressive tests were tested at the ages of 7 and 28 days. The results are shown in
Figure 2, 3 and 4. Each value on the bar chart is the average of at least three cube specimens.
It is observed that there was a reduction approximately 35% in compressive values when fine
aggregate replaced with crumb rubber compared with control mix. This is due to compressive
strength Portland cement control mix is dependent greatly on the coarse aggregate, density,
size and hardness. Because the fine aggregate was partially replaced by crumb rubber, the
reduction in strength is anticipated. Based on the result, the maximum compressive strength
value for crumb rubber concrete increased from age 7 to age 28 day, decreased with
increasing water cement ratio from 0.41 to 0.68 and decreased with increasing the amount of
crumb rubber from 0% to 30%. Even though there was a reduction in compressive strength
value but the observation shown that the crumb rubber concrete remained an acceptable
workability.

Figure 2. Compressive strengths development of concrete mixes at different testing


ages for w/c= 0.41

Figure 3. compressive strengths development of concrete mixes at different testing


ages for w/c = 0.57

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Engineering Properties of Concrete Containing Recycled Tire Rubber

Figure 4. Compressive strengths development of concrete mixes at different testing


ages for w/c= 0.68

3.3 Flexural strength

The compressive tests were tested at the ages of 7 and 28 days. The results are shown in
Figure 5, 6 and 7. Each value on the bar chart is the average of three prismatic specimens. It is
shown that the flexural strength decreased with the increased of the crumb rubber content
from 0% to 30% in a fashion similar to that observed in the compressive strength. However
the reduction in compressive strength was significantly higher than that in flexural strength.
The mix design for w/c ratio 0.41 show the highest loss in flexural strength approximately
about 20% compared with w/c ratio 0.57 and 0.68 which only loss approximately about 5%
to 8% for w/c 0.57 and 0.68 respectively.

Figure 5. Flexural strength development of concrete mixes at different testing


ages for w/c = 0.41

378 ICCBT 2008 - B - (34) – pp373-382


N. J. Azmi and B. S. Mohammed

Figure 6. Flexural strength development of concrete mixes at different testing


ages for w/c = 0.57

Figure 7. Flexural strength development of concrete mixes at different testing


ages for w/c = 0.57

3.4 Splitting Tensile strength

The splitting tensile strength tests were tested at the ages of 28 days. The results are shown in
Figure 8 .There was a reduction approximately about 15% in splitting tensile value when
crumb rubber content increased from 0% to 30%. The reduction in splitting tensile strength
can be attributed to the existence of rubber particles. This phenomena can be explained by the
non polarity of the rubber attracts air to its surface and therefore reduces the bong with
cementitious matrix (8). It was observed that it was hard to separate the failed specimen with
crumb rubber content because the crumb rubber were bridging the gap and keeping the two
concrete parts together especially for the mix design with 30% replacement.

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Engineering Properties of Concrete Containing Recycled Tire Rubber

Figure 8. Splitting Tensile strengths development of concrete mixes for water cement ratio
0.41,0.57 and 0.68 at age 28 day

3.5 Modulus Elasticity

The modulus elasticity tests were tested at the ages 28 days. The results are shown in Figure 9.
There was a reduction approximately about 30% in modulus elasticity value when crumb
rubber content increased from 0% to 30%. The inclusion of crumb rubber implies defects in
the internal structure of the composite material, producing a reduction of strength and
decrease in stiffness. The observation shown that there was a large displacement and
deformation due to the fact that crumb rubber has an ability to withstand large deformation.
This can be explained by the behavior of the crumb rubber particles inside the mix; these
particles seem act as spring and caused a delay in widening the cracks and preventing the
catastrophic failure which is usually experienced in normal concrete specimens (4).

Figure 9. Modulus Elasticity development of concrete mixes for


water cement ratio 0.41, 0.57 and 0.68 at age 28 day

380 ICCBT 2008 - B - (34) – pp373-382


N. J. Azmi and B. S. Mohammed

4. CONCLUSION

• The results indicated that there was an increasing in slump value when crumb rubber
content increased from 0% to 30%. Meaning that the workability of crumb rubber
concrete exhibits an acceptable in term of ease of handling, placement and finishing with
respect to normal concrete.
• Although the strength data developed in this study (compressive strength and flexural) and
others (splitting tensile test) indicated a systematic reduction in strength with the increased
of crumb rubber content but the crumb rubber concrete mixes remained an acceptable
workability.
• The static modulus elasticity of crumb rubber concrete was lower than normal concrete
but there was a large displacement and deformation due to the fact that crumb rubber
aggregate has an ability to withstand large deformation.

Acknowledgement

A special thank you to The Ministry of Science, Technology and Innovation (MOSTI) of
Malaysia for granting this project under code 03-02-03-SF0091.

REFERENCE

[1]. http://www.tireindustry.org/recycling.asp, “TIA supports the tire and rubber recycling


market through its Tire and Rubber Recycling Advisory Council (TRRAC”).
[2]. Tarun R. Naik. 1991. “Properties of concrete containing scrap tire rubber-an overview.”
Department Of Civil Engineering and Mechanics College of Engineering and Applied
Science, The University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee
[3]. Fattuhi n, Clark L. Cement based materials containing shredded scrap truck tire rubber.
Construction building Mater 1996; 10 (4): 229-36.
[4]. Topcu, I.B., “The properties of rubberized concrete, “Cement and concrete Research,
vol. 25, No. 2, 1995
[5]. Piti Sukontasukkul.2006. “Properties of concrete pedestrian block mixed with crumb
rubber.” Department of Civil Engineering, King Mongkut’s Institute of Technology –
North Bangkok: 450-457
[6]. ASTM C 150- 07 Standard Specification for Portland cement.
[7]. American Concrete Institute Standard 211-1-81 2002, standard practice for selecting
proportion for normal, heavyweight and mass concretes.
[8]. Christos G. Papakonstantinou. 2006. “Use of waste steel beads in Portland Cement
Concrete” department of civil and environmental engineering, university of
Massachusetts Dartmouth, Cement and Concrete Research.

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