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LUDMILA CIUMAC

ENGLISH
(From beginners or false beginners to
intermediates)

CHIŞINĂU 2001
INTRODUCTIONS IN PHONETICS
Introducere in fonetica
Engleza este o limba germanica si are semne conventionale din
alfabetul latin.
Totusi cu timpul, Engleza s-a transformat dintr-o limba
fonetica, pronutarea careia a devenit o problema reala pentru
straini. Venind in ajutor studentului in pronuntarea corecta a
cuvintelor, mai intai vom descrie sunetele, iar apoi, cuvintele
vor fi descrise in Sistema Internationala de Semne, cunoscuta
deasemenea ca Alfabetul Fonetic. Toate vocalele insotite de /:/
arata lungimea vocalei respective.

Rules of Reading
In limba engleza sunt 26 de litere si 44 de sunete. Aceasta se
explica prin faptul ca vocalele a, e, i, o, u, y se citesc diferit in
pozitii diferite. Tabelul de mai jos va va ajuta sa sistematizati
si sa memorizati citirea lor.

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Vocală Silabă Silabă Vocala Vocal Excepţii
a+r
(se termină (se termină în
în vocală) consoană) a + re

A [ei] [æ] [a:] [εә] many


cake [keik] bag [bæg] car [ka:] care [k εә]
have [hævi]
plate [pleit] man [m bar [ba:] hare [h
take [teik] æn] part [pa:t] εә]
make [meik] can [k æn] card [ka:d] fare [f εә]
map [m rare [r εә]
æp]
E [i:] [e] [ ә:] [ i ә]
he [hi:] egg [eg] her [hә:] here [hiә] English
she [∫i:] pen [pen] Berlin [b ә:lin] mere [miә]
we [wi:] hen [hen] perfect[pә:fikt] seven [sevn]
be [bi:] lesson [lesn] term [tә:m]
I/Y [ai] [I] [ ә:] -
I [ai] pig [pig] bird [ bә:d] live [liv]
nine [nain] sick [sik] girl [gә:l] give [giv]
pine [pain] tip [tip] circle [sә:kl]
fix [fiks]
my [mai] kirk [kә:k]-
system [sistәm]
fly [flai] myth [mi θ] (biserica scot)

O [ou] [ ә] [ ә:] -
rose [rouz] box [boks] fork [fo:k] do [du:]
close [klouz] fox [foks] horse [ho:s] son [sΛn]
nose [nouz] clock [klok] pork [po:k] who [hu:]
open [oupn] cock [kok] form [fo:m] two [tu:]
one [wΛn]
you [ju:]
U [ju:] [Λ] [ ә:] -

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pupil [pju:pl] cup [kΛp] fur [fә:] put [put]
music duck [dΛk] turn [t ә:n]
[mju:zik] duster[dΛstә] burn [bә:n]
pure [pju:ә] plus [plΛs] curl [kә: l]
mute [mju:t] cut [kΛt] purpose
student [pә:pәz]
[stju:dnt]

VOWELS [vauэlz] – description and pronunciation (descrierea si


pronuntarea)

“A”
[э] as ‘ă’ ca in limba romana: casă, fată, mamă.
a [э] - un, o
summer [sΛmэ] - vara
sister [sistэ] - sora

[з:] ca ‘aa’ romanesc


girl [gз:l] - fata
first [fз:st] - primul/prima
purpose [pз:pэs] - scop/intentie

[æ] ca ‘a/e’: bere


man [mæn] - om/barbat
cat [cæt] - pisica
flat [flæt] - apartament

[Λ] ca in l. romana: tac, zac, mac.


son [sΛn] - fiu
but [bΛt] - insa/dar/ci
nut [nΛt] - nuca

[a:] rostit din fundul gurii: ba, are.

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car [ka:] - automobil
aunt [a:nt] - matusa
far [fa:] - departe

[ai] [au] ca in l. romana: cai sau.


I [ai] - eu
now [nau] - acum
eye [ai] - ochi
cow [cau] - vaca
buy [bai] - a cumpara
mouse [maus] - soarece

[aiэ] numai in triftongi rostit aprox. Ca aca, cu ultimele doua


elemente foarte scurte.
fire [faiэ] - foc
tired [taiэd] - obosit
hire [haiэ] - a inchiria

[auэ] rostit aprox.. ca aoă, cu ultimele doua elemente foarte


scurte:

flower [flauэ] - floare


tower [tauэ] - turn
sour [sauэ] - acru

“E”

[e] ca in l. romana: vers, neg, cred.


pen [pen] - stilou
lesson [lesn] - lectie
bed [bed] - pat

[ei] ca in l. romana: tei, lei, vrei.


day [dei] - zi
name [neim] - nume
stay [stei] - a sta/a locui

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[eiэ] in triftongi
player [pleiэ] - jucator/actor
prayer [preiэ] - rugaciune
layer [leiэ] - strat

[eэ] o prelungire a lui ‘e’ in ‘ă’


hair [heэ] - par
fair [feэ] - blond/targ/onest/corect
bear [beэ] - a purta/a suporta/urs
rare [reэ] - rar
care [keэ] - grija/atentie
“I”

[i] ca in l. romana: vin, lin, plin.


pity [piti] - mila/compatimire
fist [fist] - pumn
it [it] - el/ea pentru obiecte, fenomene, etc.

[i:] rostit ca doi de‘i’


eat [i:t] - a manca
meet [mi:t] - a /se/ intalni/ a face cunostinta
niece [ni:s] - nepoata

[iэ] rostit ca ‘i’ si ‘ă’romanesc impreuna ‘iă’.


near [niэ] - langa/aproape
dear [diэ] - draga/scumpa
fear [fiэ] - teama/spaima/risc

“O”
[o] rostit scurt si deschis, putin nazal.
not [not] - nu
pot [pot] - oala/vas/cratita/ghiveci
fog [fog] - ceata
[o:] ca in l. romana: alcool, co-operativa.
floor [flo:] - etaj/podea
storm [sto:m] - furtuna

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door [do:] - usa
[oi] ca in l. romana: oi, noi, doi.
toilet [toilit] - toaleta, baie/WC
boy [boi] - baiat
toy [toi] - jucarie

“U”
[u] ca romaneste: drum, cum, fum.
cook [cuk] - a gati/bucatar
book [buk] - carte
put [put] - a pune
[u:] ca romaneste: vacuum
soon [su:n] - curand /indata
noon [nu:n] - amiaza
spoon [spu:n] - lingura

[uэ] ca romaneste ’u’ si ‘ă’ rostite impreuna


poor [puэ] - biet/sarman/sarac
tour [tuэ] - tur/vizitarea unui oras
hour [auэ] - ora

[ou] [эu] ambele sunt rostite in acelas mod ca in l. romana: căus


băut, tău.
open [oupn] - a deschide
old [ould] - vechi/batran
no [nou] - nu

CONSONANTS [konsэnэnts] - descriptions and pronunciations


(descrierea si pronuntarea)
Consonants are divided into two main groups (Consoanele sunt
divizate in doua grupe principale): VOICED [voist] (sonore) b, d, g,
v, z, m, n, n, r, l and UNVOICED [Λnvoist] (surde) p, t, k, f, O, s, , t
, h; SEMIVOWELS [semivaulz] (semivocale) j, w.

[b] ball [bo:l] - minge


bell [bel] - clopotel
big [big] - mare

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[d] dog [dog] - caine
dirty [dэ:ti] - murdar
deep [di:p] - adanc

[g] goose [gu:s] - gasca


gold [gould] - aur
good [gud] - bun/a/

[v] very [veri] - foarte


voice [vois] - voce
have [hæv] - a avea

[z] zip [zip] - fermoar


zoo [zu:] - gradina zoologica
does [dΛz] - face

[m] money [mΛni] - bani


maybe [meibi] - probabil
must [mΛst] - a trebui

[n] nose [nouz] - nas


night [nait] - noapte
nice [nais] - frumos

[l] live [liv] - a locui


love [lΛv] - a iubi
light [lait] - lumina

[p] party [pa:ti] - partid/petrecere


pillow [pilou] - perna
pie [pai] - placinta

[r] crazy [creizi] - nebun


red [red] - rosu
screen [skri:n] - ecran

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[t] time [taim] - ori/timp/ora
tea [ti:] - ceai
tall [to:l] - inalt

[k] cake [keik] - pragitura


kind [kaind] - fel/amabil
cold [kould] - frig

f] fly [flai] - a zbura


fast [fast] - repede
feel [fi:l] - a simti

[s] see [si:] - a vedea


city [siti] - oras
son [sΛn] - fecior

[h] he [hi:] - el
who [hu:] - cine
husbund [hΛzbэnd] - sot

SPECIAL PHONETIC SYMBOLS CORRESPONDING TO


GROUPS OF CONSONANTS (Simboluri special fonetice
corespunzatoare grupurilor de consoane)

[∫] ca ‘s’ romanesc: şal, şarpe.


fish [fi∫] - peşte/a pescui
mushroom [mΛ∫ru:m] - ciuperci

[t∫] ca in cuvantul cinci: trecerea de la “t∫” la oarecare dintre


vocale face fara intermediul lui “I” sa “e”, ca in l. romana; sunetul
“t” poate fi final (ca in “zici”)
picture [pikt∫э] - tablou
teach [ti:t∫э] - a preda
chair [t∫εэ] - scaun

[ŋ] ca ‘n’ din langa, lingura


sing [siŋ] - a canta

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song [soŋ] - cantec
bring [briŋ] - a aduce

[dз] ca ‘g ‘ sau ‘j ‘ romanesc (gi).


John - [dзon] - Ion
jam - [dзæm] - gem
joy - [dзoi] - bucurie

[зэ] ca ‘j’’ romanesc: jar, jaf, jale.


pleasure [pleзэ] - placere
treasure [treзэ] - comoara
measure [meзэ] - masura
[j] ca ‘i ‘romanesc din: ieri, iarna, iarba.
yesterday [jestэdi] - ieri
yellow [jelou] - galben
yes [jes] - da

[ð] stands for letters ‘th’ and is pronounced as if having a singing


bee on the tip of the tongue. No similitudes between this sound and
any their Romanian sound. (‘z’ sau ‘d’ rostit cu varful limbii intre
dinti)
mother [mΛðэ] - mama
father [fa:ðэ] - tata
brother [brΛðэ] - frate

[θ] stands for letters ‘th’ and is pronounced as if imitating the


sound of snake: No similitudes between this sound and any
Romanian sound. (‘s’ sau ‘t ‘rostit cu varful limbii intre dinti)

thanks [θænks] - multumiri


thick [θik] - gros
think [θink] - a gandi

Citirea imbinarilor de litere

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ee ea eo

[i:]

see [si:] sea [si:] people [pi:pl]


green [gri:n] meal [mi:l]
feed [fi:d] mean [mi:n]
teach [ti:t∫э] speech [spi:t∫]
meet [mi:t] meat [mi:t]

ai ay
[ei]

main [mein] day [dei]


pain [pein] clay [klei]
chain [t∫ein] say [sei]
faint [feint] may [mei]
lain [lein] pay [pei]
oa [ou]

coat [kout]
coal [koul]
soap [soup]
boat [bout]
float [flout]

ou

[au] [Λ]

sound [saund] young [jΛng]


count [kaunt] country [kΛntri]
south [sauθ] cousin [kΛzn]
pound [paund] touch [tΛt∫]

BUT: group [gru:p], soup [su:p]


oo oo

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[u] [u:]

book [buk] too [tu:]


cook [kuk] fool [fu:l]
good [gud] spoon [spu:n]
mood [mud] cool [ku:l]
took [tuk] moon [mu:n]

NOTE: [oo] before ‘d’, ‘k’ is pronounced [u] ([oo] inainte de ‘d’ si
‘k’ este rostit [u] scurt).

ow ew

[au] [ou] [ju:] ng

brown [braun] low [lou] new [nju:]


crown [kraun] crow [krou] few [fju:]
down [daun] yellow [jelou] dew [dju:]
crowd [kraud] fellow [felou] chew [t∫ju:]

Except now [nau], cow [kau], how [hau].

ng
[ŋ]
ring [riŋ]
sing [siŋ]
thing [θiŋ]
long [loŋ]

th

[ð] [θ]

this [ðis] thank [θænk]


these [ði:z] bath [ba:θ]
that [ðæt] breath [breθ]

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those [ðouz] teeth [ti:θ]
clothes [klouðz] cloth [kloθ]

wh wa

[w] [wo]
when [wen] was [woz]
where [wεэ] wash [wo∫]
what [wot] watch [wot∫]
which [wit∫] want [wont]
why [wai] wander [wondэ]

NOTE: WH is pronounced [w] before all the vowels except the


vowel ‘o’.(WH rostit [w] inaintea tuturor vocalelor cu exceptia lui
‘o’). Example: who [hu:] – cine?, whose [hu:z] – al, a, ai, ale cui,
whom [hu:m] – cui, pe cine.

war wor

[wo:] [wз:]

warm [wo:m] world [wз:ld]


war [wo:] word [wз:d]
warn [wo:n] worm [wз:m]
ward [wo:d] worse [wз:s]
wardrobe [wo:droub] worth [wз:θ]

wr
[r]

wrist [rist]
write [rait]
wrong [roŋ]
wrinkle [riŋkl]
wrap [ræp]

ch sh

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[t∫] [∫]

child [t∫aild] shake [∫eik]


chill [t∫il] shave [∫eiv]
lunch [l Λnt∫] shelf [∫elf]
check [t∫ek] fish [fi∫]
chief [t∫if] wash [wo:∫]

ture sure
[t∫э] [зэ]

picture pikt∫э] pleasure [pleзэ]


structure [strΛ kt∫э] measure [meзэ]
mixture [mikst∫э]
lecture [lekt∫э]
signature [signit∫э]

tion [∫n] (at the end of the word – la sfarsit de cuvant)


sion
ssion
station [stei∫n]
tension [ten∫n]
session [se∫n]

sion [зn] at the end of the word after vowels (la sfarsit de cuvant
dupa vocale). Example: television [teliviзn]

a + ss [a:s] a + ll [o:l]
a + st [a:st] a + lk [o:lk]

ask [a:sk] all [o:l]


fast [fa:st] small [smo:l]
grass [gra:s] talk [to:k]

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pass [pa:s] walk [wo:k]
task [ta:sk] tall [to:l]

ear air
[iэ] [еэ]

clear [kliэ] hair [hеэ]


dear [diэ] pair [pеэ]
tear [tiэ] fair [fеэ]
near [niэ] chair [t∫еэ]
hear [hiэ] air [eэ]

eer our

[iэ] [o:] [au]

beer [biэ] four [fo:] sour [sauэ]


deer [di:э] your [jo:] flour [flauэ]
cheer [t∫iэ] our [auэ]
BUT: hour [auэ]

qu + vowel i+ ld, nd

quite [kwait] kind [kaind]


question [kwest∫n] mild [maild]
quiet [kwaiэt] bind [baind]
queen [kwi:n] mind [maind]

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UNIT 1
Articolul nehotarat [Idefinite Article] din l. engleza este ‘a, an’,
echivalentul articolului nehotarat din l. romana ‘un, o’
[un om, o carte].
Inaintea vocalelor “an [эn]” – an animal, an egg, an hour, an
economist, an eye, an agency.
Inaintea consoanelor si sunetelor ‘w’ si ‘j’ “a [э]” a lady, a boy, a
table, a European [juэrэpiэn], a window, a university.

Intrebuintare:

a). Introduce o notiune noua. Example: There is a new shopping


centre in the city. (In oras exista un nou centru comercial).

b). Inainte de un nume predicativ. Example: He is an artist. (El este


artist). She became a doctor. (A devenit medic).

c). In expresii: as a rule (de regula); for a time (pentru un timp); It is


a pity (E pacat); to be in a hurry (a se grabi).

d). Numai cu substantive la singular si dispare odata cu trecerea


substantivului respectiv la plural. Exemple: a book – books, an item –
items, a dog – dogs, a computer – computers.

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Articolul hotarat (Definite article) din l. engleza este “the”,
echivalentul articolului hotarat din l. romana – ul, (pomul, omul), - a
(tabla, masa), ua – (sacaua, daraua), - le (peretele, caietele) sau la
plutal –ii (pomii, merii), - le (femeile, florile) etc.

Inaintea vocalelor the [ði]: the animal, the apple, the egg.
Inaintea consoanelor the [ðз]: the lady, the man, the university, the
teacher, the European[juэrэpi:эn].

Articolu hotarat introduce o notiune cunoscuta sau amintita


anterior:
I like the recipe. (Imi place reteta).

Exista un numar de substantive proprii care se cer precedate de


articolul hotarat datorita dezvoltarii istorice a limbii engleze. Categorii
de substantive proprii precedate de articolul hotart:

a). Nume de ape curgatoare (rauri, fluvii):


the Danube - Dunarea
the Thames - Tamisa
b). Nume de oceane si mari:
the Atlantic (ocean)
the Black Sea
c). Nume de munti si dealuri:
the Alps - Alpii
the Carpathians - Carpatii
d). Nume de insule (grupe de insule) la plural:
The British Isles - Insulele Britanice
e). Nume de stramtori, canaluri, golfuri, capuri:
the Straits of Dover - Stramtoarea Dover
the English Channel - Canalul Manecii
the Cape Verde - Capul Verde
the Bay of Biscay - Golful Biscaia
f). Nume de intreprinderi, institutii, hoteluri etc:
the British Museum
the Savoy (Hotel)
g). Nume de vase:

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the Augustina
the Titanic
h). Nume de ziare si reviste engleze si americane:
the Times, the World, the Breeze
i). Nume de familii la plural:
the Browns, the Smiths.

Articolul hotarat se refera la un obiect sau lucru considerat de a fi


unic: the sun, the moon, the sky, the world, the Lord, the Bible, the
air, the universe etc.

Artocolul Zero inaintea unor substantive proprii. (The


Zero Article before certain Proper Nouns).

a). Nume de oameni, animle, corpuri ceresti etc:


Michael, John Corbin, Venus – Venera.
b). Nume de continente, tari, provincii, regiuni, orase, sate etc:
Europe, Africa, Rome, France, Moldova.
Dintre exceptii pot fi mentionate:
The Ukraine, the United States, the Hague.
c). Denumirile lunilor anului, ale zilelor saptamanii:
March, June, Monday, Sunday etc.
d). Denumirile limbilor:
Romanian, English, Russian.
e). Cu nume de strazi, piete, parcuri, constructii, aeroporturi,
metruri:
Oxford Street, Red Square, National Park, Windsor Castle,
London Bridge.
f). Cu nume de substantive (in sens general):
Oil floats on water.
II. PRONUMELE PERSONAL (Personal Pronoun)
I = eu
You = tu , dumneata
He, she = el, ea (pentru nume de persone)
It = el, ea (pentru nume de animale si obiecte)
We = noi

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You = voi
They = ei, ele
I se scrie intotdeaune cu litera mare.

EXERCISES:

I. Put in a or an (Adaugati a sau an):


1. … teacher: 4. … worker; 7. … book;
2. … English car; 5. … farmer; 8. … doctor;
3. … engineer; 6. … nurse; 9. … chair;

2. Put in a, an (Completati cu a, an):


1. I have … new car.
2. Nick is … manager.
3. His teacher is … American.
4. She eats … ice cream.
5. I want … apple.
6. We have … nice picture.
7. This is … interesting story.
8. He reads … newspaper.
9. Helen learns … poem.
10. My sister has … black cat.
11. Her brother writes … letter.
12. You sit in … armchair.

A. Put the or nothing into each gap.


I like … Coke.
1. … meat is expensive.
2. He likes to drink … wine.
3. … wine in my glass is red.
4. … Heathrow is … busiest airport in Europe.
5. We arrive in … Paris on … third of April.
6. I don’t like … milk.
7. … milk in my cup is not hot.
8. … textbook is old.
9. These are … desks.

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10. … desks are dark brown.
11. Tom and Bill are … students.

D. Put in articles where necessary.


1. This is … nice street. It is … Pushkin street.
2. Mr. Brown lives near … Hyde Park.
3. They go to … National Airport.
4. She says that she loves … sea.
5. Mr. Wilson is … professor at … Oxford University.
6. … Greens come to London today.
7. I like … tea.
8. They go to … Black Sea for their holiday.
9. We visit … United States.
10. … Atlantic lies between … Europe and America.
11. They go to … Travel Agency and book … train tickets.
12. … Music Festival will take place in … Moscow next year.

PRESENT SIMPLE of the verb “TO BE”


(Timpul present al verbului “to be- a fi”).

AFFIRMATIVE (Afirmativ)

Singular
I am (I’m) = eu sunt
you are (You’re) = tu esti
he/she/it is (he’s/she’s/it’s) = el, ea este
Plural
we are (we’re) = noi suntem
you are (you’re) = voi sunteti
they are (they’re) = ei sunt

Verbul to be formeaza interogativul prin inversiune.

INTERROGATIVE (Interogativ) INTERROGATIVE-NEGATIVE


am I? am I not?
are you? are you not? etc.

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is he/she/it?
are we?
are you?
are they?

Verbul to be formeaza negativul adaugand cuvantul not (n’t) dupa


verb.

NEGATIVE (Negativ)
I am not (I’m) not
You are not (aren’t)
He/she/it is not (isn’t)
We are not (aren’t)
You are not (aren’t)
They are not (aren’t)

Note: 1. You is singular and plural but the verb with you is always
plural, e.g.
Are you a man? (singular)
Are you all students? (plural)
2. Always write a capital letter for I, e.g.
My friends and I are in the garden.

EXERCISES:

I. Put in I, you, he, she, it, we, they:


1. Paul is a worker. … is a worker.
2. Jane is a girl. … is a girl.
3. Felix is my cat. … is my cat.
4. My friend is a teacher. … is a teacher.
5. This is an English book. … is an English book.
6. Toby is a dog. … is a dog.
7. Mary is a manager. … is a manager.
8. Tom and Bill are children. … are children.
9. The students are in the classroom. … are in the classroom.
10. My friend and I are at the window. … are at the window.
11. The bag is on the chair. … is on the chair.

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12. The children are at the door. … are at the door.

II. Put in the interrogative (Puneti la forma interogativa):

1. He is an economist.
2. You are doctors.
3. She is a good woman.
4. They are here.
5. You are near the window.
6. It is on the desk.
7. Tom is in the classroom.
8. They are at work.
9. It is on the chair.
10. The manager is in the office.

III. Put in the negative (Treceti la forma negativa).

1. They are there.


2. You are at school.
3. I am a good friend.
4. He is a businessman.
5. We are in the classroom.
6. She is a singer.
7. It is hot.
8. You are busy.
9. He is a pilot.
10. It is summer.

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UNIT 2
The PLURAL OF NOUNS (Pluralul substantivelor)

In limba engleza pluralul substantvelor se formeaza de regula


adaugand litera ‘s’, care se citeste [s], [z], sau –es, care se citeste [iz]:
[s] - dupa consoane surde:
a book - books
a desk - desks
a map - maps
a cat - cats

[z] - dupa vocale sau consoane sonore:


a pen – pens
a girl – girls
a dog – dogs
a boy – boys

[iz] - substantive terminate in literele s, sh, ch, tch, sau x adauga


es:
a match – matches
a glass – glasses
a church – churches
a fox – foxes
a peach – peaches
a wish – wishes

Substantivele terminate in consoana + y schimba la plural y in i si


adauga es:
a lady – ladies
a city – cities
an agency – agencies

Cele terminate in vocala + y adauga numai s:


a day – days
a play – plays
a ray – rays

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Cele care au mutatie vocalica:
a man – men
a woman – women [wimin]
a foot – feet
a tooth – teeth
a mouse – mice [mais]
a goose [gu:s] – geese [gi:s]

Plural in –en + mutatie vocalica


an ox – oxen
a child – children

Unele substantive terminate la singular in “o “formeaza plural in


– es:
a hero - heroes
a potato – potatoes
a tomato – tomatoes

Alte substantive terminate la singular in “o” formeaza pluralul in


– s:
a photo – photos
a piano – pianos
a radio – radios
a studio – studios

Plurale neregulate:
- sonorizarea consoanei finale:
[θ] – [ðz] path [pa:θ] – paths [pa:ðz]
bath [ba:θ ] – baths [ba:ðz]
mouth [mauθ] – mouths [mauðz]

[f] – [vz] a leaf – leaves


a half – halves
a shelf – shelves
a knife – knives
a life - lives
a wife – wives

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- Plurale straine:
a nucleus [nju:kliэs] nucleu – (nuclei) [nju:kliai] (nuclei)
a bacterium – bacteria
an analysis [э‘nælisis] – analyses [э‘nælisi:z]

The Adjective (Adjectivul)


In limba engleza adjectivele au o singura forma, indeferent de gen sau
numar. Ele se asaza de regula inaintea substantivului:
A young woman
A new flat
A handsome man

Adjectivele derivate din nume proprii se scriu cu initiala majuscula:


Romanian
English
French

IV. Pronumele si adjectivul demonstrativ


Numar De aproape De departe

Sing. This [ðis] that [ðæt]


(acesta/aceasta/acest/aceasta) (acela/aceea/acel/acea)

Plural these [ði:z] those [ðouz]


(acestea/acestea/acesti/aceste) (aceia/acelea/acei/acele)

Examples:
This is a book. It’s here.
These are books. They are there.
That is a picture.
Those are pictures.
This is a pencil.
Is this a pencil ?
Yes, it is.
No, it isn’t.

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PREPOZITII DE LOC.

1. ON se foloseste cu referire la:


- o linie
It’s on the edge of the table (Este la marginea mesei)
He lives on Oxford Street (Locuieste pe strada Oxford).
Dar in the street (= pe strada).
- suprafata: Put it on the table (Pune-o pe masa).

2. IN se foloseste cu referire la o zona:


It’s in my bag (E in geanta mea)
He lives in Paris (Locuieste la Paris).

3. UNDER : The cat is under the chair.

4. AT se foloseste cu referire la un anumit punct sau pozitie:


I’ll meet you at the station (Ne vom intalni la gara).

5. BETWEEN exprima pozitia fata de doua elemente


My house is between the school and the bank
(Casa mea este intre scoala si banca).

IV. INTREBARI GENERALE (General Questions)

Intrebarile generale presupun un enunt general (o propozitie intreaga)


si un raspuns general, redus, de obicei, la yes da sau no nu.
Example: She is a doctor.
Is she a doctor ?
Yes, she is. No, she is not (isn’t)
We are managers.
Are we managers ?
Yes, we are. No, we are not (aren’t).

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The Construction “THERE IS/ARE”
There is = este, exista, se afla, se gaseste.
There are = sunt, exista, se afla, se gasesc.
There is are forma prescurtata there’s
La viteza normala de vorbire there is si there are sunt neaccentuate si
contin de regula forme slabe.
There is a man at the door.
La interogativ is si are sunt accentuate, iar there are forma tare.
‘Is there a cup of tea for me too?
‘Are there many books on the table?

There is si there are cu accentul pe there, inseamna tot iata, pentru


distanta:
There is the bus = Iata autobusul.
There it is. = Iata-l.
There they are. = Iata-i.
There are Mr. and Mrs. Stevens. Iata-i pe d-na si dl. Stevens.

Folosim there is, there are de a denumi lucruri care exista sau nu
exista.
There’s a child’s picture but there aren’t any plants.
Deseori folosim “there” cand vorbim despre ceva pentru prima data,
si “it” cand descriem detaliile.
There is a good office. It’s dark.
There is a computer in the office. It’s very modern.

EXAMPLES

There is a teacher at the table.


There is a cat in the picture. Is there a cat in the pictureYes, there is.
No, there isn’t.
Is there a train in the station? Yes, there is.
There are flowers in this picture. Are there flowers in this picture?
Yes, there are.
Are there cups on the table? No, there aren’t.

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Intrebari disjunctive la propozitiile continand there is (there’s),
there are, there is not (there isn’t, there’s not), there are not (there
aren’t) sunt:

There are some books on the desk, aren’t there?


Yes, there are.
Sunt cateva carti pe masa, nu-i asa?

There isn’t much water in the cup, is there?


No, there isn’t.
Nu este multa apa in ceasca, nu-i asa?

EXERCISES:
1. Give the plural of these words:
1. a star. 2. a mountain. 3. a tree. 4. a pound. 5. a knife. 6. a waiter. 7.
a woman. 8. a man. 9. an eye. 10. a wife. 11. an airplane. 12. a box. 13.
a bench. 14. a city. 15. a radio. 16. a tomato. 17. a girl. 18. a brush. 19.
a peach. 20. an address.

2. Put these sentences in the plural (Treceti urmatoarele propozitii


la plural)
Model: This is a book. That is a map.
These are books. Those are maps.

1. This is a boy. 6. This is a desk.


2. That is a teacher. 7. That is an armchair.
3. This is a window. 8. This is a chair.
4. That is a tree. 9. This is a table.
5. That is a pencil. 10.That is a bed.

3. Exprimati dezacordul dumneavoastra (Express your discord).


Model: This coat is green. (yellow)
This coat isn’t green. It’s yellow.
1. That car is old. (new)
2. These hats are black. (red)
3. This apple is big. (small)

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4. Those texts are easy. (difficult)
5. That office is bad. (good)
6. This tie is nice. (plain)
7. These books are thin. (thick)
8. That room is dark. (light)
9. This cat is white. (black)
11. Those days are good. (bad)

4. Make these sentences interrogative:


1. This is a train.
2. That is a door.
3. Those are planes.
4. It is a cat.
5. That is a clock.
6. That egg is bad.
7. This is an umbrella.
8. The window is open.
9. The man is in the car.
10. The cat is under the table.
11. The train is in the station.
12. The plate is on the table.
13. The cigarette is on the desk.
14. They are waiters.
15. The pictures are on the wall.

5. Answer these questions affirmatively (with yes). Use he, she, it


or they in the answers:
1. Is this a pencil?
2. Is this a train?
3. Is that a window?
4. Are the students in the classroom?
5. Are the children in the garden?
6. Is the woman a mother?
7. Is a table a thing?

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6. Answer these questions negatively (with no). Use he, she, it, or
they in the answers:
1. Is this a tree?
2. Are these trees?
3. Is that a book?
4. Are the girls in the office?
5. Is the boy near the door?
6. Are the flowers on the table?
7. Is the door open?
8. Are the books on the shelf?
9. Is the piano in the corner of the room?
10. Is the computer under the desk?

7. Put in on, in, between, at or under:


1. Tom and Mary are … home.
2. They aren’t … school.
3. The institute is … hospital and the school.
3. It is … the floor.
4. The doctor is … the hospital.
5. Peter is … the blackboard.
6. Bill sits … a chair.
7. Father sits … an armchair.
8. The mouse is … the floor.

8. Translate into English


1. Cestile sunt pe masa.
2. Camera este mare.
3. Automobilul este nou.
4. Acea geanta este neagra. Este ea sub masa?
5. Baiatul este la masa.
6. Lectia este interesanta.
7. Ei nu sunt la lectie.
8. Textul nu este mare.
9. Omul acela este sofer. Este el in masina?
10. El si ea sunt medici. Sunt ei medici?
11. Ei nu sunt medici. Ei sunt ingineri.
12. Este lampa pe masa? Da, este.

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Vocabulary:

picture tablou, pictura, fotografie, film


door usa
to close a inchide
window fereastra
clock ceas (de perete)
wall perete
table masa
near langa
boy baiat
pen pix
pencil creion
desk banca, birou, masa de scris, (ec.) casa
pay at the desk platiti la casa
box cutie
thick gros
thin subtire
big mare
nice placut, dragut
large mare, larg

TEXT: In the classroom


This is a classroom. The classroom is large. That is a teacher and these
are students. That is the door. The door is closed. Those are windows.
One window is open. This is a nice picture. That is a map on the wall.
There is a table in the classroom. There are flowers on the table. The
teacher is near the table. These are desks. The pens and the pencils are
on the desks. Are they thick? The pencils and the pens are thin. They
are in the boxes. The clock is on the wall. Is the clock big? Yes, it is.

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UNIT 3
The verb to have/ to have got (Present Tense)
Affirmative

I have / have got = eu am


You have / have got = tu ai
He has / has got = el are
She has / has got = ea are
It has /has got = el/ea are (pentru animale, obiecte)
We have /have got = noi avem
You have / have got = voi aveti
They have / have got = ei au

Interrogative

Do I have? Have I got?


Do you have? Have you got?
Does he have? Has he got?
Does she have? Has she got?
Does it have? Has it got?
Do we have? Have we got?
Do you have? Have you got?
Do they have? Have they got?

Negative

I don’t have I haven’t got


You don’t have You haven’t got
He, she, it doesn’t have He, she, it hasn’t got
We don’t have We haven’t got
You don’t have You haven’t got
They don’t have They haven’t got

Note: In stilul vorbit, formelor verbului “to have” li se adauga got fara
nici o modificare a sensului.

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II. Pronumele personale la cazurile nominativ si obiectiv:
Nominative Objective
I me (mie, pe mine)
You you (tie, pe tine)
He him (lui, pe el)
She her (ei, pe ea)
It it (le el, pe ea)
We us (noua, pe noi)
You you (voua, pe voi)
They them (lor, pe ei)

NOTE: La cazul nominativ pronumele personale se folosesc numai


in rolul de subiect:
E.g. We are students.
La cazul obiectiv (acuzativ) aceste pronume se folosesc in rolul de
complement a unui verb, dupa prepozitie.

Nominative Verb Objective Preposition


Objective
I know him and I write to him
You know me and you write to me
He knows her and he writes to her
She knows us and she writes to us
We know them and we write to them
They know you and they write to you

E.g. Help me! = (Ajuta-ma). I see him every day. (Il vad pe el in
fiecare zi). Give them these books. (Dati-le lor cartile acestea.).

III. Ordinea obisnuita a cuvintelor in propozitie.


Pozitia subiectului si predicatului
Subiectul este asezat inaintea predicatului:

E.g. Dan has a new car. (Dan are o masina noua).

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In propozitia interogativa verbul totdeauna preceda subiectul:

E.g. Does Dan have a new car? (Are Dan o masina noua?)
Is he a teacher? (Este el profesor?)

Intrebarile, care se incep cu un verb se numesc generale. Ele se rostesc


cu un ton ascendent si raspunsul este scurt afirmativ si negativ.:

E.g. Is he a student? Yes, he is. No, he isn’t.


Have they got good marks? Yes, they have. No, they haven’t.

Intrebarile, care incep cu cuvintele interogative ca: who? (cine?),


what? (ce?), where? (unde?), how? (cum?), how many? (cati,
cate?), how much? (cati, cate?), how old? (ce varsta ai?) what
kind of? etc. se numesc speciale.

E.g. Who is she? (Cine este ea?). She is Jane. (Ea este Jane).
What is Bill? (Ce este Bill?) He is an economist. (El este
economist).
The word who is for people.
The word what is for things. Note: Who is he? He is Mr. X. What is
he? He is a driver.
The students are in the classroom.
Who are in the classroom?
The students are in the classroom, or The students are, or The
students.
Are the students in the classroom? Yes, they are.
Where are the students? They are in the classroom.
The train is in the station.
What is in the station?
The train is in the station, or The train is, or The train.

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NUMERALS
(Cardinal Numerals) (Ordinal Numerals)
0- nought/zero [no:t] [zirou]
1 one [wΛn] the first [fз:st] 1st
2 two [tu:] -“- second [sekэnd] 2nd
3 three [θri:] third [θЗ:d] 3rd
4 four [fo:] fourth [fo:θ] 4th
5 five [faiv] fifth [fifθ] 5th
6 six [siks] sixth [sikθ] 6th
7 seven [sevn] seventh [sevnθ] 7th
8 eight [eit] eighth [eitθ] 8th
9 nine [nain] ninth [nainθ] 9th
10 - ten [ten] tenth [tenθ] 10th
11- eleven [ilэvn] eleventh [ilэvn] 11th
12- twelve [twelv] twelfth [twelfθ] 12th
13- thirteen [θз:ti:n] thirteenth [θз:ti:nθ] 13th
14- fourteen [fo:ti:n] fourteenth [fo:ti:nθ] 14th
15- fifteen [fifti:n] fifteenth [fifti:nθ] 15th
16- sixteen [siksti:n] sixteenth [siksti:nθ ]16th
17- seventeen [sevnti:n] seventeenth [sevnti:nθ]17th
18- eighteen [ei’ti:n] eighteenth [eiti:nθ] 18th
19- nineteen [nainti:n] nineteenth [nainti:nθ] 19th
20- twenty [twenti] twentieth [twentiiθ] 20th
21- twenty-one [twenti wΛn] twenty first 21st
30- thirty [θз:ti] thirtieth [θз:ti:θ] 30th
40- forty [fo:ti] fortieth [fo:tiiθ] 40th
50- fifty [fifti] fiftieth [fiftiiθ] 50th
60- sixty [siksti] sixtieth [sikstiiθ] 60th
70- seventy [seventi] seventieth [seventiiθ] 70th
80- eighty [eiti] eightieth [eitiiθ] 80th
90- ninety [nainti] ninetieth [naintiiθ] 90th
100-one (a) hundred [h Λndrэd] hundredth [h Λndrэdθ] 100th
101- one (a) hundred and one (the) hundred and first 101st
1000- one (a) thousand [θauznd] thousandth [θauzndθ] 1000th
1000000 – one (a) million [miliэn] the millionth [miljэnθ]
1000000th

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Numeralele ordinale, cu exceptia primelor trei, se formeaza din
numeralele cardinale corespunzatoare, cu ajutorul sufixului -th:
Grupul de litere ve din five si twelve devine f in numeralele
corespunzatoare (the fifth, the twelfth). Eight primeste doar un h (the
eighth).
Vocala e din nine cade (the ninth).
De la twenty la ninety, y se transforma in ie, la care se adauga th.

Exprimarea datei: September 12, 1999 – September the twelfth,


nineteen ninety nine.
12th September, 1999 – the 12th of September, nineteen ninety nine.
She was born on the 12th of September. Ea s-a nascut la 12 septembrie.

Exercises:
1. Put in have or has (Completati cu have sau has).
1. I … an English book. 5. You … a little cat.
2. She … a nice dress. 6. We … a new company.
3. He … a little dog. 7. They … a clean house.
4. They … a new chief. 8. Dan … an interesting book.

2. Make these sentences (I) interrogative, (2) negative:


I. I have a book.
8. You have an exercise book.
9. Mr. Corbin has a new car.
10. The students on my left have a computer.
11. Miss Helen has a reading book.
12. Peter has bad pronunciation.
13. I have bad pronunciation.
14. You have a lot of money.
15. The children have funny toys.
16. She has a nice picture.

3. Give true answers (Dati raspusuri adevarate):


Model: Has Tom got a little dog?Has your father got an English book?
Yes, he has. No, he hasn’t.

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1. Do you have you a new pencil? 5. Does your father have a new
hat?
2. Has your teacher got a new bag? 6. Does your sister have a red
blouse?
3. Do you have a cat? 7. Do they have good friends?
4. Has Mary got a big family? 8. Has Tom got a big flat?

4. Cross out the wrong pronoun (Stergeti pronumele gresit):


1.I write to (he, him) and you write (I, me).
2. Mary goes to a dance, and Bill goes with (her, she).
3.We know (them, they) very well, and they know (we, us).
4. I see (she, her) in the office and she sees (me, I).
5. He telephones (she, her) every day and tells the news.
6. He speaks English to (we, us), and (we, us) speak English to (he,
him).
7. He teaches (us, we).
8. They help (me, I).

5. Make special questions (Puneti intrebari speciale la cuvintele


evidentiate):

1. Mr. Smith has a new team.


2. I have an old car.
3. We go home after lessons.
4. You have five French books.
5. Tom has two sisters and one brother.
6. He is a good father.

6. Do these sums (Faceti aceste adunari):


Model: 3 + 5 = 8
Three and five is eight.

8+4= 1 + 11 = 4+7=
2+5= 10 + 1= 2+8=
4+3= 5 + 5= 7+1=
3+9= 6 + 3= 6+6=

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7. Translate into English
Aceasta este familia mea. Ea este mare. Aceastea sunt parintii mei.
Tatal meu este inalt. El este doctor. Cati ani are tatal tau? Mama mea
este tanara si frumoasa. Ea este invatatoare. Aveti frati, surori? Da, am
doi frati si trei surori. Fratii sunt studenti si surorile eleve. Cine sunt
aceia? Acei sunt bunei mei. Ei nu sunt prea invarsta. Bunelul este
muncitor si bunica contabil. Cati ani au ei? Noi suntem nepotii lui.
Avem un unchi si o matusa. Ei locuesc nu departe de noi. Cati copii au
ei? Ei nu au copii.

Vocabulary
family familie
average medie
husband sot
wife sotie
parents parinti
father tata
mother mama
grandparents bunici
grandfather bunel
grandmother bunica
children copii
school-children elevi
son fecior
daughter fiica
sister sora
brother frate
grandson nepot (de bunic)
granddaughter nepoata (de bunic)
uncle unchi
aunt matusa
nephew [nefju:] nepot (de unchi)
niece [ni:s] nepoata (de unchi)
cousin verisor(a)
godfather nas
godmother nasa
bride mireasa

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bridegroom mire
wedding cununie
parents-in-law socri
subject obiect de studiu
to work a lucra
to play a se juca
summer vara
farmer fermier, agricultor
usually de obicei
nursery cresa
every fiecare
friend prieten
in-laws cuscri

Text: My friend’s family


My friend has an average family. His name is Paul Brown. He lives in
London. What’s his job? He is an engineer. Paul works in a company.
How old is he? He is thirty. He has got a wife and two children. His
wife’s name is Mary and his children’s names are Jane and Nick.
Mary is a young woman. She is twenty- nine. She’s a doctor in a
hospital. Mr. Brown’s son is a school-boy. He is ten. He takes a lot of
subjects at school. Nick has many friends. He likes playing tennis. His
daughter Jane is five. Her father takes her to a nursery school every
morning. Jane has two little friends: Toby, the dog and Felix, the cat.
Mr. Brown has parents. They aren’t very old. They live in the village.
His father is a farmer and his mother is a housewife. Paul’s wife
usually takes the children to the country in summer to stay with their
grandfather and grandmother. They love their grandchildren very
much. Mr. Brown has parents-in-law. They live in the country, too. He
has an uncle and an aunt. They are farmers. Have they got children?
No, they haven’t. Mr. Brown’s family is very friendly.

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MEETING PEOPLE

How do you do! Buna ziua


Hello! Noroc/Salut!
Who are you? Cum va numiti?/Cum te numesti?
I am …/My name is… Sunt…/Ma numesc …
Glad/Nice to meet you! Sunt incantat de cunostinta!
She is …, my wife. Ea este …, sotia mea.
He is …, my husband. El este …, sotul meu.

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UNIT 4

1. Modal verbs: can, may, must, need


sunt verbe defectiv-modale, cu urmatoarele caracteristici:
- Nu pot fi conjugate la toate modurile si timpurile. Au o forma
pentru present, iar o parte din ele si pentru trecut.
- Au aceeasi forma la toate persoanele:
I can We can
You can You can
He, she, it can They can

Formeaza predicatul numai insotite de alt verb (la infinitiv fara to).
Formeaza interogativul prin inversare:

Can I ? Can we?


Can you? Can you?
Can he? Can they?
Can she?
Can it?
- Formeaza negativul prin adaugarea lui not:
Cannot forma prescurtata can’t

Must not mustn’t


May not may not

Sensurile verbelor modale:


Can – a putea, a sti sa
Can you help me?
Yes, I can. No, I can’t.
I can’t swim.
May – a putea (a-i fi permis); a se putea, a fi posibil, “poate ca”

May I open the window? Pot sa deschid fereastra?


It may be true. Poate sa fie adevarat.
He may be handsome, but he is not clever.
O fi el frumos, dar destept nu e.

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Must – a trebui
You must go home. Tu trebuie sa mergi acasa.

Need – forma de present, se foloseste numai in propozitiile


interogative, negative si are sensul de “este nevoie”, “este cazul”,
“trebuie”, “este necesar”.
You needn’t ask him. (Nu e nevoie/nu e cazul sa-l rogi/intrebi).
Need I repeat that? E nevoie/trebuie sa repet asta)
Yes, you must. No, you needn’t.
La intrebarile cu need, raspunsul afirmativ se formeaza cu must, iar
cel negativ cu needn’t.

2. Indefinite Pronouns (Pronumele nehotarate)


(some, any, not any, no)
Some – unii, unele, ceva, catva, cativa, cateva, niste, oarecare –
Se foloseste in propozitii afirmative:
Some houses are high and some are low.

Any – ceva, catva, catava, cativa, cateva, unii, unele, vreun(ul), vreo,
vreuna, vreunii, vreunele, putin(a) –
Se foloseste in propozitii interogative in locul lui some:
Are there any books on the table?
Is there any milk in the bottle?
Se foloseste in propozitii afirmative cu sensul de oarecare:
You may take any of these books. Poti lua oarecare din aceste carti.
Some poate fi folosit in propozitii interogative cand intrebarea nu se
refera la some:
May I have some water? Pot sa beau putina apa?
Yes, you may.
Comparati cu:
Is there any sugar in the cup?
Yes, there is (some).
Any se foloseste in propozitii negative si se traduce prin nu, nici un,
nici o:
I haven’t any chocolates on the table.

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There isn’t any mistake in my work. (Nu exista nici o greseala in
lucrarea mea).
No inlocuieste pe not … any.
There is no mistake in my work.

3. Much, many, a lot of, lots of.

Much [mΛ t∫] mult, multa – se foloseste cu singularul.


Much water/ sugar/information/tea/coffee/milk/work/rice/money/time.
I haven’t got much time. - Nu am (prea) mult timp.

Many [meni] multi, multe – se foloseste cu pluralul.


Many cars/computers/desks/books/lamps/dictionaries.
There are many books in the library.
In propozitiile afirmative se prefera folosirea expresiei a lot of (mai
familiar lots of).
There are a lot of flowers in the garden.
There are lots of trees in the park.

4. a little, little, a few, few


a little – putin, putina, ceva, niste (pentru singular)
a few – cativa, cateva, niste (pentru plural) au conotatii pozitive:

I have a little time. Am putin (ceva) timp. Dispun de oarecare timp.


We have a few friends in this town. Avem cativa prieteni in acest oras.

Little – putin, prea putin, mai deloc.


Few – (prea) putini, (prea) putine, mai deloc au conotatii negative:
I’m afraid I have little time for reading. Ma tem ca am prea putin timp
pentru citit.
There are few birds left in Moldova. Au ramas (foarte) putin e pasari
in Moldova.

4. Alternative Questions (Intrebari alternative)


Intrebarile de tipul: Is he a teacher or a doctor? (Este el profesor sau
medic?) se numesc alternative. Se formeaza cu ajutorul conjuctiei or

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[o:] – sau, si se rostesc cu urmatoarea intonatie: prima parte a intrebarii
(pana la conjunctia “or”) se rosteste cu un ton ascendent, iar partea
care urmeaza dupa “or” cu un ton descendent:

Is this a ‘table or a ‘desk?

Spre deosebire de intrebarea generala, care se pune la intreaga


propozitie, intrebarea alternativa se pune la diferite parti ale
propozitiei:
Is he a doctor or is she? (la subiect)
Is he an engineer or manager? (la predicativ)
Is he in London or in Paris? (la complement circumstantial de loc)
Is the competition in summer or in spring? (la complement
circumstantial de timp)

The Seasons of the Year. (Anotimpurile)


Spring [spriŋ] primavara
Summer [sΛmэ] vara
Autumn [o:tm] toamna
Winter [wintэ] iarna

Ca subiect, anotimpurile nu primesc articolul hotarat:


In Moldova summer is a warm season.
Se spune in winter, in autumn , etc. cand exprimam o generalitate:
In winter the trees are bare. (Iarna copacii sunt golasi).

Cand ne referim la un anotimp dintr-un anume an, folosim


articolul hotarat:
In the spring of 1999. (In primavara anului 1999).
We will see you in the summer. (Te vom vedea la vara.)
What can they do? Put in the verbs:
1. He can play… football. 4. I can drink… milk.
2. She can read… a book. 5. We can study… English.
3. They can play… in the park. 6. You can write… on the
blackboard.

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Make sentences:
Model: I can play football. (tennis)
I can play football, but I can’t play tennis.
1. I can drink tea. (milk)
2. They can play chess. (rugby)
3. We can read books. (novels)
4. You can clean the blackboard. (the window)
5. She can speak Romanian. (English)
6. He can draw my dining-room. (classroom)
7. He can open the door. (the window)
8. I can write exercise 3. (exercise 5)

Text: The Seasons in Moldova

Winter, spring, summer and autumn are the seasons of the year.
December, January and February are winter months. The weather is
cold. Usually it snows. The days are short and the nights are long. You
can see snow everywhere. The rivers and lakes freeze and we can go
skating and skiing.
March, April, May are spring months. It’s a very nice season.The
weather is fine and it is warm. There are many green trees in the
streets and in the parks. Sometimes it rains but as usually the sun
shines brightly.
June, July and August are summer months. It is hot or warm. The days
are long and the nights are short. There are many green trees and nice
flowers in the parks in summer.
September, October, November are autumn months.It is cool. The
weather is changeable. It often rains. The days become shorter and the
nights longer. You can see yellow, red and brown leaves everywhere.
It is time for gathering harvest.

45
Exercises:
1. Put in must or mustn’t
1. Children … run in the street.
2. You … do your homework.
3. We … learn our lessons.
4. You …sit on the table.
5. We … read in bed.
6. You … eat breakfast in the morning.
7. They … answer these questions.
8. He … smoke in the office.

2. Read and translate these sentences. (Cititi si traduceti aceste


propozitii)
1. I have very little sugar at home.
2. Peter has few friends at the university.
3. Have they many children?
4. Is there much or little coffee in your cup?
5. There is a little tea in her cup.
6. There are a few books on the shelf.
7. There are a lot of English and French books in the university
library.
8. He usually has a lot of work to do in his office.

3. Put in many, much, few, a few, little, a little and a lot of.
1. There are not … books on the desk.
2. Mr. Brown receives very … visitors on Tuesday.
3. She types … letters every day.
4. There are … students in the canteen.
5. I want … coffee, please.
6. There is not … bread at home.
7. There are … students at the lesson.
8. I have … cigarettes at home.

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4. Make up alternative questions
1. He is a worker. 2. They have many friends. 3. She is a good
manager. 4. I have much work. 5. Paris is the capital of France. 6.
The bag is under the table.

Vocabulary
Drawing room/living room/sitting room camera de zi
Bed room dormitor
Bath room baie
Dining room sufragerie
Kitchen bucatarie
Balcony balcon
Entrance hall hol de intrare
1. Bed room 1. Dormitorul
bed pat
carpet covor
wardrobe sifonier
window fereastra
curtain perdea, draperie
dressing-table masa de toaleta
2. Drawing room 2. Camera de zi
sofa canapea
armchair fotoliu
chair scaun
TV-set televizor
picture tablou
door usa
furniture mobila
mirror oglinda
piano pian
3. Dining room 3. Sufragerie
table masa
stool taburet
lamp lampa
buffet bufet
glass-case vitrina

47
4. Kitchen 4. Bucatarie
oven/cooker/stove aragaz
fridge frigider
cupboard dulap
sink chiuveta
vacuum-cleaner aspirator
5. Room 5. Camera
wall perete
floor dusumea/podea
ceiling tavan
blinds jaluzele
6. Entrance hall 6. Holul de intrare
peg cuier
clothes imbracaminte
key cheie
wallpaper tapet
7. Bathroom 7.(Camera de)baie
basin chiuveta
water-closet closet, WC
soap sapun
towel prosop
Verbs Verbe
to open a deschide
to shut/close a inchide
to eat a manca
to drink a bea
to sit a sedea
to watch a privi
to look (at) a privi (la)
to dry a (se) sterge
to wash a (se) spala
to dress a (se) imbraca
to make-up a (se) machia
to go to bed a merge la culcare
to get up a se scula
to sleep a dormi
to cook a gati

48
to come in a intra in
to go out/to leave a iesi/a pleca
to live a locui/a trai
to put a pune

Text: My Flat

I have a large flat in a new block of flats. There are ten floors in our
house. Our house has all modern conveniences such as: central
heating, electricity, gas, running water, and a telephone. Our flat is
very confortable. There are four rooms in it: a dining room, a bed
room, a bath room and a kitchen. In the bed room we have a bed near
the window and a wardrobe near the door. There is a lamp above the
bed. There is a green carpet on the floor. The walls are white, the
curtains are white, too and the blinds are green. It’s a nice bedroom.
The living room is large and light. The walls in this room are yellow.
The ceiling is white and the floor is brown. There is a square table in
the middle of the room. There is a vase of flowers on it. There are two
arm-chairs and a standard-lamp in the corner. We sit down in the arm-
chairs and watch TV. There is also a piano in the room. My sister
plays the piano very well. She loves music. To the right of the piano
there is a writing-table. There are some books on it.
Our dining room is a large room. In the middle of it there is a big
round table and some chairs.
The bedroom is not large. There are two beds, a night table
(commode), a telephone, a wardrobe and a mirror.
The study is large. There is a large writing-table in front of the
window. There are many things in it. There are a sofa and a bookcase
in the corner.
The kitchen is not very large. There is a window and on the sill I have
many flower pots. There are a cupboard, a table, some stools, a sink
and a fridge. In the kitchen we have breakfast, dinner and supper. I like
my flat very much.

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Dialogue

Ted: Do you have a nice flat, John?


John: Yes, I do. My flat is not large but comfortable.
Ted: How many rooms do you have, John?
John: I have two bedrooms, a dining-room, a kitchen, a bathroom and
a living-room.
Ted: Do you eat in the living-room?
John: No, we don’t. My mother cooks in the kitchen and we eat in the
dining-room.
Mary: Is the entrance-hall large?
John: Well, not very large.
Mary: Is the fridge in the dining room or in the kitchen?
John: The fridge and the freezer are in the kitchen near the window.
Ted: Thank you.

Better slowly, but surely.


Take your time ang get it right.

50
UNIT 5

The Present Indefinite (Prezent simplu)

The Present Indefinite exprima actiuni obisnuite, repetate nu neaparat


legate de momentul vorbirii, de ex.: She is a very good doctor; They
like to travel. Acest tip de propozitii include adesea informatia despre
anumite capacitati (calitati). He reads very quickly. Tom speaks
French fluently.
Aceasta repetare este indicata prin adverbele de frecventa si imbinari
de cuvinte ca: often – deseori, always [‘olweiz, olwэz]-intotdeauna,
mereu, vesnic, usually – de obicei, never – niciodata, rarely – rar,
once a week – odata pe saptamana/saptamanal, every day – in
fiecare zi, every year – in fiecare an, seldom –rar.

Exemplu: I never drink milk. Eu niciodata nu beau lapte; He goes to


the theatre twice a month – El merge la teatru de doua ori pe luna.

Adverbele de timp nedefinit si frecventa se asaza de regula intre


subiect si predicat.
I always get up early.
They often forget to brush their teeth.
They seldom come to the lessons.

Exceptie: Intre verbul to be si numele predicativ:


Helen is always dressed well. (Helen este intotdeauna bine
imbracata)
Kathy is never late for school.

La interogativ: Do you often go to concerts? (Mergi des la concerte?)


La negativ: I don’t always enjoy his plays.
La interogativ-negativ: Don’t you ever read detective stories? (Nu
citesti niciodata romane politiste?)
O propozitie englezeasca neputand contine doua negatii, in exemplul
de mai sus never a fost inlocuit cu ever.

51
Sometimes – uneori, cateodata are loc variabil in propozitie: I
sometimes have news from him. Sometimes we go for a walk. She says
sometimes that she loves him. (Uneori ea spune ca-l iubeste).
Terminatia Prezentului Indefinit la persoana a 3-a singular se conduce
dupa aceleasi reguli ortografice si fonetice ca si pluralul substantivelor.
Verbele terminate in consoana, e, w sau y precedate de o vocala (e
vorba de litere), adauga terminatia –s:
he knows,
she forgets,
it changes,
she plays.
Cele terminate in y precedat de o consoana formeaza persoana a 3-a
singular in –ies:
To cry-cries,
to fly-flies,
to hurry-hurries.
Cele trminate in –ss, -s, ch, -tch, sh, -x = es:
She teaches,
He fixes
He watches,
She passes,
it washes.

Verbele to go si to do = es: she goes [gouz], he does [dΛz]

Terminatia –s sau –es a persoanei a 3-a singular se pronunta –z – dupa


vocale si dupa consoane sonore = b, d, g, m, l ,n, v ,ð, ŋ.
Plays, descriobes, reads, calls, comes, learns, lives, bathes, says [sez].
- s dupa consoane surde = f, k, p, t, θ: laughs [la:fs], cooks, hopes,
meets, baths.
- s dupa consoanele sueratoare – iz:
rises [raiziz] – se redica, rouges [ru:зiz] – rujeaza, changes [t∫eidзiz].

52
Affirmative Interrogative Negative

I know Do I know? I don’t know


You know Do you know? You don’t know
He, she,(it) knows Does he,she,it know? He, she, it doesn’t know
We know Do we know? We don’t know
You know Do you know? You don’t know
They know Do they know? They don’t know

Interogativul Prezentului Nedefinit se formeaza exclusiv cu ajutorul


auxiliarului do urmat de infinitivul scurt al verbului de conjugat. Ca
auxiliar verbul to do isi pierde total sensul de a face:
Do you know me?
Does he know English?
Does she know how to cook? (Se pricepe sa gateasca?)
Verbul to do, cu sensul de a face, se conjuga cu el insusi ca auxiliar
pentru a forma interogativul:
What do you do? (Ce faci?)
What does he do? (Ce face el?)
How do you do? (formula de salut).
Where do you work? (Unde lucrezi?)
When do you go home? (Cand mergi acasa?)

Daca intrebarea este adresata subiectului propozitiei, atunci verbul


auxiliar nu se intrebuinteaza:
Who works in the garden? (Cine lucreaza in gradina?)

Cand in calitate de predicat se foloseste verbul to be, formele


interogativa si negativa nu include auxiliarul do:
He is a farmer. He is not a farmer. Is he a farmer?

53
The Days of the Week (Zilele saptamanii)

Monday [mΛ ndei] luni


Tuesday [tju:zdei] marti
Wednesday [wenzdei] miercuri
Thursday [θз:zdei] joi
Friday [fraidei] vineri
Saturday [sætэdei] sambata
Sunday [sΛndei] duminica

Denumirile zilelor saptamanii provin din timpurile vechilor credinte,


cand fiecare zi era consacrata unui zeu sau unui eveniment sacru.

Monday – provine din anglosaxonul day of the moon, adica zeul


lunii.
Tuesday – provine de la Tiu, fiul Zeului Odin.
Wednesday – provine de la Odin, numit in engleza Odin sau Woden.
Thursday – Zeul Thor era venerat joia.
Friday – provine de la Zeita Frei sau Frigg.
Saturday – provine de la Saturn.
Sunday – provine de la anglosaxonul day of the Sun, adica Ziua
Soarelui.
In limba engleza zilele saptamanii se scriu cu litera mare. Pentru a
spune: (in ziua de) luni sau (in ziua de) marti, se foloseste particula
on, de ex.: on Monday, on Tuesday.

Expresii in legatura cu zilele saptamanii:


(on) Monday – luni
last Thursday - joia trecuta
next Sunday – duminica viitoare
on Fridays – vinerea, vinerile
(on) Wednesday morning – miercuri de dimineata
on Saturday afternoon – intr-o dupa ameaza de sambata

The Meals of the Day


Mesele zilei:
Breakfast micul dejun

54
Lunch 1. masa de pranz
2. gustarea de pranz

luncheon dejun

tea ceaiul (de dupa-ameaza)

dinner 1. Masa (principala a zilei)


2. masa de seara
3. dineu

supper 1. cina
2. supeu

In mod obisnuit, mesele zilei nu se articuleaza:


We have dinner at 2 o’clock in the afternoon.
What time is breakfast?
Supper is a light meal. Cina este o masa usoara.

The Months of the Year. (Lunile anului)


January [‘dзænjuэri] July [dзulai]
February [‘februэri] August [‘o:gэst]
March [ma:t∫] September [sep’tembэ]
April [‘eiprl] October [ok’toubэ]
May [mei] November [nou’vembэ]
June [dзu:n] December [di’sembэ]

The 1st of January sau January the 1st


The 8th of March sau March the 8th

Exercises:
1. Make sentences:

55
gets up in the mornig.
the afternoon.
washes the evening.
He goes to school
She watches TV at noon.
plays in the park night.
eight o’clock.
Monday.
goes to bed on Thursday.
Sunday.

2. Put in on, at or in:


1. Nick goes to the university on…in the morning.
2. He has lunch at… noon.
3. He does his homework in… the afternoon.
4. She has English on… Monday and Friday.
5. He has dinner at… seven o’clock.
6. He goes for a walk on… Sunday.
7. He goes to bed at… night.

3. Open the brackets using the verbs in the correct form.


(Deschideti parantezele si folositi verbul respectiv la forma
corecta).
1. We (study) very much.
2. She (speak) English very well.
3. They (work) hard.
4. He (read) many books.
5. Peter (walk) very fast.
6. This pen (write) well.
7. He (like) coffee.
8. She (drink) tea.
9. We (get up) at 6 o’clock.
10. He (watch) TV in the evening.
4. Change these sentences.
Model: He opens the window in the morning. (always)
He always opens the window in the morning.

56
1. I have coffee in the morning. (often)
2. Peter has tea in the morning.(usually)
3. She watches TV in the afternoon. (never)
4. My friend and I play chess on Sunday. (sometimes)
5. He goes to the cinema on Saturday. (often)
6. She listens to the music in the evening. (seldom)
7. He runs in the park every morning. (usually)
8. Mother cleans the rooms every Saturday. (always)

5. Trasform these sentences. Give short answers to the questions.


(Transformati aceste propozitiile. Dati raspunsuri scurte la
intrebari.)
Model: He often watches TV on Friday.
“Does he often watch TV on Friday?” “Yes, he does.”
1. I always have dinner at home.
2. We usually play chess in the morning.
3. She sometimes has dinner at seven o’clock in the evening.
4. They seldom write letters to her mother on Friday.
5. He often has English class on Tuesday.
6. She usually has lunch on Sunday.
7. My sister goes to college every day.
8. Our father washes his car every week.

6. Transform these sentences into negative.


Model: Nick does his homework every week.
Nick doesn’t do his homework every week.

1. My brother works very much.


2. I usually get up at 6 o’clock in the morning.
3. Tom often reads books in the evening.
4. We sometimes go for a walk at weekends.
5. He is busy all day.
6. Her grandparents live in the country.
7. He meets me every day.
8. You like French very much.

57
7. Put in the interrogative:
1. He goes to work every day. (who, where, when, what)
2. She has two brothers and three sisters. (who, what, how many)
3. My parents live in a small town near Paris.(who, what, where, what
kind of)
4. They have a three-room flat in a new house in the centre of London.
(who, what, how many, what kind of, where)
5. He comes to the factory at eight o’clock in the morning. (who,
what, where, when)

8. Complete these sentences with respective articles. (Completati


golurile din urmatoarele propozitii cu articolul respectiv)
1. He is a… student.
2. They study at the… University.
3. We live in a… good flat.
4. We have … two-room flat in … new block of flats.
5. Our flat is on the… ninth floor.
6. He works in a.. big company.
7. There are many things in their flat. the… things are good.
8. There is a… nice picture on the… wall.

9. Translate into English


1.In Washington sunt multi studenti. there are a lot of studets in
Washington. 2. Ei isi fac studiile in universitati si colegii. They study
at universities and coledgies 3. Studentii universitatilor lucreaza intens.
4. Ei citesc multe carti. 5. Duminica parintii nu lucreaza. 6. Copiii nu
merg la scoala. 7. Duminica noi ne plimbam in parc. 8. Feciorului meu
ii place sa se plimbe cu mine. 9. Dumneata faci studii la Universitate?
10. Cine va preda limba engleza? 11. Unde locuieste d-l Smith? 12. El
nu locuieste in Chisinau, el locuieste in Londra. 12. El este managerul
unei mari companii.

Vocabulary
to walk [wo:k] a merge (pe jos)
week [wi:k] saptamana
to receive [ri’si:v] a primi (in vizita)
to stay [stei] a sta, a ramane

58
to want [wont] a dori, a vrea
to study [stΛdi] a studia
only [ounli] numai
to rest [rest] a se odihni
young [jΛŋ] tanar(a)
to go [gou] a merge, a pleca, a se duce
boy [boi] bait
girl [gз:l] fata
factory [fæktori] fabrica
to listen [lisn] to a asculta
to [tu:] (prep.) la, spre, catre
to discuss [diskΛs] a discuta
to return [ritз:n] a se intoarce
hard [ha:d] intens
after [a:ftэ] dupa
questions [kwest∫nz] intrebari
to read [ri:d] a citi
home [houm] acasa
newspaper [nju:speipэ] ziar
university [ju:nivз:siti] universitate

Text: Rob Fellows


Rob Fellows works in a company. He lives near the company. He
usually walks there. He only works five days a week. He works on
Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday, Thursday, and Friday. He doesn’t
work on Saturday and Sunday. He often receives visitors from
factories in the afternoon. They discuss a lot of questions with him. He
usually finishes work at six o’clock in the evening.
Rob learns French. He works hard at his French. He sometimes stays
in the office after work for his French lessons. After classes he returns
home.
Mr. Fellows has a family. His family is not large. He has a wife and
two children, a boy and a girl. The boy goes to school. The girl doesn’t
go to school. She is very young. She is only three. She goes to a
nursery. His wife is a student at the University. She wants to be a
doctor. She works very hard every day.

59
On Saturday we clean the house and cook breakfast, lunch and dinner
for our family.
On Sundays we rest from work. We walk in the park with our children.
They play and we read some newspapers. We go home at 7 o’clock.
The children go to bed at 9 o’clock, but we don’t. We watch TV and
listen to the radio.

It’s hard, but it’s worth trying.

60
UNIT 6
The form of the Possessive/Genitive Case (cazul
posesiv/genitivul in ‘s)
The declension of nouns (Declinarea substantivelor)

Nominativ The waiter wears white gloves.


(the/a) (Chelnerul poarta manusi albe)
Genitiv (of The gloves of the waiter are white./The
the/a) waiter’s gloves are white. (Manusele
‘s chelnerului sunt albe)
Dativ (to Don’t forget to give a tip to the waiter.
the/a) (Nu uita sa-i dai chelnerului un bacsis)
Acuzativ Let’s call the waiter. (Sa chemam
(the/a) chelnerul)
Vocativ (-) Waiter! The bill, please. (Chelner! Nota,
te rog)

The Genitive Case


Genitivul in limba engleza se exprima cu prepozitia “of” pentru
lucruri si cu “s”, numai cu apostrof in general pentru persoane si
alte fiinte:
The boy’s name – numele baiatului
Tom’s father – tatal lui Tom.

La plural, apostroful se asaza dupa s:


The boys’ books – cartile baietilor.
Daca pluralul substanivelor (neregulate) nu se termina in s, se
adauga ‘s:
The men’s club – clubul barbatilor
The children’s parents – parintii copiilor.
Mike and Mary’s children. (Copiii amandurora.)
Tom, Bill and Jane’s parents. (Parintii comuni ai celor trei copii.)
In cazul acesta ‘s se aseaza numai dupa ultimul substantiv la
genetiv.
Elena’s and Jerry’s parents. (Parintii fiecaruia in parte).
In cazul acesta ‘s se asaza dupa fiecare substantiv la genetiv.

61
Genitivul sinteticse foloseste de asemenea:
(the) baker’s (shop) – brutarie
butcher’s – macelarie
florist’s – florarie
grocer’s – bacanie
greengrocer’s – zarzavagerie
tobacconist’s - tutungerie
doctor’s, dentist’s (office)
mother’s (house) Let’s go to mother’s tonight.

Pentru a exprima distanta, durata si greutatea:


A mile’s walk – cale de o mila pe jos.
A two hours’ journey – o calatorie de 2 ore.
A three pounds’ cake – un tort de trei lire.
A 3 pound cake (Am.v.)

Cu adverbe, ca: today, yesterday, tonight, sau cu substantive ce


exprima timpul, spatiul sau greutatea
- yesterday’s newspaper (ziarul de ieri)
- tonight’s programme (propramul din aceasta seara)
- a month’s holiday – (o vacanta de o luna.)

Genetivul analitic “of”


Se foloseste:
- cu substantive comune:
the colour of the sky – culoarea cerului
the author of the book- autorul cartii
the difficulty of the problem- dificultatea problemei.
- cu denumiri geografice:
the city of London – orasul Londra.

62
Personal Pronouns Pronumele Posesive
(Pronumele personale) (Pronumele posesive)

Dependente Independente
I my mine
You your yours
He his his
She her hers
It its its
We our ours
You your yours
They their theirs

This is my book. Mine is on the desk.


This is his car. That is hers.
The place of direct and indirect object in the sentence. (Locul
complementului direct si indirect in propozitie):

In limba engleza complementul indirect, de obicei, preceda pe cel


direct:
He gives her many materials.
El i-a dat ei multe materiale.
Daca complementul direct il preceda oe cel indirect, atunci ultimul
este precedat de prepozitia “to”, devenind complement
prepozitional:
He gives many materials to her.
El ii da ei multe materiale.

Disjunctive Questions (Intrebari disjunctive)

- Se traduce in limba romana prin “nu-i asa?” sau “Nu?” sau “Asa-
i?”
- Dupa o propozitie afirmativa, intrebarea disjunctiva are forma
interogativ-negativa:
Fred is a student, isn’t he?
Mr. Smith has got a car, hasn’t he?

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- Dupa o propozitie negativa, intrebarea disjunctiva are forma
interogativa simpla:
He is not a student, is he?
She can’t speak English, can she?
- In intrebarile disjunctive se folosesc pronumele personale si, de
regula, formele prescurtate ale verbelor.

Intrebarile disjunctive la propozitiile continand there is (there’s),


there are, there is not (there isn’t, there’s not), there are not (there
aren’t) sunt:
There are some flowers in the garden, aren’t there?
There isn’t much time left, is there? (n-a mai ramas mult timp, nu-i
asa?)

Intrebarile disjunctive la propozitiile continand Prezentul Nedefinit se


formeaza dupa regulile cunoscute, cu precizarea ca verbul notional nu
apare in asemenea intrebari ci este inlocuit cu do, does, don’t,
doesn’t:
You know me, don’t you?
You don’t know me, do you?
She goes to bed early, doesn’t she?
She doesn’t go to bed late, does she?

The Adjective (Adjectivul)

In limba engleza adjectivele au o singura forma, indeferent de gen sau


numar. Ele se asaza de regula inaintea substantivului:
A young woman
A new flat
A handsome man
Adjectivele derivate din nume proprii se sriu cu initiala majuscula:
Romanian
English
French

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Exercises:
1. Model: The teacher has a good book.
The teacher’s book is good
1. Mr. Robinson has a new car.
2. The boy has an old computer.
3. The pupil has a clean notebook.
4. Our ather has a white shirt.
5. The woman has a new dress.
6. My sister has a new bag.
7. The man has a blue uniform.
8. His brother has a dirty suit.

2. Put in the plural:


Model: The student’s composition is interesting.
The students’ compositions are interesting.
1. The girl’s blouse is beautiful.
2. The boy’s shirt is white.
3. The teacher’s pen is black.
4. The doctor’s room is clean.
5. The girl’s hair is nice.
6. The student’s problem is difficult.

3. Complete the sentences with possessive pronouns. (Completati


propozitiile de mai jos cu pronumele posesive respective:
1. Sylvia lives in London with her… parents. 2. Your pipe is in …
place. 3. Jeff and Tom are at the cinema with … sister. 4. … brother’s
teacher is a man, but …is a woman. Is that coat …? “Yes, it is … .” 5.
… mother is at home. Where is …? 6. We have a new TV set in …
bedroom. 7. Mike and … wife are at the theatre. 8. Don’t show me …
report, show me …. . 9. How old is … father? 10. Our house is new,
but … is old.

4. Change the places of direct and indirect objects. (Schimbati cu


locurile complementele direct si indirect):

1. He lends me his pen. 2. He sends the letter to her. 3. They show us

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their new car. 4. She brings me a cup of coffee. 5. He demonstrates his
project to them.

5. Read these disjunctive questions and answer them.


1. Peter goes to the cinema, doesn’t he? 2. John has some friends at
school, hasn’t he? 3. Your friend’s family isn’t large, is it? 4. There are
ten students in the classroom, aren’t there? 5. There aren’t any pictures
on the walls, are there? 6. You always listen to the radio in the
evening, don’t you? 7. He opens the window every day, doesn’t he? 8.
His brothers don’t play chess every weekend, do they? 9. He has
coffee in the morning, hasn’t he? 10. They can speak English very
well, can’t they?

6. Completati spatiile goale cu corespondentul romanesc al lui


“nu-i asa?”
1. It’s a tasty cake, … …? 2. Sally is your sister, … …? 3. Mr. and
Mrs.Lee are your parents, … … ? 4. It isn’t late, … …? 5. You
have got a car, … … ? 6. You aren’t very busy, … … ? 7. There is
an English newspaper on the desk, … … ? 8. She can’t work, …
… ? 9. She watches TV, … … ? 10. He isn’t happy, … … ?

7. Translate into English.


1.Tu ai multe greseli, nu-i asa?. 2. Apartamentul prietenului meu este
foarte confortabil. 3. Eu nu pot sa merg la petrecere in seara aceasta.
4. Ei trebuie sa traduca acest text. 5. Ti-ai cumparat carti noi, nu-i asa?
6. Noi cumparam paine de la bacanie. 7. Aceasta este cartea mea, da
aceea a ta. 8. Pot sa deschid fereastra? 9. Culoare cerului. 10.
Profesoarea de pian a lui Tom. 11. Lectia profesorului. 12. Marca
acestui automobil. 13. Primele capitole ale romanului. 14. Usa camerii
lui Bill si Jane. 15. Noua prietena a Lizei. 16. Numele strazii noastre.
17. Numarul casei lor.

Vocabulary
capital capitala
old vechi
city oras (mare)
huge urias, imens

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bridge pod
across peste
river rau
narrow ingust
pavements trotuar, pavaj
financial financiar
sights punct turistic de atractie
bell clopot
to weigh a cantari
residence residenta
queen regina
cars automobile
buses autobuse
tube (underground)
/subway (Am.v) metrou
nice frumos

TEXT: LONDON

London is the capital of Great Britain. It is a very old city. It is two


thousand years old. London is not only the capital of the country, it is
a huge port.
London is situated on both banks of the Thames. There are 17 bridges
across the river. The population of London is about 9 million people.
London has three parts: the City of London, the West End, the East
End.
The City of London is the oldest part of London. You can see narrow
streets and pavements there. There are many offices, firms and banks
in this part of London. The City of London is the financial centre of
the United Kingdom.
The West End is the centre of London. There are many sights in the
West End. They are, for example, the Houses of Parliament with Big
Ben which is the biggest clock bell in Britain. It weighs 13.5 tons.
The official London residence of the Queen is Buckingham Palace.
There are many museums, libraries and galleries in London. There are
many cars and buses. There is a tube (an underground) in London, too.
It is a nice one.

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UNIT 7

The Present Participle (Participiul prezent)


The Present Participle, in general, are un sens activ, ex: I see him
painting.
Functii: 1. Impreuna cu verbul auxiliar “to be”, formeaza aspectul
continuu la diferite timpuri.

2. Are o valoare adjectivala, determinand un substantiv.


Poate fi folosit atat atributiv (ex.: an interesting story = o poveste
interesanta), cat si predicativ
(ex.:The story is interesting = Povestea este interesanta.)
The Present Participle se formeaza cu ajutorul sufixului –ing, care se
ataseaza la infinitivul verbului fara partica “to”: to read – reading, to
stay - staying, to take –taking, to get – getting.

The Present Continuous Tense (Prezentul continuu)


The Present Continuous se formeaza cu ajutorul verbului auxiliar “to
be” la Presentul Simplu si Participiul I al verbului de conjugat.

Affirmative

I am (I’m) reading a book


You are (You’re) reading a book
He is (He’s) reading a book
She is (She’s) reading a book
We are (We’re) reading a book
You are (You’re) reading a book
They are (They’re) reading a book

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Interrogative
Am I reading ?
Are you reading a book ?
Is he reading a book ?
Is she reading a book ?
Are we reading a book ?
Are you reading a book ?
Are they reading a book ?

Negative
I am not (I’m) not reading a book
You are not (aren’t) reading a book
He is not (isn’t) reading a book
She is not (isn’t) reading a book
We are not (aren’t) reading a book
You are not (aren’t) reading a book
They are not (aren’t) reading a book

The Present Continuous exprima:

a). – o actiune, care se petrece in momentul vorbirii:


Ex.: Look! It’s raining. (Priveste! Ploua)
b). – o actiune, care are loc pentru o perioada limitata de timp in
prezent:
Ex.: What are you reading these days?
I’m taking driving lessons. (Iau lectii de conducere auto)
c) - poate avea o valoare de viitor, exprimand o actiune ce va avea
loc conform unui program stabilit inainte, si anume verbele, care
exprima miscarea, ca to go, to come, to leave denota o actiune care
se va efectua in viitorul apropiat:

Ex.: He is coming tomorrow. (El vine miine)

Unele verbe nu se pot folosi la forma continua:


- verbe care exprima o activitate mintala (know, remember, believe,
mean, understand, forget, doubt [daut], agree, appreciate, expect,
assume, feel (=think), realize, recognize)

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- verbe care exprima sentimente sau stari sufletesti (love, regret,
prefer, want, like, to etc.)
- verbe care exprima o perceptie senzoriala (see, hear, smell etc)
- verbe care exprima posesia (have, belong (to) – a apartine, to own-
a poseda, cat si verbul “to be”)
- verbe modale (can, must, may )

The Adverb (Adverbul)


Adverbul poate determina un verb (She sings beautifully), un adjectiv
(She has an extremely beautiful voice) sau un alt adverb (very late).
Modul de formare
Majoritatea adverbelor de mod se formeaza prin adaugarea sufuxului
–ly la un adjectiv.
Ex.: Adjectiv Adverb
Useful usefully
Easy easily
True truly
Slow slowly
Full fully
Adjectivele terminate in –ic primesc terminatia –ally
Fantastic fantastically
Diplomatic diplomatically
Unele adverbe au aceeasi forma cu adjectivele corespunzatoare:
Friendly friendly
Early early
Lovely lovely
Fast fast
Late late
Hard hard
Only (singur,unic) only (numai, doar)

Tipuri de adverbe:

1. Adverbe de timp si frecventa:


Yesturday (ieri), today (astazi), tomorrow (maine), soon(curand),
often (deseori), always (intotdeauna), now (acum)

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- She comes today (Vine astazi)
- We often have dinner at home. (Noi deseori luam pranzul acasa)
2. Adverbe de mod:
Slowly (lent), bravely (cu curaj), angrily (suparat)
- He is working slowly.
- She replies angrily. (Ea raspunde pe un ton suparat)

3. Adverbe de loc:
Here (aici), there (acolo), near (aproape), below (dedesubt), down
(jos), up (sus) etc.
They stop here. (Ei sau oprit aici)

4. Adverbe care indica gradul:


Absolutely/completely (complet), incredibly (incredibil de),
perfectly (perfect), simply (pur si simplu), very (foarte) etc.
It’s incredibly boring (E incredibil de plicticos)
I absolutely agree (sunt complet de acord).

Pozitia adverbelor in propozitie


Cand in propozitie exista mai multe adverbe, ordinea este:
MOD LOC TIMP
Ex.: He arrives safely in Washington today.
(1) (2) (3)
(Ajunge in siguranta la Washington astazi)
1 2 3
Nota: Unele verbe ca become/ turn/keep/remain/stay/, look, seem,
taste, smell sunt urmate de adjective si nu adverbe (Ex: It smells good
= Miroase bine), He looks happy (Pare fericit), He was born rich. (S-a
nascut bogat).

Exercises:

1. Make sentences negative and interrogative:


Model: They are reading now.
They aren’t reading now.
Are they reading now?
1. The sun is shining.

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2. The men and the women are standing.
3. The students are drinking cups of tea.
4. The dog is sleeping.
5. You are playing football.
6. I am staying at that hotel.
7. She is looking for her.
8. We are looking after the children.
9. He is smoking a cigarette.
10.The birds are flying over the sea.

2. Answer these questions using the model:


Is Tom reading a book? (watch TV)
No, he isn’t. He’s watching TV.
1.Is she opening the window? (to close the window). 2. Is Jane asking
questions? (to answer questions). 3. Is he reading text 2? (to read text
3). 4. Are they playing chess? (to watch TV). 5. Is Bill showing his
new project to Peter? (to show it to Nick). 6. Are they listening to
music ? (to listen to the latest news).

3. Use the present continuous instead of the infinitives in brackets.


1. Mary (to arrive) home now.
2. Look, the sun (to rise). It (to rain)? Yes, it (to rain) very hard.
3. The delegation (to leave) Moldova tomorrow.
4. Peter (to smoke) a cigarette.
5. Why you (to speak) so fast.
6. They (not to work), they (to watch) TV.
7. The weather is fine. The sun (to shine) and the birds (to sing).
8. I can’t hear what they (to talk) about.
9. She (not to work), she (swim) in the river.
10.Why Ann (not to wear) her new dress?
11.What Tom (to do) now? He (to clean) his shoes.
11. He (to teach) his boy to ride.

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4. Put the verbs in brackets into the simple present or present
continuous.
1. We (to study) at university. We (to study) English and French there.
Now we (to be) in the classroom, we (to read) an English text. We (not
make) mistakes.
2. We (to speak) Romanian at home, but we (to speak) English
at the university.
3. You (to speak) Romanian now? We (to speak) English
because we (to be) at the English lesson.
4. He (to go) to the university in the evening. Where he (to go)
now?
He always (to go) to the office at 9.

5. Form adverbs from these adjectives and translate them:


Occasional, real, bad, fruitful, happy, useful, helpful, beautiful,
bright, slow, nice.

6. Complete the sentences. Choose from:


1. Father is tall. He isn’t … fat
2. My friend Nick is thin. He isn’t … short
3. Our office is clean. It isn’t … old
4. We get up early. We don’t get up … dirty
5. I like my new dress. I don’t like my … dress. late
6. Felix is a white cat. It isn’t … bad
7. The window of the classroom is open. It isn’t … black
8. Tom is a good student. He isn’t … young
9. Grandmother is old. She isn’t shut
10. The grass is wet in the rain. It isn’t … dry

7. Put the adverbs of time in the right place:


1. I go to bed late (never). 2. We haven’t English lessons (every day).
3.
Let’s go to the theatre (tonight). 4. Do you smoke (ever)? 5. I’m going
to mother’s (next Sunday). 6. We see each other (very often). 7. We go
for a walk (sometimes). 8. I get up early (always). 9. They comb and
brush their hair (seldom). 10. He can tell lies (never). 11. You can tell
(never). (Nu se stie nici odata).

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8. Translate into English
1. Cand te duci la culcare? 2. Ce asculti? 3. Unde luati pranzul?
4. Ei va viziteaza des? 5. Unde va petreci vacanta de vara? 6. Ea
culege flori. 7. Aceasta floare miroase frumos. 8. El e prietenul tau,
nu-i asa ? 9. Imi place painea foarte mult. - 10. Si parintelor mei. 11.
Trebuie sa pleci, nu-i asa? 12. Omul acela este fratele cumnatei mele.

Text: At the English lesson


The students are in a classroom. The classroom is a big room. They are
in the English class. They are having an English lesson. They are
sitting on chairs in front of their desks. The teacher is standing at the
blackboard. She is speaking to the students and she is writing the new
English words on the blackboard. The students are writing them in
their notebooks. They are also repeating the new words. The students
are looking at their teacher and they are listening to what she is telling
them. She has a pleasant voice. She is teaching them many new words
and grammar rules.
The students are making good progress in English and say that
learning English is a great pleasure for them. They usually do all their
exercises and all their homework. They always say that they have too
much to do.
The students like to learn English and they say that English is not
difficult. They work hard and they learn many new English words in
every new lesson. They have a lot of work to do at home for their
English lessons. They are hard-working students and their teacher likes
them.

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If you want to attain something,
you have to fight like a lion.

75
UNIT 8

The Past Simple (Trecutul Simplu)

Verbele limbii engleze la Trecutul Simplu se impart in doua grupe:


regulate si neregulate.
Mare majoritate a verbelor din limba engleza formeaza Trecutul
adaugand terminatia –ed:

a) Terminatia –ed se pronunta d.


To open – opened [oupnd]
To play – played [pleid]

b) Terminatia –ed se pronunta t.


To look – looked [lukt]
To ask – asked [a:skt]

c) Terminatia –ed se pronunta id.


To want – wanted [wontid]
To need – needed [ni:did]

d) Verbele terminate in e adauga numai –d:


To live – lived [livd]
To love – loved [lΛvd]

e) Verbele terminate in y precedat de o vocala adauga –ed:


To play –played [pleid]
To stay – stayed [steid]

Nota: Exista numai trei exceptii:


To say – a spune, a zice - said [sed]
To pay - a plati - paid [peid]
To lay – a pune, a aseza – laid [leid]

f) Cele terminate in y precedat de o consoana schimba y in i si adauga


–ed:

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To try – tried [traid]
To cry – cried [kraid]

j) Verbele monosilabice terminate intr-o singura consoana precedata


de o singura vocala dubleaza consoana finala inaintea terminatiei – ed:
to stop – stopped [stopt]
to plan – planned [plænd]

Affitmative Interrogative

I played tennis Did I play tennis ?


You played tennis Did you play tennis ?
He,she (it) played tennis Did he, she,(it) play tennis?
You played tennis Did you play tennis ?
We played tennis Did we play tennis ?
They played tennis Did they play tennis ?

Negative
I did not (didn’t) play tennis
You did not (didn’t) play tennis
He, she, (it) did not (didn’t) play tennis
We did not (didn’t) play tennis
You did not (didn’t) play tennis
They did not (didn’t) play tennis

Trecutul Simplu al verbelor neregulate se formeaza prin diferite


procedee:
- schimbarea vocalei de baza: to get – got;
- schimbarea consoanei finale to spend - spent;
- schimbarea verbului in intregime: to go – went;
- pastrarea formei initiale: to put – put;
- pastrarea formei initiale, in rostirea diferita: to read [ri:d] –
read [red].

Conjugarea verbului “to be” la Trecutul Simplu:

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Afirmative Interrogative
I, he, she, it was Was I, he, she, it?
We, you, they were Were we, you, they?

Negative
I, he, she, it was not(wasn’t)
We,you,they were not(weren’t)
Conjugarea verbului “to have” la Trecutul Simplu:

Afirmative Interrogative
I, he, she, it, Did I, he, she, it, we,
You, they had you, they have?

Negative
I, he, she, it, we, did not (didn’t)
You, they did not (didn’t)

Nota: Formele interogativa si negativa ale verbului to have pot de


asemenea fi construite cu ajutorul verbului auxiliar to do (la trecut
did):
Did you have free time yesterday?
A-ti avut timp liber ieri?
She did not (didn’t) enjoy this film.
Ei nu i-a placut acest film.

Intrebuintare: Trecutul Simplu exprima o actiune care a avut loc la


un moment dat in trecut iar perioada de timp s-a incheiat.
Verbele la acest timp sunt determinate de adverbe si expresii de timp
ca: yesterday (ieri), last year (anul trecut), last month (luna
trecuta), two hours ago (doua ore in urma), two years ago (doi ani
in urma), in 1999 (in 1999), etc.

Relative Pronouns (Pronumele Relative)


Pronumele relative WHO, WHOM, WHOSE se folosesc la stabilirea
legaturii dintre propozitia principala, sau un element al acesteia, si
propozitia secundara atributiva. Aceste pronume se folosesc cand

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elementul din propozitia principala determinat de ele este exprimat
prin substantiv animat:
The boy who is playing in the yard is my son.
Baiatul, care se joaca in ograda, este feciorul meu.
The girl whom you see in that room is my daughter.
Fata, pe care o vezi in odaia ceea, este fiica mea.
The writer whose book you are reading lives in Canada.
Scriitorul, a carui carte o cititi acum, locuieste in Canada.

Pronumele relativ WHICH se intrebuinteaza cand substantivul


determinat este inanimat:
I don’t like the book which you are reading now.
Nu-mi place cartea pe care o citesti acum.
Asemenea functie o are si conjunctia THAT, insa ea urmeaza atat
dupa substantivele inanimate, cat si cele animate:
I know the young man that you talked to an hour ago.
I-l cunosc pe tanarul cu care ai vorbit o ora in urma.
The book that I am reading is very interesting.
Cartea, pe care o citesc, este foarte interesanta.

Exercises:
1. a). Give the Simple Past Tense form of the following regular
verbs. Transcribe and pronounce them.
to close-closed, to open-opened, to listen-listened, to live-lived, to
receive-received, to shave-shaved, to play-played, to stay-stayd, to
collect-collected, to dictate-dictated, to translate-translated, to start-
started, to help-helped, to like-liked, to look-looked, to pass-passed, to
smoke-smoked, to thank-thanked, to work-worked, to wash-washed, to
watch-watched, to rain-rained, to snow-snowed, to finish-finished.

b) Give the Simple Past Tense form of the following irregular


verb. Transcribe and pronounce them.
to be, to have, to do, to teach, to buy, to pay, to come, to go, to
give, to get, to hear, to leave, to know, to make, to take, to tell, to say,
to see, to put, to read, to write, to wake, to drive, to eat, to drink, to
learn, to forget, to fall, to feel, to fly, to sit, to sleep, to send,to sing.

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2. Put the following into the past tense:
1. He comes to the class every day.
2. You do that work very well.
3. John thinks a lot about his work.
4. Peter buys his suit this week.
5. I know the answer to your question.
6. I believe what you tell me.
7. Jane pays ten pounds and she gets a good dress.
8. We speak English every day.
9. He likes your picture.
10.We have lunch at 12 o’clock today.

3. Make the following negative:


1. Tom answered all the questions.
2. The boys and the girls bathed in the sea every day.
3. Lucy bought a new coat.
4. I drank my cup of tea.
5. The boy took the letter in his hand.
6. My mother made breakfast early in the morning.
7. The students went to Mr. Smith’s house yesterday.
8. He watched TV last night.

4. Make the following sentences interrogative:


1. She danced from seven o’clock to midnight.
2. Peter’s mother taught French to us last year.
3. Mary played tennis very well.
4. Those letters came to England by airplane.
5. The students went to the museum yesterday.
6. They saw many interesting things there.
7. He understood the lesson very well.
8. The artist drew the picture.
9. He was ill last week.
10.His friend lived in London last year.

5. Transform these sentences into disjunctive questions and give


answers to them.
Model: He stayed at home last Sunday.

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He stayed at home last Sunday, didn’t he? Yes, he did.

1. He went shopping yesterday.


2. John dictated a few letters to the secretary yesterday morning.
3. My brother had a lot of friends at school.
4. He did not know about her.
5. They had no English lessons last year.
6. She was not very tired yesterday.
7. The bread and the cakes were fresh yesterday.
8. Peter wasn’t ill last month.
9. My friend collected stamps last year,
10. He didn’t wake up in the morning.

6. Make up special questions using the interrogative words from


the brackets.
1 1. He got up at seven o’clock in the morning. (when)
2. They studied at the university. (where)
3. She went home at noon. (what time)
2 4. Twenty students attended the lesson. (how many)
3 5. She came to work by car. (how)
4 6. We played chess yesterday. (who)
5
7. Ask questions to which the underlined words are the answers.
1. They attended the conference in Paris last month. (5)
6 2. The children wanted to go for a walk in the park. (4)
7 3. She was here yesterday. (3)
4. They came to see us last night. (5)

8. Combine these two sentences into one sentence.


Model: I met a man yesterday. This is the man.
This is the man who(m) I met yesterday.

1. These are the books. I spoke about them.


3. I want to read the book. The book is on my desk.
4. I know the man. The man is in the room.
5. Give me the bag. The bag is on the chair.

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6. Do you like the girl? The girl is sitting on the sofa and listening to
the music.
7. The manager works at our company. The manager wants to study
German.
8. I want to speak to the woman. I teach her children.
9. Where are the papers? You wanted to show them to me.
10. What’s the name of the book? John is reading it.
11. The woman is my sister’s brother-in-law. I always meet the
woman at the university.

9. Translate into English


1. Ei au locuit in Bucuresti doi ani in urma.
2. Va placut cartea lui noua? Nu.
3. Ce fel de reviste ai vrut sa-mi arati seara trecuta?
4. Noi n-am tradus textul acesta saptamana trecuta. Nu, l-am tradus.
5. Noi am luat pranzul la ora doua.
6. Baitul care lucreaza in oficiu are douazeci de ani.
7. Vreau sa vorbesc cu domnisoara care mi-a tiparit raportul
8. Cum se numeste strada unde locuiti?
9. Cursurile, pe care le frecventez, lucreaza seara.
10. Va place domnisoara care priveste tabloul?

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Vocabulary
all toti, toate
town orasel
alone singur
busy ocupat
very glad foarte bucuros
homework tema pentru acasa
quickly repede
by heart pe de rost
phrase fraza
difficult greu, dificil
well bine
home casa, camin
at home acasa
as a matter of fact de fapt

Text: Yesterday in the afternoon

Yesterday afternoon I stayed at home. All of my family was in town. I


was alone and I was not busy. I was very glad because I could do my
homework for the English class. I did my homework quickly enough. I
read the lesson, I copied the texts and I did all the exercises. I repeated
the vocabulary and I learnt by heart most of the new words and
phrases. I was very happy when I saw that I knew much English now.
I wrote a short composition and I translated a difficult text from
Romanian into English. As a matter of fact I had a lot of work to do. I
was very glad because I could understand the exercises and I could do
them. The three translation exercises were not at all difficult. I even
did them very well. I was finishing my homework when my family
came home.

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UNIT 9

Equivalents of Modal Verbs “can”, “may” and


“must”
Dupa cum stim, verbele modale nu pot fi conjugate la toate modurile si
timpurile.
Pentru a remedia aceasta situatie, exista in limba engleza inlocuitori ai
unora dintre aceste verbe:

Can poate fi inlocuit prin to be able to, must prin to have to, to be to,
may – to be allowed to.

To be to, was to, were to – a urma (sa), a trebui sa arata ca actiunea


este determinata in conformitate cu un plan sau cu un program stabilit
mai inainte:
He is to present the report on Monday. (Urmeaza conform celor
stabilite) (ca el) sa prezinte raportul luni)
Aceste constructii pot fi folosite la trecut.

Present Past
I can do it now. I was able to do it yesterday.
(Pot s-o fac acum) I couldn’t do it yesterday.
I am able to do it. I wasn’t able to do it yesterday.
I couldn’t do it yesterday.
Could you do it yesterday?
I must do it. I had to do it yesterday.
(Trebuie s-o fac) Did I have to do it yesterday?
I have to do it. He was to give a lecture yesterday.
I don’t have to do it.
I am to give a lecture today.
You may go home. You might go home yesterday.
(Poti merge acasa) You were allowed to go home
You are allowed to go home. yesterday.
You aren’t allowed to go home. Were you allowed to go home?
Are you allowed to go home?

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Comparison of Adjectives (Gradele de comparatie a
adjectivelor)
In limba engleza adjectivele nu se schimba in dependenta de numar
sau de caz, ci numai dupa gradele de comparatie. Exista trei grade de
comparatie: pozitiv, comparativ si superlativ.

Positive Comparative Superlative


Long longer (the) longest
Tall taller (the) tallest
(a) few fewer (the) fewest
dear dearer (the) dearest
hot hotter (the) hottest
nice nicer (the) nicest
dry drier (the) driest
lovely lovelier (the) loveliest
beautiful more beautiful (the) most beautiful
dramatic more dramatic (the) most dramatic

Nota: Articolul hotarat de la superlativ a fost pus la paranteza


deoarece el poate fi inlocuit cu un posesiv:
The best report … (Cel mai bun raport)
Brown’s best report…
His best report…

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Mod de Comparativde Superlativ
Formare Pozitiv superioritate relativ (cel
(mai … decat) mai …)

Sintetic o silaba: rich (bogat) richer … (than) (the) richest


doua silbe cu accentul pe politer[pэ’laitэ] the politest
ultima:polite[pэ‘lait] (politicos)

Doua silabe si terminatiile: -y, - er, -


ow, - le precedate de o consoana:
Happy (fericit)
Clever (destept)
Narrow (ingust) Happier Happiest
Able (capabil) Cleverer Cleverest
Narrower Narrowest
Abler Ablest
Nota: - consoana finala dupa o vocala scurta se dubleaza
(big-bigger-biggest)
- y in pozitie finala, precedat de o consoana, se schimba in –ie (easy-
easier-easiest)
- adjectivele terminate in –e primesc doar – r, respectiv –st (fine-finer-
finest)
Analitic doua silabe cu accentul
More… pe prima:
Most… cautious (prudent) more cautious Most cautious
useful (util) more useful Most useful

Trei sau mai multe silabe:


important (important) more important most important

Adj. Provenite din participii:


interesting (interesant) most
more interesting interesting
delighted (incantat) more delighted most delighted

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Unele adjective formeaza comparativul si superlativul in mod
neregulat:
much – mult
more (the) most
many – multi

good better (the) best

bad – rau, prost worse (the) worst

(a) little – putin less the least

far (indepartat) farther (in spatiu) the farthest


further (in spatiu sau timp) the furthest

Exemple de folosire a gradelor de comparatie in propozitii:


- He is as good as his friend (=Este la fel de bun ca prietenul sau)
- He is not so (not as) good as his friend (=Nu este asa de bun ca
prietenul sau)
- He is worse than his friend (=Este mai rau ca prietenul sau)
- His friend is the best of all (=Prietenul sau e cel mai bun dintre toti)
- This is the most interesting book (=Aceasta este cartea cea mai
interesanta)
- This book is most interesting (=Aceasta carte e cat se poate de
interesanta)
- It grows darker and darker (=Se face din ce in ce mai intuneric)
- The slimmer you are the better you look (=Cu cat esti mai slab/a cu
atat arati mai bine)
Pentru intensificare, comparativul poate fi insotit de much, far sau by
far, toate insemnand (cu) mult:
His report is far/much better than the others.
Raportul lui este (cu) mult mai bun decat celelalte.

Substantivarea adjectivelor
Un adjectiv poate deveni substantiv primind articolul hotarat the. Ex:
Rich = bogat – the rich (=cei bogati) = substantiv plural

87
English = englezesc – The English (englezii) = substantiv plural
Chinese = chinezesc – the Chinese (chinezul/chinezii) = substantiv la
singular sau la plural.

The Degrees of Comparison of Adverbs (Gradele de comparatie


ale adverbelor)

Numai o parte dintre advere au grade de comparatie, si anume


adverbele de mod si cateva adverbe de timp nedefinit:
Fast faster (the) fastest
Soon sooner (the) soonest
Well better (the) best
Early earlier (the) earliest
Beautifully more beautifully (the) most beautifully
Badly worse (the) worst

Unele dintre adverbe formeaza gradele de comparatie in doua


feluri:
Quickly more quickly (the) most quickly
Slowly more slowly (the) most slowly
often more often (the) most often

Exercises:
1. Give the comparative and superlative of the following adjectives
(Dati comparativul si superlativul urmatoarelor adjective):
High, strong, fat, much, fascinating, dry, weak, thin, a little, pretty,
handsome, red, few, cosy, many, beautiful, yellow, bad, ill, mad.

2. Give the comparative and superlative of the following adverbs:


Slowly, fast, hard, beautifully, well, carefully, often, quick, badly,
early.

3.Complete the gaps with as, so, as/so, than, of (Completati spatiile
goale cu as, so, as/so, than, of):
1. Better an egg today … a hen tomorrow.
2. Blood is thicker … water. (In echivalenta: Sangele apa nu se face)

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3. Helen is the youngest … all.
4. She is not … lazy … her brothers.
5. During the rush hours the buses are … slow … the taxis.
6. I never go to bed later … 11 o’clock.
7. I’m not delighted … you are.
8. I’m … much interested … you are.
9. His plays are less interesting … his novels.

4.Transform these sentences according to the models.


(Transformati aceste propozitii conform modelelor)
Model: Nick is nice. And John?
John is nicer than Nick.
1. Ben is young. And Dick? 2. His brother is short. And Ben’s
brother? 3. Lesson 5 is easy. And lesson 4? 4. Our team is good. And
their team? 5. My father is old. And Ted’s father? 6. Peter has many
English books. And Max? 7. Ann has few friends at the university.
And Mary?

Model: Does John get up earlier than Ben does?


I think he gets up earlier than Ben does.

1. Did John come home as late as Dick did? 2. Does John speak
French as well as Bill does? 3. Can he play hockey as well as football?
4. Can she speak French as well as English? 5. I don’t like oranges as
much as apples.

5. Respond to these questions according to the model (Raspundeti


la aceste intrebari conform modelului):
Model: Did you go shopping yesterday? (Peter)
No, I didn’t have to. Peter did it.
1. Did you go to the Travel Agency yesterday? (John) 2. Did you book
seats for the Opera House? (Mike) 3. Did Jane show them round the
city? (John) 4. Did you show round the university? (Mike) 5. Did you
take a taxi for them? (Peter)

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6. Put in must or have/has (got) to.
1. I’m tired. I … go to bed early. 2. John … go to the university on
Saturdays. 3. We … get another dog soon. 4. “This is a great book.” I
… read it. 5. A soldier … obey orders. 6. We … go to London for a
meeting. 7. I think we … pay in advance. 8. You really … visit us
soon. 9. I … try to spend more time at home. 10. You … knock before
you come into my room.

7. Correct the mistakes.


1. I don’t can sing.
2. I would like to can travel more.
3. He doesn’t has to work hard.
4. Could you tell me the time?
5. I must work last Saturday and Sunday.

8. Translate into English.


1. Sunt in stare sa va ajut. 2. Poate ea (e in stare) sa faca asta? 3. Ea era
deja in stare sa vorbeasca engleza. 4. A trebuit sa plec devreme. 5. E
necesar ca tu sa curati bucataria. 6. Trebuia intr-adevar sa fii inapoi
inainte de miezul noptii? 7. Nu trebuie sa ezitati. 8. El urmeaza sa tina
miine o lectie. 9. Vinul este mai ieftin in Spania decat in Marea
Britanie. 10. Nu este la fel de scump ca aici. 11. Dictionarul tau este
mai folositor decat al meu. 12. Metoda lui este mai putin efectiva ca a
mea. 13. Se face din ce in ce mai cald. 14. El este mai inalt deacat Jim.
15. Au putut ei sa vina duminica trecuta?

90
Vocabulary
to decide a hotari
to become a deveni
writer scriitor
because fiindca, pentru ca
hardly abea, putin probabil
to study a studia
subject subiect
relatives rude
alone singur
world lume, univers
to be interested in a se interesa in
future viitor
to agree a fi de acord
to help a ajuta
even chiar
to teach/taught a invata, a preda
language grai, limbaj
to want a dori
mistake gresala

Text: “Martin and Ruth”

When Martin Eden decided to become a writer, his first task was to
receive an education. But the university did not allow him to become a
student, because he could hardly read, and he did not know English
grammar. Besides, he had not studied the subjects that every child learns at
school. Martin Eden was alone in the world: he had no parents or relatives
who were interested in his future. There was only one person who agreed to
help him. She was Ruth, the daughter of a rich businessman. But even she
did not believe that Martin would become a writer. She taught him the
English language and English literature, but she didn’t want him to become
a writer. She wanted him to go to work in her father’s office. She
understood that she had made a mistake only much later, when Martin
became one of the most popular writers in America.

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UNIT 10

The Simple Future (Viitorul Simplu)

Modul de formare: Se foloseste infinitivul scurt al verbului de conjugat


precedat de verbul auxiliar will (cateodata shall la pers. I sing. si pl.)

Affirmative Interrogative Negative

I shall/will go Shall/Will I go? I shall not (shan’t) go


You will go Will you go? You will not (won’t) go
He will go Will he go? He will not (won’t) go
She will go Will she go? She will not (won’t) go
It will go Will it go? It will not (won’t) go
We will go Will we go? We will not (won’t) go
You will go Will you go? You will not (won’t) go
They will go Will they go? They will not (won’t) go

1. Viitorul Simplu exprima anticiparea unei actiuni sau stari.


Ex: It will rain tomorrow. (Maine va ploua)

2. - exprima o intentie in viitor sau o decizie pentru viitor luata in


momentul vorbirii, nu existenta anterior in mintea vorbitorului.
Ex: Oh, You can’t do it! Wait a minute, I’ll help you… (Ah, nu
poti s-o faci! Asteapta o clipa, te voi ajuta…)
Nota: Shall, auxiliarul pentru pers.I sing. si pl., este folosit mai mult in
limbajul oficial, in vorbirea curenta preferandu-se will. De cele mai
multe ori se foloseste forma contrasta (‘ll).
Ex: I’ll visit my parents. You’ll not work there.
- propozitiile interogative cu will la pers. a II-a pot exprima
o rugaminte.
Ex: Will you help me? (Vrei sa ma ajuti?)
- Propozitiile cu shall exprima fie o oferta (Shall I go there for you?
= Sa ma duc acolo in locul tau?), fie cererea unui sfat (Where shall I
go? = Unde sa merg?)

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THE IMPERATIVE
Modul de formare:
1. Infinitivul scurt (fara to) al verbului:
Ex: Cross now! Traverseaza/ti acum!)
Ring me tomorrow! (Suna-ma maine!)
2. Don’t + inf. Scurt – (pentru a forma un imperativ negativ)
Ex: Don’t cross now! (Nu traversa/ti acum!)
Don’t ring me tomorrow!
3. Let’s (let us) + infinitiv. scurt, (pentru persoan I pl.)
Ex: Let’s cross! (Sa traversam!/ Hai sa traversam)
Let’s ring tomorrow!
4. Do + forma afirmativa, in unele cazuri:
Ex.: Do take care! (Ai grija!)
Do tell me! – (Spune-mi! (Hai te rog, spune-mi!)
- pentru a indulci tonul, pentru a suna mai politicos
Ex: Do sit down! (Va rog, lua-ti loc!)
Do come in! (Intra-ti, va rog)
Do help yourself! (Serviti-va, va rog)

Exercises:
1. Transform these sentences into the Simple Future. (Treceti
propozitiile aceste la viitorul simplu)
1. His lecture is very interesting. 2. You like the play. 3. I can’t see
you tomorrow. 4. She must study French. 5. They can visit Paris. 6.
It’s all right. 7. I must see a doctor. 8. You have to go to the airport.
9. It isn’t difficult. 10. Can she bring me a few books?

2. Transform these sentences into disjunctive (tag) questions and


translate them. Give short answers to them. (Transformati
aceste propozitii in intrebari disjunctive si traducetile):

Model: He’ll reread the novel next week.


“He’ll reread the novel next week, won’t he?” “Yes, he will.”
1. They will come to see us next week. 2. You’ll have some free time
tomorrow. 3. He won’t help them. 4. She won’t look through the
papers before lunch. 5. I’ll go to the lecture next Wednesday. 6. He

93
won’t go for a walk in the park next Sunday. 7. He’ll help them do
their homework next Tuesday. 8. Iris won’t be able to practice this
afternoon.

3. Transform these sentences into the negative. (Transformati


aceste propozitii in negative)

1. I will leave for London next week. 2. I shall have to do the washing
up this morning. 3. We will do our duty. 4. You will come to our
party. 5. He will be back soon. 6. She will go there by bus. 7. They
will stay home next Friday. 8. He will teach English next month.

4.Transform these sentences in interrogative.


1. I shall introduce him to Mr. Brown. 2. We will invite them to my
birthday party tomorrow. 3. You will type this letter next Monday. 4.
She will return from Paris next month. 5. They will stay there long.

5. Make up special questions using the words in parentheses.


(Formati intrebari speciale, folosind cuvintele din paranteze):
1. Tom will study French next year. (who, when)
2. They will rest in the country. (where)
3. He will not (won’t) go with us because he is ill. (why)
4. We shall get up at 7 o’clock in the morning. (what time)
5. She will solve this problem very easily. (how)
6. He will work in the office next Monday. (who)

6. Insert prepositions (Completati spatiile goale cu prepozitiile


cerute de sens):

1. If you want to buy some fruit, go … the greengrocer’s. 2. Where can


I buy some sugar? … the grocer’s. 3. The post office is a long way …
here. 4. There is a supermarket … this side … the street. 5. He stayed
… the library yesterday. 6. The bag is … the table. 7. They will not be
… home tonight. 8. Miss Hellen has a small flat … the ground floor. 9.
She is speaking … the telephone. 10. They are … the garden.

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7. Translate into English.
1. Veti putea veni duminica viitoare? 2. (El) va trebui (urmeaza) sa
tina miine o lectie. 3. Cand (trebuie) sa revin? 4. Ei vor astepta, nu-
asa? 5. Nu vor astepta, nu-i asa? 6. El va veni luni. 7. Lectia lui este
foarte interesanta. 8. Citeste scrisoarea pentru mine, te rog. 9. Lasa-l
pe el sa lucreze mai mult. 10 Hai sa mergem la teatru. 11. Nu, eu nu
voi merge. 12. El va trebui sa studieze chineza.

Vocabulary
mountains munti
to hear a auzi
plenty of o multime
to ski a schia
as much as tot atat de mult
overdo/overdid exagera, a intrece masura
after mai tarziu, dupa aceea
muscular fever febra musculara
to annoy a enerva, a necaji, a nelinisti
terribly teribil,ingrozitor
mistake greseala
cautious prudent, atent.
to want a dori, a vrea
to keep an eye on smb./smth. a fi cu ochii pe cineva/ceva
chalet [∫ælei] cabana
to travel [trævl] a calatori

Text: My friends’ weekend

Next weekend, Alexandra, Laura, Paul and George will go to the


mountains for two days.
As usual they are going to go to Sinaya because they have heard on
TV that there is plenty of snow there now. They like to ski and they
will ski as much as they can. Last winter when they went to ski at
Busteni, George overdid it and after the first day he felt very tired and
got what people call muscular fever. The next day he had to rest and
that annoyed him terribly. Now, he will not repeat that mistake. He

95
will be cautious. He will have to ski less the first day if he wants to ski
again the following day. Paul is going to keep an eye on him to see
that he is not going to make the mistake a second time.
As they are going to live in one of the chalets they will have a very
nice weekend. They will go by bus to Sinaya and they will return by
bus too. So they will travel by bus a lot.

It seems that I know something, but


that’s not enough. So, let’s keep trying.

96
PART II

UNIT 11 (eleven)
Future Continuous /Near Future (Viitorul apropiat)
Acest timp este inexistent in limba romana si, de acea, se va traduce cu
timpul PRESENT insotit de adverbe de timp ca: IMEDIAT, CHIAR
ACUM, INDATA.
El indica faptul ca actiunea ce urmeaza sa se desfasoare in viitor este
foarte apropiata de momentul prezent.
Ex: He’ll be coming soon. (Vine foarte curand/Vine imediat)

Afirrmative
I (we) shall be going
He (she, you, they) will be going

Interrogative
Shal I (we) be reading ?
Will he (she, it, you, they) be going ?
Negative
I (we) shall not (shan’t) be going
He (she, it, you, they) will not (won’t) be going

Adverbe de accentuare a ideii de viitor apropiat


Soon curand
Right now chiar acum
Immediately imediat
In no time indata, cat ai clipi din ochi

Intrebuintare:
1. Pentru a reda o actiune care se va afla in proces de desfasurare
intr-un anumit moment de timp in viitor:
The students will be having a seminar tomorrow at 2.
(Studentii vor avea un seminar miine la ora 2.)

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2. Pentru exprimarea unei actiuni, care va dura o perioada de
timp cu granite bine limitate:
They will be working in the library from two till six o’clock tomorrow.
(Ei vor lucra in biblioteca de la ora 2 pana la 6 miine).

3. Pentru exprimarea unei actiuni, care se va afla in proces de


desfasurare cand va avea loc o alta actiune redata prin
Prezentul Simplu:
She will be writing the report when we come to her office. (Ea va scrie
raportul cand vom veni la oficiul ei)

4. Pentru a exprima doua actiuni paralele care se vor afla in


proces de desfasurare:
I shall be watching TV while my son will be playing chess with his
friend. (Eu voi privi televizorul in timp ce feciorul meu va juca sah cu
prietenul sau.)

FUTURE OF INTENTION (Viitorul de intentie)

Acest timp este inexistent in limba romana. El se traduce: “a avea de


gand sa …”, “a intentiona…”
“Intentia” intra in sfera viitorului chiar daca ea se refera la present,
trecut sau viitor.
Formarea: Future of Intention se formeaza cu ajutorul verbelor “TO
BE” si “TO GO” – ambele cu valoare auxiliara plus verbul de baza.
Ele nu se traduc decat atunci cand isi recapata valoarea notionala,
adica au sens de sine statator.

I am going to be there in time. (Am de gand sa fiu acolo la timp)


I am going to go there tonight. (Am de gand sa merg acolo asta seara)

- se va conjuga verbul “to be” la timpurile present, trecut, viiitor, se


va adauga forma invariabila “going” a verbului “to go” si apoi
verbul propriu-zis.
I was going to buy myself a new dress. (Intentionez sa-mi cumpar o
rochie noua) (trecut)

98
I am going to invite her to my birthday party. (Intentionez sa o invit la
ziua mea de nastere) (prezent)
He’ll be going to buy himself a new car. (In viitor intentionez (va
intentiona) sa-si cumpere o masina noua.) (viitor)

REFLEXIVE PRONOUNS (Pronumele reflexive)

Pronumele reflexibile arata ca actiunea exprimata de verbul de care se


ataseaza este indreptata asupra subiectului acestuia sau, mai rar, catre
subiectul acestuia (fiind, astfel, folosite la cazul acuzativ sau dativ):
He considered himself happy. (Se considera fericit)
She tried to defend herself. (A incercat sa se apare.)

Pronumele reflexive sunt:


acuzativ dativ
I myself ma mie, imi, mie
You yourself te tie, iti, ti
He himself se lui, isi, si
She herself se ei, isi,si
It itself (neutru) se lui, ei etc.
We ourselves ne ne, noua, ni
You yourselves va voua, va, vi
They themselves se lor, le, li isi, si
In propozitie pronumele reflexiv este neaccentuat:
Help yourself to sweets. (Serveste-te cu dulciuri)
Ted forced himself not to sneeze. (Ted s-a silit sa nu stranute)
They punished themselves. (S-au pedepsit [singuri])

THE EMPHATIC PRONOUN (Pronumele de intarire)

Pronumele de intarire are aceleasi forme ca si cel reflexiv.El este


intotdeauna accentuat, cu accentul pe ultima silaba. Se traduce prin
eu insumi/insami,tu insuti,/insati etc., singur, personal, chiar eu/tu
etc.:
I bought myself a very beautiful hat. (Mi-am cumparat o palarie foarte
frumoasa)
Tell him yourself. Spune-mi chiar tu (personal).

99
Jane opened the tin herself. Nobody helped her. (Jane a deschis
singura cutia de conserve. Nimeni nu a ajutat-o)

Nota: Precedat de prepozitia “by”, pronumele de intarire are


sensul de “singur”, “singura”, “singuri”, “singure”:
I can do it by myself. (Pot face asta singur)
Observati din exemplele de mai sus, pronumele de intarire se asaza de
regula la sfirsitul propozitiei.
Cand este asezat imediat dupa subiect, accentuarea este si mai
puternica:
I myself will tell him. (Chiar eu personal am sa-I spun)

EXERCISES:

1. Transform these sentences according to the model.


You will be calling her up tomorrow.
Will you be calling her up tomorrow?
1. You will write to him again. 2. You’re going to see your mother
next week. 3. She’s going to take her children to the theatre. 4. He’ll
look through the papers. 5. They are going to have tea.

2. Transform these sentences into negative.


1. We shall be discussing this question tomorrow at 9 a.m.
2. He will be lecturing on English history next year.
3. You will be staying here long.
4. I shall be leaving next week.
5. He will be coming to the wedding party.
6. We shall be learning the new words tonight.
7. They will be trying to get a job in this company.
8. He will be attending computer programming classes this month.

3. Form special questions, using the words from the parentheses.

1. She will be having lunch in a café. (who)


2. They will be analyzing your report. (whose)
3. He will be examining this group (what)

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4. You will be having your next English class next week. (when)
5. He will be staying in this hotel two weeks. (where)

4. Open the parentheses and use the verbs in the Future


Continuous.
1. This time tomorrow I (to fly) to London.
2. What you (to do) at 3 o’clock on Friday?
3. We (to look forward) to meeting them at the Conference in Paris.
4. We know our friend (to wait for) us at the aerport when we arrive.
5. Who (to drive) the car when you go to the Black Sea?

5. Insert reflexive or emphatic pronoun.


1. I hurt … when I tried to jump from the chair. 2. Can he do it … or
shall I help him? 3. She cooks all the meals … . 4. They made …. a
sandwich and left in a hurry. 5. We … prepared for the next holidays.
6. We asked … what we could do with our cat. 7. She was living by …
in a little cottage. 8. Don’t be so sure of … . 9. She looked at … in the
mirror and saw her make-up was not perfect. 10. Help … please. 11.
This door is opened by …. 12. Miss Brown was talking to … .

6. Translate into English


1. Unde vei avea lectie miine la ora 9? 2. Noi vom analiza aceste
probleme impreuna cu grupa noastra. 3. Ei nu vor pleca la teatru chiar
acum. 4. Cine va fregventa lectiile cand voi veti pleca la Londra? 5.
Te vei pregati de examen toata ziua miine? 6. Am de gand sa plec
pentru cateva zile undeva. 7. Nu intentionez sa vin la petrecerea de
diseara. 8. Pe viitor intentionam sa calatorim pretutindeni in tara.

Text: A PLEASANT TRIP


Next summer some friends of ours will be going on a trip to Warsaw
and Budapest. They will be travelling by air, for a couple of hours, to
Warsaw and by coach to some other towns and places in Poland. From
Warsaw they will be travelling by train to Budapest and from there
they will be coming back by boat, down the Danube.

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In both foreign countries they will be visiting museums, art gallaries,
cathedrals, churches, palaces, old castles and plenty of interesting
places. The trip will last about a fortnight and will not cost much.
We are very sorry that we shall not be able to join our friends too, as
we also like such excursions. We shall be in the Danube Delta at the
time when our friends are abroad and we shall be having a pleasant
time too.
Next year, we may be going abroad. Some of our friends have decided
to go to Berlin and visit also a few other German cities. We may join
them too, as we were able to join them when they made a trip about
the country a couple of years ago.

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UNIT 12 (twelve)
The Past Continuous Tense (Trecutul Continuu)
Trecutul Continuu se formeaza cu trecutul verbului auxiliar to be
(was, were) plus Participiul I al verbului de conjugat (-ing). Acest
timp se traduce aproape totdeauna cu imperfectul din limba romana
(faceam, mergea, mancau)

Affirmative
I (he, she, it) was reading
We (you, they) were reading

Interrogative
Was I (he, she, it) reading?
Were we (you, they) reading?
Negative
I (he, she, it) was not reading
We (you, they) were not reading

Trecutul Continuu exprima o actiune care era in desfasurare intr-un


moment in trecut. Timpul desfasurarii actiunii poate fi redat prin:

1. indicarea precisa a orei:


I was reading at 5 o’clock yesterday (Ieri la ora 5 citeam).

2. indicarea perioadei de timp, cat a durat actiuna:


They were working in the garden from 9 till 12 o’clock
yesterday.
Ieri ei au lucrat in gradina de la 9 pana la 12.

3. indicarea unei alte actiuni exprimate prin Trecutul Simplu:


He was listening to the latest news when we came.
El asculta ultimele stiri cand noi am venit.
While I was working in the garden, I hurt my leg.
In timp ce lucram in gradina mi-am ranit piciorul.

Constructia cu to be going to va suna la trecut astfel:

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I was just going to ring you up.
(Tocmai aveam de gand sa-ti telefonez).
What were you going to do? (Ce aveai de gand sa faci?)

Intrebarile disgunctive la propozitiile continand Trecutul Continuu se


formeaza dupa regulile cunoscute, prin repetarea auxiliarului (was,
wasn’t, were, weren’t):

You were working, weren’t you?


They weren’t doing anything, were they?
I wasn’ t driving so fast, was I?
She was working for Sony, wasn’t she?

Compusii lui some, any, no


In propozitii afirmative:

Somebody, someone cineva

Something ceva
Somewhere undeva

I bought some sweets for you yesterday. (Ti-am cumparat ceva


dulciuri ieri)
Somebody/someone must know. (Cineva trebuie sa stie)

In propozitii interogative:

Anybody, anyone cineva


Anything ceva, orice
Anywhere undeva, oriunde

Is there anybody/anyone at home? (E cineva acasa?)


Is there anything in the refrigerator? (E ceva in frigider?)
Can you see my glasses anywhere? (Vezi undeva ochelarii mei?)

In propozitii afirmative:

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Anybody/anyone oricine
Anything orice
Anywhere oriunde
Anybody/anyone can borrow books from the public library.
(Oricine poate imprumuta carti de la biblioteca publica.
Anything is better than rancid butter. (Orice e mai bun decat untul
rancid)
Take me anywhere. (Du-ma oriunde)

In propozitii negative, cu verbul la negativ:


Anybody/anyone nimeni
Anything nimic
Anywhere nicaieri
I don’t know anybody/anyone in this town (Nu cunosc pe nimeni in
acest oras)
He can’t understand anything. (Nu poate intelege nimic)
I can’t find my glasses anywhere. (Nu-mi gasesc nicaieri ochelarii.)

In propozitii negative, cu verbul la afirmativ:


Nobody/no one nimeni
Nothing nimic
Nowhere nicaieri

Nobody/No one could drink this coffee. (Nimeni nu ar putea bea


cafeaua aceasta)
There’s nothing wrong with the TV set.
Sau There isn’t anything wrong with the TV set.
(Televizorul nu are nimic)
The children are nowhere. Sau
The children aren’t anywhere. (Copii nu sunt nicaieri)

None: acest pronume corespunde adjectivului no: nici un, nici o,


deloc, nimic.
She has none, ea nu are nici unul/una.
None of us did it, nici unul/una dintre noi n-a facut-o.

Everybody, everyone, everything, everywhere

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Everybody/everyone toti, toata lumea
Everything tot(ul), toate
Everywhere peste tot, pretutindeni
Everybody/everyone si everything se acorda cu verbul la singular:
Everybody is at home.
Everything has an end. (Totul are [toate au] un sfarsit.

Exercises
1. Put the verb in parentheses into the Past Continuous Tense:
2. Bill got off the bus while it (go). 2. John (walk) home when he
saw Ann. 3. I came into the room because the boys (make) a lot of
noise. 4. Mike hurt his leg while he (play) football. 5. The car hit the
tree while it (travel) at 60 miles an hour.

2.Open the parentheses and put the verbs in the Present and Past
Continuous Tenses.
1. What John (do) now? He (watch) TV. There’s a hockey match on.
2. What you (do) at eight o’clock last night? I (read) a very interesting
article about the Olympic Games in Sydney. 3. John and Bill (play) a
game of chess when I returned home yesterday. 4. What they (talk)
about? They (discuss) the football semi-finals. 5. What your brother
(do) from seven to nine last night? He (play) basketball. He is a very
good basketball player. 6. Who (swim) now? Two swimmers from
France and Great Britain.

3. Put the verb into the correct form, Past Continuous or Past
Simple.
Example: While Tom was cooking (cook) the dinner, the phone rang
(ring).
1. George (fall) off the ladder while he (paint) the ceiling. 2. Last
night I (read) in bed when suddenly I (hear) a scream. 3. (you/watch)
television when I phoned you? 4. Ann (wait) for me when I (arrive). 5.
I (not/drive) very fast when the accident (happen). 6. I (break) a plate
last night. I (do) the washing up when it (slip) out of my hand. 7. Tom
(take) a photograph of me while I (not/look). 8. We (not/go) out

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because it (rain). 9. What (you/do) at this time yesterday? 10. I (see)
Carol at the party. She (wear) a really beautiful dress.

4. Read and translate these sentences.


1. He put something on the desk and went out. 2. No one scored a goal
during the match yesterday. 3. Did Peter tell you anything about his
trip? Yes, he did. 4. When I saw him he was talking to somebody. 5. Is
there a department store anywhere near here? 6. You will find the
book somewhere in that bookcase. 7. Have you got anything to tell
me? 8. Did you find anything new in the novel? 9. If anyone comes to
see me, ask him to wait for me. 10. Shall we take something to read?

5.Fill in the gaps with somebody/someone, something, somewhere,


anybody/anyone, anywhere, nobody/no one, nothing, nowhere:
1. There is … at the door. (doua posibilitati: cineva si nimeni). 2. Is
there … I can do for you? 3. Let’s go … tonight. 4. … can help you.
(treiposibilitati: cineva, nimeni si oricine.) 5. He will do … for you.
(trei posibilitati: ceva, nimic si orice). 6. I hope there is … wrong with
our TV set. (doua posibilitati: nimic si ceva). 7. … must tell
me( cineva si nimeni). 8. I won’t go … tonight. I’m too tired. 9. I don’t
know … about Newton.

6.Ask special questions using the words from parentheses.


1. They were having dinner at six o’clock yesterday. (when)
2. He was answering a telephone call. (who)
3 She was resting because she was tired. (why)
7. We were dicussing the problem in the office. (where)
8. They were playing football very well. (how)

7. Put special questions to the underlined words.


1. He was translating an article at seven o’clock last night. (5)
2. You were talking about Mr. Brown’s lecture when he came up to
them. (5)

8. Translate into English.


1.Cine te urmarea cand te indreptai spre casa? 2. Mi s-a stricat masina
cand mergeam spre gara. 3. Cine canta la pian cand eram eu acolo? 4.

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Ploua tare cand ati coborat din tren. 5. Cand ma plimbam prin park am
vazut un coleg sezand pe-o banca. 6. Vantul sufla usor. 7. Ce incercati
sa investati? 8. Nu stiu nimic. 9. Nimeni nu poate sti tot. 10. Nimic nu
este destul de bun pentru tine. 11. Poti sa-mi dai ceva de mancare? –
Ce de exemplu? – Orice. 12. Oricine poate vedea aceasta. 13. Este
cineva la usa.

Vocabulary
shop magazin
store magazin universal
mall complex de
magazine
cu alei si parcaje
market piata de legume
goods marfuri
food alimente/hrana
bread paine
sweets dulciuri
pastry paste fainoase
vegetables legume
fruit fructe
shoes incaltaminte
jewels bijuterii
clothes haine
medicine medicamente
bill nota de plata
counter tejghea
cash-desk casa de plata
shop-assistant vanzator

LIST OF USEFUL SHOPS


baker’s brutarie
grocer’s bacanie
pastry /shop/ patiserie
greengrocer’s zarzavagerie
leather /shop/ marochinarie
book-shop librarie

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perfumer’s parfumerie
tobacconist’s tutungerie
barber’s frizerie
hairdresser’s coafura
haberdasher’s galanterie

ADJECTIVES
fresh proaspat
stale vechi/ne-proaspat
cheap ieftin
expensive scump/costisitor
large mare/larg
tight stramt
necessary necesar
useful folositor
useless nefolositor

VERBS
to shop a targui
to go shopping a merge
la cumparaturi
to buy a cumpara
to sell a vinde
to pay a plati
to ask a intreba/a cere
to answer a raspunde
to cost a costa
to help a ajuta
to need a avea nevoie
to show a arata
to want a dori/a vrea
to like a place
to run short of a ramane fara

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Text: Shopping (Cumparaturi)
Whenever I run short of food I have to go to buy something. I
generally go to the market on Friday and buy food for the next
week. First, I make a list of what I need to buy, then I take a
large shopping bag and then I drive to the market. I go to the
butcher’s when I need some fresh meat, or to the fishmonger’s
when I need some fresh fish. The bread is stale, so, I’m going to
buy some, but the baker doesn’t sell it to me, because it is not
fresh. He tells me to come in the afternoon, because he thinks he
is going to have some fresher bread. I also need to buy some
vegetables and fruit, and maybe, some cakes for lunch. Maybe
tomorrow I’m going to go again for some milk and mineral
water.

110
UNIT 13 (thirteen)
Present Perfect Simple (Prezentul perfect)

Prezentul Perfect se formeaza cu ajutorul verbului auxiliar have


la prezent plus participiul 2 a verbului de conjugat.

Affirmative
I have written
You have written
We have written
They have written
He, she, (it) has written

Interrogative
Have I written?
Have you written?
Have we written?
Have they written?
Has he/she written?

Negative
I have not (haven’t) written
You have not (haven’t) written
We have not (haven’t) written
They have not (haven’t) written
He/she has not (hasn’t) written

Intrebuintare: Acest timp face legatura intre prezent si trecut.


a). exprima o stare care a inceput in trecut si care se continua. Ex:
We’ve been friends for a long time. (Suntem prieteni de mult)
Observati ca propozitia romaneasca echivalenta este la prezent.
Complinirile temporale ce apar in astfel de situatii sunt: for a time (de
un timp), for three weeks (de trei saptamani) etc. sau since last year
(de anul trecut), since you came (de cand ai venit);
for – de
She has studied English for five years. (Invata engleza de 5 ani)

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For se refera la intreaga perioada dintre momentul inceperii
actiunii si momentul vorbirii.

Since din, de la, de, de cand


I have been here since five o’clock.

b). exprima o actiune terminata in trecut, pentru care


momentul cand a avut loc nu prezinta interes; accentul este pus
pe experienta in sine traita prin actiunea respectiva. Ex: I’ve
never been to England. (N-am fost niciodata in Anglia) sau: He’s
seen a lot of beautiful places in his life. (A vazut multe locuri
frumoase in viata sa.)

c). exprima o actiune trecuta al carei rezultat este vizibil in


prezent. Ex: He’s broken his arm. (Si-a rupt bratul – are bratul
rupt)
Un verb la Present Perfect este determinat de un complement
circumstantial de timp sau de o temporala care indica un interval
deschis: all my life, this year, this afternoon, tonight, this week,
this month, in the last few days (in ultimele zile), today, since
yesterday, since I last saw you, etc.

d). pentru actiuni, care sunt legate de prezent prin


rezultatele lor exprimate in propozitii continand adverbe ca
never (niciodata), ever (vreodata), always (totdeauna), just
(tocmai), yet (deja), not … yet (nu … inca), already (deja), up
to now (pana acum), up to the present (pana in prezent), so far
(pana acum, deocamdata), lately (in ultima vreme), etc.
Ex: He has just phoned from the aerport. (El tocmai a telefonat
de la airport) (Actiune recenta)

Nota: just, dupa cum am spus, cere Present Perfect:


I’ve just seen him. – Tocmai l-am vazut.
Just now (chiar acum, chiar adineaori) cere Past Tense:
I saw him just now. – L-am vazut chiar acum/adineaori.
I haven’t seen you lately. (Nu te-am vazut in ultimul timp)
(Actiune adusa pana in momentul vorbirii)

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You haven’t eaten yet (Nu ai mancat inca).
Have you eaten yet? (Ai mancat deja?)
I’ve always loved you. (Totdeauna te-am iubit)
- Sa nu uitam ca, in functie de contex, Present Perfect se poate
traduce cu Perfectul Compus din limba romana.

Comparati:
We have been friends since we graduated.
Santem prieteni (Prezentul) de cand am absolvit.
I’ve met him several times since we graduated.
L-am intalnit (Perfectul compus) de mai multe ori de cand am
absolvit.
Complementul compus
In limba engleza este foarte raspandita constructia “complementul
compus”, care contine un substantiv (sau pronume la cazul acuzativ) si
un verb la infinitiv sau participiul I:

I want Tom (him) to come to my party.


Vreau ca Tom (el) sa vina la serata mea.

We know Peter and Susan (them) to be good students.


Stiam ca Petru si Suzana (ei) sunt studenti buni.

Nota: 1). Aceasta constructie se intrebuinteaza dupa verbe de


perceptie, senzatie si activitate mintala, precum: to want (a vrea),
to know (a stie), to like (a place), to see (a vedea), to hear (a auzi),
to consider (a considera), to believe (a crede), etc.

We consider him to be a good doctor.


Consideram ca el este un medic bun.

2). Dupa verbele to see, to hear, to watch in constructia respectiva se


intrebuinteaza sau infinitivul fara “to”, sau Participiul I:

I saw him get (getting) out of the car.


Am vazut cum el a esit din automobil.

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Exercises:
1. Respond to these requests according to the model.
Please help Peter do his homework. (already)
I’ve already helped him.

1. Please close the window. I have already closed it. (already) 2.


Please show Mike your coat. I have just showed it (just) 3. Please
translate this text into Russian. I have just translated it. (just) 4. Please
take a shower. I have already taken a shower. (already) 5. Please wake
up John. I have just waked up him. (just) 6. Please look through these
telegrams. I have already looked throught its. (already)

2. Respond to these questions according to the model.


Helen is going to buy a new coat. And Jane? (today)
Jane has bought a new coat today.
Ann is going to play the piano. And Mary? (just) 2. He’s going to read
this book. And Bill? (this week) 3. Jane went for a walk an hour ago.
And Peter? (just) 4. He’s going to take a shower. And John? (already)
5. They were very busy last week. And Mr. Green? (this week) 6.
They came home two hours ago. And Peter? (just)

3. Respond to these statements according to the model.


Mr. Smith has already stayed there for a week. (Mr. Brown)
Has Mr. Brown stayed there for a week, too?

1.Peter has just gone for a walk. (Tom) 2. John has returned from
Moscow this week. (Bill) 3. Jane has typed a lot of letters today.
(Mary) 4. My brother has bought the new French textbook today.
(your friend) 5. I’ve already spoken to him. (he) 6. She’s seen them
today. (you)

4. Put on special questions to which the underlined words are the


answers.
1. The teacher has written some words on the blackboard. (4)
2. They have finished the experiment successfully. (4)
3. My brother has translated two texts into English. (6)

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+? 5. Open the brackets and use the proper tenses (Simple Present,
Simple Past, Present Continuous and Present Perfect Tense).
I am (be) a student. I am having (have) an English class now. We have
done (do) just exercise five and now we are answering (answer) the
teacher’s questions. 2. You have bought (buy) already fruit and
vegetables? Yes, I have. When you ??? (go) shopping? I (go) shopping
after lunch yesterday. 3. He have came (come) just to the office. It’s
five minutes to nine. And when he came (come) to the office
yesterday? He came (come) at ten to nine yesterday. 4. Peter (leave)
for school fifteen minutes ago but Ann (not to leave) for college yet. 5.
Peter (not to go) to see his mother yesterday. His elder brother Nick
(go) just to see her. She (be) ill lately.

6. Transform these sentences below in the constructions with


“Compound Object”
1. I want that you should know English well.
2. Do you remenber that she worked at our plant?
3. They heard how she was speaking on the radio.
4. I saw how she came up to the house.
5. The children like when their mother reads interesting stories to
them
6. We never expected that she would stay there so long.
7. I heard how you said it.

7. Translate into English


1. Nu l-am vazut de loc saptamana aceasta. 2. Am fost in Statele Unite
nu numai odata. 3. Ti-ai baut cafeaua azi, nu-i asa? 4. Nu l-am inteles
niciodata. 5. El a cumparat doua biciclete. 6. Ea a vazut multe filme. 7.
Ai fost in concediu anul acesta? 8. N-am stiut niciodata sa gatesc la fel
de bine ca tine. 9. A si venit? Desi a promis ca vine pana la ora asta, n-
a venit inca. 10. Rareori poti intalni un om ca tine! 11. Ea tocmai si-a
cumparat o rochie noua. 12. Ati fost vreodata la familia Ford? 13. Noi
consideram ca aceasta problema este foarte importanta. 14. Am vazut
cum el a cumparat ceva si a esit din magazin.

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Text: “HAYDN’S FIRST OPERA”
When Haydn was about eighteen years old he sang in a chorus.
But soon his voice broke and he lost his place as a chorister. He began
playing the violin in the streets of Vienna and sometimes he played at
dances. Very often he composed the music himself.
One day Haydn’s friend decided to play a serenade under the
window of a well-known clown, Bernardone Kurtz by name, and
asked Haydn to write the music. When the music was ready they went
to the house where Kurtz lived and played it. Kurtz liked the melody
so much that he appeared on the balcony and asked: “Who wrote that
beautiful music?”
“I did,” said Haydn.
Kurtz invited Haydn to his room and gave him some verses and
asked to write an opera. Haydn was afraid.
“I have never written such music,” he said, “but I’ll try.” He
began working and everything went well till he came to a place where
there was a storm at sea.
“How can I put a storm at sea into music when I have never seen
the sea!” said Haydn. He went to Kurtz, but the clown could not help
him as he had never been to the sea himself.
At last Haydn lost his temper, crashed his hands upon the piano
and cried out: “Dash the storm!”
“That’s it! That’s it!” cried Kurtz jumping up of his chair, “Go on like
that.”
Many years had passed since Haydn’s name became famous all
over the world. He had written wonderful music to his operas but he
could not forget the storm in his first opera. He always laughed when
he thought of it.

116
UNIT 14 (fourteen)
Present Perfect Continuous (Prezentul Perfect
Continuu)
Se formeaza de la prezentul perfect al verbului to be (have/has
been) si Participiul I a verbului de conjugat.
Acest timp nu are corespondent in limba romana, traducand-se prin
perfectul compus.
Se exprima o actiune inceputa in trecut si continuata pana in momentul
vorbirii:
a. actiunea poate incepe intr-un moment definit din trecut (SINCE).
b. Actiunea poate indica o perioada de timp, delimitata, in trecut
(FOR).
Intrebarea specifica acestui timp este HOW LONG? (Cat timp?) –
durata.

Affirmative
I (you, we, they) have been looking for a job for two weeks
He (she, it) has been looking for a job for two weeks

Negative
I (you, we, they) have not been looking for a job for two weeks
He (she, it) has not been looking for a job for two weeks

Interrogative
Have I (we, you, they) been looknig for a jog for two weeks?
Has he (she,it) been looking for a job for two weeks?

Ex: I have been speaking for three hours.(Am vorbit timp de trei ore)
She has been working all morning. ( A lucrat toata dimineata.)
She has been playing the piano since she was a little girl. (Canta
la pian de cand era mica).
It has been raining since yesterday.(Ploua incontinuu de ieri)

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Nota: Dupa cum se poate remarca, din exemplele de mai sus, acest
timp se poate traduce fie prin “perfectul compus”, fie prin
“prezent” insotit de un adverb de timp care sa indice continuitatea
actiunii.

The Reciprocal Pronoun (Pronumele reciproc)

De cele mai multe ori acest pronume nu apare in limba romana. El


arata o participare reciproca a persoanelor implicate intr-o actiune sau
comunicare. (Ex: s-au sfatuit unul cu celalalt).

Aceste pronume sunt:


EACH – OTHER si ONE ANOTHER (unul pe altul, una pe alta,
unii pe altii, unele pe altele, intre ei, intre ele, reciproc etc.) :

We love each other. (Ne iubim)


The boys are fighting with each other. (Baietii se lupta intre ei)
They are looking at one another. (Se uita unul la altul)
In principiu, each other se refera la doi, iar one another la mai multi.

Separat, fiecare dintre aceste pronume are intelesuri


independente:
Each fiecare
Other altul
One unul, cineva
Another un altul
Another, (the) other, (the) others
Other, ca adjectiv nedefinit (urmat de un substantiv), se traduce
prin (un) alt, (o) alta, alti, alte:

Have you any other ideas? – Mai ai si alte idei?


Come another day. Vino intr-alta zi.
Precedat de articolul hotarat, other se traduce prin celalalt, cealalta,
ceilalti, celelalte:
Where is the other boy? (Unde este celalalt baiat?)
The other students are still at the University. (Ceilalti studenti sunt
inca la facultate.)

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Ca pronume nedefinite, (neurmate de un substantiv), another se
traduce prin altul, alta, iar others prin altii, altele:
Give me another, please. (Dati-mi altul/alta, va rog).
Others will help you if I can’t. (Te vor ajuta altii daca eu nu pot)

The other se traduce prin celalalt, cealalta, iar the others prin ceilalti,
celelalte:
Where is the other? (Unde este celalalt/cealalta?)
Where are the others? (Unde sunt ceilalti/celelalte?)

Mai frecvent se spune:


Where is the other one?
Where are the other ones?
Cu acelasi sens. In aceste exemple, other a devenit adjectiv nedefinit.
Observati ca la plural nu mai primeste s.

Exercises
1. Respond to these sentences according to the models.
a). Have you been staying here long? (for a month)
I’ve (I have) been staying here for a month.

1.Have you been learning English long? I have been learning it for a
year and a half. (for a year and a half) 2. Has it been raining long? It
has been raining since early morrning. (since early morning) 3. Has it
been snowing long? (since yesterday) 4. Has he been collecting stamps
long? (for five years)

b). She is teaching at Oxford University.


How long has she been teaching at the university?

1. Peter is waiting for them. 2. They are playing football now. 3. He is


watching a rugby match on TV. 4. She’s reading an article. 5. Vast
masses of cold air are flowing over the land. 6. They are working hard.

2. Put the verbs in brackets in the Present Perfect Continuous or


in the Present Perfect.

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1. He (to be) very busy lately. 2. I (wait) for you since six o’clock in
the afternoon. 3. How long you (to know) Jane? 4. I (not to meet) the
Browns since last year. 5. It (to rain) since early morning. 6. We (to
work) hard for two hours. 7. How long your sister (to teach) at
college? For fifteen years. 8. The north wind (to blow) since early
morning.

3. Put since or for into each gap.


1. We have been waiting here … almost an hour. 2. I have been
working here … 1999. 3. They have been walking … early morning.
4. She has been studying English … last September. 5. That man has
been looking at you … the last ten minutes. 6. The United States has
been a republic … 1776. 7. Paul has been looking for a job … the end
of the last month. 8. He has been looking for a job … almost a week
now.

4. Insert the English equivalent of the word from the bracket.


1. Where are … (ceilalti)? 2. I want …book (alta). 3. … will say the
same thing (Altii). 4. … cups are in the kitchen (Celelalte). 5. Give me
… examples (alte). 6. Try … door. (cealalta). 7. This orange is sour.
Try … (pe cealalta). 8. I don’t think I can come … day (alta).

5. Complete the gaps with the Reciprocal Pronoun (each other, one
another) or the Reflexive (myself, youself, etc).
1. I … don’t smoke. 2. She hates … . 3. They congratulated … . 4.
Tom and Bill were smiling at … . 5. They always write to … . 6. He
wrote a letter to … .
6. Translate into English
1. Lucrez aici de sapte ani. 2. Lucrez aici din 1990. 3. De cat timp
lucrezi aici? 4. Asteptam de o ora si jumatate. 5. El studiaza franceza
de trei ani. 6. Ploua de o saptamana. 7. Ei se iubesc. 8. Ei se vor ajuta
unii pe altii. 9. Se intrebau unii pe altii ce se intamplase. 10. Ori de
cate ori se intalneau isi vorbeau englezeste.

7. Put in the order the following words.


1. speaking, other, to, are, they, each. They are speaking to each other.
2. another, hate, one, they, to hate.

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3. as, is, can’t , we, each, see, other, dark, it, that. We can’t see each
other as it is dark that.
4. do, for, each, will, anything, they, other. They will do everything
for each other.
5. were, about, talking, they, one, holiday, to, next, their, another.
Text: JAPAN AND U.S. CANDY VENTURE
A well-known U.S. candy company was interested in selling its
product overseas. The company found a possible partner based in
Tokyo, Japan. The Tokyo company seemed to be perfect for the deal.
After many phone calls between the two parties, a decision was made
to meet in Tokyo. The U.S. company chose one of its businessmen,
Mike Waller, to represent it in Tokyo. He was the company’s most
persuasive negotiator.
Before Waller left the United States, he and the company lawyer
worked together to write a detailed contract for the deal. The contract
was fifty pages long. The deal would be advantageous for both
companies. It promised big profits.
Waller left for Japan with the contract. He was pleased with his careful
preparation. He thought his future partners would be satisfied with his
work and would be ready to bargain about the details in the contract.
He had studied their company interests and was sure they would want
to change a few conditions in the contract. He planned to agree to
those changes as concessions. He was certain the meetings would
result in good negotiations and a quick final agreement.
On the day of the meeting in Tokyo, Waller entered the boardroom
with copies of the contract for the Japanese businessmen at the
meeting. He handed them each a copy and began discussing the
details. The representatives of the Tokyo company did not open their
contracts. They didn’t discuss the contract at all, but instead spoke
about general business issues. They spoke about the proposed
cooperation between the two companies but they didn’t make any
promises.
Waller then went back to the United States. He felt extremely
surprised and disappointed. The Japanese businessmen had never
asked him one question about the contract. No agreements or

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commitments had been made. He wasn’t even sure if there would be
another round of negotiations.

VOCABULARY
partner partener, asociat
overseas in strainatate
deal afacere
persuasive persuasiv, convingator
lawyer avocat, jurist
advantageous avantajos, profitabil, prielnic
profit profit, beneficiu
to bargain a negocia, a face o afacere
interests interese, avantaje
to agree to a fi de acord cu
concession concesie, cedare
to hand a da, a inmana
agreement acord
commitments depozitii in fata unei comisii; obligatii
round of negotiations runda de negocieri

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UNIT 15

PAST PERFECT (Perfectul Trecut)


Past Perfect se formeaza cu ajutorul verbului “to have” la trecutul
simplu (had) si Participiul II al verbului de conjugat.

Affirmative
I (he, she, it, you, they) had worked

Interrogative
Had I (he, she, it, we, you, they) worked ?

Negative
I (he, she, it, we, you, they) had not (hadn’t) worked

Past Perfect exprima o actiune sau un eveniment care a avut loc


inaintea unui moment trecut. Acest moment poate fi marcat prin
indicarea timpului precis (by 5 o’clock – catre ora 5; before 5
o’clock – inainte de ora 5), sau printr-o alta actiune la Trecutul
Simplu:
She had always lived in Chisinau before she moved to Germany a few
years ago. (Intotdeauna a locuit in Chisinau inainte de a se muta in
Germania acum cativa ani.)
I had just bought the tickets when I realized that my wallet wasn’t
there.
(Tocmai cumparasem biletele cand mi-am dat seama ca nu mai aveam
portofelul.)
They had never been there before. (Nu fusese niciodata acolo.(pana
atunci)
He had finished writing the exercises by 5 o’clock. (El a terminat de
scris exercitiile catre ora 5.)
Didn’t he tell you (that) I had been ill? (Nu ti-am spus ca am fost
(fusesem) bolnav?)
Past Perfect exprima regretul fata de o actiune trecuta:
Ex: I wish I hadn’t eaten so much. (As dori sa nu fi mancat atat de
mult./Regret ca am mancat sau:

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I wish I’d gone there. (Pacat ca nu m-am dus acolo./As dori sa ma fi
dus …).

3. FUTURE PERFECT (Viitorul anterior nedefinit)


Future Perfect este format din viitorul simplu al verbului auxiliar to
have si participiul trecut al verbului de conjugat:

Affirmative
I shall have asked (eu) voi fi intrebat
You will have asked
He, she, (it) will have asked
We, you, they will have asked

Interrogative
Shall I (we) have asked ?
Will he, she, (it), you, they have asked ?

Negative
I (we) shall not (shan’t) have asked
He, she, (it), you, they will not (won’t) have asked
Future Perfect este un timp folosit rar, exclusiv in limba scrisa, fiind
aproape cu totul absent din exprimarea obisnuita. Exprima o actiune
care nu a avut inca loc, dar care se va fi intamplat inainte de un
moment in viitor, sau a unei actiuni viitoare redate prin Presentul
Simplu:

I shall have learnt my lessons by Monday. (Imi voi invata lectiile


pana luni.)
This time next year I’ll have completed my studies. (La anul pe
vremea asta imi voi fi terminat studiile.)
He will have finished his report when you return. (El deja va termina
raportul cand tu te vei intoarce.)
The Interrogative Pronouns (Pronumele interogative)

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The Interrogative Pronouns sunt:
Who – cine ?
Which – care? (selectiv)
What – ce? care? (neselectiv)
Who is he? Cine este el?
Which (of them) do you prefer? – Pe care o/il preferi?
What do you know? – Ce stii?
What is the capital of France? – Care (neselectiv) este capitala
Frantei?

Pronumele interogative precedate de prepozitii sunt la cazul acuzativ:


for whom? before which? on what?
In limba vorbita prepozitia se asaza la urma, in care caz whom devine
who. Aceasta este tentinta generala moderna.
Who (mai rar whom) did you talk to? - Cu cine ai vorbit/discutat?
Which of the girls are the flowers for? – Pentru care dintre fete sunt
florile?
What was the lecture about? – Despre ce trata conferinta?

Cand who? Which? sau what? Sunt subiectul propozitiei, la Present


Simple si Past Simple interogativul si negativul se formeaza fara
auxiliarul do (sau does sau did):
Who knows? – Cine stie?
Which of you arrived first? – Care dintre voi a sosit primul?
What comes next? – Ce urmeaza dupa aceea?

Cand who? Which? sau what? Sunt complemente, la Present Simple


si Past Simple interogativul si negativul se formeaza in mod normal
(cu do, does sau did):
Whom did you invite to your birthday party? – Pe cine ai invitat la
ziua ta?
Which do you prefer? – Pe care il/o preferi?
What did he tell you? – Ce ti-a spus?

Whose (atat ca pronume cat si adjectiv) poate fi (a) subiect sau (b)
complement:

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a). Whose poem impressed you most? – A cui poem te-a impresionat
cel mai mult?
b). Whose poem did you appreciate most? – A cui cuvantare ai
apreciat-o mai mult?

EXERCISES:
1. Supply the most suitable tense (past or past perfect):
1. They (go) home after they (finish) their work. 2. She said that she
already (see) the Pyramids. 3. We (hear) that a fire (break out) in the
neighbouring house. 4. He told me he (catch) a young lion and (shoot)
two others. 5. They (drink) small cups of coffee after they (finish)
dinner. 6. She told her teacher that her mother (help) her with her
homework the previous evening, and (tell) her the words she (not
know). 7. The fire (spread) to the next building before the firemen
(arrive).8. Cyril was very angry and said that he (eat) two flies in his
fruit salad. The waiter asked him why he (eat) them. Cyril said he (be)
short-sighted and already (swallow) them when his friend (tell) him
what he (eat). 9. The little girl (ask) what (happen) to her ice-cream.
10. His mother (worry) a lot about him before she (hear) that he was
safe. 11. He (can not) help thinking that he (see) that face somewhere
before. 12. The politician (declare) that his party always (stand) for
social security.

2. Supply the most suitable tense (Future Simple, Future


Continuous or Future Perfect):
1. I (do) my homework tomorrow. 2. I (do) my homework at six
o’clock tomorrow. 3. I (do) my homework by six o’clock tomorrow. 4.
When I come home tomorrow, my family (have) supper. 5. When you
come to my place tomorrow, I (read) your book. 6. Tomorrow I
(begin) doing my homework as soon as I come from school. I (do) my
homework from three till six. My father (come) home at seven o‘clock
tomorrow. I (do) all my homework by the time he comes, and we (go)
for a walk together.7. By next June he (write) his second novel. 8.
Before you go to see them, they (leave) the country. 9. By the end of
the summer he (teach) us to speak English. 10. I hope, when you have
finished this exercise, you (not make) many mistakes in it.

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3. Insert who, whose, whom, to whom, which, what according to the
sense:
1. … was that man? – Our new neighbour. 2. … is his name? 3. …
daughter did he marry? – Mr. Brown’s. 4. … of them do you want? 5.
… happens in Chapter II? 6. … did you meet at the seaside? 7. … did
you lend my dictionary? 8. … is the capital of France? 9. … car did
you drive? – My father’s. 10. … did you lend my bicycle? 11. For …
did Ted cut eleven roses? 12. To … of you did he address the letter?
13. In … did you put the flowers? 14. At … painting did they look? –
Picasso’s. 15. By … were you lent the money? 16. About … of them
were they talking.

4. Translate into English.


1. Noi o vazusem inainte. 2. Noi nu-i intalnisem niciodata inainte. 3.
Cand am sosit noi, trenul plecase deja. 4. Ea era obosita, pentru ca
facuse cumparaturi toata dupa-amiaza. 5. Cand l-am intalnit prima
oara, era in Franta de un an. 6. Nu mai era acelasi (se schimbase) de la
casatoria lui. 7. Nu-mi trecuse prin minte ca el putea fi spion. 8. El
avusese dificultati sa-si gaseasca o noua slujba. 9. Noi vom fi cheltuit
foarte putini bani. 10. Noi nu vom fi cheltuit multi bani. 11. Noi nu
vom fi folosit multe cecuri. 12. El nu va fi petrecut mult timp aici.13.
Cine este acest barbat? 14. Cu cine ati vorbit? 15. Care dintre ei a
castigat meciul? 16. Ce veti face anul viitor? 17. Ce fel de necazuri
aveti? 18. A cui este aceasta masina?

TEXT: “MY FINANCIAL CAREER”


(by Stephen Leacock)
(1869-1944)
My salary had been raised to fifty dollars a month and I felt that
the bank was the only place for it. So I walked in and looked round at
the clerks. I had an idea that a person who was about to open an
account must necessarily speak to the manager.
“Can I see the manager?” I asked the clerk and added “alone”. I
don’t know why I said “alone”.
“Certainly,” said the clerk, and brought him.

127
The manager was a calm, serious man. While talking to him I
held my fifty-six dollars in my pocket.
“Are you the manager?” I said God knows I didn’t doubt it.
“Yes,” he said.
“Can I see you,” I asked, “alone”? I didn’t want to say “alone”
again, but without this word the question seemed useless.
“Come in here, “he said, and led the way to a private room.
“We’re safe from interruption here,” he said. “Sit down.”
We both sat down and looked at each other. I found no voice to
speak. “You’re one of Pinkerton’s detectives, I suppose,” he said.
The expression in my eyes had made him think that I was a
detective, and he looked worried.
“To speak the truth,” I began. “I’m not a detective at all. I’ve
come to open an account. I intend to keep all my money in this bank.”
The manager looked serious, he felt sure now that I was a very
rich man, probably a son of Baron Rothschild.
“A large account, I suppose,” he said.
“Rather a large one, “ I whispered. “I intend to place in this bank
the sum of fifty-six dollars now, and fifty dollars a month regularly.”
The manager got up and opened the door. He called out to the
clerk.
“Mr. Montgomery,” he said loudly, “this gentleman is opening
an account. He will place fifty-six dollars in it. Good morning.”
“Good morning,” I said, standing up, and walked through a big
door into a safe.
“Come out,” said the manager coldly and showed me the other
way. I went up to the clerk and pushed the money to him. My face was
terribly pale.
“Here, I said, “put it in my account.” The sound of my voice
seemed to mean, “Let’s do this painful thing while we feel that we
want to do it.”
When the operation had been performed, I remembered that I
hadn’t left any money for present use. My idea was to draw out six
dollars. Someone gave me a cheque-book and someone else began
telling me how to write it out. The people in the bank seemed to think
that I was a man who owned millions of dollars, but I was not feeling
very well, I wrote something on the cheque and pushed it towards the clerk.
He looked at it.

128
“What, are you drawing it all out again?” he asked in surprise.
Then I realized that I had written fifty-six dollars instead of six. I was
too upset to think clearly now. I had a feeling that it was impossible to
explain the thing. All the clerks stopped writing to look at me. One of them
prepared to pay the money.
“How will you have it?” he said.
“What?”
“How will you have it?”
“Oh,” I caught his meaning and answered without even trying to
think, - “in fifty-dollar notes.”
He gave me a fifty-dollar note.
“And the six?” he asked coldly.
“In six-dollar notes,” I said.
He gave me six dollars, and I ran out. As the big door closed behind
me, I heard a sound of laughter that went up to the roof of the bank. Since
then I use a bank no more. I keep my money in my pocket and my savings
in silver dollars in a sock.

VOCABULARY

to raise – a ridica, a creste


to look round – a privi in jur
account – cont
clerk [kla:k] – functionar (de birou)
to hold –held – a tine
pocket – buzunar
to doubt [daut] – a se indoi (de)
to seem – a parea, a da impresia
to lead – led – a conduce, a duce
safe – sigur, convins
safe and sound – teafar si nevatamat
to whisper – a sopti
to draw out – a extrage
to call out – a striga (nume), a chema
to own – a poseda, a avea
to catch – caught – a prinde
sock - soseta

129
UNIT 16

SEQUENCE OF TENSES – Concordanta


(corespondenta) timpurilor
Concordanta timpurilor, adica raportul dintre timpul din propozitia
principala si cel din subordonata, este o problema foarte complexa in
limba engleza, mai ales in comparatie cu romana, unde ea nu se aplica
atat de strict si deci timpurile coincid rareori in cele doua limbi:

He asked me how old I was.


El m-a intrebat ce varsta am.

1). Cand verbul din propozitia principala este la Present


Simple/Continuous, Present Perfect verbul din subordonata poate fi
la orice timp:
Principala Secundara
I know what he does. Eu stiu ce face el.
I know what he is doing. Eu stiu ce face el (in acest moment).
I know what he did. Eu stiu ce a facut el.
I know what he’s always done. Eu stiu ce a facut el intotdeauna.
I know what he will do. Eu stiu ce va face el.
2). Cand verbul din propozitia principala este la trecut, verbul din
subordonata este la trecutul simplu sau continuu.

I knew what he did. Eu stiam ce face el.


I knew what he was doing. Eu stiam ce face el (la acel moment).
I knew what he had done. Eu stiam ce a facut/facuse el.
I knew what he would do. Eu stiam ce va face el.

Nota: Totusi, se poate folosi prezentul in subordonata, daca este vorba


despre un adevar imuabil (neschimbator, permanent).

At that time, they didn’t know that the sun does not turn round the
earth.

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La acea vreme, nu se stia ca soarele nu se invarteste in jurul
pamantului.

3). La trecut, actiunile verbelor din propozitia principala si din cea


subordonata pot fi:
fie simultane, cand se foloseste trecutul simplu sau continuu:
She said that she spoke four foreign languages.
A spus ca vorbeste patru limbi straine.
He left as the film was beginning.
El a plecat tocmai cand incepea filmul.

!!! Urmatoarea situatie ar putea parea ciudata:


She told me her name was Mary. Mi-a spus ca o cheama Maria. –
desigur, Maria o cheama mereu caci acesta este numele ei de botez,
dar, tinand seama ca propozitia principala este la trecut, predicatul
secundarei trebuie modificat in functie de regulile concordantei.

Fie consecutive, cand se foloseste Past Perfect pentru a marca


anterioritatea si un auxiliar modal la trecut (would, should, might)
pentru a marca posterioritatea:

He left a few minutes after the film had begun.


El a plecat la cateva minute dupa ce incepuse filmul.
She thought I could help her.
Ea s-a gandit ca eu voi putea s-o ajut.

4). Cand verbul din propozitia principala este la viitor, verbul din propozitia
subordonata temporala sau din conditionala este la prezent sau la Present Perfect.
Aceasta exceptie de la regula concordantei timpurilor se produce dupa
when – cand, as soon as – de indata ce, after – dupa, before – inainte
ca, while – in timp ce, if – daca, until – pana cand/atat timp cat,
unless – daca nu:
I’ll go when I’m ready. Voi pleca atunci cand voi fi/sunt gata.
I’ll call you if I don’t find it. Te voi suna daca nu-l gasesc/nu-l voi
gasi.
We’ll wait until you come. Vom astepta pana cand vei veni/vii.
The show will start as soon as the president has arrived.
Spectacolul va incepe de indata ce presedintele va sosi/soseste.

131
EXERCISES:
1. Put the following into the Past Tense observing the rules of the
sequence of tenses:
1. My uncle says he has just come back from London. 2. He says he
feels better now. 3. I know that you are ill. 4. We find that she has left
home at eight o’clock this morning. 5. He says that he has a good
camera. 6. She says she will come to see us next Sunday. 7. She says
Bill told her a lot of interesting things about his travels in the south. 8.
I hear that he has bought a new car. 9. I suppose that he will send us a
letter. 10. I think that he lives in New York.

2. Use the verbs in brackets in appropriate tenses observing the


rules of the sequence of tenses:
1. We told you that we (leave) town on the following day. 2. She said
she (can) not tell me the right time, her watch (be) wrong. 3. She says
she already (find) the book. 4. I didn’t know that you already (receive)
the letter. 5. He has just said that she (not be) at home tomorrow. 6.
Charlie noticed that Mary (cry). 7. I was thinking what a pleasure it
(be) to see my old friend again; I (not see) him since my schooldays. 8.
She has just told me that she (not like) modern music. 9. The boy
didn’t know that water (boil) at 100o. 10. He promised that he (bring)
us all necessary books.

3. Put the tenses in brackets into the correct form:


1. I knew that he (is, was) a very clever man. 2. He said he (is staying,
was staying) at the “Savoy” Hotel. 3. They realized that they (lost, had
lost) their way in the dark. 4. He asked me where I (study, studied). 5.
I thought that I (shall finish, should finish) my work at that time. 6. He
said he (will come, would come) to the station to see me off. 7. I was
sure he (posted, had posted) the letter. 8. I want to know what he (has
bought, had bought) for her birthday. 9. I asked my sister to tell me
what she (has seen, had seen) at the museum. 10. I hope it (will not
change, would not change) for the worse.

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4. Translate into English:
1. El spune ca merge acasa cu autobuzul in fiecare zi. 2. El intreaba cat
e ceasul. 3. A spus ca ieri a pescuit toata ziua. 4. L-am intrebat daca
vor fi acasa deseara. 5. El scrie ca se distreaza foarte bine. 6. Credeam
ca dormea. 7. Ma intrebam daca ajunsesera deja. 8. M-a intrebat daca
stiu cand pleaca trenul. 9. Le-a spus parintelor lui ca vor merge intr-o
excursie. 10. El a scris ca a fost foarte bolnav timp de cinci zile. 11. L-
am intrebat de cata vreme asteapta autobuzul. 12. El a spus ca-mi va
repara ceasul pana maine. 13. M-a intrebat daca te iubesc si eu am
spus ca da. 14. El a spus ca imi va aduce ambele carti vineri, dar inca
nu mi le-a adus. 15. El a zis ca la sfarsitul anului se vor implini cinci
ani de cand studiaza engleza, dar ca inca n-a inteles folosirea
timpurilor.

TEXT: “BRITISH BEER”

British beer can be confusing to visitors. Many foreigners who


are new to pubs ask for “a beer, please” – but this alone is not enough.
In Britain you must specify the quantity you want – a pint or half a
pint – and the type.
There are three types of beer in Britain. Bitter is the most
popular beer; it is a medium brown beer, and is not very alcoholic, at
about 4% alcohol by volume. Lager is a light-coloured beer, similar to
beers popular in the rest of Europe. Stout is a very dark, almost black
beer; the Irish stout called Guinness is the most famous brand.
Most bitter drinkers prefer “real ale” these days. Real ale is bitter
brewed in the traditional way and then stored in barrels. The barman
“draws” the beer from the barrel using a hand pump. Other beers
called keg beers are stored in pressurized barrels, and the barman or
barmaid needs only to turn a small tap on the bar for the beer to pour
into the glass.
Ordering in a pub can also confuse visitors, as there is no waiter
or waitress service. You must order your drink from the bar, and pay
for it at the same time.
Laws on drinking in Britain are very strict. If you want to sell
alcohol you have to have a licence, and as Tony said in the interview a
pub may only open at certain times of the day. No children under 14

133
years of age may go into a pub (although many pubs have a children’s
room away from the bar). Fourteen-year-olds may go into a pub but
may not buy or drink alcohol. You must be 18 before you can legally
buy or drink alcohol in a pub.
Wine bars began to appear in large numbers, mainly in the cities,
in the early 1980s. Now we can find them even in smaller towns. As
their names imply, they specialize in selling different types of wine,
although they may also have a limited range of beers and spirits. They
also serve meals, usually of a higher standard than those found in
pubs.
The British wine-producing industry has been expanding rapidly
in recent years. Britain now produces some good quality white wines,
mainly from vineyards in the south-east of England where the climate
is particularly suitable.

VOCABULARY
Real-ale - bere naturala
beer – bere
pub – carciuma
a pint [paint] – pinta (unitate de masura a capacitatii insemnand 0,568
l; in S.U.A. 0,473 l)
lager - bere germana
bitter – amar
stout – bere neagra
to store – a tine, a pastra (in depozit)
to pressurize – a etansa, a presuriza
barrel – butoi
keg – butoias
to pour [po:] – a turna
mainly – in special, mai ales
to expand – a (se) extinde
vineyard – vie, podgorie

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UNIT 17
DIRECT AND INDIRECT SPEECH (Vorbirea
directa si indirecta)
Vorbirea directa este redarea intocmai a spuselor cuiva.
He asked me, “Do you work this week?”
M-a intrebat: - Lucrezi saptamana aceasta?
In limba engleza, dupa verbele (to ask – a intreba, to say – a spune
etc.) se foloseste virgula si nu doua puncte, iar vorbirea directa este
pusa intre ghilimele:

Vorbirea indirecta reproduce continutul a ceea ce spune cineva intr-o


imprejurare data. Necesita o atentie deosebita respectarii regulilor de
corespondenta a timpurilor.
He asked me if I had worked that week. M-a intrebat daca am lucrat
saptamana aceea.
1) Propozitii enuntiative
Verbul to say din propozitia principala se pastreaza atunci cand nu este
insotit de un complement indirect; sau se inlocuieste prin to tell.
La trecerea de la vorbirea directa la cea indirecta are loc schimbarea
pronumelor, adverbelor determinative, adjectivelor in functie de
inteles, ca si in limba romana, de exemplu:
I poate deveni he sau she;
this- that; today – that day- in acea zi;
yesterday – the day before – in ziua precedenta, cu o zi mai inainte;
tomorrow – the next day;
ago – in urma; before – inainte;
here – there etc.
now – then
next week (month, year) – the following (next) ….;
last year – the year before;
last month – the month before;
Cand verbul din propozitia principala este la present, cel din
subordonata este acelasi ca si la vorbirea directa.
He says, “I like working” He says he likes working.
He asks, “Can I help you?” He asks if he can help you.
He says, “I shall help you” He says he will help you.

135
Cand verbul din propozitia principala este la trecut, cel din
subordonata sufera o schimbare de timp:

She said, “I want to study English She said that she wanted to
this year” study English that year.

He said to me, “I heard you speaking He told me (that) he had heard


on the radio last month” me speaking on the radio a
month before.
(Imi spuse ea ca, te-am auzit la (Imi spuse ca, m-a auzit la
radio
radio luna trecuta.) cu o luna inainte.)

They said to me, “We’ll go there They told me they would go


tomorrow.” there the following day.

She said, “Peter is looking for the She said that Peter was looking
dog now.” for the dog then.

2). Propozitii interogative:


Propozitia interogativa indirecta este introdusa prin if sau whether –
daca.
He asked me, “Have you seen the new film ?” El m-a intrebat: - Ai
vazut filmul nou?
He asked me if/whether I had seen the film that day. M-a intrebat
daca am vazut noul film.

John said, “Will you come and dine with us tonight?” John spuse: -
Vreti sa veniti sa luati cina cui noi diseara?”
John asked (us) if/whether we would come and dine with them that
night. John ne-a intrebat daca vrem sa mergem sa luam cina cu ei in
seara aceea.

3).Intrebari speciale:

She asked him, “Where did you work last year?”


She asked him where he had worked a year before.

136
I asked her, “What reports have you written?”
I asked her what reports she had written.
He asked me, “What are you doing now?”
He asked me what I was doing then.

He asked me, “When will you go to see your parents?”


He asked me when I would go to see my parents.

4). Propozitii imperative:

Propozitiile imperative se redau in vorbirea indirecta cu ajutorul unor


verbe care exprima ordinul, rugamintea, cererea etc. (to ask – a cere, a
invita, a porunci, to order – a porunci, a ordona, to tell – a spune, a
zice etc urmate de infinitive).

Drive faster!” he said to me. – Mana mai repede.


He asked me to drive faster. Mi-a cerut/ordonat sa man mai repede.

She said to me, “Tell him everything tomorrow.”


She asked me to tell him everything the following day.
My mother said to me, “Please help him.”
My mother ordered me to help him.

He said, “Don’t book tickets for the theatre for next Sunday.”
He asked me not to book tickets for the theatre for the following
Sunday.

5). Propozitii exclamative:


Propozitiile exclamative sunt redate in vorbirea indirecta printr-o serie
de modificari cerute de sens, caracterul exclamatiei fiind redat de
verbe si adverbe (de mod):

He said, “That isn’t true!” El spuse: - Nu e adevarat!


He exclaimed/cried indignantly that it wasn’t true.
El exclama indignat ca nu este adevarat.

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EXERCISES:
1. Put the following into indirect speech.
1. I said to her, “I have something to show you.” 2. He said, “I am
going away tomorrow.” 3. “I’ve been in London for a month so far I
haven’t had time to visit the Tower,” said Tom. 4. She replied, “I’ll
come with you as soon as I am ready.” 5. Mary said, “I usually spend
my holidays in the south.” 6. He said, “I am going to a rest-home
tomorrow.” 7. I said to them, “I can give you my uncle’s address.” 8.
He said to me, “I want to see you today.” 9. The student said, “I can’t
answer this question. I don’t understand it.” 10. She said, “I didn’t go
to the concert yesterday.”

2. Put the following into indirect speech.


1. He said, “What is happening?” 2. Ann asked, “Which team has
won?” 3. He asked, “Who is playing next week?” 4. Bill said, “How
can I get from the station to the airport?” 5. I asked him, “Have you
reserved a seat?” 6. “Can you get coffee on the train?” asked my aunt.
7. Peter said, “Do you play rugby?” 8. Tom asked, “Are you working
as well as studying?” 9. “Did you play for your university team?”
asked Bill. 10. Have you seen the library?” asked Ann.

3. Put the following into indirect speech.


1. “Switch off the TV,” she said. 2. She said, “Shut the door, Tom.” 3.
I warned, “Don’t go alone.” 4. “Follow that car,” the detective said to
the taxi-driver. 5. I said, “Don’t argue with your father.” 6. The young
man said, “Wait for me at the bridge.” 7. “Don’t forget your
sandwiches,” said his mother. 8. My father said, “Don’t say anything
to make her angry.”

4. Put the following into direct speech.


1. He said that while crossing the English Channel they had stayed on
deck all day. 2. She said that she was feeling bad that day. 3. Tom
said he would go to see the doctor the next day. 4. He told me he was
ill. 5. I told my sister that she might catch cold. 6. He said he had just
been examined by a good doctor. 7. He said that his health had greatly
improved since then. 8. He asked Ann if she could be ready by ten.

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5. Translate into English.

1. El ne-a intrebat cine a scris raportul. 2. Ea l-a intrebat pe Dnul


Brown, unde au de gand sa mearga in concediu. 3. Dnul Smith m-a
intrebat putem sa-l vizitam Sambata. 4. John l-a intrebat pe Bill cat
timp a petrecut in Londra anul trecut. 5. El m-a intrebat ce am vrut sa
fac. 6. Ei me-au spus sa nu mergem la cinema astazi. 7. Eu l-am
intrebat din ce tara a venit. 8. L-am rugat pe Peter sa nu spuna nimarui
secretul nostru. 9. Ei m-au intrebat unde este biblioteca universitatii.
10. Mama le-a spus sa nu vina tarziu acasa.

TEXT: AESOP AND THE TRAVELLER

AESOP (620? – 560? B.C.), ancient Greek writer of fables, fables


long transmitted through oral tradition. Many of AESOP’S fables
were rewritten in Greek verse by the poet Babrius and in latin
verse by the Roman poet Phaedrus in the 1st century AD.

Aesop was a very clever man who lived many hundreds of years ago
in Greece. He wrote many fine stories. He was well known as a man
who was fond of jokes. One day, as he was enjoying a walk, he met a
traveller, who greeted him and said:
“King man, can you tell me how soon I shall get to town?”
“Go,” Aesop answered.
“I know I must go,” protested the traveller, “but I should like you
to tell me how soon I shall get to town?”
“Go,” Aesop said again angrily.
“This man must be mad,” the traveller thought and went on.
After he had gone some distance, Aesop shouted after him: “You
will get to town in two hours.”
The traveller turned round in astonishment. “Why didn’t you tell
me that before?” he asked.
“How could I have told you that before?” answered Aesop. “I
didn’t know how fast you could walk.”

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UNIT 18

PASSIVE VOICE (Diateza pasiva)


Diateza exprima o relatie de sens gramatical intre subiect si predicat:
diateza activa (Active Voice) arata ca actiunea este savarsita de
subiectul gramatical, de exemplu:

They write the testpapers. Ei scriu lucrari de control.

iar diateza pasiva (Passive Voice) arata ca actiunea este suferita de


subiectul gramatical.
The testpapers are written by them. Lucrarile sunt scrise de catre ei.

Diateza pasiva se formeaza cu ajutorul verbului auxiliar “to be”(la


orice timp) si Participiul 2 al verbului de conjugat.

I am invited, sunt invitat,-a.

Diateza activa Diateza pasiva


I invite John. John is invited (by me)
Il invit pe John. John este invitat (de mine)
I invited John. John was invited (by me)
Eu l-am invitat pe John. John a fost invitat de mine.
I will invite John. John will be invited by me.
Eu il voi invita pe John. John va fi invitat de mine.
I have invited John. John has been invited by me.
Eu l-am invitat pe John. John a fost invitat de mine.
I had invited John. John had been invited by me.
Eu l-am invitat pe John. John a fost/fusese invitat de mine.

Complementul, daca exista, se introduce in general cu prepozitia by,


dar si cu with, ex.:
The hall is filled with smoke. Salonul este plin de fum.

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Diateza pasiva la Present si Past Continuous se formeaza de la
Prezentul si Trecutul Continuu al verbului to be (am,are, is being;
was,were being) si Participiul 2 al verbului de conjugat:

They are building a house. (active)


A house is being built by them (passive)
They were building a house. (active)
A house was being built by them. (passive)

Diateza pasiva a verbelor precedate de verbele modale must, can,


may, should se obtine prin adaugarea infinitivului “be” si participiul
2 al verbului de conjugat:

He must sign the paper.


The paper must be signed by him.
They can solve the problem.
The problem can be solved by them.
We should study English.
English should be studied by us.
She may change the method.
The method may be changed by her.
Retineti urmatoarele constructii pasive cu verbe ca say, know,
believe, report:

They say he is clever = He is said to be clever. Se spune ca e destept.


I can’t bear people laughing at me. I can’t bear being laughed at.
Nu suport sa-si bata cineva joc de mine.
Atentie la diferenta intre:
He was said to be serious. Se spunea ca este serios.
He was told to be serious. I s-a spus sa fie serios.

EXERCISES:

1. Put the following sentences into the Passive Voice with a


personal subject:
1. They gave my little sister a ticket too. 2. People will show the
visitors the new buildings. 3. Someone has already paid the

141
electrician for his work. 4. They promise us higher salaries. 5.
Somebody will tell you what time the train leaves. 6. Someone taught
him French and gave him a dictionary. 7. They have made my uncle a
captain. 8. Someone is showing Mary how to bathe a baby. 9. You can
leave the key with the clerk downstairs. 10. You must do three of
these exercises tomorrow. 11. By the middle of the autumn we had
planted all the trees. 12. They have made a number of the
experiments in this laboratory. 13. By six o’clock they had finished
the work. 14. At twelve o’clock the workers were loading the trucks.

2. Turn the following sentences into the active voice. Where no


agent is mentioned one must be supplied.
1. This mountain has never been climbed before. 2. She told me that
those newspapers had been carefully put away where they would not
be lost. 3. All the passengers in the bus were listening to the story of
the boy who had been saved from drowning by the quickness of the
driver. 4. The work was finished in time. 5. He was fined for crossing
the street in the wrong place. 6. This film can be seen at our cinema. 7.
This book must be read by every student. 8. They were being taught
drawing at that lesson. 9. This name was seldom mentioned in his
novels. 10. I am often told about it.

3. Transform the sentences into the interrogative and negative:


1. The boy was punished for misbehaving. 2. By three o’clock
everything had been prepared. 3. The dictation was written without
mistakes. 4. The papers had been looked through and corrected by the
last lesson. 5. This house was built last year. 6. The letter has just been
sent. 7. This article will be translated at the lesson. 8. All the questions
must be answered. 9. Betty was met at the station. 10. The room was
cleaned and aired.

4. Transform the sentences using the interrogative words from the


brackets:
1. This new dictionary is sold everywhere now. (What)
2. America was discovered by Columbus. (By whom)
3. The problem will be solved by these methods. (How)
4. The text will be translated at the next lesson. (When)

142
5. The girl was not allowed to go to the concert. (Who)
6. The mail is delivered at 7 o’clock. (What time)
7. I shall not be allowed to go there. (Why)
8. The factory is being restructured by this team. (By which)
9. The body was found in the river. (Where)
10.This book will be returned to the library next week. (When)

5. Translate into English:


1. Sunt invitat la familia Jackson. 2. El v-a fi primit de director. 3. Ea a
fost aleasa dintre zece candidati. 4. Masina lui nu este inca reparata. 5.
Ti se vor pune doua intrebari. 6. Ni s-au cerut multi bani pentru un
dormitor foarte mic. 7. Mi s-a spus ca el era bolnav. 8. Materialele
acestea trebuie traduse in limba franceza. 9. Usa trebuie lasata
deschisa. 10. Materialele conferintei au fost ascultate cu mare atentie
de la ora 2 pana la 4. 11. Lui Richard I s-au predat engleza si rusa.12. I
s-a dat un automobil nou pentru aniversarea lui.

Text: “GEORGE BROWN”


(After O. HENRY)

O.Henry, the famous American humorist, is the author of many


short stories. His short stories are very popular all over the world. This
is what happened to him one day.
He had an acquaintance whose name was Tripp. He was a young
man but he looked forty. He never shaved, his face was pale and he
often asked the writer for a dollar, and then spent it on whisky.
Once Tripp met a young girl in New York. She had never been to
the city before. She stopped Tripp and asked him where she could find
George Brown. She thought that the first man whom she asked could
tell her that.
She also told Tripp that she was going to marry a farmer, named
Dodd. But before that she wanted to see George Brown and to have a
talk with him.
That’s why she had come to New York. She had no money and
didn’t know where to look for George Brown.
Tripp, who was kind by nature, could not leave the girl alone. He
took her to a hotel and left her there. He told everything to O.Henry

143
and suggested that they should go and see the girl whose name was
Ada.
Ada and George Brown loved each other dearly. The girl didn’t
want to marry the farmer. She wanted to find George.
Tripp suggested that the writer pay the bill at the hotel where
Ada was staying and buy a railway ticket for Ada to get back home.
He said that it would cost the writer three dollars.
He asked for another dollar for himself. He wanted whisky. He
added that the writer would be able to write a new short story. It would
cost only four dollars.
Ada was really beautiful. She told them all the details. She and
George were in love when the boy was eight and she was five. When
George was nineteen, he left the village and left for New York. He
promised to come back for Ada, but she never saw him again.
On the day George left they cut a cent into two pieces till they
met again.
The two men were very sorry for Ada and advised her to go
home. They saw her to the station and then went home. When they
were going to the bus-stop, Tripp took his cheap watch out of his
pocket and the writer saw half of the cent cut in two. George Brown
and Tripp were one and the same man.
The writer took out a dollar and put it into Tripp’s hand.

VOCABULARY
famous vestit
acquaintance cunostinta
to spend/spent/spent a cheltui, a consuma
to marry a (se) casatori
to suggest a propune, a sugera
to add a adauga
pocket buzunar
cheap ieftin

144
UNIT 19

THE INFINITIVE (Infinitivul)


Infinitivul este forma sub care un verb este dat in dictionar. El exprima
notiunea verbului in sensul sau general, forma sa nefiind limitata de
numar sau persoana.
In limba engleza INFINITIVUL se formeaza prin atasarea particulei
“to” inaintea verbului propriu-zis.

- infinitivul prezent, aspectul simplu, diateza activa:


to read – a citi
I’d like to read an interesting novel. As vrea sa citesc un roman
interesant.

- infinitivul prezent, aspectul continuu, diateza activa:


to be writing – a scrie
I’d like to be watching TV. As vrea sa ma uit la televizor.

- infinitivul perfect, aspectul simplu, diateza activa:


to have written – a fi scris, sa fi scris
– foarte folosit in limba engleza – este mai putin cunoscut in limba
romana, - exprima mai mult o optiune irealizabila, sau o actiune
nematerializata.
He liked to have had much money. Isi dorea sa fi avut multi bani.
She seems to have understood the question. Ea pare sa fi inteles
intrebarea.
I didn’t like to have met him then. Nu mi-ar fi placut sa-l intalnesc
atunci.

- infinitivul perfect, aspectul continuu, diateza activa:


He seems to have been sleeping all day. El pare sa fi dormit toata
ziua.

- infinitivul prezent, aspectul simplu, diateza pasiva:


to be written – a fi scris

145
I don’t want to be forgotten. Nu vreau sa fiu uitat.
- Infinitivul perfect, aspectul simplu, diateza pasiva:
To have been written – a fi fost scris
We aren’t the only one to have been helped. Nu esti singurul in
situatia de a fi fost ajutat.

Urmatoarele doua forme se folosesc foarte rar:


- Infinitivul prezent, aspectul continuu, diateza pasiva:
to be being written – a fi scris
- infinitivul perfect, aspectul continuu, diateza pasiva:
to have been being written – a fi fost scris
- Infinitivul se foloseste dupa unele adjective care exprima o
emotie sau o dorinta, cum ar fi “glad”, “anxious”-ingrigorat,
“delighted”, “pleased”, “eager”-dornic etc., ex:
I am glad to meet you (Sunt incantat sa va cunosc)
He was eager to get there. (Eara nereabdator sa ajunga acolo),
Precum si dupa alte adjective, cum sunt: ready, worthy, (un)able,
afraid, easy etc., ex:
I was afraid to go there. (Ma temeam sa ajung acolo)
They were ready to start. (Erau gata sa inceapa)

VERBE URMATE DE INFINITIVUL FARA “TO”

Acestea sunt in principal:


1) Defectivele: can, may, must
We can speak English.
2) To let: fie ca ajuta la formarea imperativului:
Let us go, sa mergem
fie cand are intelesul de a lasa:
I won’t let him do it, nu-l voi lasa sa faca asta.
3) to make:
I’ll make you understand, te voi face sa intelegi.
4) to have: in sensul de a pune, a obliga pe cineva sa faca ceva:
I’ll have them repair it, il voi face/obliga sa repare asta.
5) verbele de perceptie, care mai frecvente fiind to see si to hear:
I heard him come, l-am auzit venind
I saw him go, l-am vazut plecand

146
(care pot fi urmate si de forma in –ing).

PREPOZITII OBLIGATORII

 Prepozitia obligatorie formeaza un ton impreuna cu verbul:


ea poate:
1) nuanta sensului verbului:
to look a privi to look up ridica privirea
2) modifica radical sensul verbului:
to go up a urca to go out a iesi
 Prepozitia obligatorie intra in forma de infinitiv si in cea de
imperativ a verbului: to go out, a iesi; go out! Iesi!
 Acelasi verb, asociat cu diferite prepozitii obligatorii, va
avea
sensuri radical diferite. Astfel:
 To get: acest verb, care inseamna a obtine, atunci cand este
urmat de un substantiv, si a deveni, atunci cand e urmat de un
adjectiv, capata sensuri foarte diferite, in functie de prepozitia
obligatorie care ii urmeaza:
to get up a se scula to get away a scapa
to get out a iesi to get in a intra
to get down a cobori
In acest caz, prepozitia obligatorie este cea care poarta sensul
principal.
Cateva expresii cu prepozitii obligatorii:
to be off a pleca to put on a pune, a imbraca
to carry on a continua to put off amana (o sedinta)
to carry out a infaptui to give up a renunta
come on! haide! vino! to go on a continua
to look out a fi atent to hurry up a se grabi

EXERCISES:
1. Insert “to” where necessary before the infinitives in brackets.
1. He made me (do) it all over again. 2. She can (sing) quite well. 3.
He will be able (swim) very soon. 4. I used (live) in a caravan. 5. I
want (see) the house where our president was born. 6. He made her

147
(repeat) the message. 7. May I (use) your phone? 8. You needn’t (ask)
for permission; you can (use) it whenever you like. 9. If you want (get)
there before dark you should (start) at once. 10. He wouldn’t let my
baby (play) with his gold watch. 11. He made us (wait) for hours. 12.
I’d like him (go) to a university but I can’t (make) him (go).

2. Combine each of the following pairs of sentences into one


sentence using too/enough with infinitive.
Model: It is very cold. We can’t go out.
It is too cold for us to go out.
He is strong. He can carry it.
He is strong enough to carry it.
1. You are very young. You can’t have a front-door key. 2. It is very
cold. We can’t bathe. 3. I am rather old. I can’t wear that kind of hat.
4. The ladder wasn’t very long. It didn’t reach the window. 5. He
hadn’t much money. He couldn’t live on it. (Omit it.) 6. He was
furious. He couldn’t speak. 7. The fire isn’t very hot. He won’t boil a
kettle. 8. You are quite thick. You couldn’t slip between the bars. 9.
He is very ill. He can’t eat anything. 10. Our new car is very wide. It
won’t get through those gates. 11. The coffee isn’t strong. It won’t
keep us awake. 12. He is lazy. He won’t get up early.

3. Reword the following sentences using the infinitive.


Model: I was glad when I heard of your success.
I was glad to hear of your success.

1. He was very sorry when he heard of your disappointment. 2. He


hopes that he will know by tomorrow. 3. It seems that it is improbable.
4. Do you understand what you have to do? 5. The candidate did not
expect that he would pass his examination. 6. Mary was told that she
must not dirty the room. 8. That was the first picture that came by
satellite. 9. My friend was delighted when she learned of the arrival of
our baby. 10. We should be sorry if we heard bad reports of him.

4. Translate into Romanian, paying attention to Active Infinitive,


Passive Infinitive and Perfect Infinitive.

148
1. Nature has many secrets to be discovered yet. 2. To improve your
phonetics you should record youself and analyse your speech. 3. This
is the book to be read during the summer holidays. 4. I am awfully
glad to have met you. 5. I am very happy to have had the pleasure of
making your acquaintance. 6. The child did not like to be washed. 7.
When Clyde looked at the girl closely, he remembered to have seen
her at IBM company. 8. He is very forgetful, but he doesn’t like to be
reminded of his duties. 9. I am very sorry to have spoilt your mood.
10. Which is more pleasant: to give or to be given presents?

6. Translate into English.


1. Este suficient de silitor ca sa fie in stare sa termine universitatea. 2.
I-mi pare foarte rau ca n-am putut sa-l intalnesc. 3. Este greu sa-i
gasesti acasa. 4. L-am vazut parasind camera plangand. 5. Mi-a fost
greu sa scap de el. 6. Se asteapta de la tine sa te pregatesti sarguincios
pentru examene. 7. Mi-ar placea sa fiu invitata. 8. N-ai uitat sa pui
scrisoarea la posta. 9. Stiti cum se pronunta acest cuvant? 10. Spune-i
sa incerce sa se poarte mai frumos.

TEXT: “HIS RICH AUNT”


by Cyril Hare (1900-1958)
(English lawyer and mystery writer)

Hilary Smith belonged to a good family. His father never failed


to mention the fact. Unfortunately he had some troubles with the bank
and was sent off to Australia. He did not like Australia and Australia
did not like him.
Therefore he was eager to return to England. He could not earn
enough money to book his passage. So he had to wait until his father
and his brother died. They fortunately did it at the same time.
He received all the money that belonged to a good family and
soon spent it. When all the money had been spent, Hilary could do one
of two things. He could die or work. Neither of these gave him any
pleasure. Then he remembered that he had a rich aunt.
She was his father’s only sister. Hilary found out her address.
The old lady was glad to see her only nephew. Unfortunately she was

149
seriously ill. The doctor told Hilary that nothing could cure the old
lady. Hilary was afraid to remain in the hard world alone. So he chose
a moment when hia aunt was feeling much better than usual and asked her
for details of her will.
The old woman told her nephew that she had made a will when she
was a young girl. She was very religious and left all her money to some
religious people in China. She didn’t make any other will.
The next day Hilary found out that when a woman married, an earlier
will lost its value. A new will must be made, the money goes to the nearest
relation. His future was safe.
Hilary badly needed money, he owed a lot to shopkeepers, who
trusted him because his aunt was rich. It was impossible for Hilary to speak
with his aunt about money. She got very bad and got angry when money
was mentioned. One morning she told Hilary that she was going to send for
her lawyer to make a new will. Hilary was afraid that she wanted to leave
all her money to somebody else. So he made a decision. Every night his
aunt took some medicine to make her sleep. Hilary decided to double the
portion. He could put her to sleep forever.
He put some more medicine into the glass. His aunt took the glass
and looked at Hilary. She thanked her nephew and said: “If I am alive
tomorrow, I shall change the will in your favour. If I die tonight, you will
get nothing.”
She explained to her nephew that she had never been married, so her
first will did not lose its value. Hilary tried to take the glass away but the
old lady raised it and drank.

VOCABULARY
to belong to a apartine, a tine de
to fail a nu reusi, a da gres, a uita
unfortunately din nefericire/pacate
therefore de aceea, prin urmare, deci
to be eager to a fi nerabdator sa
to earn a castiga
to book a astepta
passage calatorie pe mare, trecere, cale
to cure a vindeca, a lecui
will vointa, testament
to owe a datora, a fi dator
shopkeeper vanzator
to trust a avea incredere

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to be angry a fi suparat
UNIT 20

THE GERUND (Gerund-ul)


The Gerund (Gerundul) este reprezentat de gerundul nedefinit si
de gerundul perfect.
Gerundul nedefinit este identic ca forma cu participiul nedefinit,
infinitivul verbului cu ajutorul sufixului – ing: to come - coming, to
read – reading, to get – getting, to try - trying etc.

I like swimming. Imi place sa inot.


Swimming is my hobby. Inotul este pasiunea mea.
- El are valoare de substantiv si poate fi subiect sau complement. Se
traduce in romana printr-un substantiv, o propozitie subordonata sau
un gerunziu:
Cycling is good for your health. Mersul pe bicicleta este bun pentru
sanatate.
I love gardening. Imi place sa gradinaresc.
He ended his speech by thanking everybody for their attention.
Si-a incheiat discursul multumind tuturor pentru atentie.

Gerundul nedefinit este intrebuintat:


- dupa verbe care indica inceputul, continuarea sa sfarsitul unei
actiuni: to start, to begin, to continue, to keep on, to carry on, to
stop, to finish, to give up …
He started smoking. El a inceput sa fumeze.
Go on working. Continua sa lucrezi.
Stop laughing. Nu mai rade.
He gave up painting. El a renuntat sa mai picteze.

- dupa verbe care exprima o stare sufleteasca: to like, to love, to


hate, to dislike, to be fond of, to prefer, to enjoy, to mind…
I hate waiting. Urasc sa astept.
I love gardening. Ador gradinaritul.
Do you mind opening the door? Te deranjaza daca deschid usa?

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- dupa anumite verbe cu prepozitii: to agree on - a cadea de acord
sa/asupra, to agree to – a cadea de acord ca, to aim at – a tinti
la/sa, to believe in – a crede in, to consist in – a consta in, to
prevent from – a-i impiedica sa, to succeed in – a reusi in/sa, to
complain of – a se plange de, to depend on - o a depine de, to
thank for – a multumi pentru, to be afraid of – a-i fi frica de, to
think of – a se gandi la, to approve of – a aproba, a accepta, to
rely on – a conta pe etc.

He aims to become a good economist. Urmareste sa ajunga un


economist bun.
I agree to her reading the text. Sunt de acord ca ea sa citeasca
textul.
He prevented me from making a serious mistake.El m-a
impiedicat sa comit o greseala serioasa.
- dupa substantive cu prepozitii: importance of – importanta de a,
reason for – motiv de a, surprise at – surptindere de a , right of
– drept de a, chance of – sansa de, experience in – experienta in.
What is the reason for her being impatient? Din ce motiv este
nerabdatoare?

- dupa adjective si adjective cu prepozitii: afraid of – caruia ii este


teama de/sa, capable of – capabil de (a), concious of – constient
de, proud of – mandru de, responsible for – raspunzator pentru
- De asemenea: worth – care merita sa etc.
I am sure that he is capable of solving this problem. Sunt sigur
ca el e capabil sa rezolve aceasta problema.
He is worth sending to study at Oxford University. El merita de a
fi trimis sa-si faca studiile la universitatea din Oxford.

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The Perfect Gerund (Gerundul perfect)
Gerundul perfect este identic ca forma cu participiul perfect: having
come – venind, having been seen – fiind vazut, having solved –
rezolvand.
Gerundul perfect exprima intotdeauna o actiune sau o stare ce a
avut loc inaintea unei alte actiuni sau stari exprimate de verbul
personal:

I remember having met her. Imi amintesc ca am cunoscut-o.


Don’t you regret having said that? Nu regreti ca ai spus asta?

Functiile sintactice ale gerundului perfect sunt urmatoarele:


a) Complement direct sau prepozitional:
He denies having spoken with them. Neaga ca ar fi vorbit cu ei.
b) Complement circumstantial de timp:
After having glanced over the letter he put it back into the envelope.
Dupa ce-si arunca ochii pe scrisoare, o puse inapoi in plic.
c) Complement circumstantial de cauza (rar):
Owning to his having staged the play, the performance was a success.
Datorita faptului ca el a regizat piesa, spectacolul a fost un succes.

Verbe urmate de GERUND sau de INFINITIV


Unele verbe pot fi urmate fie de un Gerund, fie de un Infinitiv, in
functie de nuanta exprimata.
De exemplu:
To like - a-i placea; to stop – a opri; to remember – a-si aminti.
In acest caz, infinitivul cu to indica de regula o actiune viitoare sau
ipotetica (presupusa).

Comparati:
I like travelling. Imi place sa calatoresc.
cu I’d like to travel to the U.S. As vrea sa merg in Statele Unite.
I remenber seeing him. Imi amintesc faptul ca l-am vazut.
cu Remember to call me tomorrow. Nu uita sa ma suni maine.

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Alte exemple:

She stopped smoking. S-a oprit din fumat (A incetat sa mai


fumeze)
She stopped to smoke. S-a oprit (din mers/lucru)ca sa fumeze.
I saw him cross the street. (L-am vazut ca a traversat strada – se
stie ca a traversat-o)
I saw him crossing the street (L-am vazut traversand strada –
L-am urmarit cum traversa)

EXERCISES:
1. Complete the following sentences by putting the given verbs into
the gerund form:
1.They started (write) the lesson before the teacher came in. 2. I began
(read) a novel yesterday. 3. We don’t like (have) to do homework. 4.
Do you mind (speak) to John and (ask) him to help us? 5. We enjoyed
(see) you and (hear) all your news. 6. We thought of (drive) across
France. We’re rather tired of (go) by train. 7. It has stopped (rain). I
hate (go) out in the rain. 8. I love (eat) oranges, but I dislike (peel)
them. 9. My uncle has given up (smoke) and now prefers (eat) sweets.
10. I hate (practise) (read) aloud without first (learn) the new words.
11. I suggest (do) more sentences on the gerund next time. 12. I began
(look) for the missing papers a few days ago, but now I must stop (try)
to find them.

2. Put the verbs in brackets into the correct form (gerund or


infinitive).
1. I am looking forward to (see) you. 2. He dreads (have) to retire. 3. I
wish (see) the manager. 4. Don’t forget (lock) the door before (go) to
bed. 5. I am prepared (wait) here all night if necessary. 6. Would you
mind (show) me how (work) the lift? 7. I am beginning (understand)
what you mean. 8. I regret (inform) you that your application has been
refused. 9. Mrs Jones: I don’t allow (smoke) in my living-room. Mrs.
Smith: I don’t allow my family (smoke) at all. 10. I tried (persuade)
him (agree) with your proposal. 11. Your windows need (clean);

154
would you like me (do) them for you? 12. Do stop (talk); I am trying
(finish) a letter.

3. Translate into Romanian.


1. I avoided speaking to them about that matter. 2. She denied having
been at home that evening. 3. He enjoyed talking of the pleasures of
travelling. 4. Would you mind coming again in a day or two? 5. He
never agreed to their going on that dangerous voyage. 6. He did not
approve of her drinking so much coffee. 7. All the happiness of my life
depends on your loving me. 8. My friend succeeded in translating this
difficult text. 9. We are looking forward to seeing you again. 10. The
cold weather prevented the girls from going for long walks. 11. She
always complains of feeling ill. 12. Jane thought of leaving London
after Miss Brown’s marriage.

4. Fill the gaps with the correct prepositions and put the vers from
brackets into the gerand.
1. Jane Eyre was fond …(read). 2. They accuse him … (have) robbed
the house. 3. She insisted … (join) our group. 4. The poor peasant
thanked Robin Hood heartily … (have) helped him. 5. We were
prevented … (go) to the sea by the bad weather. 6. You have little
chance … (improve) the situation. 7. He persisted … (try) to solve that
difficult problem. 8. We are tired … (say) this so many times. 9. I
don’t have any intention … (interfere) in your affairs. 10. I insist …
(be) told the truth. 11. I object … his (borrow) money from you. 12 I
stretched out my hand to prevent her … (fall).

5. Translate into English.


1. El prefera sa faca sport decat sa citeasca. 2. Ati terminat de vorbit?
3. Lui ii place sa mearga la teatru. 4. Nu ma deranjeaza ca vii acasa
putin mai tarziu. 5. Nu suport plansul tau. 6. El a hotarat sa invete mai
mult pe viitor. 7. Imi place sa ascult muzica buna. 8. Va deranjeaza
daca las usa deschisa? 9. Am reusit sa iau un bilet. 10. N-a reusit sa-si
ia examenele. 11. De ce insista parintii lor ca el sa mearga la
universitate? 12. Continua sa vorbeasca numai de el insusi. 13. Imi
place sa fumez o tigara si pe urma sa merg la plimbare. 14. Mi-e teama
sa ma gandesc ce i s-ar putea intampla.

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TEXT: THE VALUABLE FENCE
(by H.A. Smith)
The Greggs were coming back from their first trip to Europe. On
board the Queen Elizabeth they got acquainted with a Frenchman. His
English was good and soon they got quite friendly. The Frenchman
told the Greggs that he was an artist and his name was Lautisse. He
asked them to keep it a secret. He did not like publicity.
The Greggs didn’t know any artist whose name was Lautisse. So
they talked to the ship’s librarian and found out that their new friend
was the world famous artist whose pictures were very valuable and
expensive. The librarian found a book with a biographical sketch and a
photograph. The sketch said that the artist had retired at fifty-three to a
villa on the Riviera. He said he would never touch a brush again.
Lautisse was going to spend a month in New York. Mrs. Gregg
suggested that he come to their place for the weekend. The artist
accepted the invitation and made them promise not to invite any other
people to their place and not to speak to him about art.
At the appointed time Lautisse arrived at the Greggs and they
were happy to see him. Mr. Gregg and his wife did their best to
entertain the famous artist, but he did not want to go for a swim or
walk in the woods. He wanted to sit and relax.
The next morning Mr. Gregg got up very early as he wanted to
paint the fence around the vegetable garden. He took a brush and was
about to begin painting when Lautisse approached him. As soon as he
saw the brush, he seized it from Mr. Gregg and began painting the
fence.
The same day Lautisse started for New York. Some
correspondents found out about Lautisse’s stay in New York. An
article was published in one of the newspapers saying:
“Mr. Lautisse has spent all his time in New York except for the
weekend at the home of Mr. and Mrs. Gregg. He met the Greggs on
the ship coming from Europe.”
The day after the story appeared, two reporters came to the
Greggs’ place. They wanted to know everything about the stay of the
famous artist at their place. They were shown the fence painted and

156
signed by Lautisse. A long article, headlined “Lautisse paints again”,
was published the next day.
The fence turned out to be a valuable thing. It was sold for a big
sum of money. It was taken to a museum. Mr. Gregg could not keep
from laughing when he saw his fence in the museum. The fence was
not worth it.

VOCABULARY
fence gard
to get acquainted with a face cunostinta cu
expensive scump, costisitor
sketch schita
to seize a apuca, a se folosi de
to turn out a se arata, a se dovedi

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UNIT 21
THE CONDITIONALS (Propozitii conditionale)
Propozitia conditionala contine doua parti:
1) principala si 2) secundara, care de obicei, incepe cu “if” (daca)
If he has time, he will help us. Daca el va avea timp, ne va ajuta.

Propozitiile conditionale sunt de trei tipuri:


1) posibila in viitor; 2) putin probabila in prezent; 3) nereala in
trecut.
Type (1) The Conditional (Propozitii conditionale de tipul I)

Form:
If + Present Simple + will + base form of the verb.
condition result

If it rains, I will stay at home.


If I don’t work hard, I won’t learn.
What will you do if you don’t find the job?

Use (intrebuintare):
Type (1) The Conditional is used to express a possible condition
and a probable result. (Conditionalul unul este utilizat pentru a
exprima o conditie posibila si un rezultat probabil)
I will post the letter if you like. (Eu voi expedia scrisoarea daca vrei)

Notes:
1. Notice that future tense is not used in a condition.
If you will leave now, you will catch the train. (This is WRONG –
e gresit)
If you leave now, you will catch the train. (This is RIGHT -
e corect)

2. Alternative forms (forme alternative):


a) if can be replaced by unless or in case (daca poate fi inlocuit cu
daca…nu sau daca).

158
Unless I hear from you, I’ll come at 8.00. (Daca nu am nici o
informatie de la tine, voi veni la 8.00).
b) will can be replaced by another modal verb.( will poate fi
inlocuit cu un alt verb modal).
If you find my money …
I can buy you an ice-cream.
You should give it back to me.
You must tell me immediately.
c) will can be replaced by an imperative
If you like good food, eat at Brown’s restaurant.
d) will can be replaced by another future tense
If it doesn’t rain, I’m going to play tennis.
e) The Present Simple can be replaced by The Present Perfect in
the conditional clause.
If you have finished the exercise, you can do the next one.

TYPE (2)
Form:
If + Past Simple, would + base form of the verb
condition result

If I had enough money, I would buy a car. (Daca as avea suficienti


bani, as cumpara o masina)
What would you do if you had 1000$? (Ce vei face daca ai avea
1000$?)
If I didn’t like my job, I would give it up. (Daca nu me-ar place
meseria mea, as renunta la ea)

Uses (intrebuintare):
Type (2) The Conditional is used to express a hypothetical
(presupus) condition and its probable result.
a) The condition is hypothetical because the speaker knows that
what he or she is saying is improbable or impossible. (Conditia este
presupusa pentru ca vorbitorul stie ca ceea ce spune el sau ea este
improbabil sau imposibil.)
I would lend Mary money if she needed it. (Ia-si imprumuta
Mariei bani daca ar avea nevoie)

159
(Implicatia este ca conditia este improbabila, deoarece eu stiu ca ea are
suficienti bani)
If I were a bird, I would fly to you. (Daca as fi pasare as zbura
la tine)
(Implacatia este ca conditia este imposibila pentru ca eu nu sunt
pasare)

b) The contidition can be possible in theory, but improbable in


practice. (Conditia poate fi posibila in teorie, dar improbabila in
practica).
If I were the President of my country, I’d give all workers
their salary on time. (Daca as fi prezidentul tarii mele as da tuturor
muncitorilor salariu la timp).
c) The Type 2 conditional can express an advice.
If I were you, I’d have a rest. (Daca as fi in locul tau, m-as
odehni)

NOTES:
1. After “if”, was sometimes changes to “were” (In cazul cand verbul
predicat din partea introdusa de “if” este “be”, se foloseste forma
“were”, la toate persoanele singular si plural)
If Peter were here he would help us. Daca Peter ar fi aici, el ne-
ar ajuta.
2. “Would” can be replaced by another modal verb in the result
clause.
If I stopped smoking, I could run faster.

TYPE (3)

Form: if + Past Perfect + would Future Perfect in the past or could


have, might have.

If you had studied hard, you would have passed all the exams.
(Daca ai fi studiat intens ai fi sustinut toate examenele)
If they had studied all the themes, they could have written the test.
(Daca ei ar fi studiat toate temele ei ar fi putut scrie testul)

160
Uses (intrebuintare):

All (3) types are impossible ideas, because we know the condition
was not fulfilled, but we like to imagine the result if … (Conditional
trecut de tipul 3 exprima o actiune a carei realizare a depins de
indeplinirea unei conditii:
I should/would have come in time if I had not missed the buss. (As
fi venit la timp daca nu as fi pierdut autobusul.)
He would have come if you had called him. – but he didn’t come!
Why? Because you didn’t call him.

Nota: Daca propozitia secundara preceda pe cea principala se


separa prin virgula.
If he calls me up, I shall tell him about it.
Dar: I shall tell him about it if he calls me up.

Uneori propozitia secundara conditionala nu este introdusa prin


“if”. In asemenea cazuri verbul auxiliar “had” preceda subiectul:

Had we known about it, we wouldn’t have said anything.


Daca am fi stiut despre aceasta, n-am fi spus nimic.

ATENTIE! Dupa when si if cu functie interogativa, se foloseste


viitorul.
- When will you come?
- I don’t know if I will come.

Cazul trecutului ipotetic:


Dupa unele verbe (to wish, to imagine …), unele expresii (It’s time,
I’d rather…) sau unele conjunctii (as if: ca si cand, if only: daca
macar…), se foloseste trecutul, desi se face aluzie la prezent sau la un
viitor ipotetic.
I wish you came. Imi doresc sa vii.
He acts as if we were married. El se poarta ca si cum am fi casatoriti.
It’s time you left. E timpul sa pleci.
I’d rather you didn’t come. As prefera sa nu vii.
Let’s suppose he accepted. Sa presupunem ca el accepta.

161
If only I had a car! Daca macar as avea o masina!

The Zero Conditional

Form: If + Present Simple, Present Simple

If you heat the ice, it melts. (Daca incalzesti gheata ea se topeste)

The Zero Conditional expresses conditions that are always true, with
automatic results.
It means when (atunci) cand or whenever (oricand, ori de cate ori).
Flowers die if you don’t water them. (Florile mor daca nu le uzi.)

Folosirea modului subjunctiv dupa constructii de tipul: it is


necessary – e necesar; it is desirable – e de dorit; it is (im)possible –
e (im)posibil; it is obligatory – e obligator; it is incredible – e
incredibil, sau verbe de tipul: to order – a ordona; to demand – a
cere; to insist – a insista etc.
Dupa constructiile si verbele mentionate, in propozitiile secundare
verbul predicat se foloseste la modul subjunctiv, should fiind prezent
la toate persoanele singular si plural:

It is necessary that they should submit the business plan this week.
E necesar ca ei sa prezinte planul de afaceri saptamana aceasta.
He insisted that they should come to the meeting.
El a insistat ca ei sa vina la adunare.

EXERCISES:
1. Read the following sentences and notice carefully the tenses of
the two verbs. Then say what kind of condition each sentence is:
1. They will get wet if it rains. 2. If it rained, I would stay at home. 3.
If you had left earlier, you would have caught the train. 4. If you eat
too much, you will be ill. 5. If I hadn’t told him, he would never have
known. 6. You’ll catch the train if you take a taxi. 7. If you didn’t do
much maths at school, you would find economics difficult. 8. What

162
would you do if you lost your job? 9. I would have been in bad trouble
if Jane hadn't helped me.

2. Put the verbs in brackets into the correct tenses:


1. I’ll be very angry if he (make) any more mistakes. 2. What (happen)
if I press this button? 3. If they had waited, they (find) me. 4. I should
be delighted if I (have) such a beautiful fur-coat. 5. If she (not to be) so
absent-minded, she would be a much better student. 6. You would
have understood the rule if you (not to miss) the teacher’s explanation.
7. If my friend (work) in my office, we would meet every day. 8.The
dish would have been much more tasty if she (be) a better cook. 9. If I
(not know) English, I should not be able to enjoy Byron’s poetry. 10.
If you spoke English every day, you (improve) your language skills.

3. Complete the following conditionals:


1. Why wouldn’t you do it if …
2. He will not come unless …
3. I would not have lost my money if …
4. If I had been in love with him (her), …
5. If I were you, …
6. If he wants to see me, …
7. Unless you go to France, …
8. He wouldn’t have begun to learn English if …
9. If he arrived late, you …
10. If you had got up earlier this morning, …

4. Supply a suitable tense of the verbs in brackets:


1. I wish I (know) his name. 2. It’s time we all (go) home. 3. I’d rather
you (go) now. 4. It’s about time you (get) the tea ready. 5. Don’t you
wish you (come) earlier? 6. He acts as if he (know) English perfectly.
7. If only he (not eat) so much garlic! 8. If only he (not eat) so much
garlic last night! 9. I’d rather you (pay) me now. Suppose he (ask) me
for the money tomorrow! 10. He said he wished he (never see) me.

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5. Write sentences beginning with I wish …
Example: I don’t know many people (and I’m lonely).
I wish I knew more people.
1. I can’t give up smoking (but I’d like to). 2. George isn’t here (and I
need him). 3. I haven’t any pens (and I need one). 4. It’s cold (and I
hate cold weather). 5. Mary can’t go to the party (she’s your best
friend). 6. I have to work tomorrow (but I like to stay in bed). 7. I
don’t know anything about cars (and my car has just broken down). 8.
I’m not lying on a beautiful sunny beach (and that’s a pity).

7. Translate into English:


1. Daca obosim, ne vom aseza. 2. Ii dau intotdeuna bani daca imi cere.
3. Da-i ceva de mancare, daca ii este foame. 4. Daca mergi la
universitate, va trebui sa studiezi mult. 5. Daca imprimuti ceva, dati-l
inapoi. 6. As alege costumul acesta, daca n-ar fi atat de stramt. 7. Ce s-
ar intampla daca ei s-ar rataci in padure? 8. Daca ai citi aceasta carte,
ai vedea ca nu e chiar asa de rea. 9. As traduce-o daca as avea un
dictionar. 10. As fi scris un roman daca as fi avut mai mult timp. 11.
Mi-as dori sa fie mai frumos afara. 12. Mi-as dori ca tu sa te porti mai
frumos. 13. Mi-as dori sa fiu acasa. 14. Mi-as dori sa nu fi uitat adresa
lui. 15. Mi-as dori sa nu fim nevoiti sa invatam asa mult. 16. Imi
doresc sa fi fost in stare sa rezolv toate problemele. 17. Imi doresc sa fi
putut sa fac cunostinta cu el. 18. As dori sa fi putut sa merg la teatru.
19. E important ca raportul sa fie prezentat saptamana viitoare. 20. E
incredibil ca el sa spuna aceste cuvinte. 21. E necesar ca laboratoarele
sa fie asigurate cu utilaj nou. 22. Parlamentarii au cerut ca legea sa fie
modificata. 23. El a dorit ca propunerea lui sa fie luata in consideratie.
24. Politistul a ordonat ca automobilul sa fie oprit. 25. Profesorul a
sugerat ca proiectul sa fie imbunatatit.

164
TEXT: “CHEWING GUM”
We all know about chewing gum. It’s the sweet substance people
buy just to chew but not swallow.
History tells us that the man most responsible for chewing gum
was Mexican dictator, General Antonio Lopez Santa Ana. He was the
General who defeated the Texans at the Alamo in San Antonio, one
hundred fifty years ago.
A few months after that famous battle, Santa Ana was captured
and permitted to return home to Mexico.
Instead of going straight home, the General took the long way –
east to New York City. He took with him a large amount of a strange
material called chicle. It was the dried juice of a tree found in the
jungles of Mexico and Central America. General Santa Ana met a man
named Thomas Adams. Mister Adams agreed to experiment with
chicle. But after many weeks he admitted failure. He looked for the
General to tell him the sad news, but he learned that Santa Ana had
gone back home to Mexico.
Huge amounts of chicle remained. And Adams wondered what to
do with it.
One day, Adams was in a store when he saw a little girl buy a
piece of wax to chew. Adams had seen the General break off small
pieces of chicle from time to time and chew it. He told the store owner
that he had something better than wax and he made several hundred
little balls of chicle.
The store owner sold them all and asked for more.
Adams sent to Mexico for more chicle. And the chewing gum
industry was born.
One of the early chewing gum makers was Wiliam White, a
popcorn salesman. Chewing gum made him a rich man. It also made
him famous enough to be elected to Congress.
Once, during a visit to England, William White was presented to
King Edward the seventh. White gave the King a box of chewing gum
and urged him to try it right there and then.
The surprised King Edward accepted the gum, but refused to
chew it before his guests.

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Many stories were spread about chewing gum in the early days.
Some warned it was dangerous. It swallowed, they said, the gum
would make the intestines stick together. And painful death would
follow.
Some Americans use “chewing gum” in a funny expression to
joke about someone’s lack of intelligence. They say the person does
not have the mental ability to walk and chew gum at the same time.

VOCABULRY
chewing gum guma de mestecat
to swallow a inghiti
chicle guma de mestecat
failure esec, nereusita
wax ceara
to warn a avertiza
painful dureros, greu

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UNIT 22

In aceasta lectie ne vom concentra asupra unui sir de elemente


gramaticale care ar putea crea unele dificultati in procesul folosirii
limbii engleze.
Astfel uneori poate fi intalnita constructia the more … the (more,
better, less etc), care in romaneste se traduce prin “cu cat … cu atat” si
adjectivele sau adverbele respective la gradul comparativ:

The more we work, the more we get. Cu cat mai mult lucram, cu
atat mai mult primim.
The easier the text is, the quicker we translate it. Cu cat textul este
mai usor, cu atat mai repede il traducem.

Unele dificultati pot fi intimpinate la traducerea imbinarii to be +


infinitiv. Deseori ea se intrebuinteaza ca echivalent al verbului modal
must, traducandu-se in romaneste prin “trebuie sa”:

They are to start this project at the end of the month. Ei trebuie sa
inceapa acest proiect la sfarsitul lunii.

In cazul cand verbul “to be” este urmat de asemenea verbe ca to see,
to observe, to notice, to find, to feel etc, la diateza pasiva, traducerea
in romana se face prin “poate fi”, sau “se poate”:

This phenomen is to be observed very often. Fenomenul acesta poate


fi observat foarte des.

In afara de acesta, in imbinarea to be + infinitiv verbul to be poate


indeplini functia de verb copulativ (de legatura) dupa substantive ca:
plan, aim, task, problem etc. si se traduce in romana prin “consta
in”, “este de a”.

His aim is to prove that his material is the best. Scopul lui este de a
demonstra ca metoda sa este cea mai buna.

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Anumite dificultati poate crea imbinari to fail + infinitiv. In romaneste
traducerea se efectuaza prin forma negativa a verbului predicat la timpul
respectiv:
They failed to understand us. Ei n-au reusit sa ne inteleaga. (Ei nu ne-au
inteles)

CONJUCTIONS (Conjunctiile)
Exista doua feluri de conjunctii: conjunctii coordonatoare, care leaga doi
termeni de acelasi fel; conjunctii subordonatoare, care leaga o propozitie
regenta de o subordonata.

1. Conjunctii subordonatoare (compuse):


after* dupa ce in case in cazul in care
all the more… cu atat mai mult in order that astfel in cat
as ca si in order to astfel in cat
as if ca si cum once odata ce
as long as atat dimp cat provided numai sa
as soon as de indata cesince* deoarece
as though ca si cum so as to astfel icat
because deoarece so much as atat incat
before* inainte ca so much so… atat de…
However oricat de… so that astfel incat
if daca supposing presupunand
in as much as in masura in care whenever ori de cate ori
till*, until* pana cand (ce) whereas in timp ce
unless numai daca whether..or daca … sau
when atunci cand while in timp ce
• Aceste conjunctii pot fi si prepozitii.
Observatii:
That – ca, una din cele mai folosite conjunctii, se omite atunci cand
introduce o propozitie completiva directa.

As si like – ca si, de regula, as introduce comparatia intre verbe, like intre


substantive (sau pronume), dar, in engleza americana curenta, se intalneste
adesea like in fata unui verb.
A man like you, un barbat ca tine.
He did as (like) I wanted. El a facut (asa) cum voiam.

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2. Conjunctii coordonatoare (corelative)

and si not only… nu numai


as well as la fel ca si but also ci si
but dar now acum cand
but then in scimb only numai
for caci that is to say adica
however totusi that is why iata de ce
indeed intr-adevar then atunci
moreover in plus therefore in consecinta
too de asemenea
nevertheless totusi yet totusi
- as … as - tot (asa) … ca (si);
English is as difficult as French. Englesa este tot asa de dificila ca si
franceza.
- both … and – atat … cat si;
I’d like to spend a few days both in London and in Paris. As dori sa
petrec cateva zile atat la Londra cat si la Paris.
- either … or – sau … sau;
They may be either in the library or in the laboratory. Ei pot fi sau in
biblioteca, sau in laborator.
- neither … nor - nici … nici;
He knows neither French nor English. El nu cunoaste nici franceza
nici engleza.
- not only … but also - nu numai … dar si;
She is not only a good economist but also a good manager. Ea este nu
numai un economist bun, dar si un bun manager.
- whether … or - ori … ori;
We are not sure whether he is at home or at the university. Nu suntem
siguri daca el se afla ori acasa ori la universitate.
- as far as - cat despre;
- as well as – precum si.

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EXERCISES:
1. Translate into Romanian
1. The more we learn English, the better we know it. 2. Our aim is to
know English well. 3. The sooner he comes, the better. 4. You are to
come at nine next time. 5. The seminar is to begin at 3 p.m. 6. She
failed to come on time. 7. Both John and Mary study French. 8. We
must take either English or French this year. 9. Neither Peter nor Paul
participate in the conference. 10. He is not only a good scientist, but
also a good teacher. 11. You must do this job whether you like it or
not. 12. She talked about London as if she had lived there. 13. As soon
as you arrive in Paris, give us a call. 14. As far as I know, this team is
not involved in the Energy Project. 15. John knows French as well as
Mary does. 16. As long as we work here, we shall deal with this
problem. 17. In order to translate the text, use the dictionary. 18. She
plays both tennis and badminton. 19. That’s neither interesting nor
true. 20. I like living both in the country and in the city.

2. Translate into English.


1. Cu cat mai grea e problema, cu atat mai multe eforturi va necesita.
2. Cu cat mai mult invatam, cu atat mai mult stim. 3. Ei trebuie sa
pregateasca materialele pentru seminar. 4. Sarcina noastra e de a
restructura intreprinderile. 5. El n-a reusit sa prezinte proiectul la timp.
6. Vreau ca atat Dvoatra, cat si Dumneaei sa participati la conferinta.
7. Puteti folosi sau metoda mea, sau a dlui Brown. 8. Nici noi nici ei
nu pot solutiona aceasta problema. 9. Ei studiaza nu numai franceza,
dar si engleza. 10. Vorbesc de parca ar fi prieteni de multi ani. 11.
Indata ce termin lectiile, ne ducem acasa. 12. Ne-am intalnit inca in
1980. 13. Atat engleza, cat si franceza sunt obiectele mele preferate la
universitate. 14. Dupa cate stiu, acest actor nu este cunoscut in tara
noastra. 15. Scopul lui este de a imbunatati performanta companiei
sale. 16. Cu cat mai mult citim, cu atat mai mult cunoastem.

170
Differences between American English and British English

Spelling Word Usage

British American British American

catalogue catalog accident casualty


cancelled canceled autumn fall
centimetre centimeter ask for a lift ask for a ride
centre center behind in back of
cheque check to book a room to make a reservation
colour color booking-office ticket-office
employee employe motor-car automobile/car
enquiry inquiry cargo ship freighter
favour favor cashier bank teller
fulfil fulfill cinema movie theater
guarantee guaranty chemist druggist
harbour harbor chemist’s drugstore
honour honor coach/bus bus
instalment installment engaged busy
kilometre kilometer filling station gas station
labelled labeled ground floor first floor
labour lobor garden yard
licence license to hire to rent
litre liter label tag
metre meter lift elevator
milligramme milligram lorry truck
offence offense Ltd (Limited) Inc.(Incorporated)
to practise to practice luggage baggage
programme program post mail
skilful skillful petrol gas (gasoline)
totalling totaling pavement sidewalk
traveller traveler PLC (private Inc.(incorporated
limited company) Co.)
travelling traveling holiday vacation
tyre tire managing director president (business)
unequalled unequaled railway railroad

171
post code zip code
to put through to connect
No fixed rules: spirits liquor
dispatch/despatch shop store
realise/realize subway underpass
utilise/utilize number plate licence plate
to ring up to call up

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IRREGULAR VERBS (Verbe neregulate sau “tari”)
Infinitive Past Simple Participle II

to be was/were been
to bear bore born
to become became become
to begin began begun
to bleed bled bled
to blow blew blown
to break broke broken
to bring brought brought
to build built built
to burn burnt burnt
to burst burst burst
to buy bought bought
to catch caught caught
to choose chose chosen
to come came come
to cost cost cost
to cut cut cut
to deal dealt dealt
to dig dug dug
to do did done
to draw drew drawn
to dream dreamt dreamt
to drink drank drunk
to drive drove driven
to eat ate eaten
to fall fell fallen
to feed fed fed
to feel felt felt
to find found found
to fly flew flown
to forget forgot forgotten
to freeze froze frozen
to get got got

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to give gave given
to go went gone
to grow grew grown
to hang hung hung
to have had had
to hear heard heard
to hide hid hidden
to hold held held
to hurt hurt hurt
to keep kept kept
to kneel knelt knelt
to know knew known
to lay laid laid
to lead led led
to learn learnt learnt
to leave left left
to lend lent lent
to let let let
to lie lay lain
to light lit lit
to lose lost lost
to make made made
to mean meant meant
to meet met met
to pay paid paid
to put put put
to read read [red] read [red]
to rend rent rent
to ride rode ridden
to ring rang rung
to rise rose risen
to run ran run
to say said said
to see saw seen
to seek sought sought
to sell sold sold
to send sent sent

174
to set set set
to shake shook shaken
to shine shone shone
to shoot shot shot
to show showed shown
to shut shut shut
to sing sang sung
to sit sat sat
to sleep slept slept
to smell smelt smelt
to speak spoke spoken
to spell spelt spelt
to spend spent spent
to steal stole stolen
to stick stuck stuck
to strike struck struck
to swear swore sworn
to sweep swept swept
to swim swam swum
to take took taken
to teach taught taught
to tell told told
to think thought thought
to throw threw thrown
to understand understood understood
to wake woke woken
to wear wore worn
to win won won
to wind wound wound
to withdraw withdrew withdrawn
to write wrote written

175
HURRAY !!!
I AM A WINNER, BECAUSE I KNOW
ENGLISH.

176