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L8 - SUBSEA CONTROL SYSTEMS & UMBILICALS

• SYSTEMS
• TYPES
• ELECTRO-HYDRAULIC MULTIPLEXED SYSTEMS
• TOPSIDES & SUBSEA COMPONENTS
• OPERATIONS
• UMBILICALS
• CHEMICAL INJECTION
PRINCIPAL COMPONENTS OF SUBSEA PRODUCTION CONTROL SYSTEM

ARRANGEMENT FOR TIE_BACK


TO HOST PLATFORM
CONTROL SYSTEMS FUNCTIONS
The control of the components of a production system is managed
by the subsea production control system.
Control functions include :
y Opening and closing subsea tree production, annulus and
crossover valves.
y Opening and closing the SCSSV.
y Opening and closing subsea production manifold flowline valves
and pigging valves.
y Opening and closing chemical injection valves.
y Adjusting subsea choke position.
y Monitoring pressure, temperature and other data from tree-
mounted, manifold mounted or downhole instrumentation.
CONTROL SYSTEM / DESIGN ISSUES
Key design issues that must be considered when specifying or
designing the subsea control system:
y Offset distance. Distance affects signal strength, hydraulic
pressure loss, response time and cost.
y Valve control requirements: The number of valves, types of
valves, types of actuators, size of valves, failure position of
valves.
y Chemical injection requirements. Valve operation, umbilical
sharing.
y Instrumentation requirements: Pressure or temperature
monitoring, pig detection.
y Installation and workover requirements and interface with the
IWOC system.
y Redundancy requirements / availability
y Expandability. Future wells, future flowline tie-ins
CONTROL SYSTEMS TYPES
Types of Control Systems

There are four basic types of production control systems:

y Direct Hydraulic Control System

y Piloted Hydraulic Control System (Discrete and Sequential)

y Electro-Hydraulic Piloted Control System

y Electro-Hydraulic Multiplexed Control System

Only 1 and 4 considered further here


Characteristics of Different Types of Control Systems
Response Rate Umbilical(s)
Features Discrete Control Data
Systems Complexity Signal Actuation Subsea Functions Readback Type Size Length

Direct
Low Slow Slow Yes Separated Hydraulic Large Short
hydraulic if desired

Discrete Moderately Slow Fast Yes Separated Hydraulic Moderately Moderate


piloted low if desired Large
hydraulic

Sequential Moderate Slow Fast No Separated Hydraulic Small Moderate


piloted if desired
hydraulic

Direct electro- Moderate Very fast Fast Yes Separated Hydraulic and Moderate Long
hydraulic if desired electric or
composite

Multiplexed Moderate Very fast Fast Yes Integral Hydraulic and Small Long
electric or
composite
Direct Hydraulic System

Electro-Hydraulic Multiplex System


Electro-Hydraulic Multiplex System
HYDRAULIC POWER
UNT

ELECTRONIC MODEM TOPSIDE


COOLING / DECODING

CONTROL
DISPLAY
INPUTS

UMBILICALS SEA LEVEL

ELECTRONIC SUBSEA
LOGIC
SOLENOID CONTROL
VALVE POWER

TO REMOTE SIGNAL
SENSOR

TO ACTUATOR
SUBSEA
DISCHARGE
UMBILICAL
TOSEA
TERMINATION
OR RETURN
TO SUFACE
(OPTIONAL)
VALVES TO BE ACTUATED

ROTARY CHOKE VALVE

LINEAR GATE VALVE


TOPSIDES EQUIPMENT
Topsides Equipment(Under Construction)

PRODUCTION
HYDRAULIC
POWER UNIT

SURFACE CONTROL CABINET

TOPSIDES UMBILICAL
TERMINATION UNIT
SUBSEA CONTROL UMBILICAL
SUBSEA CONTROL UMBILICAL
SUBSEA CONTROL MODULE (SCM)
Control Module
Subsea Control Module (SCM)
Subsea Electronics Module

Directional Control Valve

Optical Modems
Interface Cards

Hydraulic HP Intensifier
SUBSEA EQUIPMENT

SCM MOUNTING BASE

ASSEMBLY
SUBSEA CONTROL MODULE (SCM)
SUBSEA CONTROL MODULE
SUBSEA CONTROL MODULE (SCM)

Lifting and Lock Down Connection


Upper part “Computer Intelligence”
Unit
Lower Part Pilot Control Valves

SCM Housing
Alignment Pins
Fluids & Electrics
Connecting Pins
Locking Pin
DIVERLESS SCM CONNECTION SYSTEM –
With Connection pins at the base
Platform Hydraulic
Master Control
Junction Power
Station
Box Unit

Typical Diver installed layout Flexible jumper


Flexible jumper
Umbilical
Termination Subsea Xmas
Assembly Control Tree
(UTA) Module

Temperature Choke
transducers Pressure cables
transducers
Typical ROV installed layout Hard piping

Umbilical Termination
Subsea Xmas
Assembly UTA
Control Pod Tree

Flexible jumper Pod Base

Choke
Temperature Pressure cables
transducers transducers
SCM

SCMs are usually mounted on the each Tree, but Developments will
require some Control Functions on the Manifold (for valves there).
CHEMICAL INJECTION REQUIREMENTS
CORROSION INHIBITOR
If the reservoir fluids contain Hydrogen Sulphide or Carbon Dioxide, then these could cause
corrision in normal steel lines. Inhibitors can be continuously injected to avoid the
consequence of a corroded flowline.

HYDRATES INHIBITOR
To avoid hydrate formation in Pipelines / Flowlines, Xmas trees, Risers and export headers
liquids like methanol, ethanol, LDHI or MEG are injected. The quantities will be relatively large.
WAX & ASPHALTENES INHIBITOR
Wax deposition in pipelines and risers can have a significant effect on oil production
efficiency. Build-up in pipelines can cause increased pressure drops, resulting in reduced
throughput and thus reduced revenue. In more extreme cases, pipelines/processing facilities
can plug, halting production and leading to potentially huge losses in earnings. Chemical
Injection is one of the possible solutions
SCALE INHIBITOR
The precipitation of Scale and Salt is a serious problem and can block the flow path of
hydrocarbons. Scale may be Barium Salts. Salt scaling is particularly severe in wells with high
saline (>200 g/l) formation brines which may be near saturation with respect to sodium
chloride. The phenomena occurs more frequently in gas wells than in oil wells, and can be
caused by low pressures, decreasing temperatures reservoir water constituents.

EMULSION INHIBITOR
The reservoir fluids often contain soap like chemicals naturally. These can form emulsions
between the oil and water molecules. These give rise to flow and separation problems.
CHEMICAL INJECTION REQUIREMENTS
DRILLING CONTROL SYSTEM